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Sample records for advanced transport operating

  1. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  3. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  4. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  5. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  6. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  7. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  8. A simulation study of crew performance in operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A simulation study assessing crew performance operating an advanced transport aircraft in an automated terminal area environment is described. The linking together of the Langley Advanced Transport Operating Systems Aft Flight Deck Simulator with the Terminal Area Air Traffic Model Simulation was required. The realism of an air traffic control (ATC) environment with audio controller instructions for the flight crews and the capability of inserting a live aircraft into the terminal area model to interact with computer generated aircraft was provided. Crew performance using the advanced displays and two separate control systems (automatic and manual) in flying area navigation routes in the automated ATC environment was assessed. Although the crews did not perform as well using the manual control system, their performances were within acceptable operational limits with little increase in workload. The crews favored using the manual control system and felt they were more alert and aware of their environment when using it.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-04-30

    This is the third quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Jan. 1, 2002 and Mar. 31, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop, progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); and (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  11. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 3 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between Oct 1, 2001 and Dec. 31, 2001. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Collection System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Evren Ozbayoglu; Lei Zhou

    2002-07-30

    This is the fourth quarterly progress report for Year-3 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between April 1, 2002 and June 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)''; (c) Research project (Task 9b): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions''; (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''; (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b); (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S); (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira

    2000-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between July 14, 2000 and September 30, 2000. This report presents information on the following specific tasks: (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development (Task 2), (b) Progress on research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress on research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress on research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress on research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Initiate research on project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Progress on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution (Tasks 11), and Foam properties (Task 12), (h) Initiate a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. Since the previous Task 1 has been completed, we will now designate this new task as: (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  15. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk, Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2002-10-30

    This is the first quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between July 1, 2002 and Sept. 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System, (b) New Research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions'', (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings (Task 12), Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

  16. Advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.; Hethcoat, J. P.; Page, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Projected growth in space transportation capabilities beyond the initial Space Shuttle is discussed in terms of earth-to-low-orbit launch vehicles as well as transportation beyond low orbit (orbit transfer vehicles). Growth versions of the Shuttle and heavy-lift derivatives of the Shuttle are shown conceptually. More advanced launch vehicle concepts are also shown, based on rocket propulsion or combinations of rocket and air-breathing propulsion. Orbit transfer vehicle concepts for personnel transport and for cargo transport are discussed, including chemical rocket as well as electric propulsion. Finally, target levels of capability and efficiencies for later time periods are discussed and compared with the prospective vehicle concepts mentioned earlier.

  17. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  18. Advanced transport operating system software upgrade: Flight management/flight controls software description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Debure, Kelly R.; Dickson, Richard W.; Heaphy, William J.; Parks, Mark A.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Wolverton, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software for the Norden 2 (PDP-11/70M) computer installed on the NASA 737 aircraft is described. The software computes the navigation position estimates, guidance commands, those commands to be issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight based on the modes selected on the Advanced Guidance Control System (AGSC) mode panel, and the flight path selected via the Navigation Control/Display Unit (NCDU).

  19. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  2. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  3. Advanced space transportation technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Rishi S.

    1989-01-01

    A wide range of propulsion technologies for space transportation are discussed in the literature. It is clear from the literature review that a single propulsion technology cannot satisfy the many mission needs in space. Many of the technologies tested, proposed, or in experimental stages relate to: chemical and nuclear fuel; radiative and corpuscular external energy source; tethers; cannons; and electromagnetic acceleration. The scope and limitation of these technologies is well tabulated in the literature. Prior experience has shown that an extensive amount of fuel needs to be carried along for the return mission. This requirement puts additional constraints on the lift off rocket technology and limits the payload capacity. Consider the possibility of refueling in space. If the return fuel supply is guaranteed, it will not only be possible to lift off more payload but also to provide security and safety of the mission. Exploration to deep space where solar sails and thermal effects fade would also be possible. Refueling would also facilitate travel on the planet of exploration. This aspect of space transportation prompts the present investigation. The particle emissions from the Sun's corona will be collected under three different conditions: in space closer to the Sun, in the Van Allen Belts; and on the Moon. It is proposed to convert the particle state into gaseous, liquid, or solid state and store it for refueling space vehicles. These facilities may be called space pump stations and the fuel collected as space fuel. Preliminary estimates of fuel collection at all three sites will be made. Future work will continue towards advancing the art of collection rate and design schemes for pumping stations.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu; Sri Suresh Kumar Thiroveedhula

    2000-04-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with water under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic drilling fluids. Initial calibration tests have been conducted by using water. Currently, the base oil of the Petrobras synthetic drilling fluid is being tested. Foam flow experiments have been conducted. Currently, more experiments are being conducted while data are being analyzed to characterize the rheology of the foam. Cuttings transport experiments have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Preliminary results have shown that it may not be possible to avoid cuttings bed deposition under any practical combination of air and water flow rates. Foam stability analyses have been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. A software for controlling the data sampling and data storage during cuttings monitoring process have been developed.

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  6. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  7. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-04-30

    Experiments on the flow loop are continuing. Improvements to the software for data acquisition are being made as additional experience with three-phase flow is gained. Modifications are being made to the Cuttings Injection System in order to improve control and the precision of cuttings injection. The design details for a drill-pipe Rotation System have been completed. A US Patent was filed on October 28, 2002 for a new design for an instrument that can generate a variety of foams under elevated pressures and temperatures and then transfer the test foam to a viscometer for measurements of viscosity. Theoretical analyses of cuttings transport phenomena based on a layered model is under development. Calibrations of two nuclear densitometers have been completed. Baseline tests have been run to determine wall roughness in the 4 different tests sections (i.e. 2-in, 3-in, 4-in pipes and 5.76-in by 3.5-in annulus) of the flow loop. Tests have also been conducted with aerated fluids at EPET conditions. Preliminary experiments on the two candidate aqueous foam formulations were conducted which included rheological tests of the base fluid and foam stability reports. These were conducted after acceptance of the proposal on the Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature Conditions. Preparation of a test matrix for cuttings-transport experiments with foam in the ACTF is also under way. A controller for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration and distribution has been designed that can control four transceivers at a time. A prototype of the control circuit board was built and tested. Tests showed that there was a problem with radiated noise. AN improved circuit board was designed and sent to an external expert to verify the new design. The new board is being fabricated and will first be tested with static water and gravel in an annulus at elevated temperatures. A series of viscometer tests to measure foam properties have

  10. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  11. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower level

  12. Advanced Operating System Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittolin, Sergio; Riccardi, Fabio; Vascotto, Sandro

    In this paper we describe an R&D effort to define an OS architecture suitable for the requirements of the Data Acquisition and Control of an LHC experiment. Large distributed computing systems are foreseen to be the core part of the DAQ and Control system of the future LHC experiments. Neworks of thousands of processors, handling dataflows of several gigaBytes per second, with very strict timing constraints (microseconds), will become a common experience in the following years. Problems like distributyed scheduling, real-time communication protocols, failure-tolerance, distributed monitoring and debugging will have to be faced. A solid software infrastructure will be required to manage this very complicared environment, and at this moment neither CERN has the necessary expertise to build it, nor any similar commercial implementation exists. Fortunately these problems are not unique to the particle and high energy physics experiments, and the current research work in the distributed systems field, especially in the distributed operating systems area, is trying to address many of the above mentioned issues. The world that we are going to face in the next ten years will be quite different and surely much more interconnected than the one we see now. Very ambitious projects exist, planning to link towns, nations and the world in a single "Data Highway". Teleconferencing, Video on Demend, Distributed Multimedia Applications are just a few examples of the very demanding tasks to which the computer industry is committing itself. This projects are triggering a great research effort in the distributed, real-time micro-kernel based operating systems field and in the software enginering areas. The purpose of our group is to collect the outcame of these different research efforts, and to establish a working environment where the different ideas and techniques can be tested, evaluated and possibly extended, to address the requirements of a DAQ and Control System suitable for LHC

  13. Overview of NASA Advanced Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashford, Rose; Jacobsen, R. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A General Overview of NASA Advanced Transportation Technologies Program is presented. The contents include: 1) Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) which provides automation tools to assist air traffic controllers in planning and controlling air traffic arriving into major airports; 2) Surface Movement Advisor (SMA) for expediting and optimizing aircraft operations on the airport surface; and 3) Terminal Area Productivity Program (TAP), which is aimed at improving airport throughput in instrument meteorological conditions to match that attainable in clear weather.

  14. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  15. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  16. Test Operations Procedure (TOP): Transportability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    respectively. The barge carrier/mother ship is self-sustaining. The LASH system uses a gantry crane to load its lighters, while the SEABEE system has an...and lateral pull restraints Boom/Overhead crane anchors Vertical (up/down) load application Horizontal load application device To apply load in...test operations 2.1.4 Marine Transportability. Item Requirement Marine vessel Means of loading cargo with ship crane Dockside or on-board

  17. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  18. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Several concepts for possible future airplanes, including all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multibody airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear-powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long-range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short-range feeder airplanes are described. Performance and economic advantages of each concept are indicated. Further research is recommended in the following areas: all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  19. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Hypersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; McClinton, Charles; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. NASA's third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational in approximately 25 years. The goals for third generation launch systems are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop third generation space transportation technologies. The Hypersonics Investment Area, part of ASTP, is developing the third generation launch vehicle technologies in two main areas, propulsion and airframes. The program's major investment is in hypersonic airbreathing propulsion since it offers the greatest potential for meeting the third generation launch vehicles. The program will mature the technologies in three key propulsion areas, scramjets, rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combination cycle. Ground and flight propulsion tests are being planned for the propulsion technologies. Airframe technologies will be matured primarily through ground testing. This paper describes NASA's activities in hypersonics. Current programs, accomplishments, future plans and technologies that are being pursued by the Hypersonics Investment Area under the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office will be discussed.

  20. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  1. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  2. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  3. NLS Advanced Development - Launch operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO), one of a number of the USAF's National Launch System (NLS) Launch Operations projects whose aim is to research, develop and apply new technologies and more efficient approaches toward launch operations. The goal of the ALO project is to develop generic control and monitor software for launch operation subsystems. The result is enhanced reliability of system design, and reduced software development and retention of expert knowledge throughout the life-cycle of the system.

  4. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  5. Outlook for advanced concepts in transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air transportation demand trends, air transportation system goals, and air transportation system trends well into the 21st century were examined in detail. The outlook is for continued growth in both air passenger travel and air freight movements. The present system, with some improvements, is expected to continue to the turn of the century and to utilize technologically upgraded, derivative versions of today's aircraft, plus possibly some new aircraft for supersonic long haul, short haul, and high density commuter service. Severe constraints of the system, expected by early in the 21st century, should lead to innovations at the airport, away from the airport, and in the air. The innovations are illustrated by descriptions of three candidate systems involving advanced aircraft concepts. Advanced technologies and vehicles expected to impact the airport are illustrated by descriptions of laminar flow control aircraft, very large air freighters and cryogenically fueled transports.

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  7. Propulsion technology for an advanced subsonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.; Antl, R. J.; Povolny, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Engine design studies for future subsonic commercial transport aircraft were conducted in parallel with airframe studies. These studies surveyed a broad distribution of design variables, including aircraft configuration, payload, range, and speed, with particular emphasis on reducing noise and exhaust emissions without severe economic and performance penalties. The results indicated that an engine for an advanced transport would be similar to the currently emerging turbofan engines. Application of current technology in the areas of noise suppression and combustors imposed severe performance and economic penalties.

  8. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of peformance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays, etc.) and the human operator. In the Remote Control Engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  9. Elements of an advanced integrated operator control station

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, M.M.; Kreifeldt, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    One of the critical determinants of performance for any remotely operated maintenance system is the compatibility achieved between elements of the man/machine interface (e.g., master manipulator controller, controls, displays) and the human operator. In the remote control engineering task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, considerable attention has been devoted to optimizing the man/machine interface of the operator control station. This system must be considered an integral element of the overall maintenance work system which includes transporters, manipulators, remote viewing, and other parts. The control station must reflect the integration of the operator team, control/display panels, manipulator master controllers, and remote viewing monitors. Human factors principles and experimentation have been used in the development of an advanced integrated operator control station designed for the advance servomanipulator. Key features of this next-generation design are summarized in this presentation. 7 references, 4 figures.

  10. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  11. Advanced Terrain Displays for Transport Category Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Map Displays, Terrain Displays, DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC THROUGH Pilo t Performance, THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE , Cockp •t...DOT/FAA/RD-9214 Advanced Terran Wigays DOT-VNTSC-FAA-92-4 frTaaotCta Research and Development Servic fo rasor atgr Washington, DC 20591 Aircraft...U.S. Department of Transportation Final Report Federal Aviation Administration January 1991-Sept. 1991 Research and Development Service Washington, DC

  12. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  13. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  14. Operator scheduling at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1998-06-01

    Scheduling Operations staff at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has evolved from 5 shifts/week for commissioning operations in 1992 to the present 24 hour/day, 21 shift coverage as the ALS went to full operation for users. A number of schedules were developed and implemented in an effort to accommodate changing ALS shift coverage requirements. The present work schedule and the lessons learned, address a number of issues that are useful to any facility that is operating 24 hours/day, 7 days/week.

  15. EarthScope's Transportable Array: Advancing Eastward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R. W.; Vernon, F.; Newman, R. L.; Astiz, L.

    2006-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array has installed more than 200 high-quality broadband seismic stations over the last 3 years in the western US. These stations have a nominal spacing of 70 km and are part of an eventual 400 station array that migrates from west to east at a rate of 18 stations per month. The full 400 stations will be operating by September 2007. Stations have a residence time of about 2 years before being relocated to the next site. Throughout the continental US, 1623 sites are expected to be occupied. Standardized procedures and protocols have been developed to streamline all aspects of Transportable Array operations, from siting to site construction and installation to equipment purchasing and data archiving. Earned Value Management tools keep facility installation and operation on budget and schedule. A diverse, yet efficient, infrastructure installs and maintains the Transportable Array. Sensors, dataloggers, and other equipment are received and tested by the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center and shipped to regional storage facilities. To engage future geoscientists in the project, students are trained to conduct field and analytical reconnaissance to identify suitable seismic station sites. Contract personnel are used for site verification; vault construction; and installation of sensors, power, and communications systems. IRIS staff manages permitting, landowner communications, and station operations and maintenance. Seismic signal quality and metadata are quality-checked at the Array Network Facility at the University of California-San Diego and simultaneously archived at the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Station equipment has been specifically designed for low power, remote, unattended operation and uses diverse two-way IP communications for real-time transmission. Digital cellular services, VSAT satellite, and commercial DSL, cable or wireless transport services are employed. Automatic monitoring of status, signal quality and

  16. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry Todd

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce operations cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing operations cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies.

  17. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, James N.; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions. PMID:28344778

  18. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, James N; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions.

  19. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  20. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Ebert, Thomas; Cox, Rachel; Rahmatian, Laila; Wood, James; Schuler, Jason; Nick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) excavator robot is a teleoperated mobility platform with a space regolith excavation capability. This more compact, lightweight design (<50 kg) has counterrotating bucket drums, which results in a net-zero reaction horizontal force due to the self-cancellation of the symmetrical, equal but opposing, digging forces.

  1. Advanced valve motor operator diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, C.

    1989-01-01

    A brief summary of the current use of diagnostic applications to motor-operated valves (MOVs) to satisfy the requirements of IE Bulletin 85-03, IE 85-03 (Supplement 1), and preventive maintenance applications is presented in this paper. This paper explains a new system for diagnostics, signature analysis, and direct measurement of actual load on MOV in the closed direction. This advanced valve motor operator diagnostic system (AVMODS) system comprises two complementary segments: (1) valve motor operator diagnostic system (V-MODS) and (2) motor current signature analysis (MCSA). AVMODS technical considerations regarding V-MODS and MCSA are discussed.

  2. Application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coussens, T. G.; Tullis, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and economic benefits available by incorporation of advanced technologies into the small, short haul air transport were assessed. Low cost structure and advanced composite material, advanced turboprop engines and new propellers, advanced high lift systems and active controls; and alternate aircraft configurations with aft mounted engines were investigated. Improvements in fuel consumed and aircraft economics (acquisition cost and direct operating cost) are available by incorporating selected advanced technologies into the small, short haul aircraft.

  3. Centaur operations at the space station: Cost and transportation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to expand on the results of an initial study entitled Centaur Operations at the Space Station. The previous study developed technology demonstration missions (TDMs) that utilized the Centaur G-prime upper stage to advance OTV technologies required for accomodations and operations at the Space Station. An initial evaluation was performed of the cost to NASA for TDM implementation. Due to the potential for commercial communication satellite operation utilizing the TDM hardware, an evaluation of the Centaur's transportation potential was also performed.

  4. Terminal area considerations for an advanced CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Projected future conditions at large urban airports were used to identify design objectives for a long-haul, advanced transport airplane introduced for operation in the mid-1980s. Operating constraints associated with airport congestion and aircraft noise and emissions were of central interest. In addition, some of the interaction of these constraints with aircraft fuel usage were identified. The study allowed for advanced aircraft design features consistent with the future operating period. A baseline 200 passenger airplane design was modified to comply with design requirements imposed by terminal area constraints. Specific design changes included: (1) modification of engine arrangement; wing planform; (2) drag and spoiler surfaces; (3) secondary power systems; (4) brake and landing gear characteristics; and (5) the aircraft avionics. These changes, based on exploratory design estimates and allowing for technology advance, were judged to enable the airplane to: reduce wake turbulence; handle steeper descent paths with fewer limitation due to engine characteristics; reduce runway occupancy times; improve community noise contours; and reduce the total engine emittants deposited in the terminal area. The penalties to airplane performance and operating cost associated with improving the terminal area characteristics of the airplane were assessed. Finally, key research problems requiring solution in order to validate the assumed advanced airplane technology were identified.

  5. Transport systems research vehicle color display system operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, Wesley C.; Johnson, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    A recent upgrade of the Transport Systems Research Vehicle operated by the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program Office at the NASA Langley Research Center has resulted in an all-glass panel in the research flight deck. Eight ARINC-D size CRT color displays make up the panel. A major goal of the display upgrade effort was ease of operation and maintenance of the hardware while maintaining versatility needed for flight research. Software is the key to this required versatility and will be the area demanding the most detailed technical design expertise. This document is is intended to serve as a single source of quick reference information needed for routine operation and system level maintenance. Detailed maintenance and modification of the display system will require specific design documentation and must be accomplished by individuals with specialized knowledge and experience.

  6. Advanced Civil Transport Simulator Cockpit View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Civil Transport Simulator (ACTS) is a futuristic aircraft cockpit simulator designed to provide full-mission capabilities for researching issues that will affect future transport aircraft flight stations and crews. The objective is to heighten the pilots situation awareness through improved information availability and ease of interpretation in order to reduce the possibility of misinterpreted data. The simulators five 13-inch Cathode Ray Tubes are designed to display flight information in a logical easy-to-see format. Two color flat panel Control Display Units with touch sensitive screens provide monitoring and modification of aircraft parameters, flight plans, flight computers, and aircraft position. Three collimated visual display units have been installed to provide out-the-window scenes via the Computer Generated Image system. The major research objectives are to examine needs for transfer of information to and from the flight crew; study the use of advanced controls and displays for all-weather flying; explore ideas for using computers to help the crew in decision making; study visual scanning and reach behavior under different conditions with various levels of automation and flight deck-arrangements.

  7. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability begining in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Also evaluated was the technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts and the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  8. Advancing Autonomous Operations Technologies for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig; Thompson, Jerry T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of implementing advanced autonomous technologies supporting operations of future NASA missions. The ability for crewed, uncrewed and even ground support systems to be capable of mission support without external interaction or control has become essential as space exploration moves further out into the solar system. The push to develop and utilize autonomous technologies for NASA mission operations stems in part from the need to reduce cost while improving and increasing capability and safety. This paper will provide examples of autonomous technologies currently in use at NASA and will identify opportunities to advance existing autonomous technologies that will enhance mission success by reducing cost, ameliorating inefficiencies, and mitigating catastrophic anomalies

  9. Space transportation system biomedical operations support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    The shift of the Space Transportation System (STS) flight tests of the orbiter vehicle to the preparation and flight of the payloads is discussed. Part of this change is the transition of the medical and life sciences aspects of the STS flight operations to reflect the new state. The medical operations, the life sciences flight experiments support requirements and the intramural research program expected to be at KSC during the operational flight period of the STS and a future space station are analyzed. The adequacy of available facilities, plans, and resources against these future needs are compared; revisions and/or alternatives where appropriate are proposed.

  10. NASA Noise Reduction Program for Advanced Subsonic Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft noise is an important byproduct of the world's air transportation system. Because of growing public interest and sensitivity to noise, noise reduction technology is becoming increasingly important to the unconstrained growth and utilization of the air transportation system. Unless noise technology keeps pace with public demands, noise restrictions at the international, national and/or local levels may unduly constrain the growth and capacity of the system to serve the public. In recognition of the importance of noise technology to the future of air transportation as well as the viability and competitiveness of the aircraft that operate within the system, NASA, the FAA and the industry have developed noise reduction technology programs having application to virtually all classes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft envisioned to operate far into the 21st century. The purpose of this paper is to describe the scope and focus of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction program with emphasis on the advanced technologies that form the foundation of the program.

  11. Advanced Reactors Thermal Energy Transport for Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; S.J. Yoon; M.G. McKellar; C. Stoots; George Griffith

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as liquid fuel production, district heating, desalination, hydrogen production, and other process heat applications, etc. Some of the major technology challenges that must be overcome before the advanced reactors could be licensed on the reactor side are qualification of next generation of nuclear fuel, materials that can withstand higher temperature, improvement in power cycle thermal efficiency by going to combined cycles, SCO2 cycles, successful demonstration of advanced compact heat exchangers in the prototypical conditions, and from the process side application the challenge is to transport the thermal energy from the reactor to the process plant with maximum efficiency (i.e., with minimum temperature drop). The main focus of this study is on doing a parametric study of efficient heat transport system, with different coolants (mainly, water, He, and molten salts) to determine maximum possible distance that can be achieved.

  12. Advances in coiled-tubing operating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. II

    1997-06-01

    The expansion of coiled tubing (CT) applications into spooled flowlines, spooled completions, and CT drilling continues to grow at an accelerated rate. For many users within the oil and gas industry, the CT industry appears to be poised on the threshold of the next logical step in its evolution, the creation of a fully integrated operating system. However, for CT to evolve into such an operating system, the associated services must be robust and sufficiently reliable to support the needs of exploration, development drilling, completion, production management, and wellbore-retirement operations both technically and economically. The most critical hurdle to overcome in creating a CT-based operating system is a fundamental understanding of the operating scope and physical limitations of CT technology. The complete list of mechanisms required to advance CT into an operating system is large and complex. However, a few key issues (such as formal education, training, standardization, and increased levels of experience) can accelerate the transition. These factors are discussed.

  13. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  14. Automated Operations Development for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Automated space operations command and control software development and its implementation must be an integral part of the vehicle design effort. The software design must encompass autonomous fault detection, isolation, recovery capabilities and also provide "single button" intelligent functions for the crew. Development, operations and safety approval experience with the Timeliner system onboard the International Space Station (ISS), which provided autonomous monitoring with response and single command functionality of payload systems, can be built upon for future automated operations as the ISS Payload effort was the first and only autonomous command and control system to be in continuous execution (6 years), 24 hours a day, 7 days a week within a crewed spacecraft environment. Utilizing proven capabilities from the ISS Higher Active Logic (HAL) System, along with the execution component design from within the HAL 9000 Space Operating System, this design paper will detail the initial HAL System software architecture and interfaces as applied to NASA's Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) in support of the Advanced Exploration Systems, Autonomous Mission Operations project. The development and implementation of integrated simulators within this development effort will also be detailed and is the first step in verifying the HAL 9000 Integrated Test-Bed Component [2] designs effectiveness. This design paper will conclude with a summary of the current development status and future development goals as it pertains to automated command and control for the HDU.

  15. Transportable Xenon Laboratory (TXL-1) Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Robert C.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Willett, Jesse A.; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-03-07

    The Transportable Xenon Laboratory Operations Manual is a guide to set up and shut down TXL, a fully contained laboratory made up of instruments to identify and measure concentrations of the radioactive isotopes of xenon by taking air samples and analyzing them. The TXL is housed in a standard-sized shipping container. TXL can be shipped to and function in any country in the world.

  16. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher

  17. Advanced cockpit technology for future civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A review is presented of advanced cockpit technology for future civil transport aircraft, covering the present state-of-the-art and major technologies, including flat-panel displays, graphics and pictorial displays. Pilot aiding/automation/human-centered design and imaging sensor/flight systems technology (for low-visibility operations) are also presented. NASA Langley Research Center's recent results in pictorial displays and on future developments in large-screen display technologies are discussed. Major characteristics foreseen for the future high-speed civil transport include fault-tolerant digital avionics and controls/displays with extensive human-centered automation, and unusually clean, uncluttered interface with natural crew interaction via touch, voice/tactile means.

