Science.gov

Sample records for advanced thermo-hydraulic code

  1. Capabilities needed for the next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes for use in real time applications

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    The real-time reactor simulation field is currently at a crossroads in terms of the capability to perform real-time analysis using the most sophisticated computer codes. Current generation safety analysis codes are being modified to replace simplified codes that were specifically designed to meet the competing requirement for real-time applications. The next generation of thermo-hydraulic codes will need to have included in their specifications the specific requirement for use in a real-time environment. Use of the codes in real-time applications imposes much stricter requirements on robustness, reliability and repeatability than do design and analysis applications. In addition, the need for code use by a variety of users is a critical issue for real-time users, trainers and emergency planners who currently use real-time simulation, and PRA practitioners who will increasingly use real-time simulation for evaluating PRA success criteria in near real-time to validate PRA results for specific configurations and plant system unavailabilities.

  2. Parallelization of TWOPORFLOW, a Cartesian Grid based Two-phase Porous Media Code for Transient Thermo-hydraulic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trost, Nico; Jiménez, Javier; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor

    2014-06-01

    TWOPORFLOW is a thermo-hydraulic code based on a porous media approach to simulate single- and two-phase flow including boiling. It is under development at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at KIT. The code features a 3D transient solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for two inter-penetrating fluids with a semi-implicit continuous Eulerian type solver. The application domain of TWOPORFLOW includes the flow in standard porous media and in structured porous media such as micro-channels and cores of nuclear power plants. In the latter case, the fluid domain is coupled to a fuel rod model, describing the heat flow inside the solid structure. In this work, detailed profiling tools have been utilized to determine the optimization potential of TWOPORFLOW. As a result, bottle-necks were identified and reduced in the most feasible way, leading for instance to an optimization of the water-steam property computation. Furthermore, an OpenMP implementation addressing the routines in charge of inter-phase momentum-, energy- and mass-coupling delivered good performance together with a high scalability on shared memory architectures. In contrast to that, the approach for distributed memory systems was to solve sub-problems resulting by the decomposition of the initial Cartesian geometry. Thread communication for the sub-problem boundary updates was accomplished by the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard.

  3. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  4. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases

  5. Transient Thermo-Hydraulic Analysis of the Windowless Target System for the Lead Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Accelerator Driven System

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Fosco; Ferri, Roberta; Moreau, Vincent

    2006-07-01

    The target system, whose function is to supply an external neutron source to the ADS sub-critical core to sustain the neutron chain reaction, is the most critical part of an ADS being subject to severe thermo-mechanical loading and material damage due to accelerator protons and fission neutrons. A windowless option was chosen as reference configuration for the target system of the LBE-cooled ADS within the European PDS-XADS project in order to reduce the material damage and to increase its life. This document deals with the thermo-hydraulic results of the calculations performed with STAR-CD and RELAP5 codes for studying the behaviour of the windowless target system during off-normal operating conditions. It also reports a description of modifications properly implemented in the codes needed for this analysis. The windowless target system shows a satisfactory thermo-hydraulic behaviour for the analysed accidents, except for the loss of both pumps without proton beam shut-off and the beam trips lasting more than one second. (authors)

  6. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  7. From the Kinetic Energy Recovery System to the Thermo-Hydraulic Hybrid Motor Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Corneliu; Drumea, Petrin; Guta, Dragos; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents some theoretical and experimental results obtained by the Hydraulics and Pneumatics Research Institute INOE 2000-IHP with its partners, regarding the creating of one hydraulic system able to recovering the kinetic energy of the motor vehicles, in the braking phases, and use this recovered energy in the starting and accelerating phases. Also, in the article is presented a testing stand, which was especially designed for testing the hydraulic system for recovery the kinetic energy. Through mounting of the kinetic energy recovering hydraulic system, on one motor vehicle, this vehicle became a thermo-hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Therefore, the dynamic behavior was analyzed for the whole hybrid motor vehicle, which includes the energy recovery system. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the possible performances of the hybrid vehicle and that the kinetic energy recovery hydraulic systems are good means to increase energy efficiency of the road motor vehicles and to decrease of the fuel consumption.

  8. Thermo-hydraulic analyses associated with a CEA design proposal for a DEMO TF conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallcorba, R.; Lacroix, B.; Ciazynski, D.; Torre, A.; Nunio, F.; Zani, L.; Le Coz, Q.; Lewandowska, M.; Coleman, M.

    2016-12-01

    The future DEMO Toroidal Field (TF) magnets are likely to feature cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) cooled by forced flow of supercritical helium. Design activities were carried out at CEA to provide a winding pack compatible with DEMO plant requirements. The CEA proposal comprises, for each of the 16 D-shaped windings, 10 double-pancakes (2 × 392 m long) wound in 10 turns. The conductor is a square-shaped Nb3Sn double channel conductor with a central spiral, carrying a nominal current of 95.5 kA. We present a thermo-hydraulic analyses focused on the central, most critical pancake, where the maximum field is reached, aiming at evaluating the integrity of the proposed conductor design. Both normal and off-normal simulations were performed using detailed electromagnetic and neutron heating load maps as input, and evaluating operational quantities such as the temperature margin in burn conditions, and the hot spot temperature in quench conditions. We assessed the sensitivity of these quantities to some driving parameters, notably mass flow rate and the choice of friction factor correlation for the temperature margin, and quench initiation features for the hot spot temperature. Furthermore, the influence of the casing cooling on the temperature margin is analyzed. The study is carried out using two thermohydraulic models.

  9. Thermo-Hydraulic Characteristics of Anatase Titania Nanofluids Flowing Through a Circular Conduit.

    PubMed

    Kristiawan, Budi; Kamal, Samsul; Yanuar

    2016-06-01

    The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of anatase titanium dioxide dispersed into distilled water with particle concentration of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 vol.% were investigated experimentally in this work. The influence of rheological behavior on hydrodynamic and convective heat transfer characteristics was evaluated under both laminar and turbulent flow conditions in a plain conduit and with twisted tape insert for twist ratio of 7. The nanofluids exhibited a strong shear-thinning behavior at low shear rate particularly higher particle concentration. The non-Newtonian titania nanofluids have also demonstrated a drag reduction phenomena in turbulent flow. At equal Reynolds number, the values of performance evaluation criterion in a conduit inserted a twisted tape were lower than those of in a plain conduit. It implies the unfavourable energy budget for twisted tape insert. The convective heat transfer coefficient does not gradually enhance with an increase of particle concentration. The flow features due mainly to the rheology of colloidal dispersions might be a reason for this phenomenon.

  10. Advanced Code for Photocathode Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Jensen, Kevin; Montgomery, Eric; Bui, Thuc

    2015-12-15

    The Phase I activity demonstrated that PhotoQE could be upgraded and modified to allow input using a graphical user interface. Specific calls to platform-dependent (e.g. IMSL) function calls were removed, and Fortran77 components were rewritten for Fortran95 compliance. The subroutines, specifically the common block structures and shared data parameters, were reworked to allow the GUI to update material parameter data, and the system was targeted for desktop personal computer operation. The new structures overcomes the previous rigid and unmodifiable library structures by implementing new, materials library data sets and repositioning the library values to external files. Material data may originate from published literature or experimental measurements. Further optimization and restructuring would allow custom and specific emission models for beam codes that rely on parameterized photoemission algorithms. These would be based on simplified and parametric representations updated and extended from previous versions (e.g., Modified Fowler-Dubridge, Modified Three-Step, etc.).

  11. Advanced Modulation and Coding Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The objectives, approach, and status of all current LeRC-sponsored industry contracts and university grants are presented. The following topics are covered: (1) the LeRC Space Communications Program, and Advanced Modulation and Coding Projects; (2) the status of four contracts for development of proof-of-concept modems; (3) modulation and coding work done under three university grants, two small business innovation research contracts, and two demonstration model hardware development contracts; and (4) technology needs and opportunities for future missions.

  12. Experience with advanced nodal codes at YAEC

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has been performing reload licensing analysis since 1969. The basic pressurized water reactor (PWR) methodology involves the use of LEOPARD for cross-section generation, PDQ for radial power distributions and integral control rod worth, and SIMULATE for axial power distributions and differential control rod worth. In 1980, YAEC began performing reload licensing analysis for the Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR). The basic BWR methodology involves the use of CASMO for cross-section generation and SIMULATE for three-dimensional power distributions. In 1986, YAEC began investigating the use of CASMO-3 for cross-section generation and the advanced nodal code SIMULATE-3 for power distribution analysis. Based on the evaluation, the CASMO-3/SIMULATE-3 methodology satisfied all requirements. After careful consideration, the cost of implementing the new methodology is expected to be offset by reduced computing costs, improved engineering productivity, and fuel-cycle performance gains.

  13. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  14. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  15. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    SciTech Connect

    Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  16. Progress in Advanced Spray Combustion Code Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan

    1993-01-01

    A multiyear project to assemble a robust, muitiphase spray combustion code is now underway and gradually building up to full speed. The overall effort involves several university and government research teams as well as Rocketdyne. The first part of this paper will give an overview of the respective roles of the different participants involved, the master strategy, the evolutionary milestones, and an assessment of the state-of-the-art of various key components. The second half of this paper will highlight the progress made to date in extending the baseline Navier-Stokes solver to handle multiphase, multispecies, chemically reactive sub- to supersonic flows. The major hurdles to overcome in order to achieve significant speed ups are delineated and the approaches to overcoming them will be discussed.

  17. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  18. Advances in space radiation shielding codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Qualls, Garry D.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Prael, Richard E.; Norbury, John W.; Heinbockel, John H.; Tweed, John; De Angelis, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    Early space radiation shield code development relied on Monte Carlo methods and made important contributions to the space program. Monte Carlo methods have resorted to restricted one-dimensional problems leading to imperfect representation of appropriate boundary conditions. Even so, intensive computational requirements resulted and shield evaluation was made near the end of the design process. Resolving shielding issues usually had a negative impact on the design. Improved spacecraft shield design requires early entry of radiation constraints into the design process to maximize performance and minimize costs. As a result, we have been investigating high-speed computational procedures to allow shield analysis from the preliminary concept to the final design. For the last few decades, we have pursued deterministic solutions of the Boltzmann equation allowing field mapping within the International Space Station (ISS) in tens of minutes using standard Finite Element Method (FEM) geometry common to engineering design methods. A single ray trace in such geometry requires 14 milliseconds and limits application of Monte Carlo methods to such engineering models. A potential means of improving the Monte Carlo efficiency in coupling to spacecraft geometry is given.

  19. Advanced technology development for image gathering, coding, and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1990-01-01

    Three overlapping areas of research activities are presented: (1) Information theory and optimal filtering are extended to visual information acquisition and processing. The goal is to provide a comprehensive methodology for quantitatively assessing the end-to-end performance of image gathering, coding, and processing. (2) Focal-plane processing techniques and technology are developed to combine effectively image gathering with coding. The emphasis is on low-level vision processing akin to the retinal processing in human vision. (3) A breadboard adaptive image-coding system is being assembled. This system will be used to develop and evaluate a number of advanced image-coding technologies and techniques as well as research the concept of adaptive image coding.

  20. The ADVANCE Code of Conduct for collaborative vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Xavier; Bauchau, Vincent; Mahy, Patrick; Glismann, Steffen; van der Aa, Lieke Maria; Simondon, François

    2017-04-04

    Lessons learnt from the 2009 (H1N1) flu pandemic highlighted factors limiting the capacity to collect European data on vaccine exposure, safety and effectiveness, including lack of rapid access to available data sources or expertise, difficulties to establish efficient interactions between multiple parties, lack of confidence between private and public sectors, concerns about possible or actual conflicts of interest (or perceptions thereof) and inadequate funding mechanisms. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's Accelerated Development of VAccine benefit-risk Collaboration in Europe (ADVANCE) consortium was established to create an efficient and sustainable infrastructure for rapid and integrated monitoring of post-approval benefit-risk of vaccines, including a code of conduct and governance principles for collaborative studies. The development of the code of conduct was guided by three core and common values (best science, strengthening public health, transparency) and a review of existing guidance and relevant published articles. The ADVANCE Code of Conduct includes 45 recommendations in 10 topics (Scientific integrity, Scientific independence, Transparency, Conflicts of interest, Study protocol, Study report, Publication, Subject privacy, Sharing of study data, Research contract). Each topic includes a definition, a set of recommendations and a list of additional reading. The concept of the study team is introduced as a key component of the ADVANCE Code of Conduct with a core set of roles and responsibilities. It is hoped that adoption of the ADVANCE Code of Conduct by all partners involved in a study will facilitate and speed-up its initiation, design, conduct and reporting. Adoption of the ADVANCE Code of Conduct should be stated in the study protocol, study report and publications and journal editors are encouraged to use it as an indication that good principles of public health, science and transparency were followed throughout the study.

  1. Advances in Parallel Electromagnetic Codes for Accelerator Science and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Kwok; Candel, Arno; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Rich; Li, Zenghai; Ng, Cho; Rawat, Vineet; Schussman, Greg; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Over a decade of concerted effort in code development for accelerator applications has resulted in a new set of electromagnetic codes which are based on higher-order finite elements for superior geometry fidelity and better solution accuracy. SLAC's ACE3P code suite is designed to harness the power of massively parallel computers to tackle large complex problems with the increased memory and solve them at greater speed. The US DOE supports the computational science R&D under the SciDAC project to improve the scalability of ACE3P, and provides the high performance computing resources needed for the applications. This paper summarizes the advances in the ACE3P set of codes, explains the capabilities of the modules, and presents results from selected applications covering a range of problems in accelerator science and development important to the Office of Science.

  2. Quantization and psychoacoustic model in audio coding in advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents complete optimized architecture of Advanced Audio Coder quantization with Huffman coding. After that psychoacoustic model theory is presented and few algorithms described: standard Two Loop Search, its modifications, Genetic, Just Noticeable Level Difference, Trellis-Based and its modification: Cascaded Trellis-Based Algorithm.

  3. Recent advances to NEC (Numerical Electromagnetics Code): Applications and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.J. )

    1989-03-03

    Capabilities of the antenna modeling code NEC are reviewed and results are presented to illustrate typical applications. Recent developments are discussed that will improve accuracy in modeling electrically small antennas, stepped-radius wires and junctions of tightly coupled wires, and also a new capability for modeling insulated wires in air or earth is described. These advances will be included in a future release of NEC, while for now the results serve to illustrate limitations of the present code. NEC results are compared with independent analytical and numerical solutions and measurements to validate the model for wires near ground and for insulated wires. 41 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  4. ADVANCED ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC MATERIAL MODELS FOR FDTD ELECTROMAGNETIC CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Nelson, S D; Langdon, S

    2005-05-05

    The modeling of dielectric and magnetic materials in the time domain is required for pulse power applications, pulsed induction accelerators, and advanced transmission lines. For example, most induction accelerator modules require the use of magnetic materials to provide adequate Volt-sec during the acceleration pulse. These models require hysteresis and saturation to simulate the saturation wavefront in a multipulse environment. In high voltage transmission line applications such as shock or soliton lines the dielectric is operating in a highly nonlinear regime, which require nonlinear models. Simple 1-D models are developed for fast parameterization of transmission line structures. In the case of nonlinear dielectrics, a simple analytic model describing the permittivity in terms of electric field is used in a 3-D finite difference time domain code (FDTD). In the case of magnetic materials, both rate independent and rate dependent Hodgdon magnetic material models have been implemented into 3-D FDTD codes and 1-D codes.

  5. User's manual: Subsonic/supersonic advanced panel pilot code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, J.; Tinoco, E. N.; Johnson, F. T.

    1978-01-01

    Sufficient instructions for running the subsonic/supersonic advanced panel pilot code were developed. This software was developed as a vehicle for numerical experimentation and it should not be construed to represent a finished production program. The pilot code is based on a higher order panel method using linearly varying source and quadratically varying doublet distributions for computing both linearized supersonic and subsonic flow over arbitrary wings and bodies. This user's manual contains complete input and output descriptions. A brief description of the method is given as well as practical instructions for proper configurations modeling. Computed results are also included to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the pilot code. The computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for the SCOPE 3.4.4 operations system of the Ames CDC 7600 computer. The program uses overlay structure and thirteen disk files, and it requires approximately 132000 (Octal) central memory words.

  6. On-line application of the PANTHER advanced nodal code

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, P.K.; Knight, M.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Over the last few years, Nuclear Electric has developed an integrated core performance code package for both light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) that can perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis, and on-line operational support for such plants. The package consists of the following codes: WIMS for lattice physics, PANTHER whole reactor nodal flux and AGR thermal hydraulics, VIPRE for LWR thermal hydraulics, and ENIGMA for fuel performance. These codes are integrated within a UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW), which provides an interactive graphic user interface and quality assurance records/data management. The RPW can also control calculational sequences and data flows. The package has been designed to run both off-line and on-line accessing plant data through the RPW.

  7. Code qualification of structural materials for AFCI advanced recycling reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Li, M.; Majumdar, S.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sham, T.-L.

    2012-05-31

    This report summarizes the further findings from the assessments of current status and future needs in code qualification and licensing of reference structural materials and new advanced alloys for advanced recycling reactors (ARRs) in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). The work is a combined effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with ANL as the technical lead, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for AFCI Reactor Campaign. The report is the second deliverable in FY08 (M505011401) under the work package 'Advanced Materials Code Qualification'. The overall objective of the Advanced Materials Code Qualification project is to evaluate key requirements for the ASME Code qualification and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of structural materials in support of the design and licensing of the ARR. Advanced materials are a critical element in the development of sodium reactor technologies. Enhanced materials performance not only improves safety margins and provides design flexibility, but also is essential for the economics of future advanced sodium reactors. Code qualification and licensing of advanced materials are prominent needs for developing and implementing advanced sodium reactor technologies. Nuclear structural component design in the U.S. must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III (Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components) and the NRC grants the operational license. As the ARR will operate at higher temperatures than the current light water reactors (LWRs), the design of elevated-temperature components must comply with ASME Subsection NH (Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service). However, the NRC has not approved the use of Subsection NH for reactor components, and this puts additional burdens on materials qualification of the ARR. In the past licensing review for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) and the

  8. Advancement of liquefaction assessment in Chinese building codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Liu, F.; Jiang, M.

    2015-09-01

    China has suffered extensive liquefaction hazards in destructive earthquakes. The post-earthquake reconnaissance effort in the country largely advances the methodology of liquefaction assessment distinct from other countries. This paper reviews the evolution of the specifications regarding liquefaction assessment in the seismic design building code of mainland China, which first appeared in 1974, came into shape in 1989, and received major amendments in 2001 and 2010 as a result of accumulated knowledge on liquefaction phenomenon. The current version of the code requires a detailed assessment of liquefaction based on in situ test results if liquefaction concern cannot be eliminated by a preliminary assessment based on descriptive information with respect to site characterization. In addition, a liquefaction index is evaluated to recognize liquefaction severity, and to choose the most appropriate engineering measures for liquefaction mitigation at a site being considered.

  9. Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark

    2006-01-03

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented.

  10. Fast Huffman encoding algorithms in MPEG-4 advanced audio coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the optimisation problem of Huffman encoding in MPEG-4 Advanced Audio Coding stan- dard. At first, the Huffman encoding problem and the need of encoding two side info parameters scale factor and Huffman codebook are presented. Next, Two Loop Search, Maximum Noise Mask Ratio and Trellis Based algorithms of bit allocation are briefly described. Further, Huffman encoding optimisation are shown. New methods try to check and change scale factor bands as little as possible to estimate bitrate cost or its change. Finally, the complexity of old and new methods is calculated, compared and measured time of encoding is given.

  11. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A.; Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P.

    1992-12-31

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  12. Automatic differentiation of advanced CFD codes for multidisciplinary design

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.; Corliss, G.; Griewank, A. ); Green, L.; Haigler, K.; Newman, P. . Langley Research Center)

    1992-01-01

    Automated multidisciplinary design of aircraft and other flight vehicles requires the optimization of complex performance objectives with respect to a number of design parameters and constraints. The effect of these independent design variables on the system performance criteria can be quantified in terms of sensitivity derivatives which must be calculated and propagated by the individual discipline simulation codes. Typical advanced CFD analysis codes do not provide such derivatives as part of a flow solution; these derivatives are very expensive to obtain by divided (finite) differences from perturbed solutions. It is shown here that sensitivity derivatives can be obtained accurately and efficiently using the ADIFOR source translator for automatic differentiation. In particular, it is demonstrated that the 3-D, thin-layer Navier-Stokes, multigrid flow solver called TLNS3D is amenable to automatic differentiation in the forward mode even with its implicit iterative solution algorithm and complex turbulence modeling. It is significant that using computational differentiation, consistent discrete nongeometric sensitivity derivatives have been obtained from an aerodynamic 3-D CFD code in a relatively short time, e.g. O(man-week) not O(man-year).

  13. Static benchmarking of the NESTLE advanced nodal code

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    Results from the NESTLE advanced nodal code are presented for multidimensional numerical benchmarks representing four different types of reactors, and predictions from NESTLE are compared with measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The numerical benchmarks include cases representative of PWRs, boiling water reactors (BWRs), CANDU heavy water reactors (HWRs), and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The measured PWR data include critical soluble boron concentrations and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity. The results demonstrate that NESTLE correctly solves the multigroup diffusion equations for both Cartesian and hexagonal geometries, that it reliably calculates k{sub eff} and reactivity coefficients for PWRs, and that--subsequent to the incorporation of additional thermal-hydraulic models--it will be able to perform accurate calculations for the corresponding parameters in BWRs, HWRs, and HTGRs as well.

  14. Advances in pleural disease management including updated procedural coding.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andrew R; Sterman, Daniel H

    2014-08-01

    Over 1.5 million pleural effusions occur in the United States every year as a consequence of a variety of inflammatory, infectious, and malignant conditions. Although rarely fatal in isolation, pleural effusions are often a marker of a serious underlying medical condition and contribute to significant patient morbidity, quality-of-life reduction, and mortality. Pleural effusion management centers on pleural fluid drainage to relieve symptoms and to investigate pleural fluid accumulation etiology. Many recent studies have demonstrated important advances in pleural disease management approaches for a variety of pleural fluid etiologies, including malignant pleural effusion, complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema, and chest tube size. The last decade has seen greater implementation of real-time imaging assistance for pleural effusion management and increasing use of smaller bore percutaneous chest tubes. This article will briefly review recent pleural effusion management literature and update the latest changes in common procedural terminology billing codes as reflected in the changing landscape of imaging use and percutaneous approaches to pleural disease management.

  15. Recent advances in the COMMIX and BODYFIT codes

    SciTech Connect

    Sha, W.T.; Chen, B.C.J.; Domanus, H.M.; Wood, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    Two general-purpose computer programs for thermal-hydraulic analysis have been developed. One is the COMMIX (COMponent MIXing code. The other one is the BODYFIT (BOunDary FITted Coordinate Transformation) code. Solution procedures based on both elliptical and parabolic systems of partial differential equations are provided in these two codes. The COMMIX code is designed to provide global analysis of thermal-hydraulic behavior of a component or multicomponent of engineering problems. The BODYFIT code is capable of treating irregular boundaries and gives more detailed local information on a subcomponent or component. These two codes are complementary to each other and represent the state-of-the-art of thermal-hydraulic analysis. Effort will continue to make further improvements and include additional capabilities in these codes.

  16. The Protoexist2 Advanced CZT Coded Aperture Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Branden; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Baker, R.

    2011-09-01

    The ProtoEXIST program was conceived for the development of a scalable detector plane architecture utilizing pixilated CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for eventual deployment in a large scale (1-4 m2 active area) coded aperture X-ray telescope for use as a wide field ( 90° × 70° FOV) all sky monitor and survey instrument for the 5 up to 600 keV energy band. The first phase of the program recently concluded with the successful 6 hour high altitude (39 km) flight of ProtoEXIST1, which utilized a closely tiled 8 × 8 array of 20 mm × 20 mm, 5 mm thick Redlen CZT crystals each bonded to a RadNET asic via an interposer board. Each individual CZT crystal utilized a 8 × 8 pixilated anode for the creation of a position sensitive detector with 2.5 mm spatial resolution. Development of ProtoEXIST2, the second advanced CZT detector plane in this series, is currently under way. ProtoEXIST2 will be composed of a closely tiled 8 × 8 array of 20 mm × 20 mm, 5 mm thick Redlen CZT crystals, similar to ProtoEXIST1, but will now utilize the Nu-ASIC which accommodates the direct bonding of CZT detectors with a 32 × 32 pixilated anode with a 604.8 μm pixel pitch. Characterization and performance of the ProtoEXIST2 detectors is discussed as well as current progress in the integration of the ProtoEXIST2 detector plane.

  17. Recent advances in CZT strip detectors and coded mask imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteson, J. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Heindl, W. A.; Pelling, M. R.; Peterson, L. E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Skelton, R. T.; Hink, P. L.; Slavis, K. R.; Binns, W. R.; Tumer, T.; Visser, G.

    1999-09-01

    The UCSD, WU, UCR and Nova collaboration has made significant progress on the necessary techniques for coded mask imaging of gamma-ray bursts: position sensitive CZT detectors with good energy resolution, ASIC readout, coded mask imaging, and background properties at balloon altitudes. Results on coded mask imaging techniques appropriate for wide field imaging and localization of gamma-ray bursts are presented, including a shadowgram and deconvolved image taken with a prototype detector/ASIC and MURA mask. This research was supported by NASA Grants NAG5-5111, NAG5-5114, and NGT5-50170.