  18. RASSOR - Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Mueller, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) is a lightweight excavator for mining in reduced gravity. RASSOR addresses the need for a lightweight (<100 kg) robot that is able to overcome excavation reaction forces while operating in reduced gravity environments such as the moon or Mars. A nominal mission would send RASSOR to the moon to operate for five years delivering regolith feedstock to a separate chemical plant, which extracts oxygen from the regolith using H2 reduction methods. RASSOR would make 35 trips of 20 kg loads every 24 hours. With four RASSORs operating at one time, the mission would achieve 10 tonnes of oxygen per year (8 t for rocket propellant and 2 t for life support). Accessing craters in space environments may be extremely hard and harsh due to volatile resources - survival is challenging. New technologies and methods are required. RASSOR is a product of KSC Swamp Works which establishes rapid, innovative and cost effective exploration mission solutions by leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  19. Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Project, Final Document Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Wold, Sheryl (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This CD ROM contains a compilation of the final documents of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AAIT) project, which was an eight-year (1996 to 2004), $400M project managed by the Airspace Systems Program office, which was part of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. AAIT focused on developing advanced automation tools and air traffic management concepts that would help improve the efficiency of the National Airspace System, while maintaining or enhancing safety. The documents contained in the CD are final reports on AAIT tasks that serve to document the project's accomplishments over its eight-year term. Documents include information on: Advanced Air Transportation Technologies, Autonomous Operations Planner, Collaborative Arrival Planner, Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management Concept Elements 5, 6, & 11, Direct-To, Direct-To Technology Transfer, Expedite Departure Path, En Route Data Exchange, Final Approach Spacing Tool - (Active and Passive), Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor, Multi Center Traffic Management Advisor Technology Transfer, Surface Movement Advisor, Surface Management System, Surface Management System Technology Transfer and Traffic Flow Management Research & Development.

  20. Assessment of the application of advanced technologies to subsonic CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graef, J. D.; Sallee, G. P.; Verges, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Design studies of the application of advanced technologies to future transport aircraft were conducted. These studies were reviewed from the perspective of an air carrier. A fundamental study of the elements of airplane operating cost was performed, and the advanced technologies were ranked in order of potential profit impact. Recommendations for future study areas are given.

  1. Advanced space transportation systems, BARGOUZIN booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prampolini, Marco; Louaas, Eric; Prel, Yves; Kostromin, Sergey; Panichkin, Nickolay; Sumin, Yuriy; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Rigault, Michel; Beaurain, André; Couteau, Jean-Noël

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of Advanced Space Transportation Systems Studies sponsored by CNES in 2006, a study called "BARGOUZIN" was performed by a joint team led by ASTRIUM ST and TSNIIMASH. Beyond these leaders, the team comprised MOLNIYA, DASSAULT AVIATION and SNECMA as subcontractors. The "BARGOUZIN" concept is a liquid fuelled fly-back booster (LFBB), mounted on the ARIANE 5 central core stage in place of the current solid rocket booster. The main originality of the concept lies in the fact that the "BARGOUZIN" features a cluster of VULCAIN II engines, similar to the one mounted on the central core stage of ARIANE 5. An astute permutation strategy, between the booster engines and central core engine is expected to lead to significant cost reductions. The following aspects were addressed during the preliminary system study: engine number per booster trade-off/abort scenario analysis, aerodynamic consolidation, engine reliability, ascent controllability, ground interfaces separation sequence analysis, programmatics. These topics will be briefly presented and synthesized in this paper, giving an overview of the credibility of the concept.

  2. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  3. Advanced kick detection systems improve HPHT operations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, T.W.R.; Hendriks, P.; Surewaard, J.H.G.

    1995-09-01

    Many high-pressure, high-temperature (HPHT) wells are often characterized by the small margins that can exist between pore pressure and formation strength. Therefore, it is not surprising that kicks are far more likely to occur in HPHT wells and that a greater risk of internal blowout exists. The development and application of advanced kick detection systems for HPHT wells can help manage risks and improve drilling efficiency. Such systems enable earlier well shut-in, minimizing both the influx volume and the subsequent well bore pressures. This in turn lowers the risk, time and cost required for well control operations. Carefully considered application of these systems can also justify favorable economic benefits by optimization of the HPHT preliminary casing design. Minimizing kick volume can be important for the critical HPHT hole sections, where a reduced operating margin between pore pressure and fracture gradient exists, defining small design kick tolerance limits to permit safe drilling ahead to reach specified objectives. Kick detection for HPHT wells equivalent to less than 5 bbl of gas influx are often necessary to adequately minimize the risk of internal blowout and obtain the same levels of safety which are applied to conventional wells. This paper reviews these systems for both on-shore and off-shore operations.

  4. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  5. A space transportation system operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a description of a computer program which permits assessment of the operational support requirements of space transportation systems functioning in both a ground- and space-based environment. The scenario depicted provides for the delivery of payloads from Earth to a space station and beyond using upper stages based at the station. Model results are scenario dependent and rely on the input definitions of delivery requirements, task times, and available resources. Output is in terms of flight rate capabilities, resource requirements, and facility utilization. A general program description, program listing, input requirements, and sample output are included.

  6. The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB): recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tsu, Brian V.; Ahmed, Muhammad Saad; Li, Chun; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) is a freely accessible reference database for transport protein research, which provides structural, functional, mechanistic, evolutionary and disease/medical information about transporters from organisms of all types. TCDB is the only transport protein classification database adopted by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). It consists of more than 10 000 non-redundant transport systems with more than 11 000 reference citations, classified into over 1000 transporter families. Transporters in TCDB can be single or multi-component systems, categorized in a functional/phylogenetic hierarchical system of classes, subclasses, families, subfamilies and transport systems. TCDB also includes updated software designed to analyze the distinctive features of transport proteins, extending its usefulness. Here we present a comprehensive update of the database contents and features and summarize recent discoveries recorded in TCDB. PMID:26546518

  7. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristic of semispan commercial transport model with wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller operating in reverse thrust. [conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Gile, Brenda E.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the effect of the reverse-thrust flow field of a wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan subsonic high-lift transport model. The advanced ducted propeller (ADP) model was mounted separately in position alongside the wing so that only the aerodynamic interference of the propeller and nacelle affected the aerodynamic performance of the transport model. Mach numbers ranged from 0.14 to 0.26; corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The reverse-thrust flow field of the ADP shielded a portion of the wing from the free-stream airflow and reduced both lift and drag. The reduction in lift and drag was a function of ADP rotational speed and free-stream velocity. Test results included ground effects data for the transport model and ADP configuration. The ground plane caused a beneficial increase in drag and an undesirable slight increase in lift. The ADP and transport model performance in ground effect was similar to performance trends observed for out of ground effect. The test results form a comprehensive data set that supports the application of the ADP engine and airplane concept on the next generation of advanced subsonic transports. Before this investigation, the engine application was predicted to have detrimental ground effect characteristics. Ground effect test measurements indicated no critical problems and were the first step in proving the viability of this engine and airplane configuration.

  9. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  10. Transportation Safety Excellence in Operations Through Improved Transportation Safety Document

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Michael A. Lehto; MAL

    2007-05-01

    A recent accomplishment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Nuclear Safety analysis group was to obtain DOE-ID approval for the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantity radioactive/fissionable waste in Department of Transportation (DOT) Type A drums at MFC. This accomplishment supported excellence in operations through safety analysis by better integrating nuclear safety requirements with waste requirements in the Transportation Safety Document (TSD); reducing container and transport costs; and making facility operations more efficient. The MFC TSD governs and controls the inter-facility transfer of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials in non-DOT approved containers. Previously, the TSD did not include the capability to transfer payloads of greater-than-Hazard-Category-3 radioactive and/or fissionable materials using DOT Type A drums. Previous practice was to package the waste materials to less-than-Hazard-Category-3 quantities when loading DOT Type A drums for transfer out of facilities to reduce facility waste accumulations. This practice allowed operations to proceed, but resulted in drums being loaded to less than the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) waste limits, which was not cost effective or operations friendly. An improved and revised safety analysis was used to gain DOE-ID approval for adding this container configuration to the MFC TSD safety basis. In the process of obtaining approval of the revised safety basis, safety analysis practices were used effectively to directly support excellence in operations. Several factors contributed to the success of MFC’s effort to obtain approval for the use of DOT Type A drums, including two practices that could help in future safety basis changes at other facilities. 1) The process of incorporating the DOT Type A drums into the TSD at MFC helped to better integrate nuclear safety

  11. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  12. Advanced propulsion for LEO-Moon transport. 3: Transportation model. M.S. Thesis - California Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, Mark W.

    1992-01-01

    A simplified computational model of low Earth orbit-Moon transportation system has been developed to provide insight into the benefits of new transportation technologies. A reference transportation infrastructure, based upon near-term technology developments, is used as a departure point for assessing other, more advanced alternatives. Comparison of the benefits of technology application, measured in terms of a mass payback ratio, suggests that several of the advanced technology alternatives could substantially improve the efficiency of low Earth orbit-Moon transportation.

  13. Recent advances in understanding hepatic drug transport

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Cells need to strictly control their internal milieu, a function which is performed by the plasma membrane. Selective passage of molecules across the plasma membrane is controlled by transport proteins. As the liver is the central organ for drug metabolism, hepatocytes are equipped with numerous drug transporters expressed at the plasma membrane. Drug disposition includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of a drug and hence multiple passages of drugs and their metabolites across membranes. Consequently, understanding the exact mechanisms of drug transporters is essential both in drug development and in drug therapy. While many drug transporters are expressed in hepatocytes, and some of them are well characterized, several transporters have only recently been identified as new drug transporters. Novel powerful tools to deorphanize (drug) transporters are being applied and show promising results. Although a large set of tools are available for studying transport in vitro and in isolated cells, tools for studying transport in living organisms, including humans, are evolving now and rely predominantly on imaging techniques, e.g. positron emission tomography. Imaging is an area which, certainly in the near future, will provide important insights into "transporters at work" in vivo. PMID:27781095

  14. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Schuler, Jason M.; Ebert, Tom; Nick, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Regolith is abundant on extra-terrestrial surfaces and is the source of many resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, titanium, aluminum, iron, silica and other valuable materials, which can be used to make rocket propellant, consumables for life support, radiation protection barrier shields, landing pads, blast protection berms, roads, habitats and other structures and devices. Recent data from the Moon also indicates that there are substantial deposits of water ice in permanently shadowed crater regions and possibly under an over burden of regolith. The key to being able to use this regolith and acquire the resources, is being able to manipulate it with robotic excavation and hauling machinery that can survive and operate in these very extreme extra-terrestrial surface environments. In addition, the reduced gravity on the Moon, Mars, comets and asteroids poses a significant challenge in that the necessary reaction force for digging cannot be provided by the robot's weight as is typically done on Earth. Space transportation is expensive and limited in capacity, so small, lightweight payloads are desirable, which means large traditional excavation machines are not a viable option. A novel, compact and lightweight excavation robot prototype for manipulating, excavating, acquiring, hauling and dumping regolith on extra-terrestrial surfaces has been developed and tested. Lessons learned and test results will be presented including digging in a variety of lunar regolith simulant conditions including frozen regolith mixed with water ice.

  15. Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0183 (YIP 11) Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport Evelyn Wang MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY...Advanced Nanostructures for Two-Phase Fluid and Thermal Transport AFOSR Grant FA9550-11-1-0059 Final Report Evelyn N. Wang Associate Professor...heated channel wall. Small fluctuations in the measured heater surface temperature (± 3-8 °C) indicated increased flow stability, and the heat transfer

  16. [Advances in plant anthocyanin transport mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Dai, Silan; Jin, Xuehua; Huang, He; Hong, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis is one of the thoroughly studied enzymatic pathways in biology, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of its final stage: the transport of the anthocyanins into the vacuole. A clear picture of the dynamic trafficking of flavonoids is only now beginning to emerge. So far four different models have been proposed to explain the transport of anthocyanins from biosynthetic sites to the central vacuole, and four types of transporters have been found associated with the transport of anthocyanins: glutathione S-transferase, multidrug resistance-associated protein, multidrug and toxic compound extrusion, bilitranslocase-homologue. The functions of these proteins and related genes have also been studied. Although different models have been proposed, cellular and subcellular information is still lacking for reconciliation of different lines of evidence in various anthocyanin sequestration studies. According to the information available, through sequence analysis, gene expression analysis, subcellular positioning and complementation experiments, the function and location of these transporters can be explored, and the anthocyanin transport mechanism can be better understood.

  17. The EuroGEOSS Advanced Operating Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Vaccari, L.; Stock, K.; Diaz, L.; Santoro, M.

    2012-04-01

    The concept of multidisciplinary interoperability for managing societal issues is a major challenge presently faced by the Earth and Space Science Informatics community. With this in mind, EuroGEOSS project was launched on May 1st 2009 for a three year period aiming to demonstrate the added value to the scientific community and society of providing existing earth observing systems and applications in an interoperable manner and used within the GEOSS and INSPIRE frameworks. In the first period, the project built an Initial Operating Capability (IOC) in the three strategic areas of Drought, Forestry and Biodiversity; this was then enhanced into an Advanced Operating Capacity (AOC) for multidisciplinary interoperability. Finally, the project extended the infrastructure to other scientific domains (geology, hydrology, etc.). The EuroGEOSS multidisciplinary AOC is based on the Brokering Approach. This approach aims to achieve multidisciplinary interoperability by developing an extended SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) where a new type of "expert" components is introduced: the Broker. These implement all mediation and distribution functionalities needed to interconnect the distributed and heterogeneous resources characterizing a System of Systems (SoS) environment. The EuroGEOSS AOC is comprised of the following components: • EuroGEOSS Discovery Broker: providing harmonized discovery functionalities by mediating and distributing user queries against tens of heterogeneous services; • EuroGEOSS Access Broker: enabling users to seamlessly access and use heterogeneous remote resources via a unique and standard service; • EuroGEOSS Web 2.0 Broker: enhancing the capabilities of the Discovery Broker with queries towards the new Web 2.0 services; • EuroGEOSS Semantic Discovery Broker: enhancing the capabilities of the Discovery Broker with semantic query-expansion; • EuroGEOSS Natural Language Search Component: providing users with the possibilities to search for

  18. Advanced methods of structural and trajectory analysis for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the efforts in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of trajectory optimization. The majority of the effort was spent in the structural weight area. A draft of 'Analytical Fuselage and Wing Weight Estimation of Transport Aircraft', resulting from this research, is included as an appendix.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  20. The impact of emerging technologies on an advanced supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, C.; Maglieri, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of advances in propulsion systems, structure and materials, aerodynamics, and systems on the design and development of supersonic transport aircraft are analyzed. Efficient propulsion systems with variable-cycle engines provide the basis for improved propulsion systems; the propulsion efficienies of supersonic and subsonic engines are compared. Material advances consist of long-life damage-tolerant structures, advanced material development, aeroelastic tailoring, and low-cost fabrication. Improvements in the areas of aerodynamics and systems are examined. The environmental problems caused by engine emissions, airport noise, and sonic boom are studied. The characteristics of the aircraft designed to include these technical advances are described.

  1. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  2. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  3. Analytical and simulator study of advanced transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Rickard, W. W.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic methodology, based on the optimal-control pilot model, was demonstrated for assessing longitidunal-axis handling qualities of transport aircraft in final approach. Calibration of the methodology is largely in terms of closed-loop performance requirements, rather than specific vehicle response characteristics, and is based on a combination of published criteria, pilot preferences, physical limitations, and engineering judgment. Six longitudinal-axis approach configurations were studied covering a range of handling qualities problems, including the presence of flexible aircraft modes. The analytical procedure was used to obtain predictions of Cooper-Harper ratings, a solar quadratic performance index, and rms excursions of important system variables.

  4. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  5. Advancing Transportation through Vehicle Electrification - PHEV

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as an historic opportunity to learn about and develop PHEV technologies and create the FCA US LLC engineering center for Electrified Powertrains. The ARRA funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies for production on future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next-generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components and common modules. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also utilized this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original proposal of this project was submitted in May 2009 and selected in August 2009. The project ended in December 2014.

  6. Advanced transport design using multidisciplinary design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnum, Jennifer; Bathras, Curt; Beene, Kirk; Bush, Michael; Kaupin, Glenn; Lowe, Steve; Sobieski, Ian; Tingen, Kelly; Wells, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first implementation of multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) techniques by undergraduates ina design course. The objective of the work was to design a civilian transport aircraft of the Boeing 777 class. The first half of the two semester design course consisted of application of traditional sizing methods and techniques to form a baseline aircraft. MDO techniques were then applied to this baseline design. This paper describes the evolution of the design with special emphasis on the application of MDO techniques, and presents the results of four iterations through the design space. Minimization of take-off gross weight was the goal of the optimization process. The resultant aircraft derived from the MDO procedure weighed approximately 13,382 lbs (2.57 percent) less than the baseline aircraft.

  7. Public transportation 1995: Current research in operations. Transportation research record

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    ;Contents: Metromover Extensions and Downtown Bus Service in Miami; Electric Bus Operation and Evaluation in California; Assessment of Alternative Structures for Privately Operated Bus Systems; Bus Priority at Traffic Signals in Portland: The Powell Boulevard Pilot Project; Transit Vehicle-Type Scheduling Problem; Optimal Mixed Bus Fleet for Urban Operations; Operational Characteristics of Paratransit in Developing Countries of Asia; Economics of Electric Trolley Coach Operation; Evaluation of Visual Impacts of Trolleybus Overhead Caternary System Intersections; Electric and Magnetic Fields and Electric Transit Systems; Diverting Automobile Users to Transit: Early Lessons from the Chicago Transit Authority`s Orange Line; Street-Running Rail Transit: A Historical Perspective; Diesel or Electric Power for Commuter Rail; It Depends; Generic Objectives for Evaluation of Intermodal Passenger Transfer Facilities; Airport Ground Access: Rail Transit Alternatives; Retrofit Techniques for Floating Slab Track; Calgary Light Rail Transit Surface Operations and Grade-Level Crossings; and Cost of Light Rail Collision Accidents.

  8. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  9. Mass Transportation Operators' Beliefs about Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almon, Pamela A.

    2001-01-01

    A study investigated 171 mass transit operators' beliefs about blindness and the factors that may influence their beliefs. There were statistically significant differences among transit operators' beliefs on the basis of the operators' ethnicity. White participants had significantly fewer irrational beliefs about blindness than Hispanic and…

  10. Assessment of the impact of advanced air-transport technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, R. L.; Dickinson, L. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The long term prospects for commercial supersonic transportation appear attractive enough to keep supersonic research active and reasonably healthy. On the other hand, the uncertainties surrounding an advanced supersonic transport, (AST) specifically fuel price, fuel availability and noise, are too significant to warrant an accelerated research and development program until they are better resolved. It is estimated that an AST could capture about $50 billion (1979 dollars) of the potential $150 billion in sales up to the year 2010.

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Transportation Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Ready for transportation to the Kennedy Space Center, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is pictured onboard the strongback dolly at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) at the Lockheed assembly plant upon completion of final testing and verification.

  12. Advanced space transportation system support contract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The general focus is on a phase 2 lunar base, or a lunar base during the period after the first return of a crew to the Moon, but before permanent occupancy. The software effort produced a series of trajectory programs covering low earth orbit (LEO) to various node locations, the node locations to the lunar surface, and then back to LEO. The surface operations study took a lunar scenario in the civil needs data base (CNDB) and attempted to estimate the amount of space-suit work or extravehicular activity (EVA) required to set up the base. The maintenance and supply options study was a first look at the problems of supplying and maintaining the base. A lunar surface launch and landing facility was conceptually designed. The lunar storm shelter study examined the problems of radiation protection. The lunar surface construction and equipment assembly study defined twenty surface construction and assembly tasks in detail.

  13. Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems (CASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. G., Jr. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the in-house and contract work accomplished under the CASTS Project. In July 1975 the CASTS Project was initiated to develop graphite fiber/polyimide matrix (GR/PI) composite structures with 589K (600 F) operational capability for application to aerospace vehicles. Major tasks include: (1) screening composites and adhesives, (2) developing fabrication procedures and specifications, (3) developing design allowables test methods and data, and (4) design and test of structural elements and construction of an aft body flap for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle which will be ground tested. Portions of the information are from ongoing research and must be considered preliminary. The CASTS Project is scheduled to be completed in September 1983.

  14. Economic impact of applying advanced technologies to transport airplanes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carline, A. J. K.

    1972-01-01

    Various technologies have been studied which could have application to the design of future transport airplanes. These technologies include the use of supercritical aerodynamics, composite materials, and active control systems, together with advanced engine designs that provide lower noise and pollutant levels. The economic impact of each technology is shown for a typical fleet of 195-passenger, transcontinental commercial transports cruising at both 0.9M and 0.98M. Comparisons are made with conventional transports cruising at 0.82M. Effects of combining the technologies are discussed. An R & D program aimed at bringing the technologies to fruition is outlined.

  15. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  16. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  17. Concept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Norman T. Raczka

    2001-07-02

    The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

  18. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    During the Option 2 period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), a joint McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Kennedy Space Center (NASA-KSC) Study team conducted a comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine, a quick-look impact assessment of the Synthesis Group Report, and a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The results of these KSC LTFOS team efforts are included. The most recent study task effort was a detailed assessment of the Synthesis Group Report. The assessment was conducted to determine the impact on planetary launch and landing facilities and operations. The result of that effort is a report entitled 'Analysis of the Synthesis Group Report, its Architectures and their Impacts on PSS Launch and Landing Operations' and is contained in Appendix A. The report is structured in a briefing format with facing pages as opposed to a narrative style. A quick-look assessment of the Synthesis Group Report was conducted to determine the impact of implementing the recommendations of the Synthesis Group on KSC launch facilities and operations. The data was documented in a presentation format as requested by Kennedy Space Center Technology and Advanced Projects Office and is included in Appendix B. Appendix C is a white paper on the comparison of the functional testing of the RL-10 and Space Shuttle Main Engine. The comparison was undertaken to provide insight regarding common test requirements that would be applicable to Lunar and Mars Excursion Vehicles (LEV and MEV).

  19. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  20. ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operations in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Mutoh, T.; Komori, A.; Inagaki, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Notake, T.

    2007-09-28

    In the Large helical device (LHD), super dense core (SDC) regime [1] and high electron temperature regime with formation of the electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB) [2][3] have been studied strenuously. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in such regimes can be powerful tools for heating and control of the plasma confinement. In this paper, recent progress of ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operation in these regimes is reported. Study of fundamental ECH by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) has been required in the SDC regime. Early experimental results of EBW-ECH by so-called O-X-B and X-B method are introduced. In a newly realized enhanced magnetic field configuration, the highest central electron temperature over 10 keV was obtained in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges. ECCD will be very important in both of high density and high temperature regimes. It has been progressed with the optimization of microwave injection and magnetic field configuration. Progress of ECCD experiment is shortly introduced.

  1. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  2. Noise and economic characteristics of an advanced blended supersonic transport concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, J. K.; Grantham, W. D.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Noise and economic characteristics were obtained for an advanced supersonic transport concept that utilized wing body blending, a double bypass variable cycle engine, superplastically formed and diffusion bonded titanium in both the primary and secondary structures, and an alternative interior arrangement that provides increased seating capacity. The configuration has a cruise Mach number of 2.62, provisions for 290 passengers, a mission range of 8.19 Mm (4423 n.mi.), and an average operating cruise lift drag ratio of 9.23. Advanced operating procedures, which have the potential to reduce airport community noise, were explored by using a simulator. Traded jet noise levels of 105.7 and 103.4 EPNdB were obtained by using standard and advanced takeoff operational procedures, respectively. A new method for predicting lateral attenuation was utilized in obtaining these jet noise levels.

  3. Advanced Engineering Environments for Space Transportation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Smith, Charles A.; Beveridge, James

    2000-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's launch vehicle industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker, all face the developer of a space transportation system. Within NASA, multiple technology development and demonstration projects are underway toward the objectives of safe, reliable, and affordable access to space. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, work has begun on development of an advanced engineering environment specifically to support the design, modeling, and analysis of space transportation systems. This paper will give an overview of the challenges of developing space transportation systems in today's environment and subsequently discuss the advanced engineering environment and its anticipated benefits.

  4. Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R.; Bechtel, R.; Chen, T.; Cormier, T.; Kalaver, S.; Kirtas, M.; Lewe, J.-H.; Marcus, L.; Marshall, D.; Medlin, M.; McIntire, J.; Nelson, D.; Remolina, D.; Scott, A.; Weglian, J.; Olds, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of 1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the Earth's surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify if it was cost effective. The

  5. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α -stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α ,γ ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α =2 . The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  6. Self-adjoint integral operator for bounded nonlocal transport.

    PubMed

    Maggs, J E; Morales, G J

    2016-11-01

    An integral operator is developed to describe nonlocal transport in a one-dimensional system bounded on both ends by material walls. The "jump" distributions associated with nonlocal transport are taken to be Lévy α-stable distributions, which become naturally truncated by the bounding walls. The truncation process results in the operator containing a self-consistent, convective inward transport term (pinch). The properties of the integral operator as functions of the Lévy distribution parameter set [α,γ] and the wall conductivity are presented. The integral operator continuously recovers the features of local transport when α=2. The self-adjoint formulation allows for an accurate description of spatial variation in the Lévy parameters in the nonlocal system. Spatial variation in the Lévy parameters is shown to result in internally generated flows. Examples of cold-pulse propagation in nonlocal systems illustrate the capabilities of the methodology.

  7. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  8. Transportation system modeling and simulation in support of logistics and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, R.H.; Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Turnquist, M.A.; List, G.F.

    1997-12-01

    Effective management of DOE`s transportation operations requires better data than are currently available, a more integrated management structure for making transportation decisions, and decision support tools to provide needed analysis capabilities. This paper describes a vision of an advanced logistics management system for DOE, and the rationale for developing improved modeling and simulation capability as an integral part of that system. The authors illustrate useful types of models through four examples, addressing issues of transportation package allocation, fleet sizing, routing/scheduling, and emergency responder location. The overall vision for the advanced logistics management system, and the specific examples of potential capabilities, provide the basis for a conclusion that such a system would meet a critical DOE need in the area of radioactive material and waste transportation.

  9. Time parallelization of advanced operation scenario simulations of ITER plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Samaddar, D.; Casper, T. A.; Kim, S. H.; Berry, Lee A; Elwasif, Wael R; Batchelor, Donald B; Houlberg, Wayne A

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates that simulations of advanced burning plasma operation scenarios can be successfully parallelized in time using the parareal algorithm. CORSICA - an advanced operation scenario code for tokamak plasmas is used as a test case. This is a unique application since the parareal algorithm has so far been applied to relatively much simpler systems except for the case of turbulence. In the present application, a computational gain of an order of magnitude has been achieved which is extremely promising. A successful implementation of the Parareal algorithm to codes like CORSICA ushers in the possibility of time efficient simulations of ITER plasmas.

  10. Advanced propulsion for LEO-Moon transport. 1: A method for evaluating advanced propulsion performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Martin O.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a study to evaluate the benefits of advanced propulsion technologies for transporting materials between low Earth orbit and the Moon. A relatively conventional reference transportation system, and several other systems, each of which includes one advanced technology component, are compared in terms of how well they perform a chosen mission objective. The evaluation method is based on a pairwise life-cycle cost comparison of each of the advanced systems with the reference system. Somewhat novel and economically important features of the procedure are the inclusion not only of mass payback ratios based on Earth launch costs, but also of repair and capital acquisition costs, and of adjustments in the latter to reflect the technological maturity of the advanced technologies. The required input information is developed by panels of experts. The overall scope and approach of the study are presented in the introduction. The bulk of the paper describes the evaluation method; the reference system and an advanced transportation system, including a spinning tether in an eccentric Earth orbit, are used to illustrate it.

  11. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  12. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  13. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  14. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.L.; Bell, J.D.; Benson, R.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Chipley, K.K.; Colchin, R.J.; Cole, M.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlap, J.L.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Johnson, R.L.; Langley, R.A.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Morris, R.N.; Murakami, M.; Neilson, G.H.; Nelson, B.E.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rome, J.A.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1989-08-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design of ATF. 31 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Advanced tokamak operating modes in TPX and ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nevins, W.M.

    1994-12-31

    A program is described to develop the advanced tokamak physics required for an economic steady-state fusion reactor on existing (short-pulse) tokamak experiments; to extend these operating modes to long-pulse on TPX; and finally to demonstrate them in a long-pulse D-T plasma on ITER.

  16. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  17. The development and evaluation of advanced technology laminar-flow-control subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of applying laminar flow control (LFC) to the wings and empennage of long-range subsonic transport aircraft for initial operation in 1985. For a design mission range of 5500 n mi, advanced technology LFC and turbulent-flow aircraft were developed for a 200-passenger payload, and compared on the basis of production costs, direct operating costs, and fuel efficiency. Parametric analyses were conducted to establish optimum geometry, advanced system concepts were evaluated, and configuration variations maximizing the effectiveness of LFC were developed. The final comparisons include consideation of maintenance costs and procedures, manufacturing costs and procedures, and operational considerations peculiar to LFC aircraft.

  18. Fixed Wing Project: Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben; Koudelka, John M.; Wahls, Richard A.; Madavan, Nateri

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  19. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program: A Materials Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The realization of low-cost assess to space is one of NASA's three principal goals or "pillars" under the Office of Aero-Space Technology. In accordance with the goals of this pillar, NASA's primary space transportation technology role is to develop and demonstrate next-generation technologies to enable the commercial launch industry to develop full-scale, low cost, highly reliable space launchers. The approach involves both ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrators, including the X-33, X-34, Bantam, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), and future experimental vehicles. Next generation space transportation vehicles and propulsion systems will require the development and implementation of advanced materials and processes. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced materials efforts which are focused on the needs of next generation space transportation systems. Applications described will include ceramic matrix composite (CMC) integrally bladed turbine disk (blisk); actively cooled CMC nozzle ramp for the aerospike engine; ablative thrust chamber/nozzle; and metal matrix composite turbomachinery housings.

  20. Application of Advanced Technologies to Small, Short-haul Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, C.; Coverston, C.; Knapton, B.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted of the application of advanced technologies to small, short-haul transport aircraft. A three abreast, 30 passenger design for flights of approximately 100 nautical miles was evaluated. Higher wing loading, active flight control, and a gust alleviation system results in improved ride quality. Substantial savings in fuel and direct operating cost are forecast. An aircraft of this configuration also has significant benefits in forms of reliability and operability which should enable it to sell a total of 450 units through 1990, of which 80% are for airline use.

  1. Key Metrics and Goals for NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Bruce; Lee, David

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program is developing a set of decision support tools to aid air traffic service providers, pilots, and airline operations centers in improving operations of the National Airspace System (NAS). NASA needs a set of unifying metrics to tie these efforts together, which it can use to track the progress of the AATT program and communicate program objectives and status within NASA and to stakeholders in the NAS. This report documents the results of our efforts and the four unifying metrics we recommend for the AATT program. They are: airport peak capacity, on-route sector capacity, block time and fuel, and free flight-enabling.

  2. Implications of advanced collision operators for gyrokinetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we explore both the potential improvements and pitfalls that arise when using advanced collision models in gyrokinetic simulations of plasma microinstabilities. Comparisons are made between the simple-but-standard electron Lorentz operator and specific variations of the advanced Sugama operator. The Sugama operator describes multi-species collisions including energy diffusion, momentum and energy conservation terms, and is valid for arbitrary wavelength. We report scans over collision frequency for both low and high {k}θ {ρ }s modes, with relevance for multiscale simulations that couple ion and electron scale physics. The influence of the ion–ion collision terms—not retained in the electron Lorentz model—on the damping of zonal flows is also explored. Collision frequency scans for linear and nonlinear simulations of ion-temperature-gradient instabilities including impurity ions are presented. Finally, implications for modeling turbulence in the highly collisional edge are discussed.

  3. Sediment transport capacity as an objective of reservoir operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; ,

    1998-01-01

    A sediment transport capacity index was developed as a part of a program to develop methods of flushing flow analysis. The index can be used to develop reservoir operation strategies that consider the movement of sediment as one of the reservoir management goals. The sedimentation transport capacity index determines the instream flow for the maintenance of the substrate below a reservoir in a condition needed by a desirable ecosystem. It can also be used in investigating the impacts of reservoir on the river channel downstream of the reservoir. The method allows a reservoir operator the flexibility of meeting the streamflow needs with a mix of streamflows.

  4. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-07-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  5. Transportation and operations aspects of space energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1989-01-01

    A brief comparative analysis was made for three concepts of supplying large-scale electrical energy to Earth from space. The concepts were: (1) mining helium-3 on the Moon and returning it to Earth; (2) constructing solar power satellites in geosynchronous orbit from lunar materials (the energy is beamed by microwave to receivers on Earth); and (3) constructing power collection and beaming systems on the Moon itself and transmitting the energy to Earth by microwave. This analysis concerned mainly space transportation and operations, but each of the systems is briefly characterized to provide a basis for space transportation and operations analysis.

  6. JB-300: An advanced medium size transport for 2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debrouwer, Giles; Graham, Katherine; Ison, Jim; Juarez, Vince; Moskalik, Steve; Pankonin, Jon; Weinstein, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    In the fall of 1992, the TAC Team was presented with a Request for Proposal (PFP) for a mid-size (250-350 passenger) commercial transport. The aircraft was to be extremely competitive in the areas of passenger comfort, performance, and economic aspects. Through the use of supercritical airfoils, a technologically advanced Very High By-pass Ratio (VHBR) turbofan engine, a low overall drag configuration, a comparable interior layout, and mild use of composites, the JB-300 offers an economically viable choice to the airlines. The cents per passenger mile of the JB-300 is 1.76, which is considerably lower than current aircraft in the same range. Overall, the JB-300 is a technologically advanced aircraft, which will meet the demands of the 21st century.

  7. Evaluation of undeveloped rocket engine cycle applications to advanced transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Undeveloped pump-fed, liquid propellant rocket engine cycles were assessed and evaluated for application to Next Manned Transportation System (NMTS) vehicles, which would include the evolving Space Transportation System (STS Evolution), the Personnel Launch System (PLS), and the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Undeveloped engine cycles selected for further analysis had potential for increased reliability, more maintainability, reduced cost, and improved (or possibly level) performance when compared to the existing SSME and proposed STME engines. The split expander (SX) cycle, the full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle, and a hybrid version of the FFSC, which has a LOX expander drive for the LOX pump, were selected for definition and analysis. Technology requirements and issues were identified and analyses of vehicle systems weight deltas using the SX and FFSC cycles in AMLS vehicles were performed. A strawman schedule and cost estimate for FFSC subsystem technology developments and integrated engine system demonstration was also provided.

  8. Data Compression Techniques for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced space transportation systems, including vehicle state of health systems, will produce large amounts of data which must be stored on board the vehicle and or transmitted to the ground and stored. The cost of storage or transmission of the data could be reduced if the number of bits required to represent the data is reduced by the use of data compression techniques. Most of the work done in this study was rather generic and could apply to many data compression systems, but the first application area to be considered was launch vehicle state of health telemetry systems. Both lossless and lossy compression techniques were considered in this study.

  9. Advanced composite vertical stabilizer for DC-10 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, C. O.

    1979-01-01

    Structural design, tooling, fabrication, and test activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composite vertical stabilizer (CVS) for the DC 10 Commercial Transport Aircraft. Structural design details are described and the status of structural and weight analyses are reported. A structural weight reduction of 21.7% is currently predicted. Test results are discussed for sine wave stiffened shear webs containing representative of the CVS spar webs and for lightning current transfer and tests on a panel representative of the CVS skins.

  10. Structural design of integral tankage for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Davis, R. B.; Lemessurier, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Fully reusable launch vehicle concepts being studied for post-Shuttle era transports present major challenges for the structural design of large propellant tankage. The dominant structural elements are internal tankage for both cryogenic and non-cryogenic propellants which must operate in a broad range of thermal environments while meeting requirements for low weight and reusability. Several approaches to integral tank design are discussed and an analysis of a hot structure honeycomb sandwich tank for a circular body vehicle is presented.

  11. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  12. Operational considerations for the airship in short-haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The airship's problems and the possibilities for their solution in a short-haul transportation environment are surveyed. The problems are derived from both past experience and envisioned operation. Problems relative to both fully buoyant and semi-buoyant configurations are considered and their origins in principle discussed. Also addressed in this paper are the state-of-the-art technologies with the potential of providing answers to the airship's operational difficulties.

  13. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  14. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  15. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  16. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  17. 32 CFR 245.18 - Transportation security operations center (TSOC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation security operations center (TSOC). 245.18 Section 245.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC...

  18. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Advances in Space Transportation Technology Toward the NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    2000-01-01

    disassembly and inspections required for the Space Shuttle's subsystems, the next generation vehicle's on-board health monitoring systems will could tell the ground crews which systems need replacement before landing. In twenty-five years, vehicles will be re-flown within one with crews numbering less than one hundred. Fully automated ground processing systems must require only a handful of personnel to launch the vehicle. Due to the increased intelligence of on-board systems, only cursory walk-around inspections would be required between flights An assessment of the progress in breakthrough technologies toward these goals by the NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program is presented. These breakthrough technologies include combined rocket and air breathing propulsion, high strength lightweight structures, high temperature materials, vehicle health management, and flight operations.

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  1. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  2. Ejector nozzle test results at simulated flight conditions for an advanced supersonic transport propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. P.; Bresnahan, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel tests conducted to verify the performance improvements of a refined ejector nozzle design for advanced supersonic transport propulsion systems. The analysis of results obtained at simulated engine operating conditions is emphasized. Tests were conducted with models of approximately 1/10th scale which were configured to simulate nozzle operation at takeoff, subsonic cruise, transonic cruise, and supersonic cruise. Transonic cruise operation was not a consideration during the nozzle design phase, although an evaluation at this condition was later conducted. Test results, characterized by thrust and flow coefficients, are given for a range of nozzle pressure ratios, emphasizing the thrust performance at the engine operating conditions predicted for each flight Mach number. The results indicate that nozzle performance goals were met or closely approximated at takeoff and supersonic cruise, while subsonic cruise performance was within 2.3 percent of the goal with further improvement possible.

  3. Application of pneumatic lift and control surface technology to advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The application of pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic technology to both the lifting and the control surfaces of advanced transport aircraft can provide revolutionary changes in the performance and operation of these vehicles, ranging in speed regime from Advanced Subsonic Transports to the High Speed Civil Transport, and beyond. This technology, much of it based on the Circulation Control Wing blown concepts, can provide aerodynamic force augmentations of 80 to 100 (i.e., return of 80-100 pounds of force per pound of input momentum from the blowing jet). This can be achieved without use of external mechanical surfaces. Clever application of this technology can provide no-moving-part lifting surfaces (wings/tails) integrated into the control system to greatly simplify aircraft designs while improving their aerodynamic performance. Lift/drag ratio may be pneumatically tailored to fit the current phase of the flight, and takeoff/landing performance can be greatly improved by reducing ground roll distances and liftoff/touchdown speeds. Alternatively, great increases in liftoff weights and payloads are possible, as are great reductions in wing and tail planform size, resulting in optimized cruise wing designs. Furthermore, lift generation independent of angle of attack provides much promise for increased safety of flight in the severe updrafts/downdrafts of microbursts and windshears, which is further augmented by the ability to sustain flight at greatly reduced airspeeds. Load-tailored blown wings can also reduce tip vorticity during highlift operations and the resulting vortex wake hazards near terminal areas. Reduced noise may also be possible as these jets can be made to operate at low pressures. The planned presentation will support the above statements through discussions of recent experimental and numerical (CFD) research and development of these advanced blown aerodynamic surfaces, portions of which have been conducted for NASA. Also to be presented will be

  4. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  5. Display-based communications for advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    The next generation of civil transport aircraft will depend increasingly upon ground-air-ground and satellite data link for information critical to safe and efficient air transportation. Previous studies which examined the concept of display-based communications in addition to, or in lieu of, conventional voice transmissions are reviewed. A full-mission flight simulation comparing voice and display-based communication modes in an advanced transport aircraft is also described. The results indicate that a display-based mode of information transfer does not result in significantly increased aircrew workload, but does result in substantially increased message acknowledgment times when compared to conventional voice transmissions. User acceptance of the display-based communication system was generally high, replicating the findings of previous studies. However, most pilots tested expressed concern over the potential loss of information available from frequency monitoring which might result from the introduction of discrete address communications. Concern was expressed by some pilots for the reduced time available to search for conflicting traffic when using the communications display system. The implications of the findings for the design of display-based communications are discussed.

  6. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2001-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  7. Space Transportation Operations: Assessment of Methodologies and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joglekar, Prafulla

    2002-01-01

    The systems design process for future space transportation involves understanding multiple variables and their effect on lifecycle metrics. Variables such as technology readiness or potential environmental impact are qualitative, while variables such as reliability, operations costs or flight rates are quantitative. In deciding what new design concepts to fund, NASA needs a methodology that would assess the sum total of all relevant qualitative and quantitative lifecycle metrics resulting from each proposed concept. The objective of this research was to review the state of operations assessment methodologies and models used to evaluate proposed space transportation systems and to develop recommendations for improving them. It was found that, compared to the models available from other sources, the operations assessment methodology recently developed at Kennedy Space Center has the potential to produce a decision support tool that will serve as the industry standard. Towards that goal, a number of areas of improvement in the Kennedy Space Center's methodology are identified.

  8. Operational awareness in future space transportation system concepts and technology selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eide, D. G.; Morris, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of operations for a two-stage, fully reusable future space transportation system has been performed, and the results are discussed. The value of conducting an analysis of operations in the conceptual design phase to produce a highly productive system was demonstrated by obtaining estimated reductions in resources and ground turnaround time and comparing them with estimated mature Shuttle program requirements. Cooperative efforts by users, future vehicle designers, and operations analysts during the conceptual design phase are shown to produce an efficient vehicle design with broad market potential. The synergistic effects of vehicle design configuration, subsystems, and procedures can enhance productivity of the transportation system as measured by flexibility, availability, and viability. Advanced technologies and subsystems beneficial to such a system are identified.

  9. Advanced Hall Electric Propulsion for Future In-space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    2001-01-01

    The Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device used for multiple in-space applications including orbit raising, on-orbit maneuvers, and de-orbit functions. These in-space propulsion functions are currently performed by toxic hydrazine monopropellant or hydrazine derivative/nitrogen tetroxide bi-propellant thrusters. The Hall thruster operates nominally in the 1500 sec specific impulse regime. It provides greater thrust to power than conventional gridded ion engines, thus reducing trip times and operational life when compared to that technology in Earth orbit applications. The technology in the far term, by adding a second acceleration stage, has shown promise of providing over 4000s Isp, the regime of the gridded ion engine and necessary for deep space applications. The Hall thruster system consists of three parts, the thruster, the power processor, and the propellant system. The technology is operational and commercially available at the 1.5 kW power level and 5 kW application is underway. NASA is looking toward 10 kW and eventually 50 kW-class engines for ambitious space transportation applications. The former allows launch vehicle step-down for GEO missions and demanding planetary missions such as Europa Lander, while the latter allows quick all-electric propulsion LEO to GEO transfers and non-nuclear transportation human Mars missions.

  10. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite Now Operating in an Inclined Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system has been modified to support operation in an inclined orbit that is virtually transparent to users, and plans are to continue this final phase of its operation through September 2000. The next 2 years of ACTS will provide a new opportunity for using the technologies that this system brought online over 5 years ago and that are still being used to resolve the technical issues that face NASA and the satellite industry in the area of seamless networking and interoperability with terrestrial systems. New goals for ACTS have been defined that align the program with recent changes in NASA and industry. ACTS will be used as a testbed to: Show how NASA and other Government agencies can use commercial systems for 1. future support of their operations Test, characterize, and resolve technical issues in using advanced communications 2. protocols such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) over long latency links as found when interoperating satellites with terrestrial systems Evaluate narrow-spot-beam Ka-band satellite operation in an inclined orbit 3. Verify Ka-band satellite technologies since no other Ka-band system is yet 4. available in the United States

  11. Transportation energy-contingency planning: a guide for transit operators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This guide is designed to help transit operators assemble workable and effective contingency plans. Although it is written primarily for the operator who is developing a plan for the first time, it also provides practical guidance for refining or updating an existing plan. In addition to this introduction, the guide consists of two chapters that present practical guidelines to help plan for and manage a crisis under two different sets of circumstances. A step-by-step approach for developing a plan in advance of a crisis is outlined. In this best of all worlds, when ample time and resources are available for looking ahead to an energy shortage, Chapter II will help an operator develop a comprehensive plan for meeting the demands of a crisis situation. On the other hand, Chapter III is designed to help an operator cope with a planner's worst nightmare: A crisis has developed overnight and the operator is caught unawares with no plan for dealing with it. This chapter presents a bare-bones approach to crisis management and will be useful to those operators who have been unable to prepare a plan in advance.

  12. Stratospheric aerosol modification by supersonic transport operations with climate implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, O. B.; Turco, R. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Poppoff, I. G.; Hamill, P.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects on stratospheric aerosois of supersonic transport emissions of sulfur dioxide gas and submicron size soot granules are estimated. An interactive particle-gas model of the stratospheric aerosol is used to compute particle changes due to exhaust emissions, and an accurate radiation transport model is used to compute the attendant surface temperature changes. It is shown that a fleet of several hundred supersonic aircraft, operating daily at 20 km, could produce about a 20% increase in the concentration of large particles in the stratosphere. Aerosol increases of this magnitude would reduce the global surface temperature by less than 0.01 K.

  13. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  14. Acoustic charge transport technology investigation for advanced development transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayalar, S.

    1993-01-01

    Acoustic charge transport (ACT) technology has provided a basis for a new family of analog signal processors, including a programmable transversal filter (PTF). Through monolithic integration of ACT delay lines with GaAs metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) digital memory and controllers, these devices significantly extend the performance of PTF's. This article introduces the basic operation of these devices and summarizes their present and future specifications. The production and testing of these devices indicate that this new technology is a promising one for future space applications.

  15. Economic study of multipurpose advanced high-speed transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A nondimensional economic examination of a parametrically-derived set of supersonic transport aircraft was conducted. The measure of economic value was surcharged relative to subsonic airplane tourist-class yield. Ten airplanes were defined according to size, payload, and speed. The price, range capability, fuel burned, and block time were determined for each configuration, then operating costs and surcharges were calculated. The parameter with the most noticeable influence on nominal surcharge was found to be real (constant dollars) fuel price increase. A change in SST design Mach number from 2.4 to Mach 2.7 showed a very small surcharge advantage (on the order of 1 percent for the faster aircraft). Configuration design compromises required for an airplane to operate overland at supersonic speeds without causing sonic boom annoyance result in severe performance penalties and require high (more than 100 percent) surcharges.

  16. Thermal blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of weaving Nextel ceramic and Nicalon silicon carbide yarns into integrally woven, three dimensional fluted core fabrics was demonstrated. Parallel face fabrics joined with woven fabric ribs to form triangular cross section flutes between the faces were woven into three single and one double layer configuration. High warp yarn density in the double layer configuration caused considerable yarn breakage during weaving. The flutes of all four fabrics were filled with mandrels made from Q-Fiber Felt and FRCI-20-12 to form candidate insulation panels for advanced Space Transportation Systems. Procedures for preparing and inserting the mandrels were developed. Recommendations are made on investigating alternate methods for filling the flutes with insulation, and for improving the weaving of these types of fabrics.

  17. Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study, option 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Throughout the Option I period of the Lunar Transportation Facilities and Operations Study (LTFOS), McDonnell Douglas Space Systems Company - Kennedy Space Center (MDSSC-KSC) provided support to both the Planetary Surface Systems (PSS) Office at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center and to the Flight and Ground Systems Projects Office (Payload Projects Management) at the Kennedy Space Center. The primary objective of the Option I phase of the study was to assist the above NASA centers in developing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) concepts. MDSSC-KSC conducted three analyses which provided launch and landing detail to the proposed exploration concepts. One analysis, the Lunar Ejecta Assessment, was conducted to determine the effects of launch and landing a vehicle in a dusty environment. A second analysis, the Thermal/Micrometeoroid Protection Trade Study, was refined to determine the impacts that Reference Architecture Option 5A would have on thermal/micrometeoroid protection approaches. The third analysis, the Centaur Prelaunch Procedure Analysis, used a Centaur prelaunch test and checkout flow to identify key considerations that would be important if a Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) was to use an expander cycle liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen engine. Several 'quick look' assessments were also conducted. One quick look assessment, the Storable Propellant Quick Look Assessment, was conducted to identify design considerations that should be made if storable propellants were to be used instead of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The LEV Servicer Maintenance Analysis provided an early look at the effort required to maintain an LEV Servicer on the lunar surface. Also, support was provided to the PSS Logistics Manager to develop initial LEV Servicer cost inputs. Consideration was given to the advanced development that must be provided to accomplish a lunar and/or Mars mission. MDSS-KSC also provided support to both MASE

  18. Advanced operator/system interface concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, C. M.; Lin, P. S. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts and data developed as part of the Preliminary Space Station Automation and Robotics Plan are reviewed as well as candidate selection criteria, technology assessments, and preliminary candidate recommendations. A need for development of advanced operator/systems interface (OSI) concepts to support future Space Station automation and robotics applications is identified. Four candidate applications, illustrating the potential benefits of an advanced OSI, are described. These include: (1) a conversational OSI system, (2) a laboratory experiment manipulator system, (3) a module safety advisor, and (4) an integrated maintenance/training system. These specific automation and robotics applications are expected to occur relatively early in the growth of the Space Station and to provide significant commercial and station benefits throughout the life of the station.