  18. The H.264/MPEG4 advanced video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromek, Artur

    2009-06-01

    H.264/MPEG4-AVC is the newest video coding standard recommended by International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Section (ITU-T) and the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG). The H.264/MPEG4-AVC has recently become leading standard for generic audiovisual services, since deployment for digital television. Nowadays is commonly used in wide range of video application ranging like mobile services, videoconferencing, IPTV, HDTV, video storage and many more. In this article, author briefly describes the technology applied in the H.264/MPEG4-AVC video coding standard, the way of real-time implementation and the way of future development.

  19. NASA. Lewis Research Center Advanced Modulation and Coding Project: Introduction and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Modulation and Coding Project at LeRC is sponsored by the Office of Space Science and Applications, Communications Division, Code EC, at NASA Headquarters and conducted by the Digital Systems Technology Branch of the Space Electronics Division. Advanced Modulation and Coding is one of three focused technology development projects within the branch's overall Processing and Switching Program. The program consists of industry contracts for developing proof-of-concept (POC) and demonstration model hardware, university grants for analyzing advanced techniques, and in-house integration and testing of performance verification and systems evaluation. The Advanced Modulation and Coding Project is broken into five elements: (1) bandwidth- and power-efficient modems; (2) high-speed codecs; (3) digital modems; (4) multichannel demodulators; and (5) very high-data-rate modems. At least one contract and one grant were awarded for each element.

  20. Film grain noise modeling in advanced video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Byung Tae; Kuo, C.-C. Jay; Sun, Shijun; Lei, Shawmin

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for film grain noise extraction, modeling and synthesis is proposed and applied to the coding of high definition video in this work. The film grain noise is viewed as a part of artistic presentation by people in the movie industry. On one hand, since the film grain noise can boost the natural appearance of pictures in high definition video, it should be preserved in high-fidelity video processing systems. On the other hand, video coding with film grain noise is expensive. It is desirable to extract film grain noise from the input video as a pre-processing step at the encoder and re-synthesize the film grain noise and add it back to the decoded video as a post-processing step at the decoder. Under this framework, the coding gain of the denoised video is higher while the quality of the final reconstructed video can still be well preserved. Following this idea, we present a method to remove film grain noise from image/video without distorting its original content. Besides, we describe a parametric model containing a small set of parameters to represent the extracted film grain noise. The proposed model generates the film grain noise that is close to the real one in terms of power spectral density and cross-channel spectral correlation. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  1. Coded aperture Fast Neutron Analysis: Latest design advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accorsi, Roberto; Lanza, Richard C.

    2001-07-01

    Past studies have showed that materials of concern like explosives or narcotics can be identified in bulk from their atomic composition. Fast Neutron Analysis (FNA) is a nuclear method capable of providing this information even when considerable penetration is needed. Unfortunately, the cross sections of the nuclear phenomena and the solid angles involved are typically small, so that it is difficult to obtain high signal-to-noise ratios in short inspection times. CAFNAaims at combining the compound specificity of FNA with the potentially high SNR of Coded Apertures, an imaging method successfully used in far-field 2D applications. The transition to a near-field, 3D and high-energy problem prevents a straightforward application of Coded Apertures and demands a thorough optimization of the system. In this paper, the considerations involved in the design of a practical CAFNA system for contraband inspection, its conclusions, and an estimate of the performance of such a system are presented as the evolution of the ideas presented in previous expositions of the CAFNA concept.

  2. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  3. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    SciTech Connect

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  4. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; March-Leuba, Jose A; Thurston, Carl; Hudson, Nathanael H.; Ireland, A.; Wysocki, A.

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, the capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.

  5. The Modeling of Advanced BWR Fuel Designs with the NRC Fuel Depletion Codes PARCS/PATHS

    DOE PAGES

    Ward, Andrew; Downar, Thomas J.; Xu, Y.; ...

    2015-04-22

    The PATHS (PARCS Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Solver) code was developed at the University of Michigan in support of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission research to solve the steady-state, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic equations for a boiling water reactor (BWR) and to provide thermal-hydraulic feedback for BWR depletion calculations with the neutronics code PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator). The simplified solution methodology, including a three-equation drift flux formulation and an optimized iteration scheme, yields very fast run times in comparison to conventional thermal-hydraulic systems codes used in the industry, while still retaining sufficient accuracy for applications such as BWR depletion calculations. Lastly, themore » capability to model advanced BWR fuel designs with part-length fuel rods and heterogeneous axial channel flow geometry has been implemented in PATHS, and the code has been validated against previously benchmarked advanced core simulators as well as BWR plant and experimental data. We describe the modifications to the codes and the results of the validation in this paper.« less

  6. Compiled reports on the applicability of selected codes and standards to advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, E.L.; Hoopingarner, K.R.; Markowski, F.J.; Mitts, T.M.; Nickolaus, J.R.; Vo, T.V.

    1994-08-01

    The following papers were prepared for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission under contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 NRC FIN L2207. This project, Applicability of Codes and Standards to Advance Reactors, reviewed selected mechanical and electrical codes and standards to determine their applicability to the construction, qualification, and testing of advanced reactors and to develop recommendations as to where it might be useful and practical to revise them to suit the (design certification) needs of the NRC.

  7. Adaptation of the Advanced Spray Combustion Code to Cavitating Flow Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Pak-Yan

    1993-01-01

    A very important consideration in turbopump design is the prediction and prevention of cavitation. Thus far conventional CFD codes have not been generally applicable to the treatment of cavitating flows. Taking advantage of its two-phase capability, the Advanced Spray Combustion Code is being modified to handle flows with transient as well as steady-state cavitation bubbles. The volume-of-fluid approach incorporated into the code is extended and augmented with a liquid phase energy equation and a simple evaporation model. The strategy adopted also successfully deals with the cavity closure issue. Simple test cases will be presented and remaining technical challenges will be discussed.

  8. Functions of Code-Switching among Iranian Advanced and Elementary Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momenian, Mohammad; Samar, Reza Ghafar

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out on the advanced and elementary teachers' and students' functions and patterns of code-switching in Iranian English classrooms. This concept has not been adequately examined in L2 (second language) classroom contexts than in outdoor natural contexts. Therefore, besides reporting on the…

  9. Top 10 Tips for Using Advance Care Planning Codes in Palliative Medicine and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher A; Acevedo, Jean; Bull, Janet; Kamal, Arif H

    2016-12-01

    Although recommended for all persons with serious illness, advance care planning (ACP) has historically been a charitable clinical service. Inadequate or unreliable provisions for reimbursement, among other barriers, have spurred a gap between the evidence demonstrating the importance of timely ACP and recognition by payers for its delivery.(1) For the first time, healthcare is experiencing a dramatic shift in billing codes that support increased care management and care coordination. ACP, chronic care management, and transitional care management codes are examples of this newer recognition of the value of these types of services. ACP discussions are an integral component of comprehensive, high-quality palliative care delivery. The advent of reimbursement mechanisms to recognize these services has an enormous potential to impact palliative care program sustainability and growth. In this article, we highlight 10 tips to effectively using the new ACP codes reimbursable under Medicare. The importance of documentation, proper billing, and nuances regarding coding is addressed.

  10. Plug-in to Eclipse environment for VHDL source code editor with advanced formatting of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes an idea and realization of a smart plug-in to the Eclipse software environment. The plug-in is predicted for editing of the VHDL source code. It extends considerably the capabilities of the VEditor program, which bases on the open license. There are presented the results of the formatting procedures performed on chosen examples of the VHDL source codes. The work is a part of a bigger project of building smart programming environment for design of advanced photonic and electronic systems. The examples of such systems are quoted in references.

  11. Aerodynamic analysis of three advanced configurations using the TranAir full-potential code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, M. D.; Carmichael, R. L.; Mendoza, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Computational results are presented for three advanced configurations: the F-16A with wing tip missiles and under wing fuel tanks, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and an Advanced Turboprop research model. These results were generated by the latest version of the TranAir full potential code, which solves for transonic flow over complex configurations. TranAir embeds a surface paneled geometry definition in a uniform rectangular flow field grid, thus avoiding the use of surface conforming grids, and decoupling the grid generation process from the definition of the configuration. The new version of the code locally refines the uniform grid near the surface of the geometry, based on local panel size and/or user input. This method distributes the flow field grid points much more efficiently than the previous version of the code, which solved for a grid that was uniform everywhere in the flow field. TranAir results are presented for the three configurations and are compared with wind tunnel data.

  12. Development of an Implicit, Charge and Energy Conserving 2D Electromagnetic PIC Code on Advanced Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Joshua; Taitano, William; Knoll, Dana; Liebs, Chris; Murthy, Karthik; Feltman, Nicolas; Wang, Yijie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cieren, Emanuel

    2012-10-01

    In order to solve problems such as the ion coalescence and slow MHD shocks fully kinetically we developed a fully implicit 2D energy and charge conserving electromagnetic PIC code, PlasmaApp2D. PlasmaApp2D differs from previous implicit PIC implementations in that it will utilize advanced architectures such as GPUs and shared memory CPU systems, with problems too large to fit into cache. PlasmaApp2D will be a hybrid CPU-GPU code developed primarily to run on the DARWIN cluster at LANL utilizing four 12-core AMD Opteron CPUs and two NVIDIA Tesla GPUs per node. MPI will be used for cross-node communication, OpenMP will be used for on-node parallelism, and CUDA will be used for the GPUs. Development progress and initial results will be presented.

  13. Application of advanced computational codes in the design of an experiment for a supersonic throughflow fan rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Jerry R.; Schmidt, James F.; Steinke, Ronald J.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Kunik, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustained supersonic or hypersonic cruise has revived interest in the supersonic throughflow fan as a possible component in advanced propulsion systems. Use of a fan that can operate with a supersonic inlet axial Mach number is attractive from the standpoint of reducing the inlet losses incurred in diffusing the flow from a supersonic flight Mach number to a subsonic one at the fan face. The design of the experiment using advanced computational codes to calculate the components required is described. The rotor was designed using existing turbomachinery design and analysis codes modified to handle fully supersonic axial flow through the rotor. A two-dimensional axisymmetric throughflow design code plus a blade element code were used to generate fan rotor velocity diagrams and blade shapes. A quasi-three-dimensional, thin shear layer Navier-Stokes code was used to assess the performance of the fan rotor blade shapes. The final design was stacked and checked for three-dimensional effects using a three-dimensional Euler code interactively coupled with a two-dimensional boundary layer code. The nozzle design in the expansion region was analyzed with a three-dimensional parabolized viscous code which corroborated the results from the Euler code. A translating supersonic diffuser was designed using these same codes.

  14. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  15. Advanced Pellet Cladding Interaction Modeling Using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Hales; Various

    2014-06-01

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermomechanical- chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  16. Advanced Pellet-Cladding Interaction Modeling using the US DOE CASL Fuel Performance Code: Peregrine

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Robert O.; Capps, Nathan A.; Sunderland, Dion J.; Liu, Wenfeng; Hales, Jason; Stanek, Chris; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-06-15

    The US DOE’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) program has undertaken an effort to enhance and develop modeling and simulation tools for a virtual reactor application, including high fidelity neutronics, fluid flow/thermal hydraulics, and fuel and material behavior. The fuel performance analysis efforts aim to provide 3-dimensional capabilities for single and multiple rods to assess safety margins and the impact of plant operation and fuel rod design on the fuel thermo-mechanical-chemical behavior, including Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI) failures and CRUD-Induced Localized Corrosion (CILC) failures in PWRs. [1-3] The CASL fuel performance code, Peregrine, is an engineering scale code that is built upon the MOOSE/ELK/FOX computational FEM framework, which is also common to the fuel modeling framework, BISON [4,5]. Peregrine uses both 2-D and 3-D geometric fuel rod representations and contains a materials properties and fuel behavior model library for the UO2 and Zircaloy system common to PWR fuel derived from both open literature sources and the FALCON code [6]. The primary purpose of Peregrine is to accurately calculate the thermal, mechanical, and chemical processes active throughout a single fuel rod during operation in a reactor, for both steady state and off-normal conditions.

  17. Perface: Research advances in vadose zone hydrology throughsimulations with the TOUGH codes

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, Stefan; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-07-12

    Numerical simulators are playing an increasingly important role in advancing our fundamental understanding of hydrological systems. They are indispensable tools for managing groundwater resources, analyzing proposed and actual remediation activities at contaminated sites, optimizing recovery of oil, gas, and geothermal energy, evaluating subsurface structures and mining activities, designing monitoring systems, assessing the long-term impacts of chemical and nuclear waste disposal, and devising improved irrigation and drainage practices in agricultural areas, among many other applications. The complexity of subsurface hydrology in the vadose zone calls for sophisticated modeling codes capable of handling the strong nonlinearities involved, the interactions of coupled physical, chemical and biological processes, and the multiscale heterogeneities inherent in such systems. The papers in this special section of ''Vadose Zone Journal'' are illustrative of the enormous potential of such numerical simulators as applied to the vadose zone. The papers describe recent developments and applications of one particular set of codes, the TOUGH family of codes, as applied to nonisothermal flow and transport in heterogeneous porous and fractured media (http://www-esd.lbl.gov/TOUGH2). The contributions were selected from presentations given at the TOUGH Symposium 2003, which brought together developers and users of the TOUGH codes at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California, for three days of information exchange in May 2003 (http://www-esd.lbl.gov/TOUGHsymposium). The papers presented at the symposium covered a wide range of topics, including geothermal reservoir engineering, fracture flow and vadose zone hydrology, nuclear waste disposal, mining engineering, reactive chemical transport, environmental remediation, and gas transport. This Special Section of ''Vadose Zone Journal'' contains revised and expanded versions of selected papers from the

  18. Flight investigation of cockpit-displayed traffic information utilizing coded symbology in an advanced operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Traffic symbology was encoded to provide additional information concerning the traffic, which was displayed on the pilot's electronic horizontal situation indicators (EHSI). A research airplane representing an advanced operational environment was used to assess the benefit of coded traffic symbology in a realistic work-load environment. Traffic scenarios, involving both conflict-free and conflict situations, were employed. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefings. These results grouped conveniently under two categories: display factors and task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few airplanes. In terms of task performance, the cockpit-displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness. Additionally, mile separation prescribed during these tests.

  19. Advanced cardiac life support refresher course using standardized objective-based Mega Code testing.

    PubMed

    Kaye, W; Mancini, M E; Rallis, S F

    1987-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends that those whose daily work requires knowledge and skills in advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) not only be trained in ACLS, but also be given a refresher training at least every 2 yr. However, AMA offers no recommended course for retraining; no systematic studies of retraining have been conducted on which to base these recommendations. In this paper we review and present our recommendation for a standardized approach to refresher training. Using the goals and objectives of the ACLS training program as evaluation criteria, we tested with the Mega Code a sample population who had previously been trained in ACLS. The results revealed deficiencies in ACLS knowledge and skills in the areas of assessment, defibrillation, drug therapy, and determining the cause of an abnormal blood gas value. We combined this information with our knowledge of other deficiencies identified during actual resuscitation attempts and other basic life-support and ACLS teaching experiences. We then designed a refresher course which was consistent with the overall goals and objectives of the ACLS training program, but which placed emphasis on the deficiencies identified in the pretesting. We taught our newly designed refresher course in three sessions, which included basic life support, endotracheal intubation, arrhythmia recognition and therapeutic modalities, defibrillation, and Mega Code practice. In a fourth session, using Mega Code testing, we evaluated knowledge and skill learning immediately after training. We similarly tested retention 2 to 4 months later. Performance immediately after refresher training showed improvement in all areas where performance had been weak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A Complex-Geometry Validation Experiment for Advanced Neutron Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Anthony W. LaPorta; Joseph W. Nielsen; James Parry; Mark D. DeHart; Samuel E. Bays; William F. Skerjanc

    2013-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a focused effort to upgrade legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols used for support of core fuel management and experiment management in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC) at the INL.. This will be accomplished through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate new Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols, over the next 12-18 months. Stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and nuclear data packages that support this effort include MCNP5[1], SCALE/KENO6[2], HELIOS[3], SCALE/NEWT[2], and ATTILA[4]. Furthermore, a capability for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI[5] system has also been implemented. Finally, we are also evaluating the Serpent[6] and MC21[7] codes, as additional verification tools in the near term as well as for possible applications to full three-dimensional Monte Carlo based fuel management modeling in the longer term. On the experimental side, several new benchmark-quality code validation measurements based on neutron activation spectrometry have been conducted using the ATRC. Results for the first four experiments, focused on neutron spectrum measurements within the Northwest Large In-Pile Tube (NW LIPT) and in the core fuel elements surrounding the NW LIPT and the diametrically opposite Southeast IPT have been reported [8,9]. A fifth, very recent, experiment focused on detailed measurements of the element-to-element core power distribution is summarized here and examples of the use of the measured data for validation of corresponding MCNP5, HELIOS, NEWT, and Serpent computational models using modern least-square adjustment methods are provided.

  1. MPEG-2/4 Low-Complexity Advanced Audio Coding Optimization and Implementation on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bing-Fei; Huang, Hao-Yu; Chen, Yen-Lin; Peng, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Jia-Hsiung

    This study presents several optimization approaches for the MPEG-2/4 Audio Advanced Coding (AAC) Low Complexity (LC) encoding and decoding processes. Considering the power consumption and the peripherals required for consumer electronics, this study adopts the TI OMAP5912 platform for portable devices. An important optimization issue for implementing AAC codec on embedded and mobile devices is to reduce computational complexity and memory consumption. Due to power saving issues, most embedded and mobile systems can only provide very limited computational power and memory resources for the coding process. As a result, modifying and simplifying only one or two blocks is insufficient for optimizing the AAC encoder and enabling it to work well on embedded systems. It is therefore necessary to enhance the computational efficiency of other important modules in the encoding algorithm. This study focuses on optimizing the Temporal Noise Shaping (TNS), Mid/Side (M/S) Stereo, Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT) and Inverse Quantization (IQ) modules in the encoder and decoder. Furthermore, we also propose an efficient memory reduction approach that provides a satisfactory balance between the reduction of memory usage and the expansion of the encoded files. In the proposed design, both the AAC encoder and decoder are built with fixed-point arithmetic operations and implemented on a DSP processor combined with an ARM-core for peripheral controlling. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed AAC codec is computationally effective, has low memory consumption, and is suitable for low-cost embedded and mobile applications.

  2. Non-coding RNAs deregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Li, C; Wang, Z; Liu, K; Xu, C; Yang, Q; Tang, Y; Wu, Y

    2016-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cause of cancer death. Despite decades of improvements in exploring new treatments and considerable advance in multimodality treatment, satisfactory curative rates have not yet been reached. The difficulty of early diagnosis and the high prevalence of metastasis associated with OSCC contribute to its dismal prognosis. In the last few decades the emerging data from both tumor biology and clinical trials led to growing interest in the research for predictive biomarkers. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are promising biomarkers. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. In contrast to miRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are much less known concerning their functions in human cancers especially in OSCC. The present review highlighted the roles of miRNAs and newly discovered lncRNAs in oral tumorigenesis, metastasis, and their clinical implication.

  3. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  4. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  5. Recent advances in coding theory for near error-free communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Deutsch, L. J.; Dolinar, S. J.; Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Shahshahani, M.; Swanson, L.

    1991-01-01

    Channel and source coding theories are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: large constraint length convolutional codes (the Galileo code); decoder design (the big Viterbi decoder); Voyager's and Galileo's data compression scheme; current research in data compression for images; neural networks for soft decoding; neural networks for source decoding; finite-state codes; and fractals for data compression.

  6. Intercode Advanced Fuels and Cladding Comparison Using BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI Fuel Performance Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Aaren

    As part of the Department of Energy's Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) campaign, new cladding designs and fuel types are being studied in order to help make nuclear energy a safer and more affordable source for power. This study focuses on the implementation and analysis of the SiC cladding and UN, UC, and U3Si2 fuels into three specific nuclear fuel performance codes: BISON, FRAPCON, and FEMAXI. These fuels boast a higher thermal conductivity and uranium density than traditional UO2 fuel which could help lead to longer times in a reactor environment. The SiC cladding has been studied for its reduced production of hydrogen gas during an accident scenario, however the SiC cladding is a known brittle and unyielding material that may fracture during PCMI (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction). This work focuses on steady-state operation with advanced fuel and cladding combinations. By implementing and performing analysis work with these materials, it is possible to better understand some of the mechanical interactions that could be seen as limiting factors. In addition to the analysis of the materials themselves, a further analysis is done on the effects of using a fuel creep model in combination with the SiC cladding. While fuel creep is commonly ignored in the traditional UO2 fuel and Zircaloy cladding systems, fuel creep can be a significant factor in PCMI with SiC.

  7. Moving objects extraction method in H.264/advanced video coding bit stream of a complex scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingsheng, Chen; Mingxin, Qin; Guangming, Liang; Jixiang, Sun; Xu, Ning

    2013-08-01

    For the purpose of extracting moving objects from H.264/advanced video coding (AVC) bit stream of a complex scene, an algorithm based on maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MRF) framework to extract moving objects directly from H.264 compressed video is proposed in this paper. It mainly involves encoding information of motion vectors (MVs) and block partition modes in H.264/AVC bit stream and utilizes temporal continuity and spatial consistency of moving object's pieces. First, it retrieves MVs and block partition modes of identical 4×4 pixel blocks in P frames and establishes Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the phase of MVs as a reference background, and then creates MRF model based on MVs, block partition modes, the GMM of the background, spatial, and temporal consistency. The moving objects are retrieved by solving the MRF model. The experimental results show that it can perform robustly in a complex environment and the precision and recall have been improved over the existing algorithm.

  8. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  9. Ideas for Advancing Code Sharing: A Different Kind of Hack Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuben, P.; Allen, A.; Berriman, B.; DuPrie, K.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M. B.; Wallin, J. F.

    2014-05-01

    How do we as a community encourage the reuse of software for telescope operations, data processing, and ? How can we support making codes used in research available for others to examine? Continuing the discussion from last year Bring out your codes! BoF session, participants separated into groups to brainstorm ideas to mitigate factors which inhibit code sharing and nurture those which encourage code sharing. The BoF concluded with the sharing of ideas that arose from the brainstorming sessions and a brief summary by the moderator.

  10. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  11. A Mode Propagation Database Suitable for Code Validation Utilizing the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan and Artificial Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. A series of tests were performed primarily for the use of code validation and tool validation. Rotating Rake mode measurements were acquired for parametric sets of: (1) mode blockage, (2) liner insertion loss, (3) short ducts, and (4) mode reflection.

  12. A Mode Propagation Database Suitable for Code Validation Utilizing the NASA Glenn Advanced Noise Control Fan and Artificial Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. A series of tests were performed primarily for the use of code validation and tool validation. Rotating Rake mode measurements were acquired for parametric sets of: (i) mode blockage, (ii) liner insertion loss, (iii) short ducts, and (iv) mode reflection.

  13. Advancing Underwater Acoustic Communication for Autonomous Distributed Networks via Sparse Channel Sensing, Coding, and Navigation Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    channel interference mitigation for underwater acoustic MIMO-OFDM. 3) Turbo equalization for OFDM modulated physical layer network coding. 4) Blind CFO...Localization and tracking of underwater physical systems. 7) NAMS: A networked acoustic modem system for underwater applications . 8) OFDM receiver design in...3) Turbo Equalization for OFDM Modulated Physical Layer Network Coding. We have investigated a practical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

  14. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    AlliedSignal Engines, in cooperation with NASA GRC (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center), completed an evaluation of recently-developed aeroelastic computer codes using test cases from the AlliedSignal Engines fan blisk and turbine databases. Test data included strain gage, performance, and steady-state pressure information obtained for conditions where synchronous or flutter vibratory conditions were found to occur. Aeroelastic codes evaluated included quasi 3-D UNSFLO (MIT Developed/AE Modified, Quasi 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code), 2-D FREPS (NASA-Developed Forced Response Prediction System Aeroelastic Computer Code), and 3-D TURBO-AE (NASA/Mississippi State University Developed 3-D Aeroelastic Computer Code). Unsteady pressure predictions for the turbine test case were used to evaluate the forced response prediction capabilities of each of the three aeroelastic codes. Additionally, one of the fan flutter cases was evaluated using TURBO-AE. The UNSFLO and FREPS evaluation predictions showed good agreement with the experimental test data trends, but quantitative improvements are needed. UNSFLO over-predicted turbine blade response reductions, while FREPS under-predicted them. The inviscid TURBO-AE turbine analysis predicted no discernible blade response reduction, indicating the necessity of including viscous effects for this test case. For the TURBO-AE fan blisk test case, significant effort was expended getting the viscous version of the code to give converged steady flow solutions for the transonic flow conditions. Once converged, the steady solutions provided an excellent match with test data and the calibrated DAWES (AlliedSignal 3-D Viscous Steady Flow CFD Solver). However, efforts expended establishing quality steady-state solutions prevented exercising the unsteady portion of the TURBO-AE code during the present program. AlliedSignal recommends that unsteady pressure measurement data be obtained for both test cases examined

  15. Analyses of the MSLB benchmark V1000CT-2 by the coupled system code ATHLET-BIPR8KN

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, S. P.; Langenbuch, S.; Lizorkin, M. P.; Velkov, K.