  19. An advanced concept secondary power systems study for an advanced transport technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The application of advanced technology to the design of an integrated secondary power system for future near-sonic long-range transports was investigated. The study showed that the highest payoff is achieved by utilizing secondary power equipment that contributes to minimum cruise drag. This is best accomplished by the use of the dedicated auxiliary power unit concept (inflight APU) as the prime power source for an airplane with a body-mounted engine or by the use of the internal engine generator concept (electrical power extraction from the propulsion engine) for an airplane with a wing-pod-mounted engine.

  20. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  1. Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which mission fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. The results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  2. ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WALTZ,R.E; CANDY,J; HINTON,F.L; ESTRADA-MILA,C; KINSEY,J.E

    2004-10-01

    A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite {beta}, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius ({rho}{sub *}) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or globally with physical profile variation. Bohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, are illustrated.

  3. ADVANCES IN COMPREHENSIVE GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT IN TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WALTZ RE; CANDY J; HINTON FL; ESTRADA-MILA C; KINSEY JE

    2004-10-01

    A continuum global gyrokinetic code GYRO has been developed to comprehensively simulate core turbulent transport in actual experimental profiles and enable direct quantitative comparisons to the experimental transport flows. GYRO not only treats the now standard ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode turbulence, but also treats trapped and passing electrons with collisions and finite {beta}, equilibrium ExB shear stabilization, and all in real tokamak geometry. Most importantly the code operates at finite relative gyroradius ({rho}{sub *}) so as to treat the profile shear stabilization and nonlocal effects which can break gyroBohm scaling. The code operates in either a cyclic flux-tube limit (which allows only gyroBohm scaling) or a globally with physical profile variation. Rohm scaling of DIII-D L-mode has been simulated with power flows matching experiment within error bars on the ion temperature gradient. Mechanisms for broken gyroBohm scaling, neoclassical ion flows embedded in turbulence, turbulent dynamos and profile corrugations, plasma pinches and impurity flow, and simulations at fixed flow rather than fixed gradient are illustrated and discussed.

  4. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N'-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  5. Advanced Configurations for Very Large Subsonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMasters, John H.; Paisley, David J.; Hubert, Richard J.; Kroo, Ilan; Bofah, Kwasi K.; Sullivan, John P.; Drela, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Recent aerospace industry interest in developing a subsonic commercial transport airplane with 50 percent greater passenger capacity than the largest existing aircraft in this category (the Boeing 747-400 with approximately 400-450 seats) has generated a range of proposals based largely on the configuration paradigm established nearly 50 years ago with the Boeing B-47 bomber. While this basic configuration paradigm has come to dominate subsonic commercial airplane development since the advent of the Boeing 707/Douglas DC-8 in the mid-1950's, its extrapolation to the size required to carry more than 600-700 passengers raises several questions. To explore these and a number of related issues, a team of Boeing, university, and NASA engineers was formed under the auspices of the NASA Advanced Concepts Program. The results of a Research Analysis focused on a large, unconventional transport airplane configuration for which Boeing has applied for a patent are the subject of this report. It should be noted here that this study has been conducted independently of the Boeing New Large Airplane (NLA) program, and with the exception of some generic analysis tools which may be common to this effort and the NLA (as will be described later), no explicit Boeing NLA data other than that published in the open literature has been used in the conduct of the study reported here.

  6. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  7. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  8. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  9. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Used for Inclined Orbit Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is operated by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ACTS, which was launched in September 1993, is in its 7th year of operations, far exceeding the system s planned 2 years of operations and 4 years of designed mission life. After 5 successful years of operating as a geostationary satellite, the spacecraft s North-South stationkeeping was discontinued in August 1998. The system is now operating in an inclined orbit that increases at a rate of 0.8 /yr. With only scarce fuel remaining, operating in this mode extends the usage of the still totally functional payload. Although tracking systems are now needed on the experimenter Earth stations, experiment operations have continued with very little disruption. This is the only known geosynchronous Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot-beam satellite operating in an inclined orbit. The project began its transition from geostationary operations to inclined operations in August 1998. This did not interrupt operations and was transparent to the experimenters on the system. For the space segment, new daily procedures were implemented to maintain the pointing of the system s narrow 0.3 spot beams while the spacecraft drifts in the North-South direction. For the ground segment, modifications were designed, developed, and fielded for the three classes of experimenter Earth stations. With the next generation of commercial satellite systems still being developed, ACTS remains the only operational testbed for Ka-band geosynchronous satellite communications over the Western hemisphere. Since inclined orbit operations began, the ACTS experiments program has supported 43 investigations by industry, Government, and academic organizations, as well as four demonstrations. The project s goals for inclined-orbit operations now reflect a narrower focus in the types of experiments that will be done. In these days of "faster, better, cheaper," NASA is seeking

  10. Co-Operative Advances in Behavioral Health and Performance Research and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Stephen T.; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    In organizations that engage in both operations and applied research, with operational needs guiding research questions and research informing improved operations, the ideal goal is a synergy of ideas and information. In reality, this ideal synergy is often lacking. Real-time operational needs driving day-to-day decisions, lack of communication, lag time in getting research advances plugged into operations can cause both areas to suffer from this gap between operations and research. At Johnson Space Center, the Behavior Health and Performance group (BHP) strives to bridge this gap by following a Human Research Program framework: Expectations of future operational needs identify the knowledge gaps; the gaps in turn guide research leading to a product that is transitioned into operations. Thus, the direction those of us in research take is in direct response to current and future needs of operations. Likewise, those of us in operations actively seek knowledge that is supported by evidence-based research. We make an ongoing effort to communicate across the research and operations gap by working closely with each other and making a conscious effort to keep each other informed. The objective of the proposed panel discussion is to demonstrate through the following presentations the results of a successful collaboration between research and operations and to provide ASMA members with more practical knowledge and strategies for building these bridges to serve our field of practice well. The panel will consist of six presenters from BHP operations, internal BHP research, and external research instigated by BHP who together represent the entire BHP Research Transition to Operations Framework

  11. Study of the application of advanced technologies to laminar flow control systems for subsonic transports. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.; Etchberger, F. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Meade, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of applying laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long-range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mi), advanced technology laminar-flow-control (LFC) and turbulent-flow (TF) aircraft were developed for both 200 and 400-passenger payloads, and compared on the basis of production costs, direct operating costs, and fuel efficiency. Parametric analyses were conducted to establish the optimum geometry for LFC and TF aircraft, advanced LFC system concepts and arrangements were evaluated, and configuration variations maximizing the effectiveness of LFC were developed. For the final LFC aircraft, analyses were conducted to define maintenance costs and procedures, manufacturing costs and procedures, and operational considerations peculiar to LFC aircraft. Compared to the corresponding advanced technology TF transports, the 200- and 400-passenger LFC aircraft realized reductions in fuel consumption up to 28.2%, reductions in direct operating costs up to 8.4%, and improvements in fuel efficiency, in ssm/lb of fuel, up to 39.4%. Compared to current commercial transports at the design range, the LFC study aircraft demonstrate improvements in fuel efficiency up to 131%. Research and technology requirements requisite to the development of LFC transport aircraft were identified.

  12. ATOS: Integration of advanced technology software within distributed Spacecraft Mission Operations Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M.; Wheadon, J.; Omullane, W.; Whitgift, D.; Poulter, K.; Niezette, M.; Timmermans, R.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Romero, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) is a program of studies into the integration of advanced applications (including knowledge based systems (KBS)) with ground systems for the support of spacecraft mission operations.

  13. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  14. Assessment of the roles of the Advanced Neutron Source Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, W.E.; Houser, M.M.; Knee, H.E.; Spelt, P.F.

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is unique in the extent to which human factors engineering (HFE) principles are being applied at the conceptual design stage. initial HFE accomplishments include the development of an ANS HFE program plan, operating philosophy, and functional analysis. In FY 1994, HFE activities focused on the role of the ANS control room reactor operator (RO). An operator-centered control room model was used in conjunction with information gathered from existing ANS system design descriptions and other literature to define a list of RO responsibilities. From this list, a survey instrument was developed and administered to ANS design engineers, operations management personnel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and HFIR ROs to detail the nature of the RO position. Initial results indicated that the RO will function as a high-level system supervisor with considerable monitoring, verification, and communication responsibilities. The relatively high level of control automation has resulted in a reshaping of the RO`s traditional safety and investment protection roles.

  15. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson

    2005-08-30

    The transport reactor development unit (TRDU) was modified to accommodate oxygen-blown operation in support of a Vision 21-type energy plex that could produce power, chemicals, and fuel. These modifications consisted of changing the loop seal design from a J-leg to an L-valve configuration, thereby increasing the mixing zone length and residence time. In addition, the standpipe, dipleg, and L-valve diameters were increased to reduce slugging caused by bubble formation in the lightly fluidized sections of the solid return legs. A seal pot was added to the bottom of the dipleg so that the level of solids in the standpipe could be operated independently of the dipleg return leg. A separate coal feed nozzle was added that could inject the coal upward into the outlet of the mixing zone, thereby precluding any chance of the fresh coal feed back-mixing into the oxidizing zone of the mixing zone; however, difficulties with this coal feed configuration led to a switch back to the original downward configuration. Instrumentation to measure and control the flow of oxygen and steam to the burner and mix zone ports was added to allow the TRDU to be operated under full oxygen-blown conditions. In total, ten test campaigns have been conducted under enriched-air or full oxygen-blown conditions. During these tests, 1515 hours of coal feed with 660 hours of air-blown gasification and 720 hours of enriched-air or oxygen-blown coal gasification were completed under this particular contract. During these tests, approximately 366 hours of operation with Wyodak, 123 hours with Navajo sub-bituminous coal, 143 hours with Illinois No. 6, 106 hours with SUFCo, 110 hours with Prater Creek, 48 hours with Calumet, and 134 hours with a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal were completed. In addition, 331 hours of operation on low-rank coals such as North Dakota lignite, Australian brown coal, and a 90:10 wt% mixture of lignite and wood waste were completed. Also included in these test campaigns was

  16. Operative management of locally advanced, differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Laura Y.; Nixon, Iain J.; Patel, Snehal G.; Palmer, Frank L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin P.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of differentiated thyroid cancer tends to present with limited locoregional disease, leading to excellent long-term survival after operative treatment. Even patients with advanced local disease may survive for long periods with appropriate treatment. The aim of this study is to present our institutional experience of the management of locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and to analyze factors predictive of outcome. Methods We reviewed our institutional database of 3,664 previously untreated patients with differentiated thyroid cancer operated between 1986 and 2010. A total of 153 patients had tumor extension beyond the thyroid capsule that invaded the subcutaneous soft tissues, recurrent laryngeal nerve, larynx, trachea, or esophagus. Details on extent of operation and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Disease-specific survival and locoregional recurrence-free probability were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by multivariate analysis. Results The median age of the 153 patients with tumor extension beyond the thyroid capsule was 55 years (range 11–91 years). Eighty-nine patients (58.2%) were female. Twenty-three patients (15.0%) were staged as M1 at presentation, and 122 (79.7%) had pathologically involved lymph nodes. The most common site of extrathyroidal extension was the recurrent laryngeal nerve (51.0%) followed by the trachea (46.4%) and esophagus (39.2%). Sixty-three patients (41%) required resection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve due to tumor involvement. After surgery, 20 patients (13.0%) had gross residual disease (R2), 63 (41.2%) had a positive margin of resection (R1), and 70 (45.8%) had complete resection with negative margins (R0). With a median follow-up of 63.9 months, 5-year, disease-specific survival, when stratified by R0/R1/R2 resection, was 94.4%, 87.6%, and 67.9%, respectively (P = .030). The data do not demonstrate a statistical difference in survival

  17. Transport advances in disposable bioreactors for liver tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

    2009-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

  18. Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

  19. Study of utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. C.; Campion, M. C.; Pei, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effort required by the transport aircraft manufacturers to support the introduction of advanced composite materials into the fuselage structure of future commercial and military transport aircraft is investigated. Technology issues, potential benefits to military life cycle costs and commercial operating costs, and development plans are examined. The most urgent technology issues defined are impact dynamics, acoustic transmission, pressure containment and damage tolerance, post-buckling, cutouts, and joints and splices. A technology demonstration program is defined and a rough cost and schedule identified. The fabrication and test of a full-scale fuselage barrel section is presented. Commercial and military benefits are identified. Fuselage structure weight savings from use of advanced composites are 16.4 percent for the commercial and 21.8 percent for the military. For the all-composite airplanes the savings are 26 percent and 29 percent, respectively. Commercial/operating costs are reduced by 5 percent for the all-composite airplane and military life cycle costs by 10 percent.

  20. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  1. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    liquid transport, metering, mixing and valving. The available unit operations cover the entire range of automated liquid handling requirements and enable efficient miniaturization, parallelization, and integration of assays.

  2. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  3. Integrated Refrigeration and Storage for Advanced Liquid Hydrogen Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has used liquefied hydrogen (LH2) on a large scale since the beginning of the space program as fuel for the Centaur and Apollo upper stages, and more recently to feed the three space shuttle main engines. The LH2 systems currently in place at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch pads are aging and inefficient compared to the state-of-the-art. Therefore, the need exists to explore advanced technologies and operations that can drive commodity costs down, and provide increased capabilities. The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) was developed at KSC to pursue these goals by demonstrating active thermal control of the propellant state by direct removal of heat using a cryocooler. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The key technology challenge was efficiently integrating the cryogenic refrigerator into the LH2 storage tank. A Linde LR1620 Brayton cycle refrigerator is used to produce up to 900W cooling at 20K, circulating approximately 22 g/s gaseous helium through the hydrogen via approximately 300 m of heat exchanger tubing. The GODU-LH2 system is fully operational, and is currently under test. This paper will discuss the design features of the refrigerator and storage system, as well as the current test results.

  4. Spaceliner Class Operability Gains Via Combined Airbreathing/ Rocket Propulsion: Summarizing an Operational Assessment of Highly Reusable Space Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nix, Michael B.; Escher, William J. d.

    1999-01-01

    In discussing a new NASA initiative in advanced space transportation systems and technologies, the Director of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Arthur G. Stephenson, noted that, "It would use new propulsion technology, air-breathing engine so you don't have to carry liquid oxygen, at least while your flying through the atmosphere. We are calling it Spaceliner 100 because it would be 100 times cheaper, costing $ 100 dollars a pound to orbit." While airbreathing propulsion is directly named, rocket propulsion is also implied by, "... while you are flying through the atmosphere." In-space final acceleration to orbital speed mandates rocket capabilities. Thus, in this informed view, Spaceliner 100 will be predicated on combined airbreathing/rocket propulsion, the technical subject of this paper. Interestingly, NASA's recently concluded Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) study focused on the same affordability goal as that of the Spaceliner 100 initiative and reflected the decisive contribution of combined propulsion as a way of expanding operability and increasing the design robustness of future space transports, toward "aircraft like" capabilities. The HRST study built on the Access to Space Study and the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) development activities to identify and characterize space transportation concepts, infrastructure and technologies that have the greatest potential for reducing delivery cost by another order of magnitude, from $1,000 to $100-$200 per pound for 20,000 lb. - 40.000 lb. payloads to low earth orbit (LEO). The HRST study investigated a number of near-term, far-term, and very far-term launch vehicle concepts including all-rocket single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts, two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concepts, concepts with launch assist, rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concepts, advanced expendable vehicles, and more far term ground-based laser powered launchers. The HRST study consisted of preliminary concept studies, assessments

  5. Distributed networks enable advances in US space weather operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, S. Dave

    2011-06-01

    Space weather, the shorter-term variable impact of the Sun’s photons, solar wind particles, and interplanetary magnetic field upon the Earth’s environment, adversely affects our technological systems. These technological systems, including their space component, are increasingly being seen as a way to help solve 21st Century problems such as climate change, energy access, fresh water availability, and transportation coordination. Thus, the effects of space weather on space systems and assets must be mitigated and operational space weather using automated distributed networks has emerged as a common operations methodology. The evolution of space weather operations is described and the description of distributed network architectures is provided, including their use of tiers, data objects, redundancy, and time domain definitions. There are several existing distributed networks now providing space weather information and the lessons learned in developing those networks are discussed along with the details of examples for the Solar Irradiance Platform (SIP), Communication Alert and Prediction System (CAPS), GEO Alert and Prediction System (GAPS), LEO Alert and Prediction System (LAPS), Radiation Alert and Prediction System (RAPS), and Magnetosphere Alert and Prediction System (MAPS).

  6. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  7. Development of tailorable advanced blanket insulation for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamito, Dominic P.

    1987-01-01

    Two items of Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI) for Advanced Space Transportation Systems were produced. The first consisted of flat panels made from integrally woven, 3-D fluted core having parallel fabric faces and connecting ribs of Nicalon silicon carbide yarns. The triangular cross section of the flutes were filled with mandrels of processed Q-Fiber Felt. Forty panels were prepared with only minimal problems, mostly resulting from the unavailability of insulation with the proper density. Rigidizing the fluted fabric prior to inserting the insulation reduced the production time. The procedures for producing the fabric, insulation mandrels, and TABI panels are described. The second item was an effort to determine the feasibility of producing contoured TABI shapes from gores cut from flat, insulated fluted core panels. Two gores of integrally woven fluted core and single ply fabric (ICAS) were insulated and joined into a large spherical shape employing a tadpole insulator at the mating edges. The fluted core segment of each ICAS consisted of an Astroquartz face fabric and Nicalon face and rib fabrics, while the single ply fabric segment was Nicalon. Further development will be required. The success of fabricating this assembly indicates that this concept may be feasible for certain types of space insulation requirements. The procedures developed for weaving the ICAS, joining the gores, and coating certain areas of the fabrics are presented.

  8. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  9. Continued Development and Application of Circulation Control Pneumatic Technology to Advanced Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Personnel of the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) Aerospace and Transportation Lab have completed a four-year grant program to develop and evaluate the pneumatic aerodynamic technology known as Circulation Control (CC) or Circulation Control Wing (CCW) for advanced transport aircraft. This pneumatic technology, which employs low-level blowing from tangential slots over round or near-round trailing edges of airfoils, greatly augments the circulation around a lifting or control surface and thus enhances the aerodynamic forces and moments generated by that surface. Two-dimensional force augmentations as high as 80 times the input blowing momentum coefficient have been recorded experimentally for these blown devices, thus providing returns of 8000% on the jet momentum expended. A further benefit is the absence of moving parts such as mechanical flaps, slats, spoilers, ailerons, elevators and rudders from these pneumatic surfaces, or the use of only very small, simple, blown aerodynamic surfaces on synergistic designs which integrate the lift, drag and control surfaces. The application of these devices to advanced aircraft can offer significant benefits in their performance, efficiency, simplicity, reliability, economic cost of operation, noise reduction, and safety of flight. To further develop and evaluate this potential, this research effort was conducted by GTRI under grant for the NASA Langley Research Center, Applied Aerodynamics Division, Subsonic Aerodynamics Branch, between June 14, 1993 and May 31, 1997.

  10. Prototype Operational Advances for Atmospheric Radiation Dose Rate Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H. B.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Crowley, G.; Reynolds, A.; Azeem, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Bacon, S.; Teets, E.; Sim, A.; Dominik, L.

    2014-12-01

    effective dose rate measurements and a thermal neutron monitor to characterize Single Event Effects (SEEs) in avionics. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX advances that will ultimately provide operational users with real-time dose and dose rate data for human tissue and avionics exposure risk mitigation.

  11. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  12. Advanced public transportation systems deployment in the United States: Update, January 1999. Final report, July--December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA`s Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication technologies that most benefit public transportation.

  13. Fatigue and associated performance decrements in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyman, E. G.; Orlady, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study of safety reports was conducted to examine the hypothesis that fatigue and associated performance decrements occur in air transport operations, and that these are associated with some combination of factors: circadian desynchronosis, duty time; pre-duty activity; sleep; work scheduling; workload; and environmental deprivation. The findings are based on a selected sample of reported incidents in which the reporter associated fatigue with the occurrence. In comparing the fatigue reports with a control set, significant performance decrements were found to exist related to time-of-day, awareness and attention to duty, less significantly, final phases of flights. The majority of the fatigue incidents involved such unsafe events as altitude deviations, takeoffs and landing without clearance, and the like. Considerations of duty and sleep are the major factors in the reported fatigue conditions.

  14. Extending helicopter operations to meet future integrated transportation needs.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Neville A; Plant, Katherine L; Roberts, Aaron P; Harvey, Catherine; Thomas, T Glyn

    2016-03-01

    Helicopters have the potential to be an integral part of the future transport system. They offer a means of rapid transit in an overly populated transport environment. However, one of the biggest limitations on rotary wing flight is their inability to fly in degraded visual conditions in the critical phases of approach and landing. This paper presents a study that developed and evaluated a Head up Display (HUD) to assist rotary wing pilots by extending landing to degraded visual conditions. The HUD was developed with the assistance of the Cognitive Work Analysis method as an approach for analysing the cognitive work of landing the helicopter. The HUD was tested in a fixed based flight simulator with qualified helicopter pilots. A qualitative analysis to assess situation awareness and workload found that the HUD enabled safe landing in degraded conditions whilst simultaneously enhancing situation awareness and reducing workload. Continued development in this area has the potential to extend the operational capability of helicopters in the future.

  15. Design, operation, and evaluation of the transportable vitrification system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Young, S.R.; Hansen, E.K.; Whitehouse, J.C.

    1997-02-20

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a transportable melter system designed to demonstrate the treatment of low-level and mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes such as wastewater treatment sludges, contaminated soils and incinerator ash. The TVS is a large-scale, fully integrated vitrification system consisting of melter feed preparation, melter, offgas, service, and control modules. The TVS was tested with surrogate waste at the Clemson University Environmental Systems Engineering Department`s (ESED) DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research prior to being shipped to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 site for treatment of mixed waste. This testing, along with additional testing at ORR, proved that the TVS would be able to successfully treat mixed waste. These surrogate tests consistently produced glass that met the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Performance of the system resulted in acceptable emissions of regulated metals from the offgas system. The TVS is scheduled to begin mixed waste operations at ORR in June 1997.

  16. 77 FR 3009 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors..., ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Advanced Boiling Water Reactors.'' DATES... developed using this Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examination Standards for Power...

  17. Analysis and Preliminary Design of an Advanced Technology Transport Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazzini, R.; Vaughn, D.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of an advanced technology transport aircraft flight control system using avionics and flight control concepts appropriate to the 1980-1985 time period are discussed. Specifically, the techniques and requirements of the flight control system were established, a number of candidate configurations were defined, and an evaluation of these configurations was performed to establish a recommended approach. Candidate configurations based on redundant integration of various sensor types, computational methods, servo actuator arrangements and data-transfer techniques were defined to the functional module and piece-part level. Life-cycle costs, for the flight control configurations, as determined in an operational environment model for 200 aircraft over a 15-year service life, were the basis of the optimum configuration selection tradeoff. The recommended system concept is a quad digital computer configuration utilizing a small microprocessor for input/output control, a hexad skewed set of conventional sensors for body rate and body acceleration, and triple integrated actuators.

  18. Human factors of advanced technology (glass cockpit) transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year study of airline crews at two U.S. airlines who were flying an advanced technology aircraft, the Boeing 757 is discussed. The opinions and experiences of these pilots as they view the advanced, automated features of this aircraft, and contrast them with previous models they have flown are discussed. Training for advanced automation; (2) cockpit errors and error reduction; (3) management of cockpit workload; and (4) general attitudes toward cockpit automation are emphasized. The limitations of the air traffic control (ATC) system on the ability to utilize the advanced features of the new aircraft are discussed. In general the pilots are enthusiastic about flying an advanced technology aircraft, but they express mixed feelings about the impact of automation on workload, crew errors, and ability to manage the flight.

  19. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Program cost estimates document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes Rockwell International's cost analysis results of manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to low earth orbit during the basic and option 1 period of performance for contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies. Vehicles analyzed include the space shuttle, personnel launch system (PLS) with advanced launch system (ALS) and national launch system (NLS) boosters, foreign launch vehicles, NLS-2 derived launch vehicles, liquid rocket booster (LRB) derived launch vehicle, and cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV).

  20. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  1. Development and Analysis of Advanced High-Temperature Technology for Nuclear Heat Transport and Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Per F. Peterson

    2010-03-01

    This project by the Thermal Hydraulics Research Laboratory at U.C. Berkeley Studied advanced high-temperature heat transport and power conversion technology, in support of the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative and Generation IV.

  2. Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Wheeled Vehicles Classification : Unclassified Five components of the U.S. Army Transportation Systems collectively meet...Army Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment by Lieutenant Colonel Mark D. Stimer...Transportation Systems in a Twenty-First Century Joint Operational Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  3. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Advances in avionics and display technology have significantly changed the cockpit environment in current 'glass cockpit' aircraft. Recent developments in display technology, on-board processing, data storage, and datalinked communications are likely to further alter the environment in second and third generation 'glass cockpit' aircraft. The interaction of advanced cockpit technology with human cognitive performance has been a major area of activity within the MIT Aeronautical Systems Laboratory. This paper presents an overview of the MIT Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility. Several recent research projects are briefly reviewed and the most important results are summarized.

  4. Rates of Advance in Historical Land Combat Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    phase was devoted to assembling as much of the existing statistical data on historical rates of advance as possible, and to computerizing it. The second ...1989 Second February 1990 Third May 1990 Fourth June 1990 This Research Paper gives our analyses of the available data on rates of advance in land...3) Despite their effectiveness in other contexts, advanced multivariate statistical methods have been singularly unsuccessful and often misused when

  5. Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzina, A.

    1984-04-01

    Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on conventional natural gas pipeline steels.

  6. WAATS: A computer program for Weights Analysis of Advanced Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    A historical weight estimating technique for advanced transportation systems is presented. The classical approach to weight estimation is discussed and sufficient data is presented to estimate weights for a large spectrum of flight vehicles including horizontal and vertical takeoff aircraft, boosters and reentry vehicles. A computer program, WAATS (Weights Analysis for Advanced Transportation Systems) embracing the techniques discussed has been written and user instructions are presented. The program was developed for use in the ODIN (Optimal Design Integration System) system.

  7. Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eric, Tang; Tony, Wood; Sofiane, Benhaddad; Casey, Brown; Hongpeng, He; Jeff, Nelson; Oliver, Grande; Ben, Nuttall; Mark, Richards; Randy, Petri

    2012-12-27

    Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher availability for

  8. How SmartWay Advances Sustainable Transportation Supply Chains

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides information on how the SmartWay program has achieved reductions in freight transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions and how it will continue to do so with its Vision 2020 strategies.

  9. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  10. Graphite/Polyimide Composites. [conference on Composites for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B. (Editor); Davis, J. G., Jr. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Technology developed under the Composites for Advanced Space Transportation System Project is reported. Specific topics covered include fabrication, adhesives, test methods, structural integrity, design and analysis, advanced technology developments, high temperature polymer research, and the state of the art of graphite/polyimide composites.

  11. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  12. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  13. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  14. Recent advances in arsenic bioavailability, transport, and speciation in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Ma, Lena; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2015-04-01

    Widespread arsenic (As) contamination in paddy rice (Oryza sativa) from both geologic and anthropogenic origins is an increasing concern globally. Substantial efforts have been made to elucidate As transformation and uptake processes in rhizosphere and metabolism in rice plant, which provides an essential foundation for the development of mitigation strategies. However, a range of crucial mechanisms from As mobilization in rhizosphere to transport to grains remain poorly understood. To provide new insight into the underlying mechanisms of As accumulation in rice, a range of new perspectives on As bioavailability, transport pathways, and in situ speciation are reviewed here. Specifically, the prominent effects of water regime, Fe plaque, and biochar on As mobilization in rice rhizosphere are discussed critically. An updated understanding of arsenite (AsIII) and methylated As transport from root to vascular bundle and grain is integrated and discussed in detail. Special attention is given to As speciation and distribution in rice grain with potential coping strategies being provided and discussed. Future research priorities are also identified. The new insight into As bioavailability, transport and speciation in rice would lead to a better understanding of As contamination in rice. They would also provide useful strategies from agronomic measures to genetic engineering for more effective restriction of As transport and accumulation in food chain.

  15. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.; Brix, M.

    2009-11-26

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  16. RF-driven advanced modes of ITER operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Brix, M.; Decker, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Hawkes, N.; Imbeaux, F.; Litaudon, X.; Mailloux, J.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2009-11-01

    The impact of the Radio Frequency heating and current drive systems on the ITER advanced scenarios is analyzed by means of the CRONOS suite of codes for integrated tokamak modelling. As a first step, the code is applied to analyze a high power advanced scenario discharge of JET in order to validate both the heating and current drive modules and the overall simulation procedure. Then, ITER advanced scenarios, based on Radio Frequency systems, are studied on the basis of previous results. These simulations show that both hybrid and steady-state scenarios could be possible within the ITER specifications, using RF heating and current drive only.

  17. Proceedings of the Advanced Seminar on one-dimensional, open-channel Flow and transport modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the increased use of mathematical/numerical simulation models, of the diversity of both model investigations and informational project objectives, and of the technical demands of complex model applications by U.S. Geological Survey personnel, an advanced seminar on one-dimensional open-channel flow and transport modeling was organized and held on June 15-18, 1987, at the National Space Technology Laboratory, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Principal emphasis in the Seminar was on one-dimensional flow and transport model-implementation techniques, operational practices, and application considerations. The purposes of the Seminar were to provide a forum for the exchange of information, knowledge, and experience among model users, as well as to identify immediate and future needs with respect to model development and enhancement, user support, training requirements, and technology transfer. The Seminar program consisted of a mix of topical and project presentations by Geological Survey personnel. This report is a compilation of short papers that summarize the presentations made at the Seminar.

  18. Reference Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of a four-year research project that was part of the Instrumentation and Control and Human Machine Interface subprogram of the DOE Advanced Reactor Technologies program.

  19. Study of Advanced Propulsion Systems for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Heldenbrand, R. W.; Rowse, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Definitions of takeoff gross weight, performance, and direct operating cost for both a 30 and 50 passenger airplane were established. The results indicate that a potential direct operating cost benefit, resulting from advanced technologies, of approximately 20 percent would be achieved for the 1990 engines. Of the numerous design features that were evaluated, only maintenance-related items contributed to a significant decrease in direct operating cost. Recommendations are made to continue research and technology programs for advanced component and engine development.

  20. Advancing the understanding of plasma transport in mid-size stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Carlos; Talmadge, Joseph; Ramisch, Mirko; TJ-II, the; HXS; TJ-K Teams

    2017-01-01

    The tokamak and the stellarator are the two main candidate concepts for magnetically confining fusion plasmas. The flexibility of the mid-size stellarator devices together with their unique diagnostic capabilities make them ideally suited to study the relation between magnetic topology, electric fields and transport. This paper addresses advances in the understanding of plasma transport in mid-size stellarators with an emphasis on the physics of flows, transport control, impurity and particle transport and fast particles. The results described here emphasize an improved physics understanding of phenomena in stellarators that complements the empirical approach. Experiments in mid-size stellarators support the development of advanced plasma scenarios in Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and, in concert with better physics understanding in tokamaks, may ultimately lead to an advance in the prediction of burning plasma behaviour.

  1. Affordable In-Space Transportation. Phase 2; An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (ITM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIM was managed by NASA-Mar-shaU Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Manidns of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIM in a summary format. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TPA, which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? What is the current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5. What is the proposed implementation time frame

  2. Affordable In-Space Transportation Phase 2: An Advanced Concepts Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Affordable In-Space Transportation (AIST) program was established by the NASA Office of Space Access to improve transportation and lower the costs from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and beyond (to Lunar orbit, Mars orbit, inner solar system missions, and return to LEO). A goal was established to identify and develop radically innovative concepts for new upper stages for Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) and Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) systems. New architectures and technologies are being identified which have the potential to meet a cost goal of $1,000 to $2,000 per pound for transportation to GEO and beyond for overall mission cost (including the cost to LEO). A Technical Interchange Meeting (TTM) was held on October 16 and 17, 1996 in Huntsville, Alabama to review previous studies, present advanced concepts and review technologies that could be used to meet the stated goals. The TIN4 was managed by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office with Mr. Alan Adams providing TIM coordination. Mr. John C. Mankins of NASA Headquarters provided overall sponsorship. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the TIM at the UAH Research Center. Dr. Clark Hawk, Center Director, was the principal investigator. Technical support was provided by Christensen Associates. Approximately 70 attendees were present at the meeting. This Executive Summary provides a record of the key discussions and results of the TIN4 in a summary for-mat. It incorporates the response to the following basic issues of the TDVL which addressed the following questions: 1. What are the cost drivers and how can they be reduced? 2. What are the operational issues and their impact on cost? 3. What is the current technology readiness level (TRL) and what will it take to reach TRL 6? 4. What are the key enabling technologies and sequence for their accomplishment? 5 . What is the proposed implementation time

  3. Design of a pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.; Kesseli, J.

    1991-01-01

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding a heat transport system to more uniformly supply heat to the heater head tubes. One heat transport system with favorable characteristics is an alkali metal pool boiler. An alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system was designed for a 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS). Solar energy concentrated on the absorber dome boils a eutectic mixture of sodium and potassium. The alkali metal vapors condense on the heater head tubes, supplying the Stirling engine with a uniform heat flux at a constant temperature. Boiling stability is achieved with the use of an enhanced boiling surface and noncondensible gas.

  4. CTOL Transport Technology, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Technology associated with advanced conventional takeoff and landing transport aircraft is discussed. Topics covered include: advanced aerodynamics and active controls; operations and safety; and advanced systems. Emphasis is placed on increased energy efficiency.

  5. Hazard alerting and situational awareness in advanced air transport cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. J.; Wanke, Craig; Kuchar, James; Mykityshyn, Mark; Hahn, Edward; Midkiff, Alan

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced Cockpit Simulation Facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is presented. Though detailed results depend on the specific application, graphical presentation of flight control and alert information has generally been found to be effective for situational awareness and subjectively selected by flight crews. Graphical display is most effective when it is consistent with the pilots cognitive map of the process being displayed or of the situation.

  6. 76 FR 63714 - Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...] Big Spring Rail System, Inc.;Operation Exemption;Transport Handling Specialists, Inc. Big Spring Rail... Howard County, Tex., owned by the City of Big Spring, Tex. (City). BSRS will be operating the line...

  7. Manganese: Recent advances in understanding its transport and neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Aschner, Michael . E-mail: Michael.Aschner@vanderbilt.edu; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Schneider, Jay S.; Zheng Wei

    2007-06-01

    The present review is based on presentations from the meeting of the Society of Toxicology in San Diego, CA (March 2006). It addresses recent developments in the understanding of the transport of manganese (Mn) into the central nervous system (CNS), as well as brain imaging and neurocognitive studies in non-human primates aimed at improving our understanding of the mechanisms of Mn neurotoxicity. Finally, we discuss potential therapeutic modalities for treating Mn intoxication in humans.

  8. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105 Public... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of...

  9. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  10. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  11. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  12. Advances in Neutral Transport Modeling with DEGAS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karney, C. F. F.; Stotler, D. P.; Braams, B. J.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Kanzleiter, R. J.

    1997-11-01

    With the next major release of the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code(D. Stotler and C. Karney, Contrib. Plasma Phys.) 34, 392 (1994)., the user will have access to a flexible scoring capability; a standard set of neutral and background plasma scores will be included by default. A separate set of scoring arrays will be used for time-dependent coupling to fluid plasma codes. Implicit techniques are being investigated as a way to increase the time-step relative to the explicit approach(D. Reiter, Chr. May, D. Coster, and R. Schneider, J. Nucl. Mater.) 220-222, 987 (1995).. Satisfactory execution times will be achieved by running the coupled system on massively parallel computers. Handling of high neutral density regions will be improved via a hybrid fluid-Monte Carlo model of the neutral transport. The DG grid generation and surface data input facility is being adapted for use with DEGAS 2 to provide an easy way for the user to transform equilibrium data and CAD hardware files into DEGAS 2 geometry input.

  13. 14 CFR 375.42 - Transport operations-occasional planeload charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport operations-occasional planeload... Operations Requiring Specific Preflight Authorization of Filing § 375.42 Transport operations—occasional... services to the general public. Such charters are normally limited to those in which the entire capacity...

  14. Transportation requirements for drilling operations on the Arctic North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    Drilling on Alaska's Arctic North Slope poses a number of interesting operational problems, including transporting and supporting drilling rigs to their respective locations. Sohio Alaska Petroleum Co. has extensive experience in transporting and supporting drilling rigs in development operations (Prudhoe Bay) and exploration locations both on- and offshore Alaska's North Slope. This paper addresses how arctic drilling rigs are transported to development locations within the Prudhoe bay unit and to remote on and off shore locations.

  15. Advanced composite aileron for L-1011 transport aircraft: Aileron manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, E. G.; Cobbs, W. L.; Legg, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The fabrication activities of the Advanced Composite Aileron (ACA) program are discussed. These activities included detail fabrication, manufacturing development, assembly, repair and quality assurance. Five ship sets of ailerons were manufactured. The detail fabrication effort of ribs, spar and covers was accomplished on male tools to a common cure cycle. Graphite epoxy tape and fabric and syntactic epoxy materials were utilized in the fabrication. The ribs and spar were net cured and required no post cure trim. Material inconsistencies resulted in manufacturing development of the front spar during the production effort. The assembly effort was accomplished in subassembly and assembly fixtures. The manual drilling system utilized a dagger type drill in a hydraulic feed control hand drill. Coupon testing for each detail was done.

  16. Advanced dosimetry systems for the space transport and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailly, L. F.; Schneider, M. F.; Clark, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced dosimetry system concepts are described that will provide automated and instantaneous measurement of dose and particle spectra. Systems are proposed for measuring dose rate from cosmic radiation background to greater than 3600 rads/hr. Charged particle spectrometers, both internal and external to the spacecraft, are described for determining mixed field energy spectra and particle fluxes for both real time onboard and ground-based computer evaluation of the radiation hazard. Automated passive dosimetry systems consisting of thermoluminescent dosimeters and activation techniques are proposed for recording the dose levels for twelve or more crew members. This system will allow automatic onboard readout and data storage of the accumulated dose and can be transmitted to ground after readout or data records recovered with each crew rotation.

  17. Advanced composite aileron for L-1011 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design and evaluation of alternate concepts for the major subcomponents of the advanced composite aileron (ACA) was completed. From this array of subcomponents, aileron assemblies were formulated and evaluated. Based on these analyses a multirib assembly with graphite tape/syntactic core covers, a graphite tape front spar, and a graphite fabric rib was selected for development. A weight savings of 29.1 percent (40.8 pounds per aileron) is predicted. Engineering cost analyses indicate that the production cost of the ACA will be 7.3 percent less than the current aluminum aileron. Fabrication, machining, and testing of the material evaluation specimens for the resin screening program was completed. The test results lead to the selection of Narmco 5208 resin for the ACA. Other activities completed include: the detailed design of the ACA, construction of a three dimensional finite element model for structural analysis, and formulation of detail plans for material verification and process development.

  18. Multiple Application Propfan Study (MAPS): Advanced tactical transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, F. C.; Liebeck, R. H.; Mitchell, G. H.; Mooiweer, A.; Platte, M. M.; Toogood, T. L.; Wright, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to ascertain potential benefits of a propfan propulsion system application to a blended wing/body military tactical transport. Based on a design cruise Mach no. of 0.75 for the design mission, the results indicate a significant advantage in various figures of merit for the propfan over those of a comparable technology turbofan. Although the propfan has a 1.6 percent greater takeoff gross weight, its life cycle cost is 5.3 percent smaller, partly because of a 27 percent smaller specific fuel consumption. When employed on alternate missions, the propfan configuration offers significantly improved flexibility and capability: an increase in sea level penetration distance of more than 100 percent, or in time-on-station of 24 percent, or in deployment payload of 38 percent.

  19. Advances in NASA radiation transport research: 3DHZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2014-07-01

    The computationally efficient HZETRN code has been used in recent trade studies for lunar and Martian exploration and is currently being used in the engineering development of the next generation of space vehicles, habitats, and extra vehicular activity equipment. Code development has been based on a progression of approximations first assuming all particles are produced in the initiator direction of incidence (straight-ahead) later improved by treating neutrons produced in the backward hemisphere as moving straight-back (bi-directional). A new version (3DHZETRN) capable of transporting High charge (Z) and Energy (HZE) and light ions (including neutrons) under space-like boundary conditions with enhanced neutron and light ion propagation in transverse directions is developed. Herein, new algorithms for light ion and neutron propagation with well defined convergence criteria in 3D objects is developed and tested against Monte Carlo simulations of 3D effects.

  20. Advances in the Understanding of Mammalian Copper Transporters12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanfang; Hodgkinson, Victoria; Zhu, Sha; Weisman, Gary A.; Petris, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient. Its ability to exist in 2 oxidation states (Cu1+ and Cu2+) allows it to function as an enzymatic cofactor in hydrolytic, electron transfer, and oxygen utilization reactions. Cu transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B play key roles in ensuring that adequate Cu is available for Cu-requiring processes and the prevention of excess Cu accumulation within cells. Two diseases of Cu metabolism, Menkes disease and Wilson disease, which are caused by mutations in ATP7A and ATP7B, respectively, exemplify the critical importance of regulating Cu balance in humans. Herein, we review recent studies of the biochemical and cell biological characteristics of CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B, as well as emerging roles for Cu in new areas of physiology. PMID:22332042

  1. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  2. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  3. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  4. Understanding the operational environment: implications for advanced visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleva, Denise; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth; Dixon, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    With the changing character of warfare, information superiority is a high priority. Given the complexity of current and future operating environments, analysts, strategists and planners need a multidimensional understanding of the battlespace. Asymmetric warfare necessitates that our strategists look beyond targets-based operations, where we simply identify and destroy enemy entities. Effects-based operations models the enemy as a system which reacts to our actions. This requires the capability to predict the adversary response to a selected action. Actions may be diplomatic, information, military or economic (DIME). Effects may be political, military, economic, social, information or infrastructure (PMESII). Timing must be explicitly considered and effects dynamically assessed. Visualizations of intelligence information are needed which will promote full understanding of all aspects of adversary strengths and weaknesses by providing the extensive data about adversary forces, organic essentials, infrastructure, leadership, population, and science and technology in an easily accessible and understandable format. This will enhance Effectsbased operations, and therefore, the capability to predict and counter adversary courses of action. This paper outlines a systems engineering approach to designing visualizations which convey the multidimensional information to decision makers. Visualization issues inherent in understanding the multidimensional operational environment will be discussed.

  5. Advanced public transportation systems: State of the art update `98. Final report, July-December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.; Labell, L.N.; LoVecchio, J.A.; Ow, R.S.; Royal, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is the latest in a series of State-of-the-Art reports, the last of which was published in January 1996. It contains the results of an investigation of the extent of adoption of advanced technology in the provision of public transportation service in North America. It focused on some of the most innovative or comprehensive implementations, categorized under four types of service/technologies: Fleet Management, Traveler Information, Electronic Fare Payment, and Transportation Demand Management.

  6. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 3: The operational significance of exposure to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. C.; Lauber, J. K.; Baetge, M. M.; Acomb, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Excessive flightcrew fatigue has potentially serious safety consequences. Laboratory studies have implicated fatigue as a causal factor associated with varying levels of performance deterioration depending on the amount of fatigue and the type of measure utilized in assessing performance. These studies have been of limited utility because of the difficulty of relating laboratory task performance to the demands associated with the operation of a complex aircraft. The performance of 20 volunteer twin-jet transport crews is examined in a full-mission simulator scenario that included most aspects of an actual line operation. The scenario included both routine flight operations and an unexpected mechanical abnormality which resulted in a high level of crew workload. Half of the crews flew the simulation within two to three hours after completing a three-day, high-density, short-haul duty cycle (Post-Duty condition). The other half flew the scenario after a minimum of three days off duty (Pre-Duty) condition). The results revealed that, not surprisingly, Post-Duty crews were significantly more fatigued than Pre-Duty crews. However, a somewhat counter-intuitive pattern of results emerged on the crew performancemeasures. In general, the performance of Post-Duty crews was significantly better than that of Pre-Duty crews, as rated by an expert observer on a number of dimensions relevant to flight safety. Analyses of the flightcrew communication patterns revealed that Post-Duty crews communicated significantly more overall, suggesting, as has previous research, that communication is a good predictor of overall crew performance.

  7. High-Purity Aluminum Magnet Technology for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, R. G.; Pullam, B.; Rickle, D.; Litchford, R. J.; Robertson, G. A.; Schmidt, D. D.; Cole, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Basic research on advanced plasma-based propulsion systems is routinely focused on plasmadynamics, performance, and efficiency aspects while relegating the development of critical enabling technologies, such as flight-weight magnets, to follow-on development work. Unfortunately, the low technology readiness levels (TRLs) associated with critical enabling technologies tend to be perceived as an indicator of high technical risk, and this, in turn, hampers the acceptance of advanced system architectures for flight development. Consequently, there is growing recognition that applied research on the critical enabling technologies needs to be conducted hand in hand with basic research activities. The development of flight-weight magnet technology, for example, is one area of applied research having broad crosscutting applications to a number of advanced propulsion system architectures. Therefore, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Louisiana State University (LSU), and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) have initiated an applied research project aimed at advancing the TRL of flight-weight magnets. This Technical Publication reports on the group's initial effort to demonstrate the feasibility of cryogenic high-purity aluminum magnet technology and describes the design, construction, and testing of a 6-in-diameter by 12-in-long aluminum solenoid magnet. The coil was constructed in the machine shop of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at LSU and testing was conducted in NHMFL facilities at Florida State University and at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The solenoid magnet was first wound, reinforced, potted in high thermal conductivity epoxy, and bench tested in the LSU laboratories. A cryogenic container for operation at 77 K was also constructed and mated to the solenoid. The coil was then taken to NHMFL facilities in Tallahassee, FL. where its magnetoresistance was measured in a 77 K environment under steady magnetic fields as high as 10 T. In

  8. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  9. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  10. Advanced solar concentrator mass production, operation, and maintenance cost assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, W. A.; Bedard, R. J.; Bell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    The object of this assessment was to estimate the costs of the preliminary design at: production rates of 100 to 1,000,000 concentrators per year; concentrators per aperture diameters of 5, 10, 11, and 15 meters; and various receiver/power conversion package weights. The design of the cellular glass substrate Advanced Solar Concentrator is presented. The concentrator is an 11 meter diameter, two axis tracking, parabolic dish solar concentrator. The reflective surface of this design consists of inner and outer groups of mirror glass/cellular glass gores.

  11. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  12. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.105 - May an advance of funds be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS... transporting HHG and temporary storage? An advance of funds may be authorized when the transportation of HHG... be authorized for transporting HHG and temporary storage? 302-7.105 Section 302-7.105...

  15. Advances in Data Assimilation for Operational Hydrologic Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, Albrecht; Liu, Yuqiong

    2011-02-01

    International Workshop on Data Assimilation for Operational Hydrologic Forecasting and Water Resources Management; Delft, Netherlands, 1-3 November 2010 ; The abundance of new hydrologic observations (in situ or remotely sensed) in the past couple of decades has stimulated a great deal of research into the use of these observations for improved hydrologic predictions via model-data infusion applications. Generally speaking, however, hydrologic data assimilation (DA) as an objective tool for reducing predictive uncertainty is not yet technically ready for operational hydrologic forecasting and water resources management. This is due in part to a lack of mechanisms to properly quantify the uncertainty in observations and forecast models in real-time forecasting situations and to conduct the merging of data and models in a way that is adequately efficient and transparent to operational forecasters. Nevertheless, the need for effective assimilation of useful data into the forecast process is increasing. Within the framework of the Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX; http://www.hepex.org/), a workshop was held in the Netherlands. The overall goal of the workshop was to develop and foster community-based efforts for collaborative research, development, and synthesis of techniques and tools for hydrologic data assimilation and for the cost-effective transition of these techniques and tools from research to operations.

  16. Advancing satellite operations with intelligent graphical monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Shirah, Gregory W.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    For nearly twenty-five years, spacecraft missions have been operated in essentially the same manner: human operators monitor displays filled with alphanumeric text watching for limit violations or other indicators that signal a problem. The task is performed predominately by humans. Only in recent years have graphical user interfaces and expert systems been accepted within the control center environment to help reduce operator workloads. Unfortunately, the development of these systems is often time consuming and costly. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a new domain specific expert system development tool called the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) has been developed. Through the use of a highly graphical user interface and point-and-click operation, GenSAA facilitates the rapid, 'programming-free' construction of intelligent graphical monitoring systems to serve as real-time, fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although specifically developed to support real-time satellite monitoring, GenSAA can support the development of intelligent graphical monitoring systems in a variety of space and commercial applications.