    2006-07-01

    Within the activities of OECD/NEA is being initiated the second phase of the VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark (V1000CT-2). It considers the best estimate analyses of a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) of a VVER-1000 NPP with two exercises. The analyses have been performed with the coupled system code ATHLET-BIPR8KN which enables to perform realistic simulation of three-dimensional neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic processes in VVER NPP. Results are presented and analysed for the two proposed scenarios. These results are supplemented by sensitivity studies varying the number of the thermo-hydraulic channels (THC) in the core and by comparisons with point kinetics calculations. This work is of considerable importance for the validation of the coupled system code ATHLET-BIPR8KN in case of asymmetric core inlet conditions. (authors)

  16. Advancements and performance of iterative methods in industrial applications codes on CRAY parallel/vector supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, G.; Heroux, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper will focus on recent work in two widely used industrial applications codes with iterative methods. The ANSYS program, a general purpose finite element code widely used in structural analysis applications, has now added an iterative solver option. Some results are given from real applications comparing performance with the tradition parallel/vector frontal solver used in ANSYS. Discussion of the applicability of iterative solvers as a general purpose solver will include the topics of robustness, as well as memory requirements and CPU performance. The FIDAP program is a widely used CFD code which uses iterative solvers routinely. A brief description of preconditioners used and some performance enhancements for CRAY parallel/vector systems is given. The solution of large-scale applications in structures and CFD includes examples from industry problems solved on CRAY systems.

  17. SKIRT: An advanced dust radiative transfer code with a user-friendly architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camps, P.; Baes, M.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the architecture and design principles that underpin the latest version of SKIRT, a state-of-the-art open source code for simulating continuum radiation transfer in dusty astrophysical systems, such as spiral galaxies and accretion disks. SKIRT employs the Monte Carlo technique to emulate the relevant physical processes including scattering, absorption and emission by the dust. The code features a wealth of built-in geometries, radiation source spectra, dust characterizations, dust grids, and detectors, in addition to various mechanisms for importing snapshots generated by hydrodynamical simulations. The configuration for a particular simulation is defined at run-time through a user-friendly interface suitable for both occasional and power users. These capabilities are enabled by careful C++ code design. The programming interfaces between components are well defined and narrow. Adding a new feature is usually as simple as adding another class; the user interface automatically adjusts to allow configuring the new options. We argue that many scientific codes, like SKIRT, can benefit from careful object-oriented design and from a friendly user interface, even if it is not a graphical user interface.

  18. Preface: Recent Advances in Modeling Multiphase Flow and Transportwith the TOUGH Family of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2007-11-15

    A symposium on research carried out using the TOUGH family of numerical codes was held from May 15 to 17, 2006, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This special issue of the 'Vadose Zone Journal' contains revised and expanded versions of a selected set of papers presented at this symposium (TOUGH Symposium 2006; http://esd.lbl.gov/TOUGHsymposium), all of which focus on multiphase flow, including flow in the vadose zone.

  19. Validation and verification of RELAP5 for Advanced Neutron Source accident analysis: Part I, comparisons to ANSDM and PRSDYN codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Ibn-Khayat, M.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-12-01

    As part of verification and validation, the Advanced Neutron Source reactor RELAP5 system model was benchmarked by the Advanced Neutron Source dynamic model (ANSDM) and PRSDYN models. RELAP5 is a one-dimensional, two-phase transient code, developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for reactor safety analysis. Both the ANSDM and PRSDYN models use a simplified single-phase equation set to predict transient thermal-hydraulic performance. Brief descriptions of each of the codes, models, and model limitations were included. Even though comparisons were limited to single-phase conditions, a broad spectrum of accidents was benchmarked: a small loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA), a large LOCA, a station blackout, and a reactivity insertion accident. The overall conclusion is that the three models yield similar results if the input parameters are the same. However, ANSDM does not capture pressure wave propagation through the coolant system. This difference is significant in very rapid pipe break events. Recommendations are provided for further model improvements.

  20. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  1. ProtoEXIST: advanced prototype CZT coded aperture telescopes for EXIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Branden; Hong, Jaesub; Grindlay, Josh; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Baker, Robert G.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Garson, Trey; Krawczynski, Henric S.; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2010-07-01

    ProtoEXIST1 is a pathfinder for the EXIST-HET, a coded aperture hard X-ray telescope with a 4.5 m2 CZT detector plane a 90x70 degree field of view to be flown as the primary instrument on the EXIST mission and is intended to monitor the full sky every 3 h in an effort to locate GRBs and other high energy transients. ProtoEXIST1 consists of a 256 cm2 tiled CZT detector plane containing 4096 pixels composed of an 8x8 array of individual 1.95 cm x 1.95 cm x 0.5 cm CZT detector modules each with a 8 x 8 pixilated anode configured as a coded aperture telescope with a fully coded 10° x 10° field of view employing passive side shielding and an active CsI anti-coincidence rear shield, recently completed its maiden flight out of Ft. Sumner, NM on the 9th of October 2009. During the duration of its 6 hour flight on-board calibration of the detector plane was carried out utilizing a single tagged 198.8 nCi Am-241 source along with the simultaneous measurement of the background spectrum and an observation of Cygnus X-1. Here we recount the events of the flight and report on the detector performance in a near space environment. We also briefly discuss ProtoEXIST2: the next stage of detector development which employs the NuSTAR ASIC enabling finer (32×32) anode pixilation. When completed ProtoEXIST2 will consist of a 256 cm2 tiled array and be flown simultaneously with the ProtoEXIST1 telescope.

  2. Development and validation of burnup dependent computational schemes for the analysis of assemblies with advanced lattice codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    The main aim of this research is the development and validation of computational schemes for advanced lattice codes. The advanced lattice code which forms the primary part of this research is "DRAGON Version4". The code has unique features like self shielding calculation with capabilities to represent distributed and mutual resonance shielding effects, leakage models with space-dependent isotropic or anisotropic streaming effect, availability of the method of characteristics (MOC), burnup calculation with reaction-detailed energy production etc. Qualified reactor physics codes are essential for the study of all existing and envisaged designs of nuclear reactors. Any new design would require a thorough analysis of all the safety parameters and burnup dependent behaviour. Any reactor physics calculation requires the estimation of neutron fluxes in various regions of the problem domain. The calculation goes through several levels before the desired solution is obtained. Each level of the lattice calculation has its own significance and any compromise at any step will lead to poor final result. The various levels include choice of nuclear data library and energy group boundaries into which the multigroup library is cast; self shielding of nuclear data depending on the heterogeneous geometry and composition; tracking of geometry, keeping error in volume and surface to an acceptable minimum; generation of regionwise and groupwise collision probabilities or MOC-related information and their subsequent normalization thereof, solution of transport equation using the previously generated groupwise information and obtaining the fluxes and reaction rates in various regions of the lattice; depletion of fuel and of other materials based on normalization with constant power or constant flux. Of the above mentioned levels, the present research will mainly focus on two aspects, namely self shielding and depletion. The behaviour of the system is determined by composition of resonant

  3. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Thermo Hydraulic Conditions in Car Fog Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramšak, M.; Žunič, Z.; Škerget, L.; Jurejevčič, T.

    2009-08-01

    In the article a coupled heat transfer in the solid and fluid inside of a car fog lamp is presented using CFD software CFX [1]. All three basic principles of heat transfer are dealt with: conduction, convection and radiation. Two different approaches to radiation modeling are compared. Laminar and turbulent flow modeling are compared since computed Rayleight number indicates transitional flow regime. Results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  5. Euler Technology Assessment - SPLITFLOW Code Applications for Stability and Control Analysis on an Advanced Fighter Model Employing Innovative Control Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Keith J.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents results from the NASA-Langley sponsored Euler Technology Assessment Study conducted by Lockheed-Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems (LMTAS). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of the SPLITFLOW code using viscous and inviscid flow models to predict aerodynamic stability and control of an advanced fighter model. The inviscid flow model was found to perform well at incidence angles below approximately 15 deg, but not as well at higher angles of attack. The results using a turbulent, viscous flow model matched the trends of the wind tunnel data, but did not show significant improvement over the Euler solutions. Overall, the predictions were found to be useful for stability and control design purposes.

  6. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-04-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  7. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-01-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  8. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  9. Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of an advanced liquid metal reactor design by the COMMIX computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis in the development of advanced liquid metal reactors (LMRs) is on inherent safety and economics. One such feature is the adoption of thermal radiation and natural-convection cooling of the reactor to handle decay heat following a reactor shutdown. The decay heat removal feature of the LMR design under investigation here involves an in-vessel overflow of hot-pool sodium next to the reactor vessel (RV) in such a way that in the event of a reactor heat-up due to decay heat, the RV temperature is elevated and thereby the rate of heat removal from the reactor to the ambient air is increased. The purpose is to limit the temperature rise due to the decay heat. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the simple passive decay heat removal feature of an advanced LMR design based on radiation and natural convection. The evaluation was carried out by performing calculations using the COMMIX Code for two cases, one with the passive heat removal features and the other without the features, and comparing the results. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A.; Martin, John C.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Stronglida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesphagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests. PMID:26026709

  11. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, K. B.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experience using ANOPP to predict turbofan engine flyover noise suggests that it over-predicts overall EPNL by a significant amount. An improvement in this prediction method is desired for system optimization and assessment studies of advanced UHB engines. An assessment of the ANOPP fan inlet, fan exhaust, jet, combustor, and turbine noise prediction methods is made using static engine component noise data from the CF6-8OC2, E(3), and QCSEE turbofan engines. It is shown that the ANOPP prediction results are generally higher than the measured GE data, and that the inlet noise prediction method (Heidmann method) is the most significant source of this overprediction. Fan noise spectral comparisons show that improvements to the fan tone, broadband, and combination tone noise models are required to yield results that more closely simulate the GE data. Suggested changes that yield improved fan noise predictions but preserve the Heidmann model structure are identified and described. These changes are based on the sets of engine data mentioned, as well as some CFM56 engine data that was used to expand the combination tone noise database. It should be noted that the recommended changes are based on an analysis of engines that are limited to single stage fans with design tip relative Mach numbers greater than one.

  12. MHD Simulation of Magnetic Nozzle Plasma with the NIMROD Code: Applications to the VASIMR Advanced Space Propulsion Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Shebalin, John V.

    2002-11-01

    A simulation study with the NIMROD code [1] is being carried on to investigate the efficiency of the thrust generation process and the properties of the plasma detachment in a magnetic nozzle. In the simulation, hot plasma is injected in the magnetic nozzle, modeled as a 2D, axi-symmetric domain. NIMROD has two-fluid, 3D capabilities but the present runs are being conducted within the MHD, 2D approximation. As the plasma travels through the magnetic field, part of its thermal energy is converted into longitudinal kinetic energy, along the axis of the nozzle. The plasma eventually detaches from the magnetic field at a certain distance from the nozzle throat where the kinetic energy becomes larger than the magnetic energy. Preliminary NIMROD 2D runs have been benchmarked with a particle trajectory code showing satisfactory results [2]. Further testing is here reported with the emphasis on the analysis of the diffusion rate across the field lines and of the overall nozzle efficiency. These simulation runs are specifically designed for obtaining comparisons with laboratory measurements of the VASIMR experiment, by looking at the evolution of the radial plasma density and temperature profiles in the nozzle. VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, [3]) is an advanced space propulsion concept currently under experimental development at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. A plasma (typically ionized Hydrogen or Helium) is generated by a RF (Helicon) discharge and heated by an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating antenna. The heated plasma is then guided into a magnetic nozzle to convert the thermal plasma energy into effective thrust. The VASIMR system has no electrodes and a solenoidal magnetic field produced by an asymmetric mirror configuration ensures magnetic insulation of the plasma from the material surfaces. By powering the plasma source and the heating antenna at different levels it is possible to vary smoothly of the

  13. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  14. Comparison of the 3-D Deterministic Neutron Transport Code Attila® To Measure Data, MCNP And MCNPX For The Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    D. Scott Lucas; D. S. Lucas

    2005-09-01

    An LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) project is underway at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to apply the three-dimensional multi-group deterministic neutron transport code (Attila®) to criticality, flux and depletion calculations of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This paper discusses the development of Attila models for ATR, capabilities of Attila, the generation and use of different cross-section libraries, and comparisons to ATR data, MCNP, MCNPX and future applications.

  15. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  16. Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB.

  17. Memory-efficient table look-up optimized algorithm for context-based adaptive variable length decoding in H.264/advanced video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Cheng, Lianglun; Wang, Tao; Peng, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    Table look-up operation plays a very important role during the decoding processing of context-based adaptive variable length decoding (CAVLD) in H.264/advanced video coding (AVC). However, frequent table look-up operation can result in big table memory access, and then lead to high table power consumption. Aiming to solve the problem of big table memory access of current methods, and then reduce high power consumption, a memory-efficient table look-up optimized algorithm is presented for CAVLD. The contribution of this paper lies that index search technology is introduced to reduce big memory access for table look-up, and then reduce high table power consumption. Specifically, in our schemes, we use index search technology to reduce memory access by reducing the searching and matching operations for code_word on the basis of taking advantage of the internal relationship among length of zero in code_prefix, value of code_suffix and code_lengh, thus saving the power consumption of table look-up. The experimental results show that our proposed table look-up algorithm based on index search can lower about 60% memory access consumption compared with table look-up by sequential search scheme, and then save much power consumption for CAVLD in H.264/AVC.

  18. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  19. Advanced Technology Airfoil Research, volume 1, part 1. [conference on development of computational codes and test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted both in-house and under grant and contract, as well as a broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA is presented. Emphasis is placed on the development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, the development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  20. Electromagnetic self-consistent field initialization and fluid advance techniques for hybrid-kinetic PWFA code Architect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimo, F.; Marocchino, A.; Rossi, A. R.

    2016-09-01

    The realization of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiments with high quality of the accelerated bunches requires an increasing number of numerical simulations to perform first-order assessments for the experimental design and online-analysis of the experimental results. Particle in Cell codes are the state-of-the-art tools to study the beam-plasma interaction mechanism, but due to their requirements in terms of number of cores and computational time makes them unsuitable for quick parametric scans. Considerable interest has been shown thus in methods which reduce the computational time needed for the simulation of plasma acceleration. Such methods include the use of hybrid kinetic-fluid models, which treat the relativistic bunches as in a PIC code and the background plasma electrons as a fluid. A technique to properly initialize the bunch electromagnetic fields in the time explicit hybrid kinetic-fluid code Architect is presented, as well the implementation of the Flux Corrected Transport scheme for the fluid equations integrated in the code.

  1. Application of advanced computational procedures for modeling solar-wind interactions with Venus: Theory and computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Klenke, D.; Trudinger, B. C.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Computational procedures are developed and applied to the prediction of solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic terrestrial planet atmospheres, with particular emphasis to Venus. The theoretical method is based on a single fluid, steady, dissipationless, magnetohydrodynamic continuum model, and is appropriate for the calculation of axisymmetric, supersonic, super-Alfvenic solar wind flow past terrestrial planets. The procedures, which consist of finite difference codes to determine the gasdynamic properties and a variety of special purpose codes to determine the frozen magnetic field, streamlines, contours, plots, etc. of the flow, are organized into one computational program. Theoretical results based upon these procedures are reported for a wide variety of solar wind conditions and ionopause obstacle shapes. Plasma and magnetic field comparisons in the ionosheath are also provided with actual spacecraft data obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter.

  2. TRANS_MU computer code for computation of transmutant formation kinetics in advanced structural materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markina, Natalya V.; Shimansky, Gregory A.

    A method of controlling a systematic error in transmutation computations is described for a class of problems, in which strictly a one-parental and one-residual nucleus are considered in each nuclear transformation channel. A discrete-logical algorithm is stated for the differential equations system matrix to reduce it to a block-triangular type. A computing procedure is developed determining a strict estimation of a computing error for each value of the computation results for the above named class of transmutation computation problems with some additional restrictions on the complexity of the nuclei transformations scheme. The computer code for this computing procedure - TRANS_MU - compared with an analogue approach has a number of advantages. Besides the mentioned quantitative control of a systematic and computing errors as an important feature of the code TRANS_MU, it is necessary to indicate the calculation of the contribution of each considered reaction to the transmutant accumulation and gas production. The application of the TRANS_MU computer code is shown using copper alloys as an example when the planning of irradiation experiments with fusion reactor material specimens in fission reactors, and processing the experimental results.

  3. Summary Report for ASC L2 Milestone #4782: Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, J. R.; Hornung, R.; Black, A.; Robinson, P.

    2014-09-29

    This document serves as a detailed companion to the powerpoint slides presented as part of the ASC L2 milestone review for Integrated Codes milestone #4782 titled “Assess Newly Emerging Programming and Memory Models for Advanced Architectures on Integrated Codes”, due on 9/30/2014, and presented for formal program review on 9/12/2014. The program review committee is represented by Mike Zika (A Program Project Lead for Kull), Brian Pudliner (B Program Project Lead for Ares), Scott Futral (DEG Group Lead in LC), and Mike Glass (Sierra Project Lead at Sandia). This document, along with the presentation materials, and a letter of completion signed by the review committee will act as proof of completion for this milestone.

  4. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert; McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  5. Polar Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes. iii CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the most common. Many civilian systems use low density parity check (LDPC) FEC codes, and the Navy is planning to use LDPC for some future systems...other forward error correction methods: a turbo code, a low density parity check (LDPC) code, a Reed–Solomon code, and three convolutional codes

  6. Computerized mega code recording.

    PubMed

    Burt, T W; Bock, H C

    1988-04-01

    A system has been developed to facilitate recording of advanced cardiac life support mega code testing scenarios. By scanning a paper "keyboard" using a bar code wand attached to a portable microcomputer, the person assigned to record the scenario can easily generate an accurate, complete, timed, and typewritten record of the given situations and the obtained responses.

  7. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships.

  8. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  9. Smart time-pulse coding photoconverters as basic components 2D-array logic devices for advanced neural networks and optical computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Michalnichenko, Nikolay N.

    2004-04-01

    The article deals with a conception of building arithmetic-logic devices (ALD) with a 2D-structure and optical 2D-array inputs-outputs as advanced high-productivity parallel basic operational training modules for realization of basic operation of continuous, neuro-fuzzy, multilevel, threshold and others logics and vector-matrix, vector-tensor procedures in neural networks, that consists in use of time-pulse coding (TPC) architecture and 2D-array smart optoelectronic pulse-width (or pulse-phase) modulators (PWM or PPM) for transformation of input pictures. The input grayscale image is transformed into a group of corresponding short optical pulses or time positions of optical two-level signal swing. We consider optoelectronic implementations of universal (quasi-universal) picture element of two-valued ALD, multi-valued ALD, analog-to-digital converters, multilevel threshold discriminators and we show that 2D-array time-pulse photoconverters are the base elements for these devices. We show simulation results of the time-pulse photoconverters as base components. Considered devices have technical parameters: input optical signals power is 200nW_200μW (if photodiode responsivity is 0.5A/W), conversion time is from tens of microseconds to a millisecond, supply voltage is 1.5_15V, consumption power is from tens of microwatts to a milliwatt, conversion nonlinearity is less than 1%. One cell consists of 2-3 photodiodes and about ten CMOS transistors. This simplicity of the cells allows to carry out their integration in arrays of 32x32, 64x64 elements and more.

  10. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  11. Ethical coding.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Barry I

    2009-01-01

    It is ethical, legal, and proper for a dermatologist to maximize income through proper coding of patient encounters and procedures. The overzealous physician can misinterpret reimbursement requirements or receive bad advice from other physicians and cross the line from aggressive coding to coding fraud. Several of the more common problem areas are discussed.

  12. Thermo-hydraulics of the Peruvian accretionary complex at 12°S

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kukowski, Nina; Pecher, Ingo

    1999-01-01

    The models were constrained by the thermal gradient obtained from the depth of bottomsimulating reflectors (BSRs) at the lower slope and some conventional measurements. We foundthat significant frictional heating is required to explain the observed strong landward increase ofheat flux. This is consistent with results from sandbox modelling which predict strong basalfriction at this margin. A significantly higher heat source is needed to match the observed thermalgradient in the southern line.

  13. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  14. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  15. Multiple component codes based generalized LDPC codes for high-speed optical transport.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Wang, Ting

    2014-07-14

    A class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes suitable for optical communications is proposed, which consists of multiple local codes. It is shown that Hamming, BCH, and Reed-Muller codes can be used as local codes, and that the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding of these local codes by Ashikhmin-Lytsin algorithm is feasible in terms of complexity and performance. We demonstrate that record coding gains can be obtained from properly designed GLDPC codes, derived from multiple component codes. We then show that several recently proposed classes of LDPC codes such as convolutional and spatially-coupled codes can be described using the concept of GLDPC coding, which indicates that the GLDPC coding can be used as a unified platform for advanced FEC enabling ultra-high speed optical transport. The proposed class of GLDPC codes is also suitable for code-rate adaption, to adjust the error correction strength depending on the optical channel conditions.

  16. The Impact of the DoD Mobile Code Policy on Advanced Distributed Learning, Web-Based Distance Learning and Other Educational Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-30

    agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were returned, and only one-third of the respondents indicated that they used...Documenting the frequency with which mobile code is used in web- enabled courseware programming Questionnaires were distributed to learning management system courseware...web-enabled courseware was sent to points of contact at 51 DoD Academic agencies and 13 Learning Management System vendors. Eighteen surveys were

  17. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  18. Recent Advances in the Modeling of the Transport of Two-Plasmon-Decay Electrons in the 1-D Hydrodynamic Code LILAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delettrez, J. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Yaakobi, B.

    2015-11-01

    The modeling of the fast-electron transport in the 1-D hydrodynamic code LILAC was modified because of the addition of cross-beam-energy-transfer (CBET) in implosion simulations. Using the old fast-electron with source model CBET results in a shift of the peak of the hard x-ray (HXR) production from the end of the laser pulse, as observed in experiments, to earlier in the pulse. This is caused by a drop in the laser intensity of the quarter-critical surface from CBET interaction at lower densities. Data from simulations with the laser plasma simulation environment (LPSE) code will be used to modify the source algorithm in LILAC. In addition, the transport model in LILAC has been modified to include deviations from the straight-line algorithm and non-specular reflection at the sheath to take into account the scattering from collisions and magnetic fields in the corona. Simulation results will be compared with HXR emissions from both room-temperature plastic and cryogenic target experiments. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  19. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  20. The general theory of convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Stanley, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a self-contained introduction to the algebraic theory of convolutional codes. This introduction is partly a tutorial, but at the same time contains a number of new results which will prove useful for designers of advanced telecommunication systems. Among the new concepts introduced here are the Hilbert series for a convolutional code and the class of compact codes.

  1. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  2. Development of Design Technology on Thermal-Hydraulic Performance in Tight-Lattice Rod Bundle: IV Large Paralleled Simulation by the Advanced Two-fluid Model Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Takeharu; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) has been developed. For thermal design of FLWR, it is necessary to develop analytical method to predict boiling transition of FLWR. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing three-dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D, which adopts boundary fitted coordinate system to simulate complex shape channel flow. In this paper, as a part of development of ACE-3D to apply to rod bundle analysis, introduction of parallelization to ACE-3D and assessments of ACE-3D are shown. In analysis of large-scale domain such as a rod bundle, even two-fluid model requires large number of computational cost, which exceeds upper limit of memory amount of 1 CPU. Therefore, parallelization was introduced to ACE-3D to divide data amount for analysis of large-scale domain among large number of CPUs, and it is confirmed that analysis of large-scale domain such as a rod bundle can be performed by parallel computation with keeping parallel computation performance even using large number of CPUs. ACE-3D adopts two-phase flow models, some of which are dependent upon channel geometry. Therefore, analyses in the domains, which simulate individual subchannel and 37 rod bundle, are performed, and compared with experiments. It is confirmed that the results obtained by both analyses using ACE-3D show agreement with past experimental result qualitatively.

  3. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  4. National Combustion Code: Parallel Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2001-01-01

    This report discusses the National Combustion Code (NCC). The NCC is an integrated system of codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The advanced features of the NCC meet designers' requirements for model accuracy and turn-around time. The fundamental features at the inception of the NCC were parallel processing and unstructured mesh. The design and performance of the NCC are discussed.