  17. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a

  18. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) A Development Step From ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, Massimiliano; Berthe, Philippe; Vo, Xavier; Pietsch, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of unpressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU’s); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and de-orbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat-shield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on

  19. A Methodology for Evaluating Advanced Operator Workstation Accommodation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Lower screen heights will also: 1) reduce the amount of exposed surface area on the eyeball, and hence reduce the drying out of eyes (Abe et al...issues of display placement as it relates to eye position. To minimize visual fatigue or eye strain in the ocular muscles, the display should...operational and prototype ejection seat cushions, including static and dynamic configurations. Peak pressure, muscular fatigue, lower extremity oxygen

  20. Advanced Productivity Analysis Methods for Air Traffic Control Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    games, corporate -pianning models, freeway simulation, hospital simu- lation, etc. The types ofi users range from engineers an4 scientists to business...radio and interphone commnications and direct- voice commnication ). For each identified task, we selected a "reasonable" minimum task performance...search parameters. To compute the Work Activity actual task times (e.g., for interphone commnication , RDP/RDP operations, and flight strip processing

  1. Advanced metrics for network-centric naval operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Walter L.; Bowden, Fred D. J.

    2003-07-01

    Defense organizations around the world are formulating new visions, strategies, and concepts that utilize emerging information-age technologies. Central among these is network-based operations. Measures and metrics are needed that allow analysts to link the effects of alternative network structures, operating procedures and command and control arrangements to combat outcomes. This paper reports on measures and mathematical metrics that begin to address this problem. Networks are assessed in terms of their complexity, their ability to adapt, and the collaboration opportunity they afford. The metrics measure the contributions of complexity to information flow, and the deleterious effects of information overload and disconfirming reports to overall network performance. In addition, they measure the contributions of collaboration to shared situational awareness in terms of the accuracy and precision of the information produced and the costs associated with an imbalance of the two. We posit a fixed network connecting a Naval Task Force"s various platforms, and assess the ability of this network to support the range of missions required of the task force. The emphasis is not on connectivity, but rather on information flow and how well the network is able to adapt to alternative flow requirements. We assess the impact alternative network structures, operating procedures and command arrangements have on combat outcomes by applying the metrics to a cruise missile defense scenario.

  2. Advances in Engineering Software for Lift Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff

    2012-03-01

    In this paper an attempt is performed at computer modelling of ropeway ski lift systems. The logic in these systems is based on a travel form between the two terminals, which operates with high capacity cabins, chairs, gondolas or draw-bars. Computer codes AUTOCAD, MATLAB and Compaq-Visual Fortran - version 6.6 are used in the computer modelling. The rope systems computer modelling is organized in two stages in this paper. The first stage is organization of the ground relief profile and a design of the lift system as a whole, according to the terrain profile and the climatic and atmospheric conditions. The ground profile is prepared by the geodesists and is presented in an AUTOCAD view. The next step is the design of the lift itself which is performed by programmes using the computer code MATLAB. The second stage of the computer modelling is performed after the optimization of the co-ordinates and the lift profile using the computer code MATLAB. Then the co-ordinates and the parameters are inserted into a program written in Compaq Visual Fortran - version 6.6., which calculates 171 lift parameters, organized in 42 tables. The objective of the work presented in this paper is an attempt at computer modelling of the design and parameters derivation of the rope way systems and their computer variation and optimization.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  4. Advanced study in solid transport: Rheological behavior of dense suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Chen, J. L. S.; Roidt, R. M.; Burgman, H. A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of the present research is to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental rheological properties of high solids concentration slurries or wet cake. A dynamic shear cell test device has been constructed and operated to measure dynamic shear stress and determine the effects of experimental parameters upon the dynamic shear stress of the materials. The solids used are glass beads and coal powders. The experimental parameters investigated are: water fraction, normal stress, speed, gap height, size, and size distribution. A statistical method is adapted to evaluate the effects of the experimental parameters. The experiments with glass beads show that the dynamic shear stress is independent of shear rate, providing the gap height is larger than about 27 times the bead diameter, but is a functional of normal stress and water fraction. The dynamic friction coefficient increases sharply as the water fraction increases up to 10 percent, and decreases gradually for water fractions greater than 10 percent. Dynamic experiments with coal-water mixtures show that the coal-water mixtures behave like the glass beads when water fraction is lower than a certain value. However, as the water fraction increases beyond that value, the coal-water mixtures display the characteristics of thixotropic fluids with shear thinning. The flow index of the coal-water mixtures is independent of normal stress, but decreases as the water fraction decreases.

  5. A unified theory of tokamak transport via the generalized Balescu--Lenard collision operator

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.; Duvall, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    A unified basis from which to study the transport of tokamaks at low collisionality is provided by specializing the ''generalized Balescu--Lenard'' collision operator to toridal geometry. Explicitly evaluating this operator, ripple, turbulent, and neoclassical transport coefficients are obtained, simply by further specializing the single operator to different particular classes of fluctuation wavelength and mode structure. For each class of fluctuations, the operator possesses a diffusive, test-particle contribution D, and in addition a dynamic drag term F, which makes the operator self-consistent, and whose presence is accordingly essential for the resultant fluxes to possess the appropriate conservation laws and symmetrics. These properties, well-known for axisymmetric transport, are demonstrated for one type of turbulent transport, chosen for definiteness, by explicit evaluation of both ''anomalous diffusion'' term arising from D, as well as the closely related test particle calculations, but is shown to have an important impact on the predicted fluxes. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    To provide a background for evaluating advanced STOL systems concepts, a number of short haul and STOL airline operations in the United States and one operation in Canada were studied. A study of flight director operational procedures for an advanced STOL research airplane, the Augmented Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane, was conducted using the STOLAND simulation facility located at the Ames Changes to the advanced digital flight control system (STOLAND) installed in the Augmentor Wing Airplane are proposed to improve the mode sequencing to simplify pilot procedures and reduce pilot workload.

  7. Formal representation of the requirements for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frincke, Deborah; Wolber, Dave; Fisher, Gene; Cohen, Gerald C.; Mclees, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A partial requirement specification for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) Flight Control System is described. The example was adopted from requirements given in a NASA Contractor report. The language used to describe the requirements, Requirements Specification Language (RSL), is described in a companion document.

  8. 78 FR 35746 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Shipments of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... licensees will be required to provide advance notifications for certain shipments of radioactive material at... for certain shipments of radioactive material at the time the applicable Agreement State implements... B packaging; (2) the licensed material is being transported within or across the boundary of...

  9. Mission Control Center operations for the Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital flight tests of the Space Shuttle Program involved three types of activities, including classic flight testing of the vehicle hardware and software, operational procedures evaluation and development, and performance of payload mission operations. This combination of activities required a capability of the Mission Control Center (MCC) to provide thorough support to the Orbiter and its crew across a broad spectrum of activities. Attention is given to MCC organization, the general functions performed by the MCC teams, a flight support description, the motivation for a change in MCC operations, support elements, orbit phase functions, and dynamic flight phase functions. It is pointed out that the MCC facilities for the operational mode of support will not be fully implemented until 1984.

  10. Retrospective studies of operating problems in air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.; Ruffell-Smith, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    An epidemiological model for the study of human errors in aviation is presented. In this approach, retrospective data are used as the basis for formulation of hypotheses as to system factors which may have contributed to such errors. Prospective experimental studies of aviation operations are also required in order to prove or disprove the hypotheses, and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques designed to solve operational problems in the aviation system.

  11. International Conference on Operator Theory: Advances and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    depending boundary conditions" 4:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Invited paper: A. Dijksma, University of Groningen, Netherlands - "Unitary colligations and...mappine" 2:30 p.m.-3:00 p.m. Invited paper: E.M. Semenov, University of Voronezh, U.S.S.R. - "The Geometrical Properties of Operators Acting on L " P...10:30 a.m. Contributed paper: Q. Ye, University of Calgary - "Variational Properties and Rayleigh Ouotient Algorithms for ffermitian Matrzix Pencils

  12. Decision Aids for Airborne Intercept Operations in Advanced Aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madni, A.; Freedy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A tactical decision aid (TDA) for the F-14 aircrew, i.e., the naval flight officer and pilot, in conducting a multitarget attack during the performance of a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) role is presented. The TDA employs hierarchical multiattribute utility models for characterizing mission objectives in operationally measurable terms, rule based AI-models for tactical posture selection, and fast time simulation for maneuver consequence prediction. The TDA makes aspect maneuver recommendations, selects and displays the optimum mission posture, evaluates attackable and potentially attackable subsets, and recommends the 'best' attackable subset along with the required course perturbation.

  13. [Hybrid operating rooms: only for advanced endovascular procedures?].

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, E; Katsargyris, A; Töpel, I; Steinbauer, M

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of endovascular techniques has led to the concept of the "hybrid operating room" (hybrid OR). A hybrid OR combines the sterility of an OR in an operating theatre environment with a high-quality fixed imaging system. On the basis of these advantages it would be desirable that an angio-hybrid OR becomes a standard requirement for endovascular surgery. In Great Britain guidelines have already been published that require a hybrid OR even for normal endovascular management of the infrarenal aorta. However, in Germany there are no guidelines from professional societies or formal rules from the federal joint committee, thus in this article a classification of endovascular procedures according to their complexity and the necessary infrastructures are proposed in order to define particular procedures that should only be performed in an angio-hybrid OR. According to our experience, endovascular procedures can be classified into four categories based on their complexity and the requirements regarding fluoroscopy: level 1: standard EVAR, TEVAR, iliac and popliteal artery procedures; level 2: iliac branched (IBD) and standard (2 fenestrations for the renal arteries and a scallop for the superior mesenteric artery) fenestrated stent-grafting; level 3: more complex fenestrated procedures (three or four fenestrations); and level 4: branched stent-grafting for TAAA. At this moment it is still acceptable to perform level 1 and level 2 procedures outside of a hybrid OR. In our opinion, it is not recommended to perform level 3 and level 4 endovascular procedures without a hybrid OR.

  14. Residual gas analysis for long-pulse, advanced tokamak operation.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Hillis, D L; Bucalossi, J; Douai, D; Oddon, P; Vartanian, S; Colas, L; Manenc, L; Pégourié, B

    2010-10-01

    A shielded residual gas analyzer (RGA) system on Tore Supra can function during plasma operation and is set up to monitor the composition of the neutral gas in one of the pumping ducts of the toroidal pumped limited. This "diagnostic RGA" has been used in long-pulse (up to 6 min) discharges for continuous monitoring of up to 15 masses simultaneously. Comparison of the RGA-measured evolution of the H(2)/D(2) isotopic ratio in the exhaust gas to that measured by an energetic neutral particle analyzer in the plasma core provides a way to monitor the evolution of particle balance. RGA monitoring of corrective H(2) injection to maintain proper minority heating is providing a database for improved ion cyclotron resonance heating, potentially with RGA-base feedback control. In very long pulses (>4 min) absence of significant changes in the RGA-monitored, hydrocarbon particle pressures is an indication of proper operation of the actively cooled, carbon-based plasma facing components. Also H(2) could increase due to thermodesorption of overheated plasma facing components.

  15. Operational advances in ring current modeling using RAM-SCB

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T; Jordanova, Vania K; Zaharia, Sorin G; Morley, Steven K

    2010-12-03

    The Ring current Atmosphere interaction Model with Self-Consistently calculated 3D Magnetic field (RAM-SCB) combines a kinetic model of the ring current with a force-balanced model of the magnetospheric magnetic field to create an inner magnetospheric model that is magnetically self consistent. RAM-SCB produces a wealth of outputs that are valuable to space weather applications. For example, the anisotropic particle distribution of the KeV-energy population calculated by the code is key for predicting surface charging on spacecraft. Furthermore, radiation belt codes stand to benefit substantially from RAM-SCB calculated magnetic field values and plasma wave growth rates - both important for determining the evolution of relativistic electron populations. RAM-SCB is undergoing development to bring these benefits to the space weather community. Data-model validation efforts are underway to assess the performance of the system. 'Virtual Satellite' capability has been added to yield satellite-specific particle distribution and magnetic field output. The code's outer boundary is being expanded to 10 Earth Radii to encompass previously neglected geosynchronous orbits and allow the code to be driven completely by either empirical or first-principles based inputs. These advances are culminating towards a new, real-time version of the code, rtRAM-SCB, that can monitor the inner magnetosphere conditions on both a global and spacecraft-specific level. This paper summarizes these new features as well as the benefits they provide the space weather community.

  16. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for Two Large Turbojet Transports and a Turboprop Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.

    1961-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has recently completed a statistical investigation of landing-contact conditions for two large turbojet transports and a turboprop transport landing on a dry runway during routine daylight operations at the Los Angeles International Airport. Measurements were made to obtain vertical velocity, airspeed, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from the runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The vertical velocities at touchdown for one of the turbojet airplanes measured in this investigation were essentially the same as those measured on the same type of airplane during a similar investigation (see NASA Technical Note D-527) conducted approximately 8 months earlier. Thus, it appeared that 8 months of additional pilot experience has had no noticeable tendency toward lowering the vertical velocities of this transport. Distributions of vertical velocities for the turbojet transports covered in this investigation were similar and considerably higher than'those for the turboprop transport. The data for the turboprop transport were in good agreement with the data for the piston-engine transports (see NACA Report 1214 and NASA Technical Note D-147) for all the measured parameters. For the turbojet transports, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a vertical velocity of approximately 4.2 ft/sec; whereas, for the turboprop transport, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed 3.2 ft/sec. The mean airspeeds at touchdown for the three transports ranged from 22.5 percent to 26.6 percent above the stalling speed. Rolling velocities for the turbojet transports were considerably higher than those for the turboprop transport. Distributions of bank angles at contact for the three transports were similar. For each type of airplane, 1 landing in 100 would be expected to equal or exceed a bank angle at touchdown of approximately 3.0 deg. Distributions of touchdown distances for the three transports

  17. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-10-01

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter July--September 2003. Significant progress has been made in Task 1 (Site Preparation), Task 2 (Test performance) and Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: the site preparation has been completed, two weeks of tests have been performed and the power generating units to be compared from an economical standpoint have been selected and accurately described. In the experimental part of this effort (task1), the partners in this project demonstrated the feasibility of 100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas on 1.5MW coal-fired boiler. The air infiltration have been reduced to approximately 5% of the stoichiometry, enabling to reach around 70% of CO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Higher air in-leakage reduction is expected using alternative boiler operating procedure in order to achieve higher CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas for further sequestration or reuse. The NO{sub x} emissions have been shown considerably lower in O{sub 2}-fired conditions than in air-baseline, the reduction rate averaging 70%. An additional week of tests is scheduled mid October 2003 for combustion parameter optimization, and some more days of operation will be dedicated to mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. Out of the $485k already allocated in this project, $300k has been spent and reported to date, mainly in site preparation ({approx}$215k) and test performance ({approx}$85k). In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $240k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $540k as on September 30, 2003.

  18. Counterbalance of cutting force for advanced milling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Shih, Li-Wen; Lee, Rong-Mao

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this work is to concurrently counterbalance the dynamic cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation under various milling conditions by integrating active magnetic bearing (AMB) technique, fuzzy logic algorithm and an adaptive self-tuning feedback loop. Since the dynamics of milling system is highly determined by a few operation conditions, such as speed of spindle, cut depth and feedrate, therefore the dynamic model for cutting process is more appropriate to be constructed by experiments, instead of using theoretical approach. The experimental data, either for idle or cutting, are utilized to establish the database of milling dynamics so that the system parameters can be on-line estimated by employing the proposed fuzzy logic algorithm as the cutting mission is engaged. Based on the estimated milling system model and preset operation conditions, i.e., spindle speed, cut depth and feedrate, the current cutting force can be numerically estimated. Once the current cutting force can be real-time estimated, the corresponding compensation force can be exerted by the equipped AMB to counterbalance the cutting force, in addition to the spindle position regulation by feedback of spindle position. On the other hand, for the magnetic force is nonlinear with respect to the applied electric current and air gap, the characteristics of the employed AMB is investigated also by experiments and a nonlinear mathematic model, in terms of air gap between spindle and electromagnetic pole and coil current, is developed. At the end, the experimental simulations on realistic milling are presented to verify the efficacy of the fuzzy controller for spindle position regulation and the capability of the dynamic cutting force counterbalance.

  19. Demonstration of Four Operating Capabilities to Enable a Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project has been a five-year effort fostering research and development that could lead to the transformation of our country s air transportation system. It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand keeps steadily increasing. The SATS vision is to increase mobility in our nation s transportation system by expanding access to more than 3400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized. The SATS project has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies and procedures to pave the way for a new way of air travel. The four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. These four capabilities are key to enabling low-cost, on-demand, point-to-point transportation of goods and passengers utilizing small aircraft operating from small airports. The focus of this paper is to discuss the technical and operational feasibility of the four operating capabilities and demonstrate how they can enable a small aircraft transportation system.

  20. Structure of the isotropic transport operators in three independent space variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Shumays, I. K.; Bareiss, E. H.

    1969-01-01

    Based on the idea of separation of variables, a spectral theory for the three-dimensional, stationary, isotropic transport operator in a vector space of complex-valued Borel functions results in continuous sets of regular and generalized eigenfunctions.

  1. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

  2. Advanced microgrid design and analysis for forward operating bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reasoner, Jonathan

    This thesis takes a holistic approach in creating an improved electric power generation system for a forward operating base (FOB) in the future through the design of an isolated microgrid. After an extensive literature search, this thesis found a need for drastic improvement of the FOB power system. A thorough design process analyzed FOB demand, researched demand side management improvements, evaluated various generation sources and energy storage options, and performed a HOMERRTM discrete optimization to determine the best microgrid design. Further sensitivity analysis was performed to see how changing parameters would affect the outcome. Lastly, this research also looks at some of the challenges which are associated with incorporating a design which relies heavily on inverter-based generation sources, and gives possible solutions to help make a renewable energy powered microgrid a reality. While this thesis uses a FOB as the case study, the process and discussion can be adapted to aide in the design of an off-grid small-scale power grid which utilizes high-penetration levels of renewable energy.

  3. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  4. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  5. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  6. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  7. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS WAIVER OF WARSAW CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition...

  8. Nanofluidic transport through isolated carbon nanotube channels: Advances, controversies, and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shirui; Meshot, Eric R.; Kuykendall, Tevye; Cabrini, Stefano; Fornasiero, Francesco

    2015-06-02

    Owing to their simple chemistry and structure, controllable geometry, and a plethora of unusual yet exciting transport properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as exceptional channels for fundamental nanofluidic studies, as well as building blocks for future fluidic devices that can outperform current technology in many applications. Leveraging the unique fluidic properties of CNTs in advanced systems requires a full understanding of their physical origin. Recent advancements in nanofabrication technology enable nanofluidic devices to be built with a single, nanometer-wide CNT as a fluidic pathway. These novel platforms with isolated CNT nanochannels offer distinct advantages for establishing quantitative structure–transport correlations in comparison with membranes containing many CNT pores. In addition, they are promising components for single-molecule sensors as well as for building nanotube-based circuits wherein fluidics and electronics can be coupled. With such advanced device architecture, molecular and ionic transport can be manipulated with vastly enhanced control for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery. Recent achievements in fabricating isolated-CNT nanofluidic platforms are highlighted, along with the most-significant findings each platform enables for water, ion, and molecular transport. Furthermore, the implications of these findings and remaining open questions on the exceptional fluidic properties of CNTs are also discussed.

  9. Nanofluidic transport through isolated carbon nanotube channels: Advances, controversies, and challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Shirui; Meshot, Eric R.; Kuykendall, Tevye; ...

    2015-06-02

    Owing to their simple chemistry and structure, controllable geometry, and a plethora of unusual yet exciting transport properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as exceptional channels for fundamental nanofluidic studies, as well as building blocks for future fluidic devices that can outperform current technology in many applications. Leveraging the unique fluidic properties of CNTs in advanced systems requires a full understanding of their physical origin. Recent advancements in nanofabrication technology enable nanofluidic devices to be built with a single, nanometer-wide CNT as a fluidic pathway. These novel platforms with isolated CNT nanochannels offer distinct advantages for establishing quantitative structure–transport correlationsmore » in comparison with membranes containing many CNT pores. In addition, they are promising components for single-molecule sensors as well as for building nanotube-based circuits wherein fluidics and electronics can be coupled. With such advanced device architecture, molecular and ionic transport can be manipulated with vastly enhanced control for applications in sensing, separation, detection, and therapeutic delivery. Recent achievements in fabricating isolated-CNT nanofluidic platforms are highlighted, along with the most-significant findings each platform enables for water, ion, and molecular transport. Furthermore, the implications of these findings and remaining open questions on the exceptional fluidic properties of CNTs are also discussed.« less

  10. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  11. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage; Rajani Varagani

    2004-06-30

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2004. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed 2003, along with three weeks of oxycombustion tests in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. In current reporting period, the experimental testing has been completed: one additional week of tests has been performed to finalize the optimization of the combustion characteristics in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment ; two more days of testing were dedicated to mercury sampling in air-fired or O{sub 2}-fired conditions, and to characterization of heat transfer in O{sub 2} conditions vs. to air-blown conditions. Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has also been completed in current quarter: 250MWe, 500MWe and 1000MWe oxygen-fired PC unit have been simulated and quoted, and their performance and cost have been compared to same-capacity air-fired pulverized coal (PC) unit and IGCC. New and retrofit cases have been evaluated. The comparison has been completed in terms of capital cost, operating cost, cost of electricity and cost of CO{sub 2} avoided. The scope of task 4 (Conceptual Boiler Design) had been modified as per DOE request in previous quarter. Engineering calculations are currently in progress. Next steps include detail review of the experimental data collected during the entire testing campaign, finalization of detailed report on economic task, and reporting of the preliminary results in the boiler design task. Two papers summarizing the project main achievements have been presented at Clearwater coal conference in April 2004 (overall project results), and at the CO{sub 2} sequestration conference in May 2004 (emphasis on economics). Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $545k have been spent to date, mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $400k have been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up

  12. Trade study: Liquid hydrogen transportation - Kennedy Space Center. [cost and operational effectivenss of shipping methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cryogenic transportation methods for providing liquid hydrogen requirements are examined in support of shuttle transportation system launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the time frames 1982-1991 in terms of cost and operational effectiveness. Transportation methods considered included sixteen different options employing mobile semi-trailer tankers, railcars, barges and combinations of each method. The study concludes that the most effective method of delivering liquid hydrogen from the vendor production facility in New Orleans to Kennedy Space Center includes maximum utilization of existing mobile tankers and railcars supplemented by maximum capacity mobile tankers procured incrementally in accordance with shuttle launch rates actually achieved.

  13. Structures of the fractional spaces generated by the difference neutron transport operator

    SciTech Connect

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Taskin, Abdulgafur

    2015-09-18

    The initial boundary value problem for the neutron transport equation is considered. The first, second and third order of accuracy difference schemes for the approximate solution of this problem are presented. Highly accurate difference schemes for neutron transport equation based on Padé approximation are constructed. In applications, stability estimates for solutions of difference schemes for the approximate solution of the neutron transport equation are obtained.The positivity of the neutron transport operator in Slobodeckij spaces is proved. Numerical techniques are developed and algorithms are tested on an example in MATLAB.

  14. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  15. Advanced subsonic transport approach noise: The relative contribution of airframe noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1992-01-01

    With current engine technology, airframe noise is a contributing source for large commercial aircraft on approach, but not the major contributor. With the promise of much quieter jet engines with the planned new generation of high-by-pass turbofan engines, airframe noise has become a topic of interest in the advanced subsonic transport research program. The objective of this paper is to assess the contribution of airframe noise relative to the other aircraft noise sources on approach. The assessment will be made for a current technology large commercial transport aircraft and for an envisioned advanced technology aircraft. NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) will be used to make total aircraft noise predictions for these two aircraft types. Predicted noise levels and areas of noise contours will be used to determine the relative importance of the contributing approach noise sources. The actual set-up decks used to make the ANOPP runs for the two aircraft types are included in appendixes.

  16. Benefits assessment of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). Final report, October 1995-July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Goeddel, D.

    1996-07-30

    This report documents work performed under FTA`s Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication technologies that most benefit public transportation. This report presents the results of an analysis conducted by the Volpe Center, for the FTA, to provide an `order-of-magnitude` estimate of the expected benefits to the transit industry with the application of APTS technologies. Specifically, the study identified and quantified the major benefits derived from current applications of APTS technologies within the transit industry and projected current APTS benefits to a national level based on forecasts and reasonable assumptions on the potential future applications of such technologies within the transit industry.

  17. Advanced public transportation systems deployment in the United States. Final report, July 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.; Labell, L.N.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA`s Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication technologies that most benefit public transportation. This report is a compilation of existing and planned deployments of APTS technologies and services. The information was collected during the Fall of 1995 and was obtained through contacts with one or more persons at each agency. The objective was to include information from all agencies who submitted information for the 1993 National Transit Database (NTD) Report Year, the last year for which NTD data was available at the time. A total of 464 agencies provided information for this study. Those with no existing or planned APTS systems are not included herein.