  5. Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) Code Verification and Validation Data Standards and Requirements: Fluid Dynamics Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Weirs; Hyung Lee

    2011-09-01

    V&V and UQ are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of M&S and, hence, to establish confidence in M&S. Though other industries are establishing standards and requirements for the performance of V&V and UQ, at present, the nuclear industry has not established such standards or requirements. However, the nuclear industry is beginning to recognize that such standards are needed and that the resources needed to support V&V and UQ will be very significant. In fact, no single organization has sufficient resources or expertise required to organize, conduct and maintain a comprehensive V&V and UQ program. What is needed is a systematic and standardized approach to establish and provide V&V and UQ resources at a national or even international level, with a consortium of partners from government, academia and industry. Specifically, what is needed is a structured and cost-effective knowledge base that collects, evaluates and stores verification and validation data, and shows how it can be used to perform V&V and UQ, leveraging collaboration and sharing of resources to support existing engineering and licensing procedures as well as science-based V&V and UQ processes. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS) is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory in conjunction with Bettis Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Argonne National Laboratory, Utah State University and others with the objective of establishing a comprehensive and web-accessible knowledge base to provide V&V and UQ resources for M&S for nuclear reactor design, analysis and licensing. The knowledge base will serve as an important resource for technical exchange and collaboration that will enable credible and reliable computational models and simulations for application to nuclear power. NE-KAMS will serve as a valuable resource for the nuclear industry, academia, the national laboratories, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and

  6. Two-layer and Adaptive Entropy Coding Algorithms for H.264-based Lossless Image Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) [7], and context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) [3], should be adaptively adopted for advancing...Sep. 2006. [7] H. Schwarz, D. Marpe and T. Wiegand, Context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding in the H.264/AVC video compression standard, IEEE

  7. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor

  8. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  9. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  10. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  11. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  12. De-coding and re-coding RNA recognition by PUF and PPR repeat proteins.

    PubMed

    Hall, Traci M Tanaka

    2016-02-01

    PUF and PPR proteins are two families of α-helical repeat proteins that recognize single-stranded RNA sequences. Both protein families hold promise as scaffolds for designed RNA-binding domains. A modular protein RNA recognition code was apparent from the first crystal structures of a PUF protein in complex with RNA, and recent studies continue to advance our understanding of natural PUF protein recognition (de-coding) and our ability to engineer specificity (re-coding). Degenerate recognition motifs make de-coding specificity of individual PPR proteins challenging. Nevertheless, re-coding PPR protein specificity using a consensus recognition code has been successful.

  13. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  14. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  15. Coding for effective denial management.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  16. NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

  17. Neural Codes: Firing Rates and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Wulfram; Kreiter, Andreas K.; Markram, Henry; Herz, Andreas V. M.

    1997-11-01

    Computational neuroscience has contributed significantly to our understanding of higher brain function by combining experimental neurobiology, psychophysics, modeling, and mathematical analysis. This article reviews recent advances in a key area: neural coding and information processing. It is shown that synapses are capable of supporting computations based on highly structured temporal codes. Such codes could provide a substrate for unambiguous representations of complex stimuli and be used to solve difficult cognitive tasks, such as the binding problem. Unsupervised learning rules could generate the circuitry required for precise temporal codes. Together, these results indicate that neural systems perform a rich repertoire of computations based on action potential timing.

  18. Diagnostic Coding for Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Korwyn; Nuwer, Marc R; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to Continuum is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue.

  19. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  20. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints.

  1. Simulator platform for fast reactor operation and safety technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R. B.; Park, Y. S.; Grandy, C.; Belch, H.; Dworzanski, P.; Misterka, J.

    2012-07-30

    A simulator platform for visualization and demonstration of innovative concepts in fast reactor technology is described. The objective is to make more accessible the workings of fast reactor technology innovations and to do so in a human factors environment that uses state-of-the art visualization technologies. In this work the computer codes in use at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the design of fast reactor systems are being integrated to run on this platform. This includes linking reactor systems codes with mechanical structures codes and using advanced graphics to depict the thermo-hydraulic-structure interactions that give rise to an inherently safe response to upsets. It also includes visualization of mechanical systems operation including advanced concepts that make use of robotics for operations, in-service inspection, and maintenance.

  2. Influence of wire-coil inserts on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a flat-plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero Martín, R.; García, A.; Pérez-García, J.

    2012-11-01

    Enhancement techniques can be applied to flat-plate liquid solar collectors towards more compact and efficient designs. For the typical operating mass flow rates in flat-plate solar collectors, the most suitable technique is inserted devices. Based on previous studies from the authors, wire coils were selected for enhancing heat transfer. This type of inserted device provides better results in laminar, transitional and low turbulence fluid flow regimes. To test the enhanced solar collector and compare with a standard one, an experimental side-by-side solar collector test bed was designed and constructed. The testing set up was fully designed following the requirements of EN12975-2 and allow us to accomplish performance tests under the same operating conditions (mass flow rate, inlet fluid temperature and weather conditions). This work presents the thermal efficiency curves of a commercial and an enhanced solar collector, for the standardized mass flow rate per unit of absorber area of 0.02 kg/sm2 (in useful engineering units 144 kg/h for water as working fluid and 2 m2 flat-plate solar collector of absorber area). The enhanced collector was modified inserting spiral wire coils of dimensionless pitch p/D = 1 and wire-diameter e/D = 0.0717. The friction factor per tube has been computed from the overall pressure drop tests across the solar collectors. The thermal efficiency curves of both solar collectors, a standard and an enhanced collector, are presented. The enhanced solar collector increases the thermal efficiency by 15%. To account for the overall enhancement a modified performance evaluation criterion (R3m) is proposed. The maximum value encountered reaches 1.105 which represents an increase in useful power of 10.5% for the same pumping power consumption.

  3. The Control of the PBMR Nuclear Power Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Olis; Venter, Miek; Jordaan, Johannes

    2006-07-01

    PBMR is an advanced, helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Heat is converted to electric energy by means of a direct recuperative Brayton cycle. This paper considers various design aspects associated with the control of the unit and examples are given of generator load control. Physical material restrictions and process dynamics have a major effect on control, necessitating detail thermo-hydraulic simulation of the plant operation. The Flownex dynamic thermo-hydraulic simulation code was developed to model the plant, which is linked to the control software for co-simulation. Matlab and Simulink are used for controller development while care was taken to ensure compatibility with the operational control code based on IEC standards. Generator load is controlled by regulating the helium inventory in the pressurized system. Helium is injected in order to increase the generator load, and extracted for load reduction. While this method of actuation produces the required steady state response, the plant dynamic response is non minimum phase, i.e. the load initially reduces on a load ramp-up. In base load operation, the extent of the power dip is contained by limiting the rate at which the helium injection can be increased. Feasibility studies show that it is possible to achieve faster load ramp rates by combining helium injection with quick response cycle gas bypass control. Lead compensation on the input load reference signal further enhances the load following capabilities of the unit. (authors)

  4. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  5. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  6. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  7. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  8. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  9. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  10. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  11. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  12. Efficient entropy coding for scalable video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woong Il; Yang, Jungyoup; Jeon, Byeungwoo

    2005-10-01

    The standardization for the scalable extension of H.264 has called for additional functionality based on H.264 standard to support the combined spatio-temporal and SNR scalability. For the entropy coding of H.264 scalable extension, Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) scheme is considered so far. In this paper, we present a new context modeling scheme by using inter layer correlation between the syntax elements. As a result, it improves coding efficiency of entropy coding in H.264 scalable extension. In simulation results of applying the proposed scheme to encoding the syntax element mb_type, it is shown that improvement in coding efficiency of the proposed method is up to 16% in terms of bit saving due to estimation of more adequate probability model.

  13. Utility of QR codes in biological collections.

    PubMed

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Funk, Vicki A

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers' electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections.

  14. Utility of QR codes in biological collections

    PubMed Central

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Funk, Vicki A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The popularity of QR codes for encoding information such as URIs has increased exponentially in step with the technological advances and availability of smartphones, digital tablets, and other electronic devices. We propose using QR codes on specimens in biological collections to facilitate linking vouchers’ electronic information with their associated collections. QR codes can efficiently provide such links for connecting collections, photographs, maps, ecosystem notes, citations, and even GenBank sequences. QR codes have numerous advantages over barcodes, including their small size, superior security mechanisms, increased complexity and quantity of information, and low implementation cost. The scope of this paper is to initiate an academic discussion about using QR codes on specimens in biological collections. PMID:24198709

  15. Liquid rocket combustor computer code development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Rocket Injector/Combustor Code (ARICC) that has been developed to model the complete chemical/fluid/thermal processes occurring inside rocket combustion chambers are highlighted. The code, derived from the CONCHAS-SPRAY code originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory incorporates powerful features such as the ability to model complex injector combustion chamber geometries, Lagrangian tracking of droplets, full chemical equilibrium and kinetic reactions for multiple species, a fractional volume of fluid (VOF) description of liquid jet injection in addition to the gaseous phase fluid dynamics, and turbulent mass, energy, and momentum transport. Atomization and droplet dynamic models from earlier generation codes are transplated into the present code. Currently, ARICC is specialized for liquid oxygen/hydrogen propellants, although other fuel/oxidizer pairs can be easily substituted.

  16. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  17. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  18. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  19. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  20. DIANE multiparticle transport code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

    2014-06-01

    DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

  1. EMF wire code research

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.

    1993-11-01

    This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

  2. Universal Noiseless Coding Subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlutsmeyer, A. P.; Rice, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Software package consists of FORTRAN subroutines that perform universal noiseless coding and decoding of integer and binary data strings. Purpose of this type of coding to achieve data compression in sense that coded data represents original data perfectly (noiselessly) while taking fewer bits to do so. Routines universal because they apply to virtually any "real-world" data source.

  3. Mapping Local Codes to Read Codes.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Wilfred; Galloway, James; Hall, Christopher; Ghattas, Mikhail; Tramma, Leandro; Nind, Thomas; Donnelly, Louise; Jefferson, Emily; Doney, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Legacy laboratory test codes make it difficult to use clinical datasets for meaningful translational research, where populations are followed for disease risk and outcomes over many years. The Health Informatics Centre (HIC) at the University of Dundee hosts continuous biochemistry data from the clinical laboratories in Tayside and Fife dating back as far as 1987. However, the HIC-managed biochemistry dataset is coupled with incoherent sample types and unstandardised legacy local test codes, which increases the complexity of using the dataset for reasonable population health outcomes. The objective of this study was to map the legacy local test codes to the Scottish 5-byte Version 2 Read Codes using biochemistry data extracted from the repository of the Scottish Care Information (SCI) Store.

  4. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  5. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  6. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  7. Defeating the coding monsters.

    PubMed

    Colt, Ross

    2007-02-01

    Accuracy in coding is rapidly becoming a required skill for military health care providers. Clinic staffing, equipment purchase decisions, and even reimbursement will soon be based on the coding data that we provide. Learning the complicated myriad of rules to code accurately can seem overwhelming. However, the majority of clinic visits in a typical outpatient clinic generally fall into two major evaluation and management codes, 99213 and 99214. If health care providers can learn the rules required to code a 99214 visit, then this will provide a 90% solution that can enable them to accurately code the majority of their clinic visits. This article demonstrates a step-by-step method to code a 99214 visit, by viewing each of the three requirements as a monster to be defeated.

  8. Code of Ethics for Health Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Health Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Health Education's code of ethics for health educators provides a common set of values to guide health educators in resolving ethical dilemmas, focusing on responsibility to the public, to the profession, and to employers in delivering health education and in research and evaluation. (SM)

  9. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brief explores how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  10. Nurses' and doctors' perspectives on slow codes.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jacinta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain nurses' and doctors' perspectives on the practice of slow codes, which are cardiopulmonary resuscitative efforts that are intentionally performed too slowly for resuscitation to occur. A Heideggerian phenomenological study was conducted in 2005, during which data were gathered in the Republic of Ireland from three nurses and two doctors (via unstructured interviews) and analysed using Colaizzi's reductive procedure. Slow codes do occur in Ireland and are intended as beneficent acts. However, slow codes were identified as pointless and undignified when intrusive measures were employed. There is a need for discussion on the topic of slow codes in Ireland, and for aids to cardiopulmonary resuscitation decision making to be developed, such as advance directives, communication training, clinical guidelines and an explanatory leaflet for patients and families.

  11. Modulation and coding for satellite and space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, Joseph H.; Simon, Marvin K.; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush; Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Ryan, Carl R.

    1990-01-01

    Several modulation and coding advances supported by NASA are summarized. To support long-constraint-length convolutional code, a VLSI maximum-likelihood decoder, utilizing parallel processing techniques, which is being developed to decode convolutional codes of constraint length 15 and a code rate as low as 1/6 is discussed. A VLSI high-speed 8-b Reed-Solomon decoder which is being developed for advanced tracking and data relay satellite (ATDRS) applications is discussed. A 300-Mb/s modem with continuous phase modulation (CPM) and codings which is being developed for ATDRS is discussed. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) techniques are discussed for satellite-based mobile communication applications.

  12. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  13. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  14. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  15. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  16. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  17. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  18. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  19. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  20. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  1. Future trends in image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Ali

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a discussion on the future of image data compression in the next two decades. It is virtually impossible to predict with any degree of certainty the breakthroughs in theory and developments, the milestones in advancement of technology and the success of the upcoming commercial products in the market place which will be the main factors in establishing the future stage to image coding. What we propose to do, instead, is look back at the progress in image coding during the last two decades and assess the state of the art in image coding today. Then, by observing the trends in developments of theory, software, and hardware coupled with the future needs for use and dissemination of imagery data and the constraints on the bandwidth and capacity of various networks, predict the future state of image coding. What seems to be certain today is the growing need for bandwidth compression. The television is using a technology which is half a century old and is ready to be replaced by high definition television with an extremely high digital bandwidth. Smart telephones coupled with personal computers and TV monitors accommodating both printed and video data will be common in homes and businesses within the next decade. Efficient and compact digital processing modules using developing technologies will make bandwidth compressed imagery the cheap and preferred alternative in satellite and on-board applications. In view of the above needs, we expect increased activities in development of theory, software, special purpose chips and hardware for image bandwidth compression in the next two decades. The following sections summarize the future trends in these areas.

  2. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  3. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Pengyu; Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions.

  4. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  5. What Advances Are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... DNA building blocks (nucleotides) in an individual's genetic code, called DNA sequencing, has advanced the study of ... breakthrough that helped scientists determine the human genetic code, but it is time-consuming and expensive. The ...

  6. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  7. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  8. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  9. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  10. Coding Acoustic Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Xie, Boyang; Tang, Kun; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Zhengyou; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Coding acoustic metasurfaces can combine simple logical bits to acquire sophisticated functions in wave control. The acoustic logical bits can achieve a phase difference of exactly π and a perfect match of the amplitudes for the transmitted waves. By programming the coding sequences, acoustic metasurfaces with various functions, including creating peculiar antenna patterns and waves focusing, have been demonstrated.

  11. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  12. Evolving genetic code

    PubMed Central

    OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

    2008-01-01

    In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

  13. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  14. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  15. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  16. Embedded foveation image coding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Bovik, A C

    2001-01-01

    The human visual system (HVS) is highly space-variant in sampling, coding, processing, and understanding. The spatial resolution of the HVS is highest around the point of fixation (foveation point) and decreases rapidly with increasing eccentricity. By taking advantage of this fact, it is possible to remove considerable high-frequency information redundancy from the peripheral regions and still reconstruct a perceptually good quality image. Great success has been obtained previously by a class of embedded wavelet image coding algorithms, such as the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) and the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithms. Embedded wavelet coding not only provides very good compression performance, but also has the property that the bitstream can be truncated at any point and still be decoded to recreate a reasonably good quality image. In this paper, we propose an embedded foveation image coding (EFIC) algorithm, which orders the encoded bitstream to optimize foveated visual quality at arbitrary bit-rates. A foveation-based image quality metric, namely, foveated wavelet image quality index (FWQI), plays an important role in the EFIC system. We also developed a modified SPIHT algorithm to improve the coding efficiency. Experiments show that EFIC integrates foveation filtering with foveated image coding and demonstrates very good coding performance and scalability in terms of foveated image quality measurement.

  17. Advanced flight software reconfiguraton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcher, Bryan

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on advanced flight software reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is defined as identifying mission and configuration specific requirements, controlling mission and configuration specific data, binding this information to the flight software code to perform specific missions, and the release and distribution of the flight software. The objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and validate advanced software reconfiguration tools and techniques; to demonstrate reconfiguration approaches on Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard systems displays; and to interactively test onboard systems displays, flight software, and flight data.

  18. Advanced Imaging Tracker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    document requires that it 1e returncd: ADVANCED IMACINGC TRACKER Dr . L. E. Schmutz Contractor: Adaptive Optics Associates, Inc. Contt-ict Number: F30602-80...Code Number: IE20 Period of Worl: Covered: jun 80 - D’:c 81 Principal Investigator: Dr . Larry Schmut~z Phone: 617 547-2786 Project Engineer: Captaia...yaJPODCVR~ ADVANCED IMAGING TRACKER 10Jun 80 - ’,’ Dec 81 𔄃 PiRFORMiNO7 01G. REPORT NUMBER 7 ATII~(. ONTPA OR GRANTY NUMDERf.) Dr . 1L. E. Schiiut

  19. Code validation study for base flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-07-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  20. Code Validation Study for Base Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-01-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  1. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  2. Code Disentanglement: Initial Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlbier, John Greaton; Kelley, Timothy M.; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Calef, Matthew Thomas

    2015-01-27

    The first step to making more ambitious changes in the EAP code base is to disentangle the code into a set of independent, levelized packages. We define a package as a collection of code, most often across a set of files, that provides a defined set of functionality; a package a) can be built and tested as an entity and b) fits within an overall levelization design. Each package contributes one or more libraries, or an application that uses the other libraries. A package set is levelized if the relationships between packages form a directed, acyclic graph and each package uses only packages at lower levels of the diagram (in Fortran this relationship is often describable by the use relationship between modules). Independent packages permit independent- and therefore parallel|development. The packages form separable units for the purposes of development and testing. This is a proven path for enabling finer-grained changes to a complex code.

  3. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, L.; Singer, M.

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  4. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  5. The Clawpack Community of Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandli, K. T.; LeVeque, R. J.; Ketcheson, D.; Ahmadia, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Clawpack, the Conservation Laws Package, has long been one of the standards for solving hyperbolic conservation laws but over the years has extended well beyond this role. Today a community of open-source codes have been developed that address a multitude of different needs including non-conservative balance laws, high-order accurate methods, and parallelism while remaining extensible and easy to use, largely by the judicious use of Python and the original Fortran codes that it wraps. This talk will present some of the recent developments in projects under the Clawpack umbrella, notably the GeoClaw and PyClaw projects. GeoClaw was originally developed as a tool for simulating tsunamis using adaptive mesh refinement but has since encompassed a large number of other geophysically relevant flows including storm surge and debris-flows. PyClaw originated as a Python version of the original Clawpack algorithms but has since been both a testing ground for new algorithmic advances in the Clawpack framework but also an easily extensible framework for solving hyperbolic balance laws. Some of these extensions include the addition of WENO high-order methods, massively parallel capabilities, and adaptive mesh refinement technologies, made possible largely by the flexibility of the Python language and community libraries such as NumPy and PETSc. Because of the tight integration with Python tecnologies, both packages have benefited also from the focus on reproducibility in the Python community, notably IPython notebooks.

  6. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  7. Criticality Code Validation Exercises with TSUNAMI

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T

    2007-01-01

    In the criticality code validation of common systems, many paths may exist to a correct bias, bias uncertainty, and upper subcritical limit. The challenge for the criticality analyst is to select an efficient, defensible, and safe methodology to consistently obtain the correct values. One method of testing criticality code validation techniques is to use a sample system with a known bias as a test application and determine whether the methods employed can reproduce the known bias. In this paper, a low-enriched uranium (LEU) lattice critical experiment with a known bias is used as the test application, and numerous other LEU experiments are used as the benchmarks for the criticality code validation exercises using traditional and advanced parametric techniques. The parameters explored are enrichment, energy of average lethargy causing fission (EALF), and the TSUNAMI integral index ck with experiments with varying degrees of similarity. This paper is an extension of a previously published summary.

  8. KSTAR Equilibrium Reconstruction with EFIT Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kwang-Il; Lee, D. K.; Hahn, S. H.; Lao, L. L.

    2007-11-01

    For application to the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device, we have made some modification to the EFIT code and installed it on our computing system. The main function of EFIT is reconstruction of plasma equilibrium using discharge data. After every discharge, the code will be automatically run for a chosen time array and the results will be stored in the same way as experimental data will be. An MDSplus system will be used as the data storage for KSTAR; therefore, the EFIT reads experimental data from the MDSplus server and writes the results to it. We have added some subroutines to EFIT for direct link with the MDSplus server and also converted EFIT to Fortran 95 form. Test runs of the code will be made by using plasma simulator in the KSTAR plasma control system. This paper will also present some results of equilibrium data obtained with the equilibrium mode of EFIT.

  9. Equilibrium reconstruction using EFIT code for KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Kwang-Il; Lee, D. K.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hahn, S. H.; Lao, L. L.

    2006-10-01

    For application to the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device, we have made some modification to the EFIT code and installed it on our computing system. The main function of EFIT is reconstruction of plasma equilibrium using discharge data. After every discharge, the code will be run for a chosen time array and the results will be stored in the same way as experimental data will be. An MDSplus system will be used as the data storage for KSTAR; therefore, the EFIT reads experimental data from the MDSplus server and writes the results to it. We have added some subroutines to EFIT for direct link with the MDSplus server and also converted it to Fortran 95 form. Test runs of the code will be made by using the KSTAR plasma control system. This paper will also present results of equilibrium data obtained with the equilibrium mode of EFIT.

  10. International Code Assessment and Applications Program: Summary of code assessment studies concerning RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.R.

    1993-12-01

    Members of the International Code Assessment Program (ICAP) have assessed the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) advanced thermal-hydraulic codes over the past few years in a concerted effort to identify deficiencies, to define user guidelines, and to determine the state of each code. The results of sixty-two code assessment reviews, conducted at INEL, are summarized. Code deficiencies are discussed and user recommended nodalizations investigated during the course of conducting the assessment studies and reviews are listed. All the work that is summarized was done using the RELAP5/MOD2, RELAP5/MOD3, and TRAC-B codes.

  11. Advances in transmission x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in x-ray optics are reviewed. Specific advances in coded aperture imaging, zone plate lens fabrication, time and space resolved spectroscopy, and CCD x-ray detection are discussed.

  12. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  13. Efforts and Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; Yu, Allen Chi Shing; Chan, Ting Fung

    2017-01-01

    This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick’s seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the “frozen accident” hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome. Currently, successful genetic code engineering is mainly achieved by creating orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA/synthetase pairs to repurpose stop and rare codons or to induce quadruplet codons. In this review, we summarize the current progress in genetic code engineering and discuss the challenges, current understanding, and future perspectives regarding genetic code modification. PMID:28335420

  14. Neural Elements for Predictive Coding

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Predictive coding theories of sensory brain function interpret the hierarchical construction of the cerebral cortex as a Bayesian, generative model capable of predicting the sensory data consistent with any given percept. Predictions are fed backward in the hierarchy and reciprocated by prediction error in the forward direction, acting to modify the representation of the outside world at increasing levels of abstraction, and so to optimize the nature of perception over a series of iterations. This accounts for many ‘illusory’ instances of perception where what is seen (heard, etc.) is unduly influenced by what is expected, based on past experience. This simple conception, the hierarchical exchange of prediction and prediction error, confronts a rich cortical microcircuitry that is yet to be fully documented. This article presents the view that, in the current state of theory and practice, it is profitable to begin a two-way exchange: that predictive coding theory can support an understanding of cortical microcircuit function, and prompt particular aspects of future investigation, whilst existing knowledge of microcircuitry can, in return, influence theoretical development. As an example, a neural inference arising from the earliest formulations of predictive coding is that the source populations of forward and backward pathways should be completely separate, given their functional distinction; this aspect of circuitry – that neurons with extrinsically bifurcating axons do not project in both directions – has only recently been confirmed. Here, the computational architecture prescribed by a generalized (free-energy) formulation of predictive coding is combined with the classic ‘canonical microcircuit’ and the laminar architecture of hierarchical extrinsic connectivity to produce a template schematic, that is further examined in the light of (a) updates in the microcircuitry of primate visual cortex, and (b) rapid technical advances made possible by

  15. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  16. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  17. Coded source neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  18. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  19. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  20. Autocatalysis, information and coding.

    PubMed

    Wills, P R

    2001-01-01

    Autocatalytic self-construction in macromolecular systems requires the existence of a reflexive relationship between structural components and the functional operations they perform to synthesise themselves. The possibility of reflexivity depends on formal, semiotic features of the catalytic structure-function relationship, that is, the embedding of catalytic functions in the space of polymeric structures. Reflexivity is a semiotic property of some genetic sequences. Such sequences may serve as the basis for the evolution of coding as a result of autocatalytic self-organisation in a population of assignment catalysts. Autocatalytic selection is a mechanism whereby matter becomes differentiated in primitive biochemical systems. In the case of coding self-organisation, it corresponds to the creation of symbolic information. Prions are present-day entities whose replication through autocatalysis reflects aspects of biological semiotics less obvious than genetic coding.

  1. Recent Developments in the Community Code ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heister, T.; Bangerth, W.; Dannberg, J.; Gassmoeller, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Computational Geosciences have long used community codes to provide simulation capabilities to large numbers of users. We here report on the mantle convection code ASPECT (the Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth ConvecTion) that is developed to be a community tool with a focus on bringing modern numerical methods such as adaptive meshes, large parallel computations, algebraic multigrid solvers, and modern software design. We will comment in particular on two aspects: First, the more recent additions to its numerical capabilities, such as compressible models, averaging of material parameters, melt transport, free surfaces, and plasticity. We will demonstrate these capabilities using examples from computations by members of the ASPECT user community. Second, we will discuss lessons learned in writing a code specifically for community use. This includes our experience with a software design that is fundamentally based on a plugin system for practically all areas that a user may want to describe for the particular geophysical setup they want to simulate. It also includes our experience with leading and organizing a community of users and developers, for example by organizing annual "hackathons", by encouraging code submission via github over keeping modifications private, and by designing a code for which extensions can easily be written as separate plugins rather than requiring knowledge of the computational core.

  2. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  3. Polar Code Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    Unclassified 2a SECURITY CLASSiF-ICATiON AUTHORIT’Y 3 DIStRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REPORT N,A Approved for public release; 2o DECLASSIFICAIiON DOWNGRADING SCH DI...SUMMARY OF POLAR ACHIEVEMENTS ..... .......... 3 3 . POLAR CODE PHYSICAL MODELS ..... ............. 5 3.1 PL-ASMA Su ^"ru5 I1LS SH A...11 Structure of the Bipolar Plasma Sheath Generated by SPEAR I ... ...... 1 3 The POLAR Code Wake Model: Comparison with in Situ Observations . . 23

  4. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  5. TOUGH+ v1.5 Core Code

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, George J.

    2015-08-27

    TOUGH+ v1.5 is a numerical code for the simulation of multi-phase, multi-component flow and transport of mass and heat through porous and fractured media, and represents the third update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. TOUGH+ is a successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991; 2012] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstations, PC, Macintosh). TOUGH+ v1.5 employs dynamic memory allocation, thus minimizing storage requirements. It has a completely modular structure, follows the tenets of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), and involves the advanced features of FORTRAN 95/2003, i.e., modules, derived data types, the use of pointers, lists and trees, data encapsulation, defined operators and assignments, operator extension and overloading, use of generic procedures, and maximum use of the powerful intrinsic vector and matrix processing operations. TOUGH+ v1.5 is the core code for its family of applications, i.e., the part of the code that is common to all its applications. It provides a description of the underlying physics and thermodynamics of non-isothermal flow, of the mathematical and numerical approaches, as well as a detailed explanation of the general (common to all applications) input requirements, options, capabilities and output specifications. The core code cannot run by itself: it needs to be coupled with the code for the specific TOUGH+ application option that describes a particular type of problem. The additional input requirements specific to a particular TOUGH+ application options and related illustrative examples can be found in the corresponding User’s Manual.

  6. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  7. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  8. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  9. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  10. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  11. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  12. Video Coding for ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    Coding tasks, a valuable technique for teaching English as a Second Language, are presented that enable students to look at patterns and structures of marital communication as well as objectively evaluate the degree of happiness or distress in the marriage. (seven references) (JL)

  13. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, Steven D.; Waters, Arlon J.; Shirley, David

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  14. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  15. More On The Decoder-Error Probability Of Reed-Solomon Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming

    1989-01-01

    Paper extends theory of decoder-error probability for linear maximum-distance separable (MDS) codes. General class of error-correcting codes includes Reed-Solomon codes, important in communications with distant spacecraft, military communications, and compact-disk recording industry. Advancing beyond previous theoretical developments that placed upper bounds on decoder-error probabilities, author derives an exact formula for probability PE(u) that decoder will make error when u code symbols in error.

  16. Coding Theory and Projective Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberstein, Natalia

    2008-05-01

    The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

  17. Advanced propeller noise prediction in the time domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Spence, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    The time domain code ASSPIN gives acousticians a powerful technique of advanced propeller noise prediction. Except for nonlinear effects, the code uses exact solutions of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation with exact blade geometry and kinematics. By including nonaxial inflow, periodic loading noise, and adaptive time steps to accelerate computer execution, the development of this code becomes complete.

  18. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain...nodes. Stuxnet served as a proof-of-concept for cyber weapons and provided a comparative laboratory to study the reality of cyber warfare from the...military powers most often associated with advanced, offensive cyber attack capabilities. The reality of cyber warfare holds significant operational

  19. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  20. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  1. Sinusoidal transform coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

  2. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semianalytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection, designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) delineation. A complete news item appeared in Eos, May 1, 1990, p. 690.The model consists of four independent, semianalytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  3. WHPA Code available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semi-analytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection. It is designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of WHPA delineation.The model consists of four independent, semi-analytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.

  4. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  5. HYCOM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-10

    HYCOM code development Alan J. Wallcraft Naval Research Laboratory 2003 Layered Ocean Model Users’ Workshop February 10, 2003 Report Documentation...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Layered Ocean Modeling Workshop (LOM 2003), Miami, FL, Feb 2003 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Kraus-Turner mixed-layer Æ Energy-Loan (passive) ice model Æ High frequency atmospheric forcing Æ New I/O scheme (.a and .b files) Æ Scalability via

  6. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  7. Trajectory Code Studies, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The trajectory code TRAJ has been used extensively to study nonimmersed foilless electron diodes. The basic goal of the research is to design low-emittance injectors for electron linacs and propagation experiments. Systems studied during 1987 include Delphi, Recirc, and Troll. We also discuss a partly successful attempt to extend the same techniques to high currents (tens of kA). 7 refs., 30 figs.

  8. The PHARO Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-24

    n.cet..ary ad Identfy by block nutrb.) Visible radiation Sensors Infrared radiation Line and band transitions Isophots High altitude nuclear data...radiation (watts sr) in arbitrary wavelength intervals is determined. The results are a series of " isophot " plots for rbitrariiy placed cameras or sensors...Section II. The output of the PHARO code consists of contour plots of radiative intensity (watts/cm ster) or " isophot " plots for arbitrarily placed sensors

  9. The Phantom SPH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Nixon, Chris

    2016-05-01

    I will present the capabilities of the Phantom SPH code for global simulations of dust and gas in protoplanetary discs. I will present our new algorithms for simulating both small and large grains in discs, as well as our progress towards simulating evolving grain populations and coupling with radiation. Finally, I will discuss our recent applications to HL Tau and the physics of dust gap opening.

  10. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  11. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic.

  12. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  13. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  14. ORMEC: a three-dimensional MHD spectral inverse equilibrium code

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshman, S.P.; Hogan, J.T.

    1986-02-01

    The Oak Ridge Moments Equilibrium Code (ORMEC) is an efficient computer code that has been developed to calculate three-dimensional MHD equilibria using the inverse spectral method. The fixed boundary formulation, which is based on a variational principle for the spectral coefficients (moments) of the cylindrical coordinates R and Z, is described and compared with the finite difference code BETA developed by Bauer, Betancourt, and Garabedian. Calculations for the Heliotron, Wendelstein VIIA, and Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) configurations are performed to establish the accuracy and mesh convergence properties for the spectral method. 16 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  17. Improved Algorithms Speed It Up for Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    Huge computers, huge codes, complex problems to solve. The longer it takes to run a code, the more it costs. One way to speed things up and save time and money is through hardware improvements--faster processors, different system designs, bigger computers. But another side of supercomputing can reap savings in time and speed: software improvements to make codes--particularly the mathematical algorithms that form them--run faster and more efficiently. Speed up math? Is that really possible? According to Livermore physicist Eugene Brooks, the answer is a resounding yes. ''Sure, you get great speed-ups by improving hardware,'' says Brooks, the deputy leader for Computational Physics in N Division, which is part of Livermore's Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate. ''But the real bonus comes on the software side, where improvements in software can lead to orders of magnitude improvement in run times.'' Brooks knows whereof he speaks. Working with Laboratory physicist Abraham Szoeke and others, he has been instrumental in devising ways to shrink the running time of what has, historically, been a tough computational nut to crack: radiation transport codes based on the statistical or Monte Carlo method of calculation. And Brooks is not the only one. Others around the Laboratory, including physicists Andrew Williamson, Randolph Hood, and Jeff Grossman, have come up with innovative ways to speed up Monte Carlo calculations using pure mathematics.

  18. Using the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Teuben, P. J.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J. D.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; Wallin, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL) is a free on-line registry of source codes that are of interest to astrophysicists; with over 500 codes, it is the largest collection of scientist-written astrophysics programs in existence. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are available either via a download site or from an identified source. An advisory committee formed in 2011 provides input and guides the development and expansion of the ASCL, and since January 2012, all accepted ASCL entries are indexed by ADS. Though software is increasingly important for the advancement of science in astrophysics, these methods are still often hidden from view or difficult to find. The ASCL (ascl.net/) seeks to improve the transparency and reproducibility of research by making these vital methods discoverable, and to provide recognition and incentive to those who write and release programs useful for astrophysics research. This poster provides a description of the ASCL, an update on recent additions, and the changes in the astrophysics community we are starting to see because of the ASCL.

  19. Rate-distortion optimized adaptive transform coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung-Chang; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Jeong, Seyoon; Choi, Jin Soo; Choi, Haechul; Lee, Yung-Lyul

    2009-08-01

    We propose a rate-distortion optimized transform coding method that adaptively employs either integer cosine transform that is an integer-approximated version of discrete cosine transform (DCT) or integer sine transform (IST) in a rate-distortion sense. The DCT that has been adopted in most video-coding standards is known as a suboptimal substitute for the Karhunen-Loève transform. However, according to the correlation of a signal, an alternative transform can achieve higher coding efficiency. We introduce a discrete sine transform (DST) that achieves the high-energy compactness in a correlation coefficient range of -0.5 to 0.5 and is applied to the current design of H.264/AVC (advanced video coding). Moreover, to avoid the encoder and decoder mismatch and make the implementation simple, an IST that is an integer-approximated version of the DST is developed. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a Bjøntegaard Delta-RATE gain up to 5.49% compared to Joint model 11.0.

  20. Construction of new quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Divya; Gupta, Manish; Narula, Rajesh; Bhullar, Jaskaran

    Obtaining quantum maximum distance separable (MDS) codes from dual containing classical constacyclic codes using Hermitian construction have paved a path to undertake the challenges related to such constructions. Using the same technique, some new parameters of quantum MDS codes have been constructed here. One set of parameters obtained in this paper has achieved much larger distance than work done earlier. The remaining constructed parameters of quantum MDS codes have large minimum distance and were not explored yet.

  1. Improving incidence of code status documentation through process and discipline.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Marcus A; Taniguchi, Cynthia B; Hoverman, J Russell

    2015-03-01

    Documentation of a patient's preferred code status is a critical outcome of advance care planning. Although there is agreement that code status is valuable information, little progress has been made to increase the incidence of documented code status within the medical record in an outpatient setting. Incidence of code status documentation in the community oncology setting has not been studied. In April 2013, the US Oncology Network and McKesson Specialty Health launched a new advance care planning initiative for the purpose of promoting conversations between clinicians and patients regarding end-of-life care preferences. The program-My Choices, My Wishes-provides a systematic approach for learning about and documenting a patient's values and goals for care in the electronic health record. Code status documentation is one of several program performance measures. During the 14-month period from August 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, collective sites participating in My Choices, My Wishes included discrete code status documentation within the medical record for 5,467 patients with metastatic disease. Although much work remains, early results show promise for improvement in incidence of code status documentation within health records in the outpatient setting.

  2. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  3. SIRUS spectral signature analysis code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Gary J.; Caola, Mike J.; Geatches, Rachel M.; Roberts, Nick C.

    2003-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Centre (ATC) is responsible for developing IR signature prediction capabilities for its parent body, BAE SYSTEMS. To achieve this, the SIRUS code has been developed and used on a variety of projects for well over a decade. SIRUS is capable of providing accurate IR predictions for air breathing and rocket motor propelled vehicles. SIRUS models various physical components to derive its predictions. A key component is the radiance reflected from the surface of the modeled vehicle. This is modeled by fitting parameters to the measured Bi-Directional Reflectance Function (BDRF) of the surface material(s). The ATC have successfully implemented a parameterization scheme based on the published OPTASM model, and this is described. However, inconsistencies between reflectance measurements and values calculated from the parameterized fit have led to an elliptical parameter enhancement. The implementation of this is also described. Finally, an end-to-end measurement-parameterization capability is described, based on measurements taken with SOC600 instrumentation.

  4. Combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir; Morrison, Katherine; Roth, Zachary; Walker, Judy L

    2013-07-01

    Shannon's seminal 1948 work gave rise to two distinct areas of research: information theory and mathematical coding theory. While information theory has had a strong influence on theoretical neuroscience, ideas from mathematical coding theory have received considerably less attention. Here we take a new look at combinatorial neural codes from a mathematical coding theory perspective, examining the error correction capabilities of familiar receptive field codes (RF codes). We find, perhaps surprisingly, that the high levels of redundancy present in these codes do not support accurate error correction, although the error-correcting performance of receptive field codes catches up to that of random comparison codes when a small tolerance to error is introduced. However, receptive field codes are good at reflecting distances between represented stimuli, while the random comparison codes are not. We suggest that a compromise in error-correcting capability may be a necessary price to pay for a neural code whose structure serves not only error correction, but must also reflect relationships between stimuli.

  5. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  6. A class of constacyclic BCH codes and new quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    liu, Yang; Li, Ruihu; Lv, Liangdong; Ma, Yuena

    2017-03-01

    Constacyclic BCH codes have been widely studied in the literature and have been used to construct quantum codes in latest years. However, for the class of quantum codes of length n=q^{2m}+1 over F_{q^2} with q an odd prime power, there are only the ones of distance δ ≤ 2q^2 are obtained in the literature. In this paper, by a detailed analysis of properties of q2-ary cyclotomic cosets, maximum designed distance δ _{max} of a class of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic BCH codes with length n=q^{2m}+1 are determined, this class of constacyclic codes has some characteristic analog to that of primitive BCH codes over F_{q^2}. Then we can obtain a sequence of dual-containing constacyclic codes of designed distances 2q^2<δ ≤ δ _{max}. Consequently, new quantum codes with distance d > 2q^2 can be constructed from these dual-containing codes via Hermitian Construction. These newly obtained quantum codes have better code rate compared with those constructed from primitive BCH codes.

  7. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  8. Summary of 1990 Code Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

    1990-01-01

    The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Genetic code flexibility in microorganisms: novel mechanisms and impact on physiology.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiqiang; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    The genetic code, initially thought to be universal and immutable, is now known to contain many variations, including biased codon usage, codon reassignment, ambiguous decoding and recoding. As a result of recent advances in the areas of genome sequencing, biochemistry, bioinformatics and structural biology, our understanding of genetic code flexibility has advanced substantially in the past decade. In this Review, we highlight the prevalence, evolution and mechanistic basis of genetic code variations in microorganisms, and we discuss how this flexibility of the genetic code affects microbial physiology.

  10. Genetic code flexibility in microorganisms: novel mechanisms and impact on physiology

    PubMed Central

    Söll, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The genetic code, initially thought to be universal and immutable, is now known to contain many variations, including biased codon usage, codon reassignment, ambiguous decoding and recoding. As a result of recent advances in the areas of genome sequencing, biochemistry, bioinformatics and structural biology, our understanding of genetic code flexibility has advanced substantially in the past decade. In this Review, we highlight the prevalence, evolution and mechanistic basis of genetic code variations in microorganisms, and we discuss how this flexibility of the genetic code affects microbial physiology. PMID:26411296

  11. Chemical Laser Computer Code Survey,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    DOCUMENTATION: Resonator Geometry Synthesis Code Requi rement NV. L. Gamiz); Incorporate General Resonator into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwell... Synthesis Code Development (L. R. Stidhm) CATEGRY ATIUEOPTICS KINETICS GASOYNAM41CS None * None *iNone J.LEVEL Simrple Fabry Perot Simple SaturatedGt... Synthesis Co2de Require- ment (V L. ami l ncor~orate General Resonatorn into Ray Trace Code (W. H. Southwel) Srace Optimization Algorithms and Equations (W

  12. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  13. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  14. IRIG Serial Time Code Formats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP IRIG STANDARD 200-16 IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE FORMATS DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION This page intentionally left blank. IRIG SERIAL TIME CODE ...Serial Time Code Formats, RCC 200-16, August 2016 v Table of Contents Preface

  15. Coding Major Fields of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, L. G.; Carroll, C. D.

    The National Center for Education Statistics conducts surveys which require the coding of the respondent's major field of study. This paper presents a new system for the coding of major field of study. It operates on-line i a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) environment and allows conversational checks to verify coding directly from…

  16. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  17. Validation of the BEPLATE code

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, G.E.; Bullock, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validation experience of the BEPLATE code on two types of electroforms and describes some recent applications of the code.

  18. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  19. Ptolemy Coding Style

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-05

    COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ptolemy Coding Style 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...lisp module for GNU Emacs that has appropriate indenting rules. This file works well with Emacs under both Unix and Windows. • testsuite/ptspell is a...Unix. It is much more liberal that the commonly used “GPL” or “ GNU Public License,” which encumbers the software and derivative works with the

  20. Use of the ETA-1 reactor for the validation of the multi-group APOLLO2-MORET 5 code and the Monte Carlo continuous energy MORET 5 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclaire, N.; Cochet, B.; Le Dauphin, F. X.; Haeck, W.; Jacquet, O.

    2014-06-01

    The present paper aims at providing experimental validation for the use of the MORET 5 code for advanced concepts of reactor involving thorium and heavy water. It therefore constitutes an opportunity to test and improve the thermal-scattering data of heavy water and also to test the recent implementation of probability tables in the MORET 5 code.

  1. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  2. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-01

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3t times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  3. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  4. New quantum codes constructed from quaternary BCH codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Ma, Yuena

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we firstly study construction of new quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of quaternary imprimitive BCH codes. As a result, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing quaternary BCH codes are determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 53:1183-1188, 2007) for each different code length. Thus, families of new QECCs are newly obtained, and the constructed QECCs have larger distance than those in the previous literature. Secondly, we apply a combinatorial construction to the imprimitive BCH codes with their corresponding primitive counterpart and construct many new linear quantum codes with good parameters, some of which have parameters exceeding the finite Gilbert-Varshamov bound for linear quantum codes.

  5. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  6. Assessment of the National Combustion Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, nan-Suey; Iannetti, Anthony; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    The advancements made during the last decade in the areas of combustion modeling, numerical simulation, and computing platform have greatly facilitated the use of CFD based tools in the development of combustion technology. Further development of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification will have profound impact on the reliability and utility of these CFD based tools. The objectives of the present effort are to establish baseline for the National Combustion Code (NCC) and experimental data, as well as to document current capabilities and identify gaps for further improvements.

  7. Coding tools investigation for next generation video coding based on HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianle; Chen, Ying; Karczewicz, Marta; Li, Xiang; Liu, Hongbin; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xin

    2015-09-01

    The new state-of-the-art video coding standard, H.265/HEVC, has been finalized in 2013 and it achieves roughly 50% bit rate saving compared to its predecessor, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. This paper provides the evidence that there is still potential for further coding efficiency improvements. A brief overview of HEVC is firstly given in the paper. Then, our improvements on each main module of HEVC are presented. For instance, the recursive quadtree block structure is extended to support larger coding unit and transform unit. The motion information prediction scheme is improved by advanced temporal motion vector prediction, which inherits the motion information of each small block within a large block from a temporal reference picture. Cross component prediction with linear prediction model improves intra prediction and overlapped block motion compensation improves the efficiency of inter prediction. Furthermore, coding of both intra and inter prediction residual is improved by adaptive multiple transform technique. Finally, in addition to deblocking filter and SAO, adaptive loop filter is applied to further enhance the reconstructed picture quality. This paper describes above-mentioned techniques in detail and evaluates their coding performance benefits based on the common test condition during HEVC development. The simulation results show that significant performance improvement over HEVC standard can be achieved, especially for the high resolution video materials.

  8. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  9. Measuring Diagnoses: ICD Code Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kimberly J; Cook, Karon F; Price, Matt D; Wildes, Kimberly Raiford; Hurdle, John F; Ashton, Carol M

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine potential sources of errors at each step of the described inpatient International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding process. Data Sources/Study Setting The use of disease codes from the ICD has expanded from classifying morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes to diverse sets of applications in research, health care policy, and health care finance. By describing a brief history of ICD coding, detailing the process for assigning codes, identifying where errors can be introduced into the process, and reviewing methods for examining code accuracy, we help code users more systematically evaluate code accuracy for their particular applications. Study Design/Methods We summarize the inpatient ICD diagnostic coding process from patient admission to diagnostic code assignment. We examine potential sources of errors at each step and offer code users a tool for systematically evaluating code accuracy. Principle Findings Main error sources along the “patient trajectory” include amount and quality of information at admission, communication among patients and providers, the clinician's knowledge and experience with the illness, and the clinician's attention to detail. Main error sources along the “paper trail” include variance in the electronic and written records, coder training and experience, facility quality-control efforts, and unintentional and intentional coder errors, such as misspecification, unbundling, and upcoding. Conclusions By clearly specifying the code assignment process and heightening their awareness of potential error sources, code users can better evaluate the applicability and limitations of codes for their particular situations. ICD codes can then be used in the most appropriate ways. PMID:16178999

  10. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  11. FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES

    SciTech Connect

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

    2010-10-01

    Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

  12. UUGM Code Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-26

    flow (very low speed and subsonic flows, transonic flow, supersonic and hypersonic flows), 2) advances in unstructured adaptive gridding techniques ...realistically simulated by CFD techniques . SAIC has been involved in all aspects of these developments and is on the forefront of CFD technology...differential equations of gasdynamnics. Presently, as a result of steady improvement ii the various integration techniques , the advantages which could be gained

  13. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  14. Coded excitation plane wave imaging for shear wave motion detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2015-07-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave SNR compared with conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2 to 4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (body mass index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  15. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 C3 maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes.

  16. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  17. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  18. The APS SASE FEL : modeling and code comparison.

    SciTech Connect

    Biedron, S. G.

    1999-04-20

    A self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) is under construction at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Five FEL simulation codes were used in the design phase: GENESIS, GINGER, MEDUSA, RON, and TDA3D. Initial comparisons between each of these independent formulations show good agreement for the parameters of the APS SASE FEL.

  19. Supporting Source Code Comprehension during Software Evolution and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhindawi, Nouh

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the problems of program comprehension to support the evolution of large-scale software systems. The research concerns how software engineers locate features and concepts along with categorizing changes within very large bodies of source code along with their versioned histories. More specifically, advanced Information…

  20. Report on the third SLSP code comparison workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, J.

    2017-03-01

    A summary of results obtained at the third Spectral Line Shape in Plasmas code comparison workshop (SLSP3) is given. As in the SLSP1 and SLSP2, a standardized set of case problems was decided on in advance and then investigated at the workshop. A presentation of these cases, together with a discussion of selected results, is provided here.

  1. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI workshop on transient thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.

    1997-07-01

    This is a report on the CSNI Workshop on Transient Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Requirements held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA November 5-8, 1996. This experts` meeting consisted of 140 participants from 21 countries; 65 invited papers were presented. The meeting was divided into five areas: (1) current and prospective plans of thermal hydraulic codes development; (2) current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes; (3) advances in modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and associated additional experimental needs; (4) numerical methods in multi-phase flows; and (5) programming language, code architectures and user interfaces. The workshop consensus identified the following important action items to be addressed by the international community in order to maintain and improve the calculational capability: (a) preserve current code expertise and institutional memory, (b) preserve the ability to use the existing investment in plant transient analysis codes, (c) maintain essential experimental capabilities, (d) develop advanced measurement capabilities to support future code validation work, (e) integrate existing analytical capabilities so as to improve performance and reduce operating costs, (f) exploit the proven advances in code architecture, numerics, graphical user interfaces, and modularization in order to improve code performance and scrutibility, and (g) more effectively utilize user experience in modifying and improving the codes.

  2. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  3. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  4. Code lock with microcircuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobka, A.; May, I.

    1985-01-01

    A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

  5. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  6. Improved lossless intra coding for next generation video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanam, Rahul; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there have been efforts by the ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG to further improve the compression performance of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard for developing a potential next generation video coding standard. The exploratory codec software of this potential standard includes new coding tools for inter and intra coding. In this paper, we present a new intra prediction mode for lossless intra coding. Our new intra mode derives a prediction filter for each input pixel using its neighboring reconstructed pixels, and applies this filter to the nearest neighboring reconstructed pixels to generate a prediction pixel. The proposed intra mode is demonstrated to improve the performance of the exploratory software for lossless intra coding, yielding a maximum and average bitrate savings of 4.4% and 2.11%, respectively.

  7. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  8. Mode-dependent templates and scan order for H.264/AVC-based intra lossless coding.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhouye; Lin, Weisi; Lee, Bu-Sung; Lau, Chiew Tong; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2012-09-01

    In H.264/advanced video coding (AVC), lossless coding and lossy coding share the same entropy coding module. However, the entropy coders in the H.264/AVC standard were original designed for lossy video coding and do not yield adequate performance for lossless video coding. In this paper, we analyze the problem with the current lossless coding scheme and propose a mode-dependent template (MD-template) based method for intra lossless coding. By exploring the statistical redundancy of the prediction residual in the H.264/AVC intra prediction modes, more zero coefficients are generated. By designing a new scan order for each MD-template, the scanned coefficients sequence fits the H.264/AVC entropy coders better. A fast implementation algorithm is also designed. With little computation increase, experimental results confirm that the proposed fast algorithm achieves about 7.2% bit saving compared with the current H.264/AVC fidelity range extensions high profile.

  9. Advanced Microsensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video looks at a spinoff application of the technology from advanced microsensors -- those that monitor and determine conditions of spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. The application featured is concerned with the monitoring of the health of premature babies.