  18. An Advanced Framework for Improving Situational Awareness in Electric Power Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning

    2011-10-17

    With the deployment of new smart grid technologies and the penetration of renewable energy in power systems, significant uncertainty and variability is being introduced into power grid operation. Traditionally, the Energy Management System (EMS) operates the power grid in a deterministic mode, and thus will not be sufficient for the future control center in a stochastic environment with faster dynamics. One of the main challenges is to improve situational awareness. This paper reviews the current status of power grid operation and presents a vision of improving wide-area situational awareness for a future control center. An advanced framework, consisting of parallel state estimation, state prediction, parallel contingency selection, parallel contingency analysis, and advanced visual analytics, is proposed to provide capabilities needed for better decision support by utilizing high performance computing (HPC) techniques and advanced visual analytic techniques. Research results are presented to support the proposed vision and framework.

  19. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 2: Theme summary. 6: Advanced transportation systems. A: Theme statement. B. 26 April 1976 presentation. C. Theme summary. D. Initiative actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Technology requirements for an integrated space transportation system capability which will allow the nation to use space efficiently, reliably, and routinely in the years between 1985 and 2000 with a significant return on invested resources will build on the currently defined space transportation system using shuttle, the IUS, and the advanced upper stage such as the solar electric propulsion system. Contributing technologies should include those which support (1) total reusability with minimal refurbishment; (2) responsiveness to high launch rate requirements when operation and energy are the predominant recurring costs; and (3) maximum flexibility in operation between earth and LEO and between LEO and GEO. Initiatives undertaken to advance the heavy lift to launch vehicles, single stage to orbit vehicles, and orbit transfer vehicles are listed.

  20. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operational procedures for use in an assumed short haul transport route were evaluated. The curved path approaches in airline use by large jet airplanes were studied. The characteristics of these approaches were included in development of operational procedures for transitions and approaches by a jet STOL transport. These procedures were used in a simulation experiment and were satisfactory for autoflight operation. A minimum turn radius of 3,000 ft. for a 180 final turn was determined for the wind conditions tested. The accuracy of the approaches was very good.

  1. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market was studied to determine the aircraft design and operational requirements. The impact of operational characteristics on the air travel system and the economic viability of the study aircraft were also evaluated. Medium density is defined in terms of numbers of people transported (20 to 500 passengers per day on round trip routes), and frequency of service ( a minumium of two and maximum of eight round trips per day) for 10 regional carriers. The operational characteristics of aircraft best suited to serve the medium density air transportation market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations could be conducted. The impact of selected aircraft on the medium density market, economics, and operations is ascertained. Research and technology objectives for future programs in medium density air transportation are identified and ranked.

  2. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  3. Toward Integrated Operator Interface for Advanced Teleoperation under Time-Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Fiorini, Paolo; Kim, Won Soo; Schenker, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly describes an Advanced Teleoperator (ATOP) system and its control station where a variety of computer-based operator interface devices and techniques are integrated into a functional setting, accommodating a primary operator and secondary operators. Computer graphics is a key operator interface component in the control station where new types of manual interface devices also are employed. The results of some generic and applications task experiments are summarized, including the performance of a simulated remote satellite servicing task, carried out under four to eight seconds communications time delay, using satellite TV and Internet computer communication links. In conclusion, the paper highlights the lessons learned so far,.

  4. Flight crew fatigue III: North Sea helicopter air transport operations.

    PubMed

    Gander, P H; Barnes, R M; Gregory, K B; Graeber, R C; Connell, L J; Rosekind, M R

    1998-09-01

    We studied 32 helicopter pilots before, during, and after 4-5 d trips from Aberdeen, Scotland, to service North Sea oil rigs. On duty days, subjects awoke 1.5 h earlier than pretrip or posttrip, after having slept nearly an hour less. Subjective fatigue was greater posttrip than pretrip. By the end of trip days, fatigue was greater and mood more negative than by the end of pretrip days. During trips, daily caffeine consumption increased 42%, reports of headache doubled, reports of back pain increased 12-fold, and reports of burning eyes quadrupled. In the cockpits studied, thermal discomfort and high vibration levels were common. Subjective workload during preflight, taxi, climb, and cruise was related to the crewmembers' ratings of the quality of the aircraft systems. During descent and approach, workload was affected by weather at the landing site. During landing, it was influenced by the quality of the landing site and air traffic control. Beginning duty later, and greater attention to aircraft comfort and maintenance, should reduce fatigue in these operations.

  5. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC…

  6. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  7. DART: Delta Advanced Reusable Transport. An alternate manned space system proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART) craft is being developed to add, multiple, rapid, and cost effective space access to the U.S. capability and to further the efforts towards a permanent space presence. The DART craft provides an augmentative and an alternative system to the Shuttle. As a supplement launch vehicle, the DART adds low cost and easily accessible transport of crew and cargo to specific space destinations to the U.S. program. This adds significant opportunities for manned rated missions that do not require Shuttle capabilities. In its alternative role, the DART can provide emergency space access and satellite repair, the continuation of scientific research, and the furthering of U.S. manned efforts in the event of Shuttle incapabilities. In addition, the DART is being designed for Space Station Freedom compatibility, including its use as a 'lifeboat' emergency reentry craft for Freedom astronauts, as well as the transport of crew and cargo for station resupply.

  8. Recent advances in statistical methods for the estimation of sediment and nutrient transport in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, T. A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper reviews advances in methods for estimating fluvial transport of suspended sediment and nutrients. Research from the past four years, mostly dealing with estimating monthly and annual loads, is emphasized. However, because this topic has not appeared in previous IUGG reports, some research prior to 1990 is included. The motivation for studying sediment transport has shifted during the past few decades. In addition to its role in filling reservoirs and channels, sediment is increasingly recognized as an important part of fluvial ecosystems and estuarine wetlands. Many groups want information about sediment transport [Bollman, 1992]: Scientists trying to understand benthic biology and catchment hydrology; citizens and policy-makers concerned about environmental impacts (e.g. impacts of logging [Beschta, 1978] or snow-fences [Sturges, 1992]); government regulators considering the effectiveness of programs to protect in-stream habitat and downstream waterbodies; and resource managers seeking to restore wetlands.

  9. Study on utilization of advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The potential for utilizing advanced composites in fuselage structures of large transports was assessed. Six fuselage design concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of structural performance, weight, and manufacturing development and costs. Two concepts were selected that merit further consideration for composite fuselage application. These concepts are: (1) a full depth honeycomb design with no stringers, and (2) an I section stringer stiffened laminate skin design. Weight reductions due to applying composites to the fuselages of commercial and military transports were calculated. The benefits of applying composites to a fleet of military transports were determined. Significant technology issues pertinent to composite fuselage structures were identified and evaluated. Program plans for resolving the technology issues were developed.

  10. Oxygen transport membrane based advanced power cycle with low pressure synthesis gas slip stream

    DOEpatents

    Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2016-09-27

    A method and system for generating electrical power in which a high pressure synthesis gas stream generated in a gasifier is partially oxidized in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor, expanded and thereafter, is combusted in an oxygen transport membrane based boiler. A low pressure synthesis gas slip stream is split off downstream of the expanders and used as the source of fuel in the oxygen transport membrane based partial oxidation reactors to allow the oxygen transport membrane to operate at low fuel pressures with high fuel utilization. The combustion within the boiler generates heat to raise steam to in turn generate electricity by a generator coupled to a steam turbine. The resultant flue gas can be purified to produce a carbon dioxide product.

  11. Integrated application of active controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project. Conventional baseline configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of the U.S. domestic fleet were evaluated to determine the mission characteristics that would have the most impact on U. S. transport fuel use in the future. This resulted in selection of a 197-passenger (plus cargo), about 3710-km (2000 nmi) mission. The existing data base was reviewed and additional analysis was conducted as necessary to complete the technical descriptions. The resulting baseline configuration utilizes a double-lobe, but nearly circular, body with seven-abreast seating. External characteristics feature an 8.71 aspect ratio, 31.5-degree sweep wing, a T-tail empennage, and a dual CF6-6D2, wing-mounted engine arrangement. It provides for 22 LD-2 or 11 LD-3 containers plus bulk cargo in the lower lobe. Passenger/cargo loading, servicing provisions, taxi/takeoff speeds, and field length characteristics are all compatible with accepted airline operations and regulatory provisions. The baseline configuration construction uses conventional aluminum structure except for advanced aluminum alloys and a limited amount of graphite epoxy secondary structure. Modern systems are used, including advanced guidance, navigation, and controls which emphasize application of digital electronics and advanced displays.

  12. Operating Room of the Future: Advanced Technologies in Safe and Efficient Operating Rooms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    follows: Objective 1. Dose reduction strategy: High dose-Low dose. (Algorithmic developments; phantom and animal model study; validation) One of...this camera orientation. The participants will experience control 36 of the camera location by manipulation of the 3-d stylus of a Phantom desktop...Imaging and Communications in Medicine ( DICOM ) data sets. Such imaging could provide the surgeon with real-time “x-ray vision” during the operation

  13. An Operational evaluation of head up displays for civil transport operations. NASA/FAA phase 3 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauber, J. K.; Bray, R. S.; Harrison, R. L.; Hemingway, J. C.; Scott, B. C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of head-up displays (HUDs) in commercial jet transport approach and landing operations was evaluated. Ten airline captains currently qualified in the B-727 aircraft flew a series of instrument landing system (ILS) and nonprecision approaches in a motion base simulator using both a flight director HUD concept and a flightpath HUD concept as well as conventional head-down instruments under a variety of environmental and operational conditions to assess: (1) the potential benefits of these HUDs in airline operations; (2) problems which might be associated with their use; and (3) flight crew training requirements and flight crew operating procedures suitable for use with the HUDs. Results are presented in terms of objective simulator based performance measures, subject pilot opinion and rating data, and observer data.

  14. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  15. Recent advances in small molecular, non-polymeric organic hole transporting materials for solid-state DSSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Thanh-Tuan; Goubard, Fabrice

    2013-10-01

    Issue from thin-film technologies, dye-sensitized solar cells have become one of the most promising technologies in the field of renewable energies. Their success is not only due to their low weight, the possibility of making large flexible surfaces, but also to their photovoltaic efficiency which are found to be more and more significant (>12% with a liquid electrolyte, >7% with a solid organic hole conductor). This short review highlights recent advances in the characteristics and use of low-molecular-weight glass-forming organic materials as hole transporters in all solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. These materials must feature specific physical and chemical properties that will ensure both the operation of a photovoltaic cell and the easy implementation. This review is an english extended version based on our recent article published in Matériaux & Techniques 101, 102 (2013).

  16. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  17. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Plant Floor Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Leii

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 16-hour introduction to plant floor operations. The guide is designed to develop the following competencies: (1) understanding the characteristics and components of personal computer (PC) networks; (2) computer networking…

  18. Software Systems 2--Compiler and Operating Systems Lab--Advanced, Data Processing Technology: 8025.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the student develop the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in the field of data processing. By learning the purpose and principles of compiler programs and operating systems, the student will become familiar with advanced data processing procedures that are representative of computer…

  19. Operation of the intensity monitors in beam transport lines at Fermilab during Run II¹

    DOE PAGES

    Crisp, J.; Fellenz, B.; Fitzgerald, J.; ...

    2011-10-06

    The intensity of charged particle beams at Fermilab must be kept within pre-determined safety and operational envelopes in part by assuring all beam within a few percent has been transported from any source to destination. Beam instensity monitors with toroidial pickups provide such beam intensity measurements in the transport lines between accelerators at FNAL. With Run II, much effort was made to continually improve the resolution and accuracy of the system.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  1. Preparing GMAT for Operational Maneuver Planning of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qureshi, Rizwan Hamid; Hughes, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is an open-source space mission design, analysis and trajectory optimization tool. GMAT is developed by a team of NASA, private industry, public and private contributors. GMAT is designed to model, optimize and estimate spacecraft trajectories in flight regimes ranging from low Earth orbit to lunar applications, interplanetary trajectories and other deep space missions. GMAT has also been flight qualified to support operational maneuver planning for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission. ACE was launched in August, 1997 and is orbiting the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. The primary science objective of ACE is to study the composition of both the solar wind and the galactic cosmic rays. Operational orbit determination, maneuver operations and product generation for ACE are conducted by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF). This paper discusses the entire engineering lifecycle and major operational certification milestones that GMAT successfully completed to obtain operational certification for the ACE mission. Operational certification milestones such as gathering of the requirements for ACE operational maneuver planning, gap analysis, test plans and procedures development, system design, pre-shadow operations, training to FDF ACE maneuver planners, shadow operations, Test Readiness Review (TRR) and finally Operational Readiness Review (ORR) are discussed. These efforts have demonstrated that GMAT is flight quality software ready to support ACE mission operations in the FDF.

  2. Using CONFIG for Simulation of Operation of Water Recovery Subsystems for Advanced Control Software Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Flores, Luis; Fleming, Land; Throop, Daiv

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool, CONFIG, has been developed to support evaluation of the operability life support systems. CON FIG simulates operations scenarios in which flows and pressures change continuously while system reconfigurations occur as discrete events. In simulations, intelligent control software can interact dynamically with hardware system models. CONFIG simulations have been used to evaluate control software and intelligent agents for automating life support systems operations. A CON FIG model of an advanced biological water recovery system has been developed to interact with intelligent control software that is being used in a water system test at NASA Johnson Space Center

  3. Moderation control in low enriched {sup 235}U uranium hexafluoride packaging operations and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.H.; Kovac, F.M.; Pryor, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Moderation control is the basic parameter for ensuring nuclear criticality safety during the packaging and transport of low {sup 235}U enriched uranium hexafluoride before its conversion to nuclear power reactor fuel. Moderation control has permitted the shipment of bulk quantities in large cylinders instead of in many smaller cylinders and, therefore, has resulted in economies without compromising safety. Overall safety and uranium accountability have been enhanced through the use of the moderation control. This paper discusses moderation control and the operating procedures to ensure that moderation control is maintained during packaging operations and transportation.

  4. Development of Advanced Methods of Structural and Trajectory Analysis for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the author describes: (1) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation, and (2) development of advanced methods of flight path optimization. A method of estimating the load-bearing fuselage weight and wing weight of transport aircraft based on fundamental structural principles has been developed. This method of weight estimation represents a compromise between the rapid assessment of component weight using empirical methods based on actual weights of existing aircraft and detailed, but time-consuming, analysis using the finite element method. The method was applied to eight existing subsonic transports for validation and correlation. Integration of the resulting computer program, PDCYL, has been made into the weights-calculating module of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) computer program. ACSYNT bas traditionally used only empirical weight estimation methods; PDCYL adds to ACSYNT a rapid, accurate means of assessing the fuselage and wing weights of unconventional aircraft. PDCYL also allows flexibility in the choice of structural concept, as well as a direct means of determining the impact of advanced materials on structural weight.

  5. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  6. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-08-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation into the development of new models and guidance for Concepts of Operations in advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) designs. AdvSMRs are nuclear power plants (NPPs), but unlike conventional large NPPs that are constructed on site, AdvSMRs systems and components will be fabricated in a factory and then assembled on site. AdvSMRs will also use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. Some AdvSMR designs also propose to be operated in a multi-unit configuration with a single central control room as a way to be more cost-competitive with existing NPPs. These differences from conventional NPPs not only pose technical and operational challenges, but they will undoubtedly also have regulatory compliance implications, especially with respect to staffing requirements and safety standards.

  7. Advanced Launch System (ALS): Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  8. Advanced Launch System (ALS) actuation and power systems impact operability and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrical power system and controls for all actuation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a specific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military and civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of commercial applications.

  9. Advanced launch system (ALS) - Electrical actuation and power systems improve operability and cost picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    1990-01-01

    To obtain the Advanced Launch System (ALS) primary goals of reduced costs and improved operability, there must be significant reductions in the launch operations and servicing requirements relative to current vehicle designs and practices. One of the primary methods for achieving these goals is by using vehicle electrrical power system and controls for all aviation and avionics requirements. A brief status review of the ALS and its associated Advanced Development Program is presented to demonstrate maturation of those technologies that will help meet the overall operability and cost goals. The electric power and actuation systems are highlighted as a sdpecific technology ready not only to meet the stringent ALS goals (cryogenic field valves and thrust vector controls with peak power demands to 75 hp), but also those of other launch vehicles, military ans civilian aircraft, lunar/Martian vehicles, and a multitude of comercial applications.

  10. Test Rack Development for Extended Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sun power Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC's support of ASRG development includes extended operation testing of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Inc. In the past year, NASA GRC has been building a test facility to support extended operation of a pair of engineering level ASCs. Operation of the convertors in the test facility provides convertor performance data over an extended period of time. Mechanical support hardware, data acquisition software, and an instrumentation rack were developed to prepare the pair of convertors for continuous extended operation. Short-term tests were performed to gather baseline performance data before extended operation was initiated. These tests included workmanship vibration, insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and fUll-power operation. Hardware and software features are implemented to ensure reliability of support systems. This paper discusses the mechanical support hardware, instrumentation rack, data acquisition software, short-term tests, and safety features designed to support continuous unattended operation of a pair of ASCs.

  11. Using full-mission simulation for human factors research in air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlady, Harry W.; Hennessy, Robert W.; Obermayer, Richard; Vreuls, Donald; Murphy, Miles R.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined state-of-the-art mission oriented simulation and its use in human factors research. Guidelines were developed for doing full-mission human factors research on crew member behavior during simulated air transport operations. The existing literature was reviewed. However, interviews with experienced investigators provided the most useful information. The fundamental scientific and practical issues of behavioral research in a simulation environment are discussed. Guidelines are presented for planning, scenario development, and the execution of behavioral research using full-mission simulation in the context of air transport flight operations . Research is recommended to enhance the validity and productivity of full-mission research by: (1) validating the need for high-fidelity simulation of all major elements in the operational environment, (2) improving methods for conducting full-mission research, and (3) examining part-task research on specific problems through the use of vehicles which contain higher levels of abstraction (and lower fidelity) of the operational environment.

  12. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  13. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  14. Inward particle transport at high collisionality in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G. Q.; Ma, J.; Weiland, J.; Zang, Q.

    2013-10-15

    We have made the first drift wave study of particle transport in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)). The results reveal that collisions make the particle flux more inward in the high collisionality regime. This can be traced back to effects that are quadratic in the collision frequency. The particle pinch is due to electron trapping which is not very efficient in the high collisionality regime so the approach to equilibrium is slow. We have included also the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode to give the right electron temperature gradient, since the Trapped Electron Mode (TE mode) is weak in this regime. However, at the ETG mode number ions are Boltzmann distributed so the ETG mode does not give particle transport.

  15. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems, dual-mode propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of dual-mode propulsion concepts to fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles is discussed. Dual-mode propulsion uses main rocket engines that consume hydrocarbon fuels as well as liquid hydrogen fuel. Liquid oxygen is used as the oxidizer. These engine concepts were integrated into transportation vehicle designs capable of vertical takeoff, delivering a payload to earth orbit, and return to earth with a horizontal landing. Benefits of these vehicles were assessed and compared with vehicles using single-mode propulsion (liquid hydrogen and oxygen engines). Technology requirements for such advanced transportation systems were identified. Figures of merit, including life-cycle cost savings and research costs, were derived for dual-mode technology programs, and were used for assessments of potential benefits of proposed technology activities. Dual-mode propulsion concepts display potential for significant cost and performance benefits when applied to SSTO vehicles.

  16. Propulsion system studies for an advanced high subsonic, long range jet commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Propulsion system characteristics for a long range, high subsonic (Mach 0.90 - 0.98), jet commercial transport aircraft are studied to identify the most desirable cycle and engine configuration and to assess the payoff of advanced engine technologies applicable to the time frame of the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. An engine parametric study phase examines major cycle trends on the basis of aircraft economics. This is followed by the preliminary design of two advanced mixed exhaust turbofan engines pointed at two different technology levels (1970 and 1985 commercial certification for engines No. 1 and No. 2, respectively). The economic penalties of environmental constraints - noise and exhaust emissions - are assessed. The highest specific thrust engine (lowest bypass ratio for a given core technology) achievable with a single-stage fan yields the best economics for a Mach 0.95 - 0.98 aircraft and can meet the noise objectives specified, but with significant economic penalties. Advanced technologies which would allow high temperature and cycle pressure ratios to be used effectively are shown to provide significant improvement in mission performance which can partially offset the economic penalties incurred to meet lower noise goals. Advanced technology needs are identified; and, in particular, the initiation of an integrated fan and inlet aero/acoustic program is recommended.

  17. Characterization of an Integral Thermal Protection and Cryogenic Insulation Material for Advanced Space Transportation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; White, S. M.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's planned advanced space transportation vehicles will benefit from the use of integral/conformal cryogenic propellant tanks which will reduce the launch weight and lower the earth-to-orbit costs considerably. To implement the novel concept of integral/conformal tanks requires developing an equally novel concept in thermal protection materials. Providing insulation against reentry heating and preserving propellant mass can no longer be considered separate problems to be handled by separate materials. A new family of materials, Superthermal Insulation (STI), has been conceiving and investigated by NASA's Ames Research Center to simultaneously provide both thermal protection and cryogenic insulation in a single, integral material.

  18. An example of requirements for Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system using structured techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclees, Robert E.; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements are presented for an Advanced Subsonic Civil Transport (ASCT) flight control system generated using structured techniques. The requirements definition starts from initially performing a mission analysis to identify the high level control system requirements and functions necessary to satisfy the mission flight. The result of the study is an example set of control system requirements partially represented using a derivative of Yourdon's structured techniques. Also provided is a research focus for studying structured design methodologies and in particular design-for-validation philosophies.

  19. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  20. Test Rack Development for Extended Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than with currently available alternatives. One part of NASA GRC's support of ASRG development includes extended operation testing of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) developed by Sunpower Inc. and GRC. The ASC consists of a free-piston Stirling engine integrated with a linear alternator. NASA GRC has been building test facilities to support extended operation of the ASCs for several years. Operation of the convertors in the test facility provides convertor performance data over an extended period of time. One part of the test facility is the test rack, which provides a means for data collection, convertor control, and safe operation. Over the years, the test rack requirements have changed. The initial ASC test rack utilized an alternating-current (AC) bus for convertor control; the ASRG Engineering Unit (EU) test rack can operate with AC bus control or with an ASC Control Unit (ACU). A new test rack is being developed to support extended operation of the ASC-E2s with higher standards of documentation, component selection, and assembly practices. This paper discusses the differences among the ASC, ASRG EU, and ASC-E2 test racks.

  1. Processing and Preparation of Advanced Stirling Convertors for Extended Operation at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Space Company (LMSC), Sunpower Inc., and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system on space science missions. This generator will make use of the free-piston Stirling convertors to achieve higher conversion efficiency than currently available alternatives. NASA GRC is supporting the development of the ASRG by providing extended operation of several Sunpower Inc. Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs). In the past year and a half, eight ASCs have operated in continuous, unattended mode in both air and thermal vacuum environments. Hardware, software, and procedures were developed to prepare each convertor for extended operation with intended durations on the order of tens of thousands of hours. Steps taken to prepare a convertor for long-term operation included geometry measurements, thermocouple instrumentation, evaluation of working fluid purity, evacuation with bakeout, and high purity charge. Actions were also taken to ensure the reliability of support systems, such as data acquisition and automated shutdown checkouts. Once a convertor completed these steps, it underwent short-term testing to gather baseline performance data before initiating extended operation. These tests included insulation thermal loss characterization, low-temperature checkout, and full-temperature and power demonstration. This paper discusses the facilities developed to support continuous, unattended operation, and the processing results of the eight ASCs currently on test.

  2. One year orthopaedic trauma experience using an advanced interdisciplinary hybrid operating room.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter H; Yarboro, Seth; Kraus, Michael; Gebhard, Florian

    2015-10-01

    Hybrid operating rooms have been used successfully in several surgical specialties, but no data have been published for orthopaedic trauma. We present our one-year orthopaedic trauma experience using a hybrid operating room, which incorporates 3D fluoroscopic imaging as well as navigation capabilities. Data were compiled for a series of 92 cases performed in an advanced hybrid operating room at the level one trauma center in Ulm, Germany. All patients who had surgery performed using this operating room during the first year were included. Setup time and surgical complications using hybrid operating room were recorded and analysed. The hybrid operating room resulted in no higher rate of complication than expected from the same cases in a conventional operating room. The hybrid room did however allow the surgeon to confidently place implants for orthopaedic trauma cases, and was most advantageous for spine and pelvis cases, both minimally invasive and conventional. Further, appropriate reduction and implant position was confirmed with 3D imaging prior to leaving the operating room and obviated the need for postoperative CT scan. Based on our one-year experience, the hybrid operating room is a useful and safe tool for orthopaedic trauma surgery.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Part 2, volume 5: Space operations (construction and transportation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K.; Davis, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Construction and transportation systems and operations are described for the following combinations: (1) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed primarily in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) silicon photovoltaic CR=1 satellite constructed in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO); (3) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed primarily in LEO; and (4) Rankine thermal engine satellite constructed in GEO.