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  11. Documentation generator application for VHDL source codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niton, B.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2011-06-01

    The UML, which is a complex system modeling and description technology, has recently been expanding its uses in the field of formalization and algorithmic approach to such systems like multiprocessor photonic, optoelectronic and advanced electronics carriers; distributed, multichannel measurement systems; optical networks, industrial electronics, novel R&D solutions. The paper describes a realization of an application for documenting VHDL source codes. There are presented own novel solution based on Doxygen program which is available on the free license, with accessible source code. The used supporting tools for parser building were Bison and Flex. There are presented the practical results of the documentation generator. The program was applied for exemplary VHDL codes. The documentation generator application is used for design of large optoelectronic and electronic measurement and control systems. The paper consists of three parts which describe the following components of the documentation generator for photonic and electronic systems: concept, MatLab application and VHDL application. This is part three which describes the VHDL application. VHDL is used for behavioral description of the Optoelectronic system.

  12. Coding and transmission of information by neural ensembles.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Bruno B; Lee, Daeyeol

    2004-04-01

    The brain processes information about sensory stimuli and motor intentions using a massive ensemble of neurons arrayed in parallel. Individual neurons receive convergent inputs from thousands of other neurons, leading to the possibility that patterns of spikes across the input neurons might be crucial components of the neural code. Recently, advances in multielectrode recording techniques have allowed several laboratories to investigate the nature of the interactions between neurons, and their potential role in information coding. Several recent studies have found that the amount of information coded by correlated activity about sensory and motor variables is small, casting doubt on the hypothesis that correlations between pairs of neurons are important for information coding. However, other studies have documented the appearance of coherent oscillations, during particular task epochs and conditions that require selective processing of sensory information, supporting the hypothesis that coherent oscillations between neurons might reflect the dynamic flow of information in the brain.

  13. Establishing confidence in complex physics codes: Art or science?

    SciTech Connect

    Trucano, T.

    1997-12-31

    The ALEGRA shock wave physics code, currently under development at Sandia National Laboratories and partially supported by the US Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), is generic to a certain class of physics codes: large, multi-application, intended to support a broad user community on the latest generation of massively parallel supercomputer, and in a continual state of formal development. To say that the author has ``confidence`` in the results of ALEGRA is to say something different than that he believes that ALEGRA is ``predictive.`` It is the purpose of this talk to illustrate the distinction between these two concepts. The author elects to perform this task in a somewhat historical manner. He will summarize certain older approaches to code validation. He views these methods as aiming to establish the predictive behavior of the code. These methods are distinguished by their emphasis on local information. He will conclude that these approaches are more art than science.

  14. Sodium/water pool-deposit bed model of the CONACS code. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Peak, R.D.

    1983-12-17

    A new Pool-Bed model of the CONACS (Containment Analysis Code System) code represents a major advance over the pool models of other containment analysis code (NABE code of France, CEDAN code of Japan and CACECO and CONTAIN codes of the United States). This new model advances pool-bed modeling because of the number of significant materials and processes which are included with appropriate rigor. This CONACS pool-bed model maintains material balances for eight chemical species (C, H/sub 2/O, Na, NaH, Na/sub 2/O, Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaOH) that collect in the stationary liquid pool on the floor and in the desposit bed on the elevated shelf of the standard CONACS analysis cell.

  15. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  16. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-11-06

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine.

  17. Dakota Uncertainty Quantification Methods Applied to the CFD code Nek5000

    SciTech Connect

    Delchini, Marc-Olivier; Popov, Emilian L.; Pointer, William David

    2016-04-29

    This report presents the state of advancement of a Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) project to characterize the uncertainty of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Nek5000 using the Dakota package for flows encountered in the nuclear engineering industry. Nek5000 is a high-order spectral element CFD code developed at Argonne National Laboratory for high-resolution spectral-filtered large eddy simulations (LESs) and unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations.

  18. Code Speed Measuring for VC++

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 688 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14025 CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ Tom Nealis...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CODE SPEED MEASURING FOR VC++ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT It’s often important to know how fast a snippet of code executes. This information allows the coder to make important decisions

  19. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  20. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  1. Upgrades to NRLMOL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basurto, Luis

    This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of

  2. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  3. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  4. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  5. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  6. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (53,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  7. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  8. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  9. Advanced Infrared Photodetectors (Materials Review)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    rays by reducing the effective detector area (9]. The lens structure also offers a measure of mechanical protection. 2.3.2 Electronic non...ib.itio’ý I by Availability Codes Philip J. Picone Avail and/ornDist Special SUMMARY The present status of advanced infrared semiconductor detector materials... POSTAL ADDRESS: Director, Surveillance Research Laboratory, PO Box 1500, Salisbury, South Australia, 5108. SRL.0117-RR UNCLASSIFIED SRL - 0117 - RR

  10. Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Quick Response (QR) Code Integration in Classroom Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Nagla; Santos, Ieda M.; Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2017-01-01

    Quick Response (QR) codes have been discussed in the literature as adding value to teaching and learning. Despite their potential in education, more research is needed to inform practice and advance knowledge in this field. This paper investigated the integration of the QR code in classroom activities and the perceptions of the integration by…

  11. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  12. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  13. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  14. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of...

  15. 1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Deviations from standard organization of...

  16. Maestro and Castro: Simulation Codes for Astrophysical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann; Beckner, Vince; Bell, John; Friesen, Brian; Jacobs, Adam; Katz, Maximilian P.; Malone, Christopher; Nonaka, Andrew; Zhang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Stellar explosions are multiphysics problems—modeling them requires the coordinated input of gravity solvers, reaction networks, radiation transport, and hydrodynamics together with microphysics recipes to describe the physics of matter under extreme conditions. Furthermore, these models involve following a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, which puts tough demands on simulation codes. We developed the codes Maestro and Castro to meet the computational challenges of these problems. Maestro uses a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamics to efficiently model convection. Castro solves the fully compressible radiation hydrodynamics equations to capture the explosive phases of stellar phenomena. Both codes are built upon the BoxLib adaptive mesh refinement library, which prepares them for next-generation exascale computers. Common microphysics shared between the codes allows us to transfer a problem from the low Mach number regime in Maestro to the explosive regime in Castro. Importantly, both codes are freely available (https://github.com/BoxLib-Codes). We will describe the design of the codes and some of their science applications, as well as future development directions.Support for development was provided by NSF award AST-1211563 and DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 to Stony Brook and by the Applied Mathematics Program of the DOE Office of Advance Scientific Computing Research under US DOE contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 to LBNL.

  17. Recent Progress on the Marylie/Impact Beam Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.D.; Qiang, J.; Bethel, E.W.; Pogorelov, I.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Venturini, M.; Dragt, A.J.; Adelmann, A.; Abell, D.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Neri, F.; Walstrom, P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Samulyak, R.

    2006-12-06

    MARYLIE/IMPACT (ML/I) is a hybrid code that combines the beam optics capabilities of MARYLIE with the parallel Particle-In-Cell capabilities of IMPACT. In addition to combining the capabilities of these codes, ML/I has a number of powerful features, including a choice of Poisson solvers, a fifth-order rf cavity model, multiple reference particles for rf cavities, a library of soft-edge magnet models, representation of magnet systems in terms of coil stacks with possibly overlapping fields, and wakefield effects. The code allows for map production, map analysis, particle tracking, and 3D envelope tracking, all within a single, coherent user environment. ML/I has a front end that can read both MARYLIE input and MAD lattice descriptions. The code can model beams with or without acceleration, and with or without space charge. Developed under a US DOE Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) project, ML/I is well suited to large-scale modeling, simulations having been performed with up to 100M macroparticles. The code inherits the powerful fitting and optimizing capabilities of MARYLIE augmented for the new features of ML/I. The combination of soft-edge magnet models, high-order capability, space charge effects, and fitting/optimization capabilities, make ML/I a powerful code for a wide range of beam optics design problems. This paper provides a description of the code and its unique capabilities.

  18. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  19. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  20. Evaluation of method of moments codes: University of Houston junction and numerical electromagnetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockway, J. W.; Logan, J. C.; Deneris, C. A.

    1991-10-01

    The principal goal of the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Project is to minimize exterior electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems during the life-cycle of Navy surface ships. An important aspect of mitigating exterior EMI problems is the characterization of antenna performance. At the present time, for shipboard MF and HF (2 to 30 MHz) antennas, there exists two techniques for performing a topside antenna study: brass scale modeling and numerical modeling. Brass scale models have a few drawbacks: they are time-consuming to build, difficult to rapidly modify, troublesome to accurately measure near fields on scale models, and they are somewhat limited in their application. This report is an evaluation of the progress in development of two advanced computer programs for antenna modeling. One is the performance of the JUNCTION Code, under development at the University of Houston, and the other is the performance of the Numerical Electromagnetic Code - Version 4 (NEC4) being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  2. 77 FR 76089 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  3. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control.

  4. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  5. Breaking the Code of Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Wolfgang W.

    2000-01-01

    Schools and communities must break the adolescent code of silence concerning threats of violence. Schools need character education stressing courage, caring, and responsibility; regular discussions of the school discipline code; formal security discussions with parents; 24-hour hotlines; and protocols for handling reports of potential violence.…

  6. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  7. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  8. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  9. Indices for Testing Neural Codes

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jonathan D.; Nirenberg, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical challenges in systems neuroscience is determining the neural code. A principled framework for addressing this can be found in information theory. With this approach, one can determine whether a proposed code can account for the stimulus-response relationship. Specifically, one can compare the transmitted information between the stimulus and the hypothesized neural code with the transmitted information between the stimulus and the behavioral response. If the former is smaller than the latter (i.e., if the code cannot account for the behavior), the code can be ruled out. The information-theoretic index most widely used in this context is Shannon’s mutual information. The Shannon test, however, is not ideal for this purpose: while the codes it will rule out are truly nonviable, there will be some nonviable codes that it will fail to rule out. Here we describe a wide range of alternative indices that can be used for ruling codes out. The range includes a continuum from Shannon information to measures of the performance of a Bayesian decoder. We analyze the relationship of these indices to each other and their complementary strengths and weaknesses for addressing this problem. PMID:18533812

  10. Population coding in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rasmus S; Panzeri, Stefano; Diamond, Mathew E

    2002-08-01

    Computational analyses have begun to elucidate which components of somatosensory cortical population activity may encode basic stimulus features. Recent results from rat barrel cortex suggest that the essence of this code is not synergistic spike patterns, but rather the precise timing of single neuron's first post-stimulus spikes. This may form the basis for a fast, robust population code.

  11. QPhiX Code Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-16

    A simple code-generator to generate the low level code kernels used by the QPhiX Library for Lattice QCD. Generates Kernels for Wilson-Dslash, and Wilson-Clover kernels. Can be reused to write other optimized kernels for Intel Xeon Phi(tm), Intel Xeon(tm) and potentially other architectures.

  12. Using NAEYC's Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Considers how to deal with an ethical dilemma concerning a caregiver's dislike for a child. Recognizes that no statement in NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct requires that a professional must like each child, and presents some ideals and principles from the code that may guide professionals through similar situations. (BAC)

  13. Video coding with dynamic background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

    2013-12-01

    Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

  14. Advances in Computational Capabilities for Hypersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Moss, James N.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews the growth and advances in computational capabilities for hypersonic applications over the period from the mid-1980's to the present day. The current status of the code development issues such as surface and field grid generation, algorithms, physical and chemical modeling, and validation is provided. A brief description of some of the major codes being used at NASA Langley Research Center for hypersonic continuum and rarefied flows is provided, along with their capabilities and deficiencies. A number of application examples are presented, and future areas of research to enhance accuracy, reliability, efficiency, and robustness of computational codes are discussed.

  15. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at https://github.com/regonzar/paravt.

  16. Medical coding in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Babre, Deven

    2010-01-01

    Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s) uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted.

  17. Detecting non-coding selective pressure in coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics approaches, where orthologous DNA regions are compared and inter-species conserved regions are identified, have proven extremely powerful for identifying non-coding regulatory regions located in intergenic or intronic regions. However, non-coding functional elements can also be located within coding region, as is common for exonic splicing enhancers, some transcription factor binding sites, and RNA secondary structure elements affecting mRNA stability, localization, or translation. Since these functional elements are located in regions that are themselves highly conserved because they are coding for a protein, they generally escaped detection by comparative genomics approaches. Results We introduce a comparative genomics approach for detecting non-coding functional elements located within coding regions. Codon evolution is modeled as a mixture of codon substitution models, where each component of the mixture describes the evolution of codons under a specific type of coding selective pressure. We show how to compute the posterior distribution of the entropy and parsimony scores under this null model of codon evolution. The method is applied to a set of growth hormone 1 orthologous mRNA sequences and a known exonic splicing elements is detected. The analysis of a set of CORTBP2 orthologous genes reveals a region of several hundred base pairs under strong non-coding selective pressure whose function remains unknown. Conclusion Non-coding functional elements, in particular those involved in post-transcriptional regulation, are likely to be much more prevalent than is currently known. With the numerous genome sequencing projects underway, comparative genomics approaches like that proposed here are likely to become increasingly powerful at detecting such elements. PMID:17288582

  18. Advancing Reflectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-21

    transmissions, was first demonstrated using Global Navigation Satellite System ( GNSS ) reflections. Recently, reflectometry has been extended to digital... GNSS +R workshop provided an opportunity for engineers and Earth scientists to assess the state of the art, demonstrate new applications, and discuss...18 Eos, Vol. 94, No. 21, 21 May 2013 MEETING -.~ Advancing Reflectometry Workshop on Renectometry Using GNSS and Other Signals of Opportunity

  19. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  20. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  1. Advanced cogeneration research study: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Moore, N.; Rosenberg, L.; Slonski, M.

    1983-01-01

    This study provides a broad based overview of selected areas relevant to the development of a comprehensive Southern California Edison (SCE) advanced cogeneration project. The areas studied are: (1) Cogeneration potential in the SCE service territory; (2) Advanced cogeneration technologies; and (3) Existing cogeneration computer models. An estimated 3700 MW sub E could potentially be generated from existing industries in the Southern California Edison service territory using cogeneration technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2600 MW sub E and advanced technology could provide 1100 MW sub E. The manufacturing sector (SIC Codes 20-39) was found to have the highest average potential for current cogeneration technology. The mining sector (SIC Codes 10-14) was found to have the highest potential for advanced technology.

  2. Modeling of the EAST ICRF antenna with ICANT Code

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Chengming; Zhao Yanping; Colas, L.; Heuraux, S.

    2007-09-28

    A Resonant Double Loop (RDL) antenna for ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is under construction. The new antenna is analyzed using the antenna coupling code ICANT which self-consistently determines the surface currents on all antenna parts. In this work, the modeling of the new ICRF antenna using this code is to assess the near-fields in front of the antenna and analysis its coupling capabilities. Moreover, the antenna reactive radiated power computed by ICANT and shows a good agreement with deduced from Transmission Line (TL) theory.

  3. Optimal Grouping and Matching for Network-Coded Cooperative Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S; Shi, Y; Hou, Y T; Kompella, S; Midkiff, S F

    2011-11-01

    Network-coded cooperative communications (NC-CC) is a new advance in wireless networking that exploits network coding (NC) to improve the performance of cooperative communications (CC). However, there remains very limited understanding of this new hybrid technology, particularly at the link layer and above. This paper fills in this gap by studying a network optimization problem that requires joint optimization of session grouping, relay node grouping, and matching of session/relay groups. After showing that this problem is NP-hard, we present a polynomial time heuristic algorithm to this problem. Using simulation results, we show that our algorithm is highly competitive and can produce near-optimal results.

  4. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading

  5. Non-Pauli observables for CWS codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Douglas F. G.; Portugal, Renato; Melo, Nolmar

    2013-05-01

    It is known that nonadditive quantum codes can have higher code dimensions than stabilizer codes for the same length and minimum distance. The class of codeword stabilized codes (CWS) provides tools to obtain new nonadditive quantum codes by reducing the problem to finding nonlinear classical codes. In this work, we establish some results on the kind of non-Pauli operators that can be used as observables in the decoding scheme of CWS codes and propose a procedure to obtain those observables.

  6. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  7. A secure and efficient entropy coding based on arithmetic coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hengjian; Zhang, Jiashu

    2009-12-01

    A novel security arithmetic coding scheme based on nonlinear dynamic filter (NDF) with changeable coefficients is proposed in this paper. The NDF is employed to generate the pseudorandom number generator (NDF-PRNG) and its coefficients are derived from the plaintext for higher security. During the encryption process, the mapping interval in each iteration of arithmetic coding (AC) is decided by both the plaintext and the initial values of NDF, and the data compression is also achieved with entropy optimality simultaneously. And this modification of arithmetic coding methodology which also provides security is easy to be expanded into the most international image and video standards as the last entropy coding stage without changing the existing framework. Theoretic analysis and numerical simulations both on static and adaptive model show that the proposed encryption algorithm satisfies highly security without loss of compression efficiency respect to a standard AC or computation burden.

  8. CodedStream: live media streaming with overlay coded multicast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiang; Zhu, Ying; Li, Baochun

    2003-12-01

    Multicasting is a natural paradigm for streaming live multimedia to multiple end receivers. Since IP multicast is not widely deployed, many application-layer multicast protocols have been proposed. However, all of these schemes focus on the construction of multicast trees, where a relatively small number of links carry the multicast streaming load, while the capacity of most of the other links in the overlay network remain unused. In this paper, we propose CodedStream, a high-bandwidth live media distribution system based on end-system overlay multicast. In CodedStream, we construct a k-redundant multicast graph (a directed acyclic graph) as the multicast topology, on which network coding is applied to work around bottlenecks. Simulation results have shown that the combination of k-redundant multicast graph and network coding may indeed bring significant benefits with respect to improving the quality of live media at the end receivers.

  9. New optimal asymmetric quantum codes constructed from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Guo, Luobin; Lü, Liangdong

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose the construction of asymmetric quantum codes from two families of constacyclic codes over finite field 𝔽q2 of code length n, where for the first family, q is an odd prime power with the form 4t + 1 (t ≥ 1 is integer) or 4t ‑ 1 (t ≥ 2 is integer) and n1 = q2+1 2; for the second family, q is an odd prime power with the form 10t + 3 or 10t + 7 (t ≥ 0 is integer) and n2 = q2+1 5. As a result, families of new asymmetric quantum codes [[n,k,dz/dx

  10. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  11. Nonspatial Sequence Coding in CA1 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Timothy A.; Salz, Daniel M.; McKenzie, Sam

    2016-01-01

    region CA1 while rats performed a nonspatial sequence memory task. We found that hippocampal neurons code for the temporal context of items (whether odors were presented in the correct or incorrect sequential position) and that this activity is linked with memory performance. The discovery of this novel form of temporal coding in hippocampal neurons advances our fundamental understanding of the neurobiology of episodic memory and will serve as a foundation for our cross-species, multitechnique approach aimed at elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying memory impairments in aging and dementia. PMID:26843637

  12. Coding Strategies and Implementations of Compressive Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han

    This dissertation studies the coding strategies of computational imaging to overcome the limitation of conventional sensing techniques. The information capacity of conventional sensing is limited by the physical properties of optics, such as aperture size, detector pixels, quantum efficiency, and sampling rate. These parameters determine the spatial, depth, spectral, temporal, and polarization sensitivity of each imager. To increase sensitivity in any dimension can significantly compromise the others. This research implements various coding strategies subject to optical multidimensional imaging and acoustic sensing in order to extend their sensing abilities. The proposed coding strategies combine hardware modification and signal processing to exploiting bandwidth and sensitivity from conventional sensors. We discuss the hardware architecture, compression strategies, sensing process modeling, and reconstruction algorithm of each sensing system. Optical multidimensional imaging measures three or more dimensional information of the optical signal. Traditional multidimensional imagers acquire extra dimensional information at the cost of degrading temporal or spatial resolution. Compressive multidimensional imaging multiplexes the transverse spatial, spectral, temporal, and polarization information on a two-dimensional (2D) detector. The corresponding spectral, temporal and polarization coding strategies adapt optics, electronic devices, and designed modulation techniques for multiplex measurement. This computational imaging technique provides multispectral, temporal super-resolution, and polarization imaging abilities with minimal loss in spatial resolution and noise level while maintaining or gaining higher temporal resolution. The experimental results prove that the appropriate coding strategies may improve hundreds times more sensing capacity. Human auditory system has the astonishing ability in localizing, tracking, and filtering the selected sound sources or

  13. NASA Multidimensional Stirling Convertor Code Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for use on potential NASA Space Science missions is being developed by the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and the NASA Glenn Research Center. These missions may include providing spacecraft onboard electric power for deep space missions or power for unmanned Mars rovers. Glenn is also developing advanced technology for Stirling convertors, aimed at substantially improving the specific power and efficiency of the convertor and the overall power system. Performance and mass improvement goals have been established for second- and third-generation Stirling radioisotope power systems. Multiple efforts are underway to achieve these goals, both in house at Glenn and under various grants and contracts. These efforts include the development of a multidimensional Stirling computational fluid dynamics code, high-temperature materials, advanced controllers, an end-to-end system dynamics model, low-vibration techniques, advanced regenerators, and a lightweight convertor. Under a NASA grant, Cleveland State University (CSU) and its subcontractors, the University of Minnesota (UMN) and Gedeon Associates, have developed a twodimensional computer simulation of a CSUmod Stirling convertor. The CFD-ACE commercial software developed by CFD Research Corp. of Huntsville, Alabama, is being used. The CSUmod is a scaled version of the Stirling Technology Demonstrator Convertor (TDC), which was designed and fabricated by the Stirling Technology Company and is being tested by NASA. The schematic illustrates the structure of this model. Modeled are the fluid-flow and heat-transfer phenomena that occur in the expansion space, the heater, the regenerator, the cooler, the compression space, the surrounding walls, and the moving piston and displacer. In addition, the overall heat transfer, the indicated power, and the efficiency can be calculated. The CSUmod model is being converted to a two

  14. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  15. Epigenetic code and insect behavioural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-06-01

    Although the nature of the genetic control of adaptive behaviours in insects is a major unresolved problem it is now understood that epigenetic mechanisms, bound by genetic constraints, are prime drivers of brain plasticity arising from both developmental and experience-dependent events. With the recent advancements in methylomics and emerging analyses of histones and non-protein-coding RNAs, insect epigenetics is well positioned to ask more direct questions and importantly, address them experimentally. To achieve rapid progress, insect epigenetics needs to focus on mechanistic explanations of epigenomic dynamics and move beyond low-depth genome-wide analyses to cell-type specific epigenomics. One topic of a high priority is the impact of sequence variants on generating differential methylation patterns and their contribution to behavioural plasticity.

  16. Identification and Analysis of Critical Gaps in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Codes Required by the SINEMA Program

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian Miron; Joshua Valentine; John Christenson; Majd Hawwari; Santosh Bhatt; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar: Michael Lineberry

    2009-10-01

    The current state of the art in nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) modeling is an eclectic mixture of codes with various levels of applicability, flexibility, and availability. In support of the advanced fuel cycle systems analyses, especially those by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), Unviery of Cincinnati in collaboration with Idaho State University carried out a detailed review of the existing codes describing various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle and identified the research and development needs required for a comprehensive model of the global nuclear energy infrastructure and the associated nuclear fuel cycles. Relevant information obtained on the NFC codes was compiled into a relational database that allows easy access to various codes' properties. Additionally, the research analyzed the gaps in the NFC computer codes with respect to their potential integration into programs that perform comprehensive NFC analysis.

  17. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  18. Bandwidth efficient coding for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Poland, William B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An error control coding scheme was devised to achieve large coding gain and high reliability by using coded modulation with reduced decoding complexity. To achieve a 3 to 5 dB coding gain and moderate reliability, the decoding complexity is quite modest. In fact, to achieve a 3 dB coding gain, the decoding complexity is quite simple, no matter whether trellis coded modulation or block coded modulation is used. However, to achieve coding gains exceeding 5 dB, the decoding complexity increases drastically, and the implementation of the decoder becomes very expensive and unpractical. The use is proposed of coded modulation in conjunction with concatenated (or cascaded) coding. A good short bandwidth efficient modulation code is used as the inner code and relatively powerful Reed-Solomon code is used as the outer code. With properly chosen inner and outer codes, a concatenated coded modulation scheme not only can achieve large coding gains and high reliability with good bandwidth efficiency but also can be practically implemented. This combination of coded modulation and concatenated coding really offers a way of achieving the best of three worlds, reliability and coding gain, bandwidth efficiency, and decoding complexity.

  19. Internationalizing professional codes in engineering.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    Professional engineering societies which are based in the United States, such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, now ASME International) are recognizing that their codes of ethics must apply to engineers working throughout the world. An examination of the ethical code of the ASME International shows that its provisions pose many problems of application, especially in societies outside the United States. In applying the codes effectively in the international environment, two principal issues must be addressed. First, some Culture Transcending Guidelines must be identified and justified. Nine such guidelines are identified Second, some methods for applying the codes to particular situations must be identified Three such methods are specification, balancing, and finding a creative middle way.

  20. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  1. Seals Flow Code Development 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

  2. NFPA's Hydrogen Technologies Code Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C. H.

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses the development of National Fire Protection Association 2 (NFPA), a comprehensive hydrogen safety code. It analyses the contents of this document with particular attention focused on new requirements for setting hydrogen storage systems. These new requirements use computational fluid dynamic modeling and risk assessment procedures to develop requirements that are based on both technical analyses and defined risk criteria. The intent is to develop requirements based on procedures that can be replicated based on the information provided in the code document. This code will require documentation of the modeling inputs and risk criteria and analyses in the supporting information. This article also includes a description of the codes and standards that address hydrogen technologies in general.

  3. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  4. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  5. Nyx: A MASSIVELY PARALLEL AMR CODE FOR COMPUTATIONAL COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Lijewski, Mike J.; Lukic, Zarija; Van Andel, Ethan

    2013-03-01

    We present a new N-body and gas dynamics code, called Nyx, for large-scale cosmological simulations. Nyx follows the temporal evolution of a system of discrete dark matter particles gravitationally coupled to an inviscid ideal fluid in an expanding universe. The gas is advanced in an Eulerian framework with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement; a particle-mesh scheme using the same grid hierarchy is used to solve for self-gravity and advance the particles. Computational results demonstrating the validation of Nyx on standard cosmological test problems, and the scaling behavior of Nyx to 50,000 cores, are presented.

  6. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  7. Computer-Access-Code Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

  8. Product Work Classification and Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    detail is much more useful in planning steel welding processes. In this regard remember that mild steel , HSLA steel , and high-yield steel (e.g. HY80 ...manufacturing facility. In Figure 2.3-2, a classification and coding system for steel parts is shown. This classification and coding system sorts steel parts...system would provide a shop which produced steel parts with a means of organizing parts. Rather than attempting to manage all of its parts as a single

  9. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kensek, Ronald P.; Franke, Brian C.; Laub, Thomas W.

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  10. UNIX code management and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, T.; Kunz, P.F.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a code management and distribution system based on tools freely available for the UNIX systems. At the master site, version control is managed with CVS, which is a layer on top of RCS, and distribution is done via NFS mounted file systems. At remote sites, small modifications to CVS provide for interactive transactions with the CVS system at the master site such that remote developers are true peers in the code development process.

  11. Acetylation modulates the STAT signaling code.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Martin; Ginter, Torsten; Brand, Peter; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

    2012-12-01

    A fascinating question of modern biology is how a limited number of signaling pathways generate biological diversity and crosstalk phenomena in vivo. Well-defined posttranslational modification patterns dictate the functions and interactions of proteins. The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are physiologically important cytokine-induced transcription factors. They are targeted by a multitude of posttranslational modifications that control and modulate signaling responses and gene expression. Beyond phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine residues, lysine acetylation has recently emerged as a critical modification regulating STAT functions. Interestingly, acetylation can determine STAT signaling codes by various molecular mechanisms, including the modulation of other posttranslational modifications. Here, we provide an overview on the acetylation of STATs and how this protein modification shapes cellular cytokine responses. We summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of STAT acetylation on cell growth, apoptosis, innate immunity, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we discuss how STAT acetylation can be targeted by small molecules and we consider the possibility that additional molecules controlling STAT signaling are regulated by acetylation. Our review also summarizes evolutionary aspects and we show similarities between the acetylation-dependent control of STATs and other important molecules. We propose the concept that, similar to the 'histone code', distinct posttranslational modifications and their crosstalk orchestrate the functions and interactions of STAT proteins.

  12. Dynamic Alignment Models for Neural Coding

    PubMed Central

    Kollmorgen, Sepp; Hahnloser, Richard H. R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there have been remarkable advances in modeling the relationships between the sensory environment, neuronal responses, and behavior. However, most models cannot encompass variable stimulus-response relationships such as varying response latencies and state or context dependence of the neural code. Here, we consider response modeling as a dynamic alignment problem and model stimulus and response jointly by a mixed pair hidden Markov model (MPH). In MPHs, multiple stimulus-response relationships (e.g., receptive fields) are represented by different states or groups of states in a Markov chain. Each stimulus-response relationship features temporal flexibility, allowing modeling of variable response latencies, including noisy ones. We derive algorithms for learning of MPH parameters and for inference of spike response probabilities. We show that some linear-nonlinear Poisson cascade (LNP) models are a special case of MPHs. We demonstrate the efficiency and usefulness of MPHs in simulations of both jittered and switching spike responses to white noise and natural stimuli. Furthermore, we apply MPHs to extracellular single and multi-unit data recorded in cortical brain areas of singing birds to showcase a novel method for estimating response lag distributions. MPHs allow simultaneous estimation of receptive fields, latency statistics, and hidden state dynamics and so can help to uncover complex stimulus response relationships that are subject to variable timing and involve diverse neural codes. PMID:24625448

  13. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  14. NASA advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic fields are described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification. Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: (1) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8- by 6-foot Wind Tunnel; and (2) far field noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off-design conditions. Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at takeoff but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise are also illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  15. Advanced composites technology

    SciTech Connect

    DeTeresa, S J; Groves, S E; Sanchez, R J

    1998-10-01

    The development of fiber composite components in next-generation munitions, such as sabots for kinetic energy penetrators and lightweight cases for advanced artillery projectiles, relies on design trade-off studies using validated computer code simulations. We are developing capabilities to determine the failure of advanced fiber composites under multiaxial stresses to critically evaluate three-dimensional failure models and develop new ones if necessary. The effects of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on failure of composites are being investigated using a high-pressure testing system that incorporates several unique features. Several improvements were made to the system this year, and we report on the first tests of both isotropic and fiber composite materials. The preliminary results indicate that pressure has little effect on longitudinal compression strength of unidirectional composites, but issues with obtaining reliable failures in these materials still remain to be resolved. The transverse compression strength was found to be significantly enhanced by pressure, and the trends observed for this property and the longitudinal strength are in agreement with recent models for failure of fiber composites.

  16. Spaceflight Validation of Hzetrn Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    HZETRN is being developed as a fast deterministic radiation transport code applicable to neutrons, protons, and multiply charged ions in the space environment. It was recently applied to 50 hours of IMP8 data measured during the August 4, 1972 solar event to map the hourly exposures within the human body under several shield configurations. This calculation required only 18 hours on a VAX 4000 machine. A similar calculation using the Monte Carlo method would have required two years of dedicated computer time. The code has been benchmarked against well documented and tested Monte Carlo proton transport codes with good success. The code will allow important trade studies to be made with relative ease due to the computational speed and will be useful in assessing design alternatives in an integrated system software environment. Since there are no well tested Monte Carlo codes for HZE particles, we have been engaged in flight validation of the HZETRN results. To date we have made comparison with TEPC, CR-39, charge particle telescopes, and Bonner spheres. This broad range of detectors allows us to test a number of functions related to differing physical processes which add to the complicated radiation fields within a spacecraft or the human body, which functions can be calculated by the HZETRN code system. In the present report we will review these results.

  17. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  18. Coded Excitation Plane Wave Imaging for Shear Wave Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W.; Manduca, Armando; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2015-01-01

    Plane wave imaging has greatly advanced the field of shear wave elastography thanks to its ultrafast imaging frame rate and the large field-of-view (FOV). However, plane wave imaging also has decreased penetration due to lack of transmit focusing, which makes it challenging to use plane waves for shear wave detection in deep tissues and in obese patients. This study investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in plane wave imaging for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide superior detection penetration and shear wave signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) compared to conventional ultrasound signals. Both phase encoding (Barker code) and frequency encoding (chirp code) methods were studied. A first phantom experiment showed an approximate penetration gain of 2-4 cm for the coded pulses. Two subsequent phantom studies showed that all coded pulses outperformed the conventional short imaging pulse by providing superior sensitivity to small motion and robustness to weak ultrasound signals. Finally, an in vivo liver case study on an obese subject (Body Mass Index = 40) demonstrated the feasibility of using the proposed method for in vivo applications, and showed that all coded pulses could provide higher SNR shear wave signals than the conventional short pulse. These findings indicate that by using coded excitation shear wave detection, one can benefit from the ultrafast imaging frame rate and large FOV provided by plane wave imaging while preserving good penetration and shear wave signal quality, which is essential for obtaining robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:26168181

  19. Code for Multiblock CFD and Heat-Transfer Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, John C.; Heidmann, James D.; Lucci, Barbara L.; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center General Multi-Block Navier-Stokes Convective Heat Transfer Code, Glenn-HT, has been used extensively to predict heat transfer and fluid flow for a variety of steady gas turbine engine problems. Recently, the Glenn-HT code has been completely rewritten in Fortran 90/95, a more object-oriented language that allows programmers to create code that is more modular and makes more efficient use of data structures. The new implementation takes full advantage of the capabilities of the Fortran 90/95 programming language. As a result, the Glenn-HT code now provides dynamic memory allocation, modular design, and unsteady flow capability. This allows for the heat-transfer analysis of a full turbine stage. The code has been demonstrated for an unsteady inflow condition, and gridding efforts have been initiated for a full turbine stage unsteady calculation. This analysis will be the first to simultaneously include the effects of rotation, blade interaction, film cooling, and tip clearance with recessed tip on turbine heat transfer and cooling performance. Future plans call for the application of the new Glenn-HT code to a range of gas turbine engine problems of current interest to the heat-transfer community. The new unsteady flow capability will allow researchers to predict the effect of unsteady flow phenomena upon the convective heat transfer of turbine blades and vanes. Work will also continue on the development of conjugate heat-transfer capability in the code, where simultaneous solution of convective and conductive heat-transfer domains is accomplished. Finally, advanced turbulence and fluid flow models and automatic gridding techniques are being developed that will be applied to the Glenn-HT code and solution process.

  20. Analysis of view synthesis prediction architectures in modern coding standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dong; Zou, Feng; Lee, Chris; Vetro, Anthony; Sun, Huifang

    2013-09-01

    Depth-based 3D formats are currently being developed as extensions to both AVC and HEVC standards. The availability of depth information facilitates the generation of intermediate views for advanced 3D applications and displays, and also enables more efficient coding of the multiview input data through view synthesis prediction techniques. This paper outlines several approaches that have been explored to realize view synthesis prediction in modern video coding standards such as AVC and HEVC. The benefits and drawbacks of various architectures are analyzed in terms of performance, complexity, and other design considerations. It is hence concluded that block-based VSP prediction for multiview video signals provides attractive coding gains with comparable complexity as traditional motion/disparity compensation.

  1. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Cynthia A; Schweiger, Teresa A; Angelo, Lauren B; Lea Bonner, C; Dhing, Conrad W; Farley, Joel F

    2016-06-25

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students' education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist's education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy's (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015.

  2. FDNS CFD Code Benchmark for RBCC Ejector Mode Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Ruf, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with benchmark quality test data from the Propulsion Engineering Research Center's (PERC) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) experiments to verify fluid dynamic code and application procedures. RBCC engine flowpath development will rely on CFD applications to capture the multi-dimensional fluid dynamic interactions and to quantify their effect on the RBCC system performance. Therefore, the accuracy of these CFD codes must be determined through detailed comparisons with test data. The PERC experiments build upon the well-known 1968 rocket-ejector experiments of Odegaard and Stroup by employing advanced optical and laser based diagnostics to evaluate mixing and secondary combustion. The Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code was used to model the fluid dynamics of the PERC RBCC ejector mode configuration. Analyses were performed for both Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) and Simultaneous Mixing and Combustion (SMC) test conditions. Results from both the 2D and the 3D models are presented.

  3. Edge-relevant plasma simulations with the continuum code COGENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorf, M.; Dorr, M.; Ghosh, D.; Hittinger, J.; Rognlien, T.; Cohen, R.; Lee, W.; Schwartz, P.

    2016-10-01

    We describe recent advances in cross-separatrix and other edge-relevant plasma simulations with COGENT, a continuum gyro-kinetic code being developed by the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) collaboration. The distinguishing feature of the COGENT code is its high-order finite-volume discretization methods, which employ arbitrary mapped multiblock grid technology (nearly field-aligned on blocks) to handle the complexity of tokamak divertor geometry with high accuracy. This paper discusses the 4D (axisymmetric) electrostatic version of the code, and the presented topics include: (a) initial simulations with kinetic electrons and development of reduced fluid models; (b) development and application of implicit-explicit (IMEX) time integration schemes; and (c) conservative modeling of drift-waves and the universal instability. Work performed for USDOE, at LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and at LBNL under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Expanding Dress Code Requirements in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Teresa A.; Angelo, Lauren B.; Lea Bonner, C.; Dhing, Conrad W.; Farley, Joel F.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of a professional dress code is standard practice across colleges and schools of pharmacy during introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences, requiring professional attire is not applied consistently during the didactic portion of students’ education. There are arguments for and against the adoption of a professional dress code throughout the entire doctor of pharmacy program, including the classroom setting. Given uncertainty regarding the potential benefits and challenges that may arise from adopting a professional dress code in the didactic portion of a student pharmacist’s education, it is perhaps not surprising that programs adopt disparate policies regarding its use. This exploration was conducted as part of a series of debates held in conjunction with the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy’s (AACP) Academic Leadership Fellows Program (ALFP) and was presented at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting on February 7, 2015. PMID:27402977

  5. Applications of Bar Code Technology in the Construction Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    per week. This is an indication that we have much better control of our inventory " ( Ryan 87 ). Producto Machine Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut... marketing and patenting advanced technologies to encourage firms to take on the risks involved. Our country, however, has no such policy. Until it does...assistance in marketing and patenting their achievements. 2) The Department of Defense, who already requires bar codes on all supplies accepted into

  6. Modulation and coding used by a major satellite communications company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Hughes Communications Inc., is a major satellite communications company providing or planning to provide the full spectrum of services available on satellites. All of the current services use conventional modulation and coding techniques that were well known a decade or longer ago. However, the future mobile satellite service will use significantly more advanced techniques. JPL, under NASA sponsorship, has pioneered many of the techniques that will be used.

  7. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP) is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides. PMID:17999762

  8. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  9. Codes That Support Smart Growth Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides examples of local zoning codes that support smart growth development, categorized by: unified development code, form-based code, transit-oriented development, design guidelines, street design standards, and zoning overlay.

  10. Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example can be used as a template for technical code selection (i.e., building, electrical, plumbing, etc.) to be adopted as a comprehensive building code.

  11. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  12. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The International Code Council (ICC), promulgator of the International Codes...

  13. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  14. Evolution of the genetic code.

    PubMed

    Davis, B K

    1999-01-01

    Comparative path lengths in amino acid biosynthesis and other molecular indicators of the timing of codon assignment were examined to reconstruct the main stages of code evolution. The codon tree obtained was rooted in the 4 N-fixing amino acids (Asp, Glu, Asn, Gln) and 16 triplets of the NAN set. This small, locally phased (commaless) code evidently arose from ambiguous translation on a poly(A) collector strand, in a surface reaction network. Copolymerisation of these amino acids yields polyanionic peptide chains, which could anchor uncharged amide residues to a positively charged mineral surface. From RNA virus structure and replication in vitro, the first genes seemed to be RNA segments spliced into tRNA. Expansion of the code reduced the risk of mutation to an unreadable codon. This step was conditional on initiation at the 5'-codon of a translated sequence. Incorporation of increasingly hydrophobic amino acids accompanied expansion. As codons of the NUN set were assigned most slowly, they received the most nonpolar amino acids. The origin of ferredoxin and Gln synthetase was traced to mid-expansion phase. Surface metabolism ceased by the end of code expansion, as cells bounded by a proteo-phospholipid membrane, with a protoATPase, had emerged. Incorporation of positively charged and aromatic amino acids followed. They entered the post-expansion code by codon capture. Synthesis of efficient enzymes with acid-base catalysis was then possible. Both types of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were attributed to this stage. tRNA sequence diversity and error rates in RNA replication indicate the code evolved within 20 million yr in the preIsuan era. These findings on the genetic code provide empirical evidence, from a contemporaneous source, that a surface reaction network, centred on C-fixing autocatalytic cycles, rapidly led to cellular life on Earth.

  15. MONTE CARLO ADVANCES FOR THE EOLUS ASCI PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. HENDRICK; G. W. MCKINNEY; L. J. COX

    2000-01-01

    The Eolus ASCI project includes parallel, 3-D transport simulation for various nuclear applications. The codes developed within this project provide neutral and charged particle transport, detailed interaction physics, numerous source and tally capabilities, and general geometry packages. One such code is MCNPW which is a general purpose, 3-dimensional, time-dependent, continuous-energy Monte Carlo fully-coupled N-Particle transport code. Significant advances are also being made in the areas of modern software engineering and parallel computing. These advances are described in detail.

  16. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  17. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  18. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  20. Methodology, status and plans for development and assessment of TUF and CATHENA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Luxat, J.C.; Liu, W.S.; Leung, R.K.

    1997-07-01

    An overview is presented of the Canadian two-fluid computer codes TUF and CATHENA with specific focus on the constraints imposed during development of these codes and the areas of application for which they are intended. Additionally a process for systematic assessment of these codes is described which is part of a broader, industry based initiative for validation of computer codes used in all major disciplines of safety analysis. This is intended to provide both the licensee and the regulator in Canada with an objective basis for assessing the adequacy of codes for use in specific applications. Although focused specifically on CANDU reactors, Canadian experience in developing advanced two-fluid codes to meet wide-ranging application needs while maintaining past investment in plant modelling provides a useful contribution to international efforts in this area.

  1. International assessment of PCA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE.

  2. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  3. AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

    2002-11-01

    An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The δ W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ω problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

  4. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  5. Roadmap to Majorana surface codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plugge, S.; Landau, L. A.; Sela, E.; Altland, A.; Flensberg, K.; Egger, R.

    2016-11-01

    Surface codes offer a very promising avenue towards fault-tolerant quantum computation. We argue that two-dimensional interacting networks of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures hold several key advantages in that direction, concerning both the hardware realization and the actual operation of the code. We here discuss how topologically protected logical qubits in this Majorana surface code architecture can be defined, initialized, manipulated, and read out. All physical ingredients needed to implement these operations are routinely used in topologically trivial quantum devices. By means of quantum interference terms in linear conductance measurements, single-electron pumping protocols, and gate-tunable tunnel barriers, the full set of quantum gates required for universal quantum computation can be achieved. In particular, we show that designated multistep pumping sequences via tunnel-coupled quantum dots realize high-fidelity ancilla states for phase gates.

  6. A coded tracking telemetry system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.; Amlaner, Charles J.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

  7. FLOWTRAN-TF code benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A description of the code is given by Flach et al. (1990). This report provides benchmarking results for the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit (Smith et al., 1990a; 1990b). Individual constitutive relations are benchmarked in Sections 2 through 5 while in Sections 6 and 7 integral code benchmarking results are presented. An overall assessment of FLOWTRAN-TF for its intended use in computing the ECS power limit completes the document.

  8. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  9. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  10. Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    1987-01-01

    FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

  11. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  12. GPU Optimizations for a Production Molecular Docking Code.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C

    2014-09-01

    Modeling molecular docking is critical to both understanding life processes and designing new drugs. In previous work we created the first published GPU-accelerated docking code (PIPER) which achieved a roughly 5× speed-up over a contemporaneous 4 core CPU. Advances in GPU architecture and in the CPU code, however, have since reduced this relalative performance by a factor of 10. In this paper we describe the upgrade of GPU PIPER. This required an entire rewrite, including algorithm changes and moving most remaining non-accelerated CPU code onto the GPU. The result is a 7× improvement in GPU performance and a 3.3× speedup over the CPU-only code. We find that this difference in time is almost entirely due to the difference in run times of the 3D FFT library functions on CPU (MKL) and GPU (cuFFT), respectively. The GPU code has been integrated into the ClusPro docking server which has over 4000 active users.

  13. Modulation and coding technology for deep space and satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Rafferty, W.

    1992-02-01

    Modulation and coding research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) currently emphasize Deep Space Communications Systems and advanced near earth Commercial Satellite Communications Systems. The Deep Space Communication channel is extremely signal to noise ratio limited and has long transmission delay. The near earth satellite channel is bandwidth limited with fading and multipath. Recent code search efforts at JPL have found a long constraint, low rate convolutional code (15, 1/6) which, when concatenated with a ten bit Reed-Solomon (RS) code, provides a 2.1 dB gain over that of the Voyager spacecraft - the current standard. The new code is only 2 dB from the theoretical Shannon limit. A flight qualified version of the (15, 1/6) convolutional encoder was implemented on the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched later this year. An L-band mobile link, use of the Ka-band for personal communications, and the development of subsystem technology for the interconnection of satellite resources by using high rate optical inter-satellite links are noted.

  14. Picture codes as discussion starters in AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Laver, S M

    1994-01-01

    Picture codes, poster-size collections of drawings that present a real-life problem, are being used in Zimbabwe to stimulate discussion on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Unlike posters, which are intended for pubic display and present a solution to a problem, picture codes are used in small-group discussions and have no captions. Group members describe what they think is occurring in the picture code, seek a reason for the problem depicted, link the problem to real-life issues, identify the underlying causes of the problem, and then propose solutions. The effectiveness of this technique in stimulating discussion and identifying community problems was illustrated by pretesting of a picture code depicting a wealthy middle-aged man sexually propositioning a young schoolgirl. The code was shown separately to 20 mothers and 30 adolescent girls in Harare. The mothers focused on the need for the formal education system to assume a greater role in sex education given erosion of the traditional extended family. The adolescents also expressed a need for sex education in the schools and acknowledged their difficulties in rejecting sexual advances.

  15. Modulation and coding technology for deep space and satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Rafferty, W.

    1992-01-01

    Modulation and coding research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) currently emphasize Deep Space Communications Systems and advanced near earth Commercial Satellite Communications Systems. The Deep Space Communication channel is extremely signal to noise ratio limited and has long transmission delay. The near earth satellite channel is bandwidth limited with fading and multipath. Recent code search efforts at JPL have found a long constraint, low rate convolutional code (15, 1/6) which, when concatenated with a ten bit Reed-Solomon (RS) code, provides a 2.1 dB gain over that of the Voyager spacecraft - the current standard. The new code is only 2 dB from the theoretical Shannon limit. A flight qualified version of the (15, 1/6) convolutional encoder was implemented on the Galileo Spacecraft to be launched later this year. An L-band mobile link, use of the Ka-band for personal communications, and the development of subsystem technology for the interconnection of satellite resources by using high rate optical inter-satellite links are noted.

  16. New ethical code reflects expectations for industry behavior.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Pamela G

    2005-07-01

    Sporadic misbehavior, suspect sales and marketing practices, and the perceived deep pockets of the health care industry have put corporations and physicians alike at risk for investigation for fraud and abuse misconduct. The Advanced Medical Technology Association's (AdvaMed) Code of Ethics on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals addresses interactions between the technology industry and physicians, recommending appropriate behavior for partners engaged in developing, testing, learning, and applying often complex technical innovations. As this discussion shows, AdvaMed's industry code underscores uniformity between the drug and technology industries where similarities exist yet sets a distinct course where the needs of the two industries diverge. Health care professionals must be keenly aware of the differences and similarities of the overlapping codes of conducts. Provisions for allowable financial support for third-party conferences, sales and promotional meetings, industry-sponsored educational and training meetings, consulting arrangements, gifts to physicians, reimbursement for technical information, and charitable donations are all examined within the AdvaMed code of ethics and compared against codes and compliance guidance adopted by the American Medical Association; the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America; and the US Department of Health and Human Services; Office of Inspector General.

  17. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost. Code description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudiksen, B. V.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Hayek, W.; Leenaarts, J.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona. To understand the details of the atmosphere it is necessary to simulate the whole atmosphere since the different layers interact strongly. These physical regimes are very diverse and it takes a highly efficient massively parallel numerical code to solve the associated equations. Aims: The design, implementation and validation of the massively parallel numerical code Bifrost for simulating stellar atmospheres from the convection zone to the corona. Methods: The code is subjected to a number of validation tests, among them the Sod shock tube test, the Orzag-Tang colliding shock test, boundary condition tests and tests of how the code treats magnetic field advection, chromospheric radiation, radiative transfer in an isothermal scattering atmosphere, hydrogen ionization and thermal conduction. Results.Bifrost completes the tests with good results and shows near linear efficiency scaling to thousands of computing cores.

  18. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.; Brix, M.