  4. General Aviation Flight Test of Advanced Operations Enabled by Synthetic Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Hughhes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    A flight test was performed to compare the use of three advanced primary flight and navigation display concepts to a baseline, round-dial concept to assess the potential for advanced operations. The displays were evaluated during visual and instrument approach procedures including an advanced instrument approach resembling a visual airport traffic pattern. Nineteen pilots from three pilot groups, reflecting the diverse piloting skills of the General Aviation pilot population, served as evaluation subjects. The experiment had two thrusts: 1) an examination of the capabilities of low-time (i.e., <400 hours), non-instrument-rated pilots to perform nominal instrument approaches, and 2) an exploration of potential advanced Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC)-like approaches in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). Within this context, advanced display concepts are considered to include integrated navigation and primary flight displays with either aircraft attitude flight directors or Highway In The Sky (HITS) guidance with and without a synthetic depiction of the external visuals (i.e., synthetic vision). Relative to the first thrust, the results indicate that using an advanced display concept, as tested herein, low-time, non-instrument-rated pilots can exhibit flight-technical performance, subjective workload and situation awareness ratings as good as or better than high-time Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)-rated pilots using Baseline Round Dials for a nominal IMC approach. For the second thrust, the results indicate advanced VMC-like approaches are feasible in IMC, for all pilot groups tested for only the Synthetic Vision System (SVS) advanced display concept.

  5. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  6. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  7. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  8. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  9. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  10. 14 CFR 101.25 - Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. 101.25 Section 101.25 Aeronautics and Space... OPERATING RULES MOORED BALLOONS, KITES, AMATEUR ROCKETS AND UNMANNED FREE BALLOONS Amateur Rockets § 101.25 Operating limitations for Class 2-High Power Rockets and Class 3-Advanced High Power Rockets. When...

  11. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on downstream flow, stage, and sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Williams, G.; McCoy, J.; Palmer, C.

    1996-11-01

    Hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in Utah, can produce rapid downstream changes in flow and stage. These changes can in turn affect sediment transport and ecologic resources below the dam. To evaluate these effects, four hydropower operational scenarios with varying degrees of hydropower-release fluctuations were examined. This study demonstrates that the combined use of river-flow routing, water-surface profile, and sediment-transport models can provide useful information for evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower-operations on ecological and other resources downstream of the dam. Study results show that flow fluctuations may or may not persist for a long distance, depending on the initial magnitude of fluctuation and the duration of hydropower peaking. Stage fluctuations depend not only on flow fluctuations but also on river channel characteristics, such as channel width and longitudinal slope.

  12. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  13. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  14. Development and operating experience of a short-period superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Abliz, M.; Boon, L.; Borland, M.; Capatina, D.; Collins, J.; Decker, G.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Jaski, M.; Kasa, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kustom, R.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, J.; Moog, E.; Robinson, D.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I.; Vella, A.; Xiao, A.; Xu, J.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.; Lev, V.; Mezentsev, N.; Syrovatin, V.; Tsukanov, V.; Makarov, A.; Pfotenhauer, J.; Potratz, D.

    2015-04-01

    A decade-long effort at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on development of superconducting undulators culminated in December 2012 with the installation of the first superconducting undulator "SCU0" into Sector 6 of the APS storage ring. The device was commissioned in January 2013 and has been in user operation since. This paper presents the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU0 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The initial commissioning and characterization of SCU0 as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are described.

  15. New advances in the pathophysiology of intestinal ion transport and barrier function in diarrhea and the impact on therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakraborty, Subhra; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Woodward, Owen M

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhea remains a continuous threat to human health worldwide. Scaling up the best practices for diarrhea prevention requires improved therapies. Diarrhea results from dysregulation of normal intestinal ion transport functions. Host-microbe contact is a key determinant of this response. Underlying mechanisms in the disease state are regulated by intracellular signals that modulate the activity of individual transport proteins responsible for ion transport and barrier function. Similarly, virulence factors of pathogens and their complex interaction with the host has shed light on the mechanism of enteric infection. Great advances in our understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of epithelial transport, and host-microbe interaction have been made in recent years. Application of these new advances may represent strategies to decrease pathogen attachment, enhance intestinal cation absorption, decrease anion secretion and repair barrier function. This review highlights the new advances and better understanding in the pathophysiology of diarrheal diseases and their impact on therapy.

  16. Advanced public transportation systems: The state of the art, update `96. Final report, July 1995-December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.; Labell, L.N.; Holmstrom, R.; LoVecchio, J.A.; Schweiger, C.L.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents work performed under FTA`s Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) Program, a program structured to undertake research and development of innovative applications of advanced navigation, information, and communication technologies that most benefit public transportation. This report is the latest in a series of State-of-the-Art reports, the last of which was published in January 1994. It contains the results of an investigation of the extent of adoption of advanced technology in the provision of public transportation service in North America. It focused on some of the most innovative or comprehensive implementations, categorized under four types of services/technologies: Fleet Management, Traveler Information, Electronic Fare Payment, and Transportation Demand Management.

  17. Advances in Dynamic Transport of Organic Contaminants in Karst Groundwater Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Vesper, D.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Hellweger, F.

    2011-12-01

    Karst groundwater systems develop in soluble rocks such as limestone, and are characterized by high permeability and well-developed conduit porosity. These systems provide important freshwater resources for human consumption and ecological integrity of streams, wetlands, and coastal zones. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination. As a result, karst aquifers serve as an important route for contaminants exposure to humans and wildlife. Transport of organic contaminants in karst ground-water occurs in complex pathways influenced by the flow mechanism predominating in the aquifer: conduit-flow dominated systems tend to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge point without much attenuation; diffuse-flow systems, on the other hand, can cause significant solute retardation and slow movement. These two mechanisms represent end members of a wide spectrum of conditions found in karst areas, and often a combination of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms is encountered, where both flow mechanisms can control the fate and transport of contaminants. This is the case in the carbonate aquifers of northern Puerto Rico. This work addresses advances made on the characterization of fate and transport processes in karst ground-water systems characterized by variable conduit and/or diffusion dominated flow under high- and low-flow conditions. It involves laboratory-scale physical modeling and field-scale sampling and historical analysis of contaminant distribution. Statistical analysis of solute transport in Geo-Hydrobed physical models shows the heterogeneous character of transport dynamics in karstic units, and its variability under different flow regimes. Field-work analysis of chlorinated volatile organic compounds and phthalates indicates a large capacity of the karst systems to store and transmit contaminants. This work is part of the program "Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination

  18. Advancing Age and 30-Day Adverse Outcomes Following Non-Emergent General Surgical Operations

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Csaba; Kile, Deidre; Hawn, Mary T.; Finlayson, Emily; Henderson, William G.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background While some single center studies have demonstrated that major surgical operations are safe to perform in older adults, most multicenter database studies find advancing age to independently predict adverse postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that thirty-day postoperative mortality, complications, failure to rescue rates and postoperative length of stay will increase with advancing age. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Participants Patients undergoing non-emergent major general surgical operations between 2005 and 2008 were studied. Measures Postoperative outcomes of interest were complications occurring within 30 days of the index operation, return to OR within 30 days, failure to rescue after a postoperative complication, post-surgical length of stay and 30 day mortality. Results A total of 165,600 patients were studied. The rates of postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and each type of postoperative complication increased as age increased. The rates of failure to rescue after each type of postoperative complication also increased with age. Mortality rates in patients ≥80 following renal insufficiency (43.3%), stroke (36.5%), myocardial infarction (35.6%), and pulmonary complications (25-39%) were particularly high. Median postoperative length of stay increased with age following surgical site infection, UTI, pneumonia, return to OR, and overall morbidity, but not after venous thromboembolism, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, failure to wean from the ventilator or reintubations. Conclusion Thirty-day mortality, complications and failure to rescue rates increase with advancing age following non-emergent general surgical operations. Patients over 80 years of age have especially high mortality following renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary complications. As patient age advances, surgeons need to be

  19. Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives of this work are: (1) Assist the Science Mission Directorate in developing technologies for space missions. (2) Explore the capability of computational modeling to assist in the development of the Advanced Stirling Convertor. (3) Baseline computational simulation with available experimental data of the ASC. (4) Calculate peak external pressure vessel wall temperatures and compare them with anticipated values. (5) Calculated peak magnet temperature inside the ASC over a range of operational scenarios.

  20. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly

  1. Using Micro-Synchrophasor Data for Advanced Distribution Grid Planning and Operations Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Emma; Kiliccote, Sila; McParland, Charles; Roberts, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    This report reviews the potential for distribution-grid phase-angle data that will be available from new micro-synchrophasors (µPMUs) to be utilized in existing distribution-grid planning and operations analysis. This data could augment the current diagnostic capabilities of grid analysis software, used in both planning and operations for applications such as fault location, and provide data for more accurate modeling of the distribution system. µPMUs are new distribution-grid sensors that will advance measurement and diagnostic capabilities and provide improved visibility of the distribution grid, enabling analysis of the grid’s increasingly complex loads that include features such as large volumes of distributed generation. Large volumes of DG leads to concerns on continued reliable operation of the grid, due to changing power flow characteristics and active generation, with its own protection and control capabilities. Using µPMU data on change in voltage phase angle between two points in conjunction with new and existing distribution-grid planning and operational tools is expected to enable model validation, state estimation, fault location, and renewable resource/load characterization. Our findings include: data measurement is outstripping the processing capabilities of planning and operational tools; not every tool can visualize a voltage phase-angle measurement to the degree of accuracy measured by advanced sensors, and the degree of accuracy in measurement required for the distribution grid is not defined; solving methods cannot handle the high volumes of data generated by modern sensors, so new models and solving methods (such as graph trace analysis) are needed; standardization of sensor-data communications platforms in planning and applications tools would allow integration of different vendors’ sensors and advanced measurement devices. In addition, data from advanced sources such as µPMUs could be used to validate models to improve

  2. Crew factors in flight operations 2: Psychophysiological responses to short-haul air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Foushee, H. Clayton; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-four pilots were monitored before, during, and after 3- or 4-day commercial short-haul trip patterns. The trips studied averaged 10.6 hr of duty per day with 4.5 hr of flight time and 5.5 flight segments. The mean rest period lasted 12.5 hr and occurred progressively earlier across successive days. On trip nights, subjects took longer to fall asleep, slept less, woke earlier, and reported lighter, poorer sleep with more awakenings than on pretrip nights. During layovers, subjective fatigue and negative affect were higher, and positive affect and activation lower, than during pretrip, in-flight, or posttrip. Pilots consumed more caffeine, alcohol, and snacks on trip days than either pretrip or posttrip. Increases in heart rate over mid-cruise were observed during descent and landing, and were greater for the pilot flying. Heart-rate increases were greater during takeoff and descent under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) than under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The following would be expected to reduce fatigue in short-haul operations: regulating duty hours, as well as flight hours; scheduling rest periods to begin at the same time of day, or progressively later, across the days of a trip; and educating pilots about alternatives to alcohol as a means of relaxing before sleep.

  3. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  5. Ripple transport in Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators: A comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    SciTech Connect

    Beidler, C.D.; Hitchon, W.N.G.

    1995-07-01

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator`s magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounceaveraged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the {nu}{sup {minus}1} regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual.

  6. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology to an Advanced Subsonic Transport Project, established as one element of the NASA/Boeing Energy Efficient Transport Technology Program. The performance assessment showed that incorporating ACT into an airplane designed to fly approximately 200 passengers approximately 2,000 nmi could yield block fuel savings from 6 to 10 percent at the design range. The principal risks associated with incorporating these active control functions into a commercial airplane are those involved with the ACT system implementation. The Test and Evaluation phase of the IAAC Project focused on the design, fabrication, and test of a system that implemented pitch axis fly-by-wire, pitch axis augmentation, and wing load alleviation. The system was built to be flight worthy, and was planned to be experimentally flown on the 757. The system was installed in the Boeing Digital Avionics Flight Controls Laboratory (DAFCL), where open loop hardware and software tests, and a brief examination of a direct drive valve (DDV) actuation concept were accomplished. The IAAC Project has shown that ACT can be beneficially incorporated into a commercial transport airplane. Based on the results achieved during the testing phase, there appears to be no fundamental reason(s) that would preclude the commercial application of ACT, assuming an appropriate development effort is included.

  7. Work Domain Analysis and Operational Concepts for Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2001-02-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will differ in important respects from the older generation. Differences in new plants will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. Examples of these advances include distribution of load-following demand among multiple units, different product streams (steam, process heat, or electricity), increased use of passive safety systems, high levels of automation with humans in supervisory roles, integration of computerized procedures for control room and field work, and remote surveillance and on-line monitoring. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. There is still much uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design on operations and human tasks, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. This uncertainty will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. Designers need to be able to identify and evaluate specific human factors challenges related to non

  8. Operational demonstration of a field of high performance flat plate collectors with isothermal heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merges, V.; Klippel, E.

    1983-12-01

    A solar plant with 21 sq m of highly efficient flat plate collectors and which requires no electricity is described. Heat transport is provided by saturated steam that condenses in a four cubic meter storage tank. The operation temperature is set by the buffer gas pressure between 100 and 140 C, and an absorption chiller is simulated as a heat consumer. The solar collectors were observed to exhibit high performance. Heat transport and temperature control offered high reliability and the thermal stratification in the tank was satisfactory. The positive result permits the design and construction of larger solar plants following the same technical principles.

  9. Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Technology: Earth Observing-1 PPT Operational and Advanced Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Frus, John; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Burton, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) mounted on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft was operated successfully in orbit. The two-axis thruster system is fully incorporated in the attitude determination and control system and is being used to automatically counteract disturbances in the pitch axis of the spacecraft. The first tests conducted in space demonstrated the full range of PPT operation, followed by calibration of control torques from the PPT in the attitude control system. Then the spacecraft was placed in PPT control mode. To date, it has operated for about 30 hr. The PPT successfully controlled pitch momentum during wheel de-spin, solar array acceleration and deceleration during array rewind, and environmental torques in nominal operating conditions. Images collected with the Advanced Landsat Imager during PPT operation have demonstrated that there was no degradation in comparison to full momentum wheel control. In addition, other experiments have been performed to interrogate the effects of PPT operation on communication packages and light reflection from spacecraft surfaces. Future experiments will investigate the possibility of orbit-raising maneuvers, spacecraft roll, and concurrent operation with the Hyperion imager. Future applications envisioned for pulsed plasma thrusters include longer life, higher precision, multiaxis thruster configurations for three-axis attitude control systems or high-precision, formationflying systems. Advanced components, such as a "dry" mica-foil capacitor, a wear-resistant spark plug, and a multichannel power processing unit have been developed under contract with Unison Industries, General Dynamics, and C.U. Aerospace. Over the last year, evaluation tests have been conducted to determine power processing unit efficiency, atmospheric functionality, vacuum functionality, thruster performance evaluation, thermal performance, and component life.

  10. Advancing data assimilation in operational hydrologic forecasting: progresses, challenges, and emerging opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weerts, A. H.; Clark, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Kumar, S.; Moradkhani, H.; Seo, D.-J.; Schwanenberg, D.; Smith, P.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; van Velzen, N.; He, M.; Lee, H.; Noh, S. J.; Rakovec, O.; Restrepo, P.

    2012-03-01

    Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions as demonstrated in numerous research studies. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not been adequately or timely implemented into operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts to better inform real-world decision making. This is due in part to a lack of mechanisms to properly quantify the uncertainty in observations and forecast models in real-time forecasting situations and to conduct the merging of data and models in a way that is adequately efficient and transparent to operational forecasters. The need for effective DA of useful hydrologic data into the forecast process has become increasingly recognized in recent years. This motivated a hydrologic DA workshop in Delft, The Netherlands in November 2010, which focused on advancing DA in operational hydrologic forecasting and water resources management. As an outcome of the workshop, this paper reviews, in relevant detail, the current status of DA applications in both hydrologic research and operational practices, and discusses the existing or potential hurdles and challenges in transitioning hydrologic DA research into cost-effective operational forecasting tools, as well as the potential pathways and newly emerging opportunities for overcoming these challenges. Several related aspects are discussed, including (1) theoretical or mathematical considerations in DA algorithms, (2) the estimation of different types of uncertainty, (3) new observations and their objective use in hydrologic DA, (4) the use of DA for real-time control of water resources systems, and (5) the development of community-based, generic DA tools for hydrologic applications. It is recommended that cost-effective transition of hydrologic DA from research to operations should be helped by developing community-based, generic modelling and DA tools or frameworks, and through fostering collaborative efforts among hydrologic modellers

  11. Advancing data assimilation in operational hydrologic forecasting: progresses, challenges, and emerging opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Weerts, A. H.; Clark, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J.; Kumar, S.; Moradkhani, H.; Seo, D.-J.; Schwanenberg, D.; Smith, P.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; van Velzen, N.; He, M.; Lee, H.; Noh, S. J.; Rakovec, O.; Restrepo, P.

    2012-10-01

    Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions as demonstrated in numerous research studies. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. This is due in part to a lack of mechanisms to properly quantify the uncertainty in observations and forecast models in real-time forecasting situations and to conduct the merging of data and models in a way that is adequately efficient and transparent to operational forecasters. The need for effective DA of useful hydrologic data into the forecast process has become increasingly recognized in recent years. This motivated a hydrologic DA workshop in Delft, the Netherlands in November 2010, which focused on advancing DA in operational hydrologic forecasting and water resources management. As an outcome of the workshop, this paper reviews, in relevant detail, the current status of DA applications in both hydrologic research and operational practices, and discusses the existing or potential hurdles and challenges in transitioning hydrologic DA research into cost-effective operational forecasting tools, as well as the potential pathways and newly emerging opportunities for overcoming these challenges. Several related aspects are discussed, including (1) theoretical or mathematical aspects in DA algorithms, (2) the estimation of different types of uncertainty, (3) new observations and their objective use in hydrologic DA, (4) the use of DA for real-time control of water resources systems, and (5) the development of community-based, generic DA tools for hydrologic applications. It is recommended that cost-effective transition of hydrologic DA from research to operations should be helped by developing community-based, generic modeling and DA tools or frameworks, and through fostering collaborative efforts among hydrologic modellers, DA

  12. Advancing Data Assimilation in Operational Hydrologic Forecasting: Progresses, Challenges, and Emerging Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Weerts, A.; Clark, M.; Hendricks Franssen, H.-J; Kumar, S.; Moradkhani, H.; Seo, D.-J.; Schwanenberg, D.; Smith, P.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; van Velzen, N.; He, M.; Lee, H.; Noh, S. J.; Rakovec, O.; Restrepo, P.

    2012-01-01

    Data assimilation (DA) holds considerable potential for improving hydrologic predictions as demonstrated in numerous research studies. However, advances in hydrologic DA research have not been adequately or timely implemented in operational forecast systems to improve the skill of forecasts for better informed real-world decision making. This is due in part to a lack of mechanisms to properly quantify the uncertainty in observations and forecast models in real-time forecasting situations and to conduct the merging of data and models in a way that is adequately efficient and transparent to operational forecasters. The need for effective DA of useful hydrologic data into the forecast process has become increasingly recognized in recent years. This motivated a hydrologic DA workshop in Delft, the Netherlands in November 2010, which focused on advancing DA in operational hydrologic forecasting and water resources management. As an outcome of the workshop, this paper reviews, in relevant detail, the current status of DA applications in both hydrologic research and operational practices, and discusses the existing or potential hurdles and challenges in transitioning hydrologic DA research into cost-effective operational forecasting tools, as well as the potential pathways and newly emerging opportunities for overcoming these challenges. Several related aspects are discussed, including (1) theoretical or mathematical aspects in DA algorithms, (2) the estimation of different types of uncertainty, (3) new observations and their objective use in hydrologic DA, (4) the use of DA for real-time control of water resources systems, and (5) the development of community-based, generic DA tools for hydrologic applications. It is recommended that cost-effective transition of hydrologic DA from research to operations should be helped by developing community-based, generic modeling and DA tools or frameworks, and through fostering collaborative efforts among hydrologic modellers, DA

  13. Consensus statement on advancing research in emergency department operations and its impact on patient care.

    PubMed

    Yiadom, Maame Yaa A B; Ward, Michael J; Chang, Anna Marie; Pines, Jesse M; Jouriles, Nick; Yealy, Donald M

    2015-06-01

    The consensus conference on "Advancing Research in Emergency Department (ED) Operations and Its Impact on Patient Care," hosted by The ED Operations Study Group (EDOSG), convened to craft a framework for future investigations in this important but understudied area. The EDOSG is a research consortium dedicated to promoting evidence-based clinical practice in emergency medicine. The consensus process format was a modified version of the NIH Model for Consensus Conference Development. Recommendations provide an action plan for how to improve ED operations study design, create a facilitating research environment, identify data measures of value for process and outcomes research, and disseminate new knowledge in this area. Specifically, we call for eight key initiatives: 1) the development of universal measures for ED patient care processes; 2) attention to patient outcomes, in addition to process efficiency and best practice compliance; 3) the promotion of multisite clinical operations studies to create more generalizable knowledge; 4) encouraging the use of mixed methods to understand the social community and human behavior factors that influence ED operations; 5) the creation of robust ED operations research registries to drive stronger evidence-based research; 6) prioritizing key clinical questions with the input of patients, clinicians, medical leadership, emergency medicine organizations, payers, and other government stakeholders; 7) more consistently defining the functional components of the ED care system, including observation units, fast tracks, waiting rooms, laboratories, and radiology subunits; and 8) maximizing multidisciplinary knowledge dissemination via emergency medicine, public health, general medicine, operations research, and nontraditional publications.

  14. Association of Sleep Habits With Accidents and Near Misses in United States Transportation Operators

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin D.; Patel, Sanjay R.; Baur, Dorothee M.; Edens, Edward; Sherry, Patrick; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore sleep risk factors and their association with adverse events in transportation operators. Methods Self-reported sleep-related behaviors were analyzed in transportation operators (drivers, pilots, and rail operators) aged 26 to 78 years who completed the National Sleep Foundation’s 2012 “Planes, Trains, Automobiles, and Sleep” survey. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations of various sleep-related variables with the combined outcome of self-reported accidents and near misses. Results Age- and body mass–adjusted predictors of accidents/near misses included an accident while commuting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 9.8), driving drowsy (OR = 4.1; CI, 2.5 to 6.7), and Sheehan Disability Scale score greater than 15 (OR = 3.5; CI, 2.2 to 5.5). Sleeping more than 7 hours nightly was protective for accident/near misses (OR = 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9). Conclusion Recognized risk factors for poor sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with self-reported near misses and/or accidents in transportation operators. PMID:24806564

  15. Effect of Band-Alignment Operation on Carrier Transport in Bi2Se3 Topological Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gaurav; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Liang, Gengchiau

    2014-01-01

    Band-alignment induced current modulation in Bi2Se3 three-dimensional topological insulator slab has been investigated by quantum transport simulations for three different device designs, one for purely lateral transport and other two with vertical transport. Non-Equilibrium Green Function formalism has been deployed to understand the transport mechanism in band-alignment devices to appraise the possibility of a 3D-TI based resonant device. A resonance condition is observed when the Dirac-points (bands) are aligned. This results in the maximum current at resonance for the design with only lateral transport. However, current ratio between resonant and non-resonant condition is found to be relatively small and strong temperature dependence is also noticed. The other two designs with vertical transport have degraded transfer characteristics, although from state-of-art literature they are expected to manifest nearly an ideal resonance peak. The physical insights for these observations have been posited along with the suggestions for attaining close to an ideal operation for the first design, which we also suggest for the pursuit in the future for spintronic oscillators and analog multipliers based on band-alignment induced resonance. PMID:25164148

  16. Model Validation of an RSRM Transporter Through Full-scale Operational and Modal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillhart, Ralph; Davis, Joshua; Allred, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) segments, which are part of the current Space Shuttle system and will provide the first stage of the Ares launch vehicle, must be transported from their manufacturing facility in Promontory, Utah, to a railhead in Corinne, Utah. This approximately 25-mile trip on secondary paved roads is accomplished using a special transporter system which lifts and conveys each individual segment. ATK Launch Systems (ATK) has recently obtained a new set of these transporters from Scheuerle, a company in Germany. The transporter is a 96-wheel, dual tractor vehicle that supports the payload via a hydraulic suspension. Since this system is a different design than was previously used, computer modeling with validation via test is required to ensure that the environment to which the segment is exposed is not too severe for this space-critical hardware. Accurate prediction of the loads imparted to the rocket motor is essential in order to prevent damage to the segment. To develop and validate a finite element model capable of such accurate predictions, ATA Engineering, Inc., teamed with ATK to perform a modal survey of the transport system, including a forward RSRM segment. A set of electrodynamic shakers was placed around the transporter at locations capable of exciting the transporter vehicle dynamics. Forces from the shakers with varying phase combinations were applied using sinusoidal sweep excitation. The relative phase of the shaker forcing functions was adjusted to match the shape characteristics of each of several target modes