    2009-11-26

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  19. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Brix, M.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2009-11-01

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  20. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  1. Sensor Authentication: Embedded Processor Code

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, John

    2012-09-25

    Described is the c code running on the embedded Microchip 32bit PIC32MX575F256H located on the INL developed noise analysis circuit board. The code performs the following functions: Controls the noise analysis circuit board preamplifier voltage gains of 1, 10, 100, 000 Initializes the analog to digital conversion hardware, input channel selection, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, USB communications interface, and internal memory allocations Initiates high resolution 4096 point 200 kHz data acquisition Computes complex 2048 point FFT and FFT magnitude. Services Host command set Transfers raw data to Host Transfers FFT result to host Communication error checking

  2. Guidelines for Coding FORTRAN Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    39529 PE63759N I I CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity July 1982 Code 320 13. NUMBER OF...Element 63759N. ,-! ri ii Contents 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Scope 1 2. CODING FORTRAN STATEMENTS 2 2.1 General Remarks and Sug- 2 gestions 2.2 FORTRAN...Assignment 11 5.3 Masking Assignment 11 5.4 Multiple Assignment 11 6. CONTROL STATEMENTS 11 6.1 GO TO Statement 11 6.1.1 Unconditional GO TO 11 Statement

  3. Radio Losses for Concatenated Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambayati, S.

    2002-07-01

    The advent of higher powered spacecraft amplifiers and better ground receivers capable of tracking spacecraft carrier signals with narrower loop bandwidths requires better understanding of the carrier tracking loss (radio loss) mechanism of the concatenated codes used for deep-space missions. In this article, we present results of simulations performed for a (7,1/2), Reed-Solomon (255,223), interleaver depth-5 concatenated code in order to shed some light on this issue. Through these simulations, we obtained the performance of this code over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel (the baseline performance) in terms of both its frame-error rate (FER) and its bit-error rate at the output of the Reed-Solomon decoder (RS-BER). After obtaining these results, we curve fitted the baseline performance curves for FER and RS-BER and calculated the high-rate radio losses for this code for an FER of 10^(-4) and its corresponding baseline RS-BER of 2.1 x 10^(-6) for a carrier loop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 14.8 dB. This calculation revealed that even though over the AWGN channel the FER value and the RS-BER value correspond to each other (i.e., these values are obtained by the same bit SNR value), the RS-BER value has higher high-rate losses than does the FER value. Furthermore, this calculation contradicted the previous assumption th at at high data rates concatenated codes have the same radio losses as their constituent convolutional codes. Our results showed much higher losses for the FER and the RS-BER (by as much as 2 dB) than for the corresponding baseline BER of the convolutional code. Further simulations were performed to investigate the effects of changes in the data rate on the code's radio losses. It was observed that as the data rate increased the radio losses for both the FER and the RS-BER approached their respective calculated high-rate values. Furthermore, these simulations showed that a simple two-parameter function could model the increase in the

  4. The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Mlawer, Eli; Delamere, Jennifer; Shippert, Timothy; Cole, Jason; Iacono, Michael; Jin, Zhonghai; Li, Jiangnan; Manners, James; Raisanen, Petri; Rose, Fred; Zhang, Yuanchong; Wilson Michael J.; Rossow, William

    2011-01-01

    The computer codes that calculate the energy budget of solar and thermal radiation in Global Climate Models (GCMs), our most advanced tools for predicting climate change, have to be computationally efficient in order to not impose undue computational burden to climate simulations. By using approximations to gain execution speed, these codes sacrifice accuracy compared to more accurate, but also much slower, alternatives. International efforts to evaluate the approximate schemes have taken place in the past, but they have suffered from the drawback that the accurate standards were not validated themselves for performance. The manuscript summarizes the main results of the first phase of an effort called "Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes" (CIRC) where the cases chosen to evaluate the approximate models are based on observations and where we have ensured that the accurate models perform well when compared to solar and thermal radiation measurements. The effort is endorsed by international organizations such as the GEWEX Radiation Panel and the International Radiation Commission and has a dedicated website (i.e., http://circ.gsfc.nasa.gov) where interested scientists can freely download data and obtain more information about the effort's modus operandi and objectives. In a paper published in the March 2010 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society only a brief overview of CIRC was provided with some sample results. In this paper the analysis of submissions of 11 solar and 13 thermal infrared codes relative to accurate reference calculations obtained by so-called "line-by-line" radiation codes is much more detailed. We demonstrate that, while performance of the approximate codes continues to improve, significant issues still remain to be addressed for satisfactory performance within GCMs. We hope that by identifying and quantifying shortcomings, the paper will help establish performance standards to objectively assess radiation code quality

  5. Coding productivity in Sydney public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulos, Vera; Bennett, Adam; McIntosh, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare Sydney public hospitals regarding medical record coding times to compare observed coding times with coding times necessary to avoid backlog and to evaluate the impact on coding time of casemix complexity, coder age, experience, job satisfaction, employment status, and salary. Coding time (in minutes) for each medical record over a two-week period was documented by 61 coders employed in 13 hospitals: six principal referral (PR), six major metropolitan (MM), and one paediatric specialist (PS) hospitals. The mean coding time for each coder was estimated by averaging across coding times for all records during the two-week period. In order to compare hospital mean coding times, the hospitals were grouped into PR and MM/PS groups. The mean coding time necessary to avoid coding backlog (expected coding time) for each hospital group was based on the total number of annual separations and filled full-time equivalent coding positions. The observed mean coding time was longer in the PR group than in the MM/PS group (p = 0.019); however, the observed coding time was within the expected coding time limit in both the PR and MM/PS groups. Casemix complexity tended to influence coding time, but neither age, experience, job satisfaction, employment status nor salary had any impact. In conclusion, the expected coding times, if reliable, indicate that coders in the two hospital groups were keeping coding up-to-date. Thus, the variation between hospital groups in coding time is of little importance, given that the main objective in coding productivity is to maintain the coding workload.

  6. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation...-Oriented Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two... the category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type...

  7. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  8. 7 CFR 201.24 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Code designation. 201.24 Section 201.24 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  9. 7 CFR 201.28 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Code designation. 201.28 Section 201.28 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.28 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the full... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  10. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  11. Advanced Aerospace Materials by Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Djomehri, Jahed; Wei, Chen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The advances in the emerging field of nanophase thermal and structural composite materials; materials with embedded sensors and actuators for morphing structures; light-weight composite materials for energy and power storage; and large surface area materials for in-situ resource generation and waste recycling, are expected to :revolutionize the capabilities of virtually every system comprising of future robotic and :human moon and mars exploration missions. A high-performance multiscale simulation platform, including the computational capabilities and resources of Columbia - the new supercomputer, is being developed to discover, validate, and prototype next generation (of such advanced materials. This exhibit will describe the porting and scaling of multiscale 'physics based core computer simulation codes for discovering and designing carbon nanotube-polymer composite materials for light-weight load bearing structural and 'thermal protection applications.

  12. Convolutional coding combined with continuous phase modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzi, S. V.; Wilson, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Background theory and specific coding designs for combined coding/modulation schemes utilizing convolutional codes and continuous-phase modulation (CPM) are presented. In this paper the case of r = 1/2 coding onto a 4-ary CPM is emphasized, with short-constraint length codes presented for continuous-phase FSK, double-raised-cosine, and triple-raised-cosine modulation. Coding buys several decibels of coding gain over the Gaussian channel, with an attendant increase of bandwidth. Performance comparisons in the power-bandwidth tradeoff with other approaches are made.

  13. A 3D-CFD code for accurate prediction of fluid flows and fluid forces in seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Current and future turbomachinery requires advanced seal configurations to control leakage, inhibit mixing of incompatible fluids and to control the rotodynamic response. In recognition of a deficiency in the existing predictive methodology for seals, a seven year effort was established in 1990 by NASA's Office of Aeronautics Exploration and Technology, under the Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion program, to develop validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) concepts, codes and analyses for seals. The effort will provide NASA and the U.S. Aerospace Industry with advanced CFD scientific codes and industrial codes for analyzing and designing turbomachinery seals. An advanced 3D CFD cylindrical seal code has been developed, incorporating state-of-the-art computational methodology for flow analysis in straight, tapered and stepped seals. Relevant computational features of the code include: stationary/rotating coordinates, cylindrical and general Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC) systems, high order differencing schemes, colocated variable arrangement, advanced turbulence models, incompressible/compressible flows, and moving grids. This paper presents the current status of code development, code demonstration for predicting rotordynamic coefficients, numerical parametric study of entrance loss coefficients for generic annular seals, and plans for code extensions to labyrinth, damping, and other seal configurations.

  14. Multichannel error correction code decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

  15. Tri-Coding of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Timothy J.

    Paivio's Dual Coding Theory has received widespread recognition for its connection between visual and aural channels of internal information processing. The use of only two channels, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the effects witnessed every day. This paper presents a study suggesting the presence a third, kinesthetic channel, currently…

  16. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  17. Overview of CODE V development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Thomas I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is part of a session that is aimed at briefly describing some of today''s optical design software packages with emphasis on the program''s philosophy and technology. CODE V is the ongoing result of a development process that began in the 1960''s it is now the result of many people''s efforts. This paper summarizes the roots of the program some of its history dominant philosophies and technologies that have contributed to its usefulness and some that drive its continued development. ROOTS OF CODE V Conceived in the early 60''s This was at a time when there was skepticism that " automatic design" could design lenses equal or better than " hand" methods. The concepts underlying CODE V and its predecessors were based on ten years of experience and exposure to the problems of a group of lens designers in a design-for-manufacture environment. The basic challenge was to show that lens design could be done better easier and faster by high quality computer-assisted design tools. The earliest development was for our own use as an engineering services organization -an in-house tool for custom design. As a tool it had to make us efficient in providing lens design and engineering services as a self-sustaining business. PHILOSOPHY OF OVTIM!ZATION IN CODE V Error function formation Based on experience as a designer we felt very strongly that there should be a clear separation of

  18. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  19. Changing Postal ZIP Code Boundaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-23

    for distribution to a specific delivery post office, identified by the fourth and fifth digits. For example, the ZIP Code for Alturas , the county seat...distribution point for some California post offices such as Alturas , Cedarville (96104), Fort Bidwell (96112), and Likely (96116), distinguished by the

  20. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  1. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  2. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  3. Dress Codes and Gang Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    1996-01-01

    Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

  4. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  5. Quantum rate-distortion coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Howard

    2000-10-01

    I introduce rate-distortion theory for the coding of quantum information, and derive a lower bound, involving the coherent information, on the rate at which qubits must be used to store or compress an entangled quantum source with a given maximum level of distortion per source emission.

  6. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    SciTech Connect

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-12

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surface codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. Lastly, the specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.

  7. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    DOE PAGES

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-12

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surfacemore » codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. Lastly, the specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.« less

  8. Coded Modulations for Mobile Satellite Communication Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Dojun

    1995-01-01

    The mobile satellite (MSAT) channel is subject to multipath fading, shadowing, Doppler frequency shift, and adjacent channel interference (ACI). Therefore, transmitted signals face severe amplitude and phase distortions. This dissertation investigates various high performance and low decoding complexity coded modulation schemes for reliable voice and data transmissions over the shadowed mobile satellite channel and the Rayleigh fading channel. The dissertation consists of four parts. The first part presents a systematic technique for constructing MPSK trellis coded modulation (TCM) codes for voice transmission over the MSAT channel. The multilevel coding method is used for constructing TCM codes using convolutional codes with good free branch distances as the component codes or using both convolutional and block codes as the component codes. Simulation results show that these codes achieve good coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform existing TCM codes with the same decoding complexity. In the second part, using the multilevel coding method, multilevel block coded modulation (BCM) codes are constructed for voice transmission over the MSAT channel. Even though BCM is generally less power efficient than TCM for AWGN channels, BCM has a great potential to compete with TCM in the MSAT channel because of its shorter decoding depth and hence more effective interleaving. Binary Reed -Muller (RM) codes of length up to 32 are used as component codes. Simulation results show that these codes achieve good coding gains over the uncoded reference system and outperform TCM codes with the same decoding complexity. In the third part, a simple and systematic technique for constructing multilevel concatenated BCM schemes for data transmission over the shadowed MSAT channel and the Rayleigh fading channel is presented. These schemes are designed to achieve high-performance or large coding gain with reduced decoding complexity. Construction is based on a

  9. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Accumulate-repeat-accumulate-accumulate (ARAA) codes have been proposed, inspired by the recently proposed accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA) codes. These are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. ARAA codes can be regarded as serial turbolike codes or as a subclass of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, and, like ARA codes they have projected graph or protograph representations; these characteristics make it possible to design high-speed iterative decoders that utilize belief-propagation algorithms. The objective in proposing ARAA codes as a subclass of ARA codes was to enhance the error-floor performance of ARA codes while maintaining simple encoding structures and low maximum variable node degree.

  10. Transversal Clifford gates on folded surface codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan E.

    2016-10-01

    Surface and color codes are two forms of topological quantum error correction in two spatial dimensions with complementary properties. Surface codes have lower-depth error detection circuits and well-developed decoders to interpret and correct errors, while color codes have transversal Clifford gates and better code efficiency in the number of physical qubits needed to achieve a given code distance. A formal equivalence exists between color codes and folded surface codes, but it does not guarantee the transferability of any of these favorable properties. However, the equivalence does imply the existence of constant-depth circuit implementations of logical Clifford gates on folded surface codes. We achieve and improve this result by constructing two families of folded surface codes with transversal Clifford gates. This construction is presented generally for qudits of any dimension. The specific application of these codes to universal quantum computation based on qubit fusion is also discussed.

  11. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  12. Letting the Data Lead the Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Page 1 of 4 UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. Letting the Data Lead the Code Darryl Bryk...used can radically simplify the code . A simple change to the way data is stored in a file can make a big difference in the code required to read it...This was made apparent recently with some Visual Basic code which would locate a list of numbers based on certain search criteria. The code was about

  13. Colour cyclic code for Brillouin distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Rochat, Etienne

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, a colour cyclic coding (CCC) is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated for Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) distributed sensors. Compared to traditional intensity-modulated cyclic codes, the code presents an additional gain of √2 while keeping the same number of sequences as for a colour coding. A comparison with a standard BOTDA sensor is realized and validates the theoretical coding gain.

  14. The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, A.

    2006-03-01

    In this commentary on the contribution by Arndt Benecke in this issue, I discuss why the notion of “chromatin code” introduced and elaborated in this paper is to be preferred to that of “histone code”. Speaking of a code as regards nucleosome conformation and histone tail post-translational modifications only makes sense within the chromatin fiber, where their physico-chemical features can be translated into regulatory programs at the genome level, by means of a complex, multi-level interplay with the fiber architecture and dynamics settled in the course of Evolution. In particular, this chromatin code presumably exploits allosteric transitions of the chromatin fiber. The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.

  15. The neuronal code(s) of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Heck, Detlef H; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Jaeger, Dieter; Khodakhah, Kamran; Person, Abigail L

    2013-11-06

    Understanding how neurons encode information in sequences of action potentials is of fundamental importance to neuroscience. The cerebellum is widely recognized for its involvement in the coordination of movements, which requires muscle activation patterns to be controlled with millisecond precision. Understanding how cerebellar neurons accomplish such high temporal precision is critical to understanding cerebellar function. Inhibitory Purkinje cells, the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, and their postsynaptic target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, fire action potentials at high, sustained frequencies, suggesting spike rate modulation as a possible code. Yet, millisecond precise spatiotemporal spike activity patterns in Purkinje cells and inferior olivary neurons have also been observed. These results and ongoing studies suggest that the neuronal code used by cerebellar neurons may span a wide time scale from millisecond precision to slow rate modulations, likely depending on the behavioral context.

  16. Superimposed Code Theorectic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    that the hybridization that occurs between a DNA strand and its Watson - Crick complement can be used to perform mathematical computation. This research... Watson - Crick (WC) duplex, e.g., TCGCA TCGCA . Note that non-WC duplexes can form and such a formation is called a cross-hybridization. Cross...5’GAAAGTCGCGTA3’ Watson Crick (WC) Duplexes TACGCGACTTTC Cross Hybridized (CH) Duplexes ATTTTTGCGTTA GAAAAAGAAGAA Coding Strands for Ligation

  17. Secure and Practical Defense Against Code-Injection Attacks using Software Dynamic Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    we describe an implementation that uses a strong cipher algorithm —the Advanced Encryption Stan- dard (AES), to perform randomization. AES is generally...this paper, we will use the term ISR exclu- sively. The basic operation of an ISR system is as follows. An encryption algorithm (typically XOR’ing the...exploits a vulnerability to inject code, the injected code is also decrypted before emulation. Unless the attacker knows the encryption key/process

  18. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  19. Code-excited linear predictive coding of multispectral MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian-Hong; Wang, Yao; Cahill, Patrick

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports a multispectral code excited linear predictive coding method for the compression of well-registered multispectral MR images. Different linear prediction models and the adaptation schemes have been compared. The method which uses forward adaptive autoregressive (AR) model has proven to achieve a good compromise between performance, complexity and robustness. This approach is referred to as the MFCELP method. Given a set of multispectral images, the linear predictive coefficients are updated over non-overlapping square macroblocks. Each macro-block is further divided into several micro-blocks and, the best excitation signals for each microblock are determined through an analysis-by-synthesis procedure. To satisfy the high quality requirement for medical images, the error between the original images and the synthesized ones are further specified using a vector quantizer. The MFCELP method has been applied to 26 sets of clinical MR neuro images (20 slices/set, 3 spectral bands/slice, 256 by 256 pixels/image, 12 bits/pixel). It provides a significant improvement over the discrete cosine transform (DCT) based JPEG method, a wavelet transform based embedded zero-tree wavelet (EZW) coding method, as well as the MSARMA method we developed before.

  20. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  1. Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering : LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-08-01

    Constitutive modeling is an important aspect of computational solid mechanics. Sandia National Laboratories has always had a considerable effort in the development of constitutive models for complex material behavior. However, for this development to be of use the models need to be implemented in our solid mechanics application codes. In support of this important role, the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) has been developed in Engineering Sciences. The library allows for simple implementation of constitutive models by model developers and access to these models by application codes. The library is written in C++ and has a very simple object oriented programming structure. This report summarizes the current status of LAME.

  2. The Mystery Behind the Code: Differentiated Instruction with Quick Response Codes in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Wajciechowski, Misti R.; Scantling, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Quick response codes, better known as QR codes, are small barcodes scanned to receive information about a specific topic. This article explains QR code technology and the utility of QR codes in the delivery of physical education instruction. Consideration is given to how QR codes can be used to accommodate learners of varying ability levels as…

  3. Thermal hydraulic-severe accident code interfaces for SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2

    SciTech Connect

    Coryell, E.W.; Siefken, L.J.; Harvego, E.A.

    1997-07-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system thermal-hydraulic response, core damage progression, and fission product release during severe accidents. The code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the primary sponsorship of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The code is the result of merging the RELAP5, SCDAP, and COUPLE codes. The RELAP5 portion of the code calculates the overall reactor coolant system, thermal-hydraulics, and associated reactor system responses. The SCDAP portion of the code describes the response of the core and associated vessel structures. The COUPLE portion of the code describes response of lower plenum structures and debris and the failure of the lower head. The code uses a modular approach with the overall structure, input/output processing, and data structures following the pattern established for RELAP5. The code uses a building block approach to allow the code user to easily represent a wide variety of systems and conditions through a powerful input processor. The user can represent a wide variety of experiments or reactor designs by selecting fuel rods and other assembly structures from a range of representative core component models, and arrange them in a variety of patterns within the thermalhydraulic network. The COUPLE portion of the code uses two-dimensional representations of the lower plenum structures and debris beds. The flow of information between the different portions of the code occurs at each system level time step advancement. The RELAP5 portion of the code describes the fluid transport around the system. These fluid conditions are used as thermal and mass transport boundary conditions for the SCDAP and COUPLE structures and debris beds.

  4. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabius, H.-J.

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i

  5. RAVEN as Control Logic and Probabilistic Risk Assessment Driver for RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    C. Rabiti; A. Alfonsi; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Martineau

    2012-11-01

    The Next Generation of System Analysis Code (NGSAC) [1] aims to model and simulate the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) thermo-hydraulic behavior with high level of accuracy. In this respect, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing a NGSAC (known as RELAP-7) which will allow to model NPP responses for a set of accident scenarios (e.g., loss of off-site power).

  6. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined.

  7. Advanced propeller research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1987-01-01

    Resent results of aerodynamic and acoustic research on both single and counter-rotation propellers are reviewed. Data and analytical results are presented for three propellers: SR-7A, the single rotation design used in the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA); and F7-A7, the 8+8 counterrotating design used in the proof-of-concept Unducted Fan (UDF) engine. In addition to propeller efficiencies, cruise and takeoff noise, and blade pressure data, off-design phenomena involving formation of leading edge vortices are described. Aerodynamic and acoustic computational results derived from three-dimensional Euler and acoustic radiation codes are presented. Research on unsteady flows, which are particularly important for understanding counterrotation interaction noise, unsteady loading effects on acoustics, and flutter or forced response is described. The first results of three-dimensional unsteady Euler solutions are illustrated for a single rotation propeller at an angle of attack and for a counterrotation propeller. Basic experimental and theoretical results from studies of the unsteady aerodynamics of oscillating cascades are outlined. Finally, advanced concepts involving swirl recovery vanes and ultra bypass ducted propellers are discussed.

  8. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  9. Quantum codes with low weight stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Dumer, Ilya; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2012-02-01

    We study quantum cyclic stabilizer codes whose stabilizer can be always defined by one or two stabilizer generators. Our main goal is to construct low-weight stabilizer generators that can yield quantum codes with high code rate and simple error correction. To do so, we apply the classical quaternary representation of stabilizer codes and extend our recent study of one-generator cyclic codes [1]. For any stabilizer generator of weight four or five, we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for its commutativity. We then proceed with a design of additive cyclic codes with such generators. In some cases, we also extend our commutativity condition and code design to generators of weight six. In particular, quantum cyclic codes with stabilizers of weight four are mapped to the generalized toric codes. Here we also extend the notion of toric codes using a translationally invariant generator and periodic boundary conditions on a two dimensional lattice. Some of our numerically constructed codes can be redefined by means of Code Word Stabilized (CWS) representation [1] as quantum versions of repetition codes. We particularly concentrate on codes with a fixed nonzero rate for which the minimum distance asymptotically grows as the blocklength grows.[4pt] [1] arXiv:1108.5490v1

  10. Dual-code quantum computation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Soo

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we propose the dual-code quantum computation model—a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme which alternates between two different quantum error-correction codes. Since the chosen two codes have different sets of transversal gates, we can implement a universal set of gates transversally, thereby reducing the overall cost. We use code teleportation to convert between quantum states in different codes. The overall cost is decreased if code teleportation requires fewer resources than the fault-tolerant implementation of the non-transversal gate in a specific code. To analyze the cost reduction, we investigate two cases with different base codes, namely the Steane and Bacon-Shor codes. For the Steane code, neither the proposed dual-code model nor another variation of it achieves any cost reduction since the conventional approach is simple. For the Bacon-Shor code, the three proposed variations of the dual-code model reduce the overall cost. However, as the encoding level increases, the cost reduction decreases and becomes negative. Therefore, the proposed dual-code model is advantageous only when the encoding level is low and the cost of the non-transversal gate is relatively high.

  11. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  12. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2010-04-15

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  13. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  14. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  15. GeoPhysical Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-21

    GPAC is a code that integrates open source libraries for element formulations, linear algebra, and I/O with two main LLNL-Written components: (i) a set of standard finite elements physics solvers for rersolving Darcy fluid flow, explicit mechanics, implicit mechanics, and fluid-mediated fracturing, including resolution of contact both implicity and explicity, and (ii) a MPI-based parallelization implementation for use on generic HPC distributed memory architectures. The resultant code can be used alone for linearly elastic problems and problems involving hydraulic fracturing, where the mesh topology is dynamically changed. The key application domain is for low-rate stimulation and fracture control in subsurface reservoirs (e.g., enhanced geothermal sites and unconventional shale gas stimulation). GPAC also has interfaces to call external libraries for, e.g., material models and equations of state; however, LLNL-developed EOS and material models will not be part of the current release.

  16. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards—an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. PMID:27069377

  17. Microgravity computing codes. User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Codes used in microgravity experiments to compute fluid parameters and to obtain data graphically are introduced. The computer programs are stored on two diskettes, compatible with the floppy disk drives of the Apple 2. Two versions of both disks are available (DOS-2 and DOS-3). The codes are written in BASIC and are structured as interactive programs. Interaction takes place through the keyboard of any Apple 2-48K standard system with single floppy disk drive. The programs are protected against wrong commands given by the operator. The programs are described step by step in the same order as the instructions displayed on the monitor. Most of these instructions are shown, with samples of computation and of graphics.

  18. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  19. Verification of Gyrokinetic codes: theoretical background and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronko, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    In fusion plasmas the strong magnetic field allows the fast gyro motion to be systematically removed from the description of the dynamics, resulting in a considerable model simplification and gain of computational time. Nowadays, the gyrokinetic (GK) codes play a major role in the understanding of the development and the saturation of turbulence and in the prediction of the consequent transport. We present a new and generic theoretical framework and specific numerical applications to test the validity and the domain of applicability of existing GK codes. For a sound verification process, the underlying theoretical GK model and the numerical scheme must be considered at the same time, which makes this approach pioneering. At the analytical level, the main novelty consists in using advanced mathematical tools such as variational formulation of dynamics for systematization of basic GK code's equations to access the limits of their applicability. The indirect verification of numerical scheme is proposed via the Benchmark process. In this work, specific examples of code verification are presented for two GK codes: the multi-species electromagnetic ORB5 (PIC), and the radially global version of GENE (Eulerian). The proposed methodology can be applied to any existing GK code. We establish a hierarchy of reduced GK Vlasov-Maxwell equations using the generic variational formulation. Then, we derive and include the models implemented in ORB5 and GENE inside this hierarchy. At the computational level, detailed verification of global electromagnetic test cases based on the CYCLONE are considered, including a parametric β-scan covering the transition between the ITG to KBM and the spectral properties at the nominal β value.

  20. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Athalye, Rahul A.; Sivaraman, Deepak; Elliott, Douglas B.; Liu, Bing; Bartlett, Rosemarie

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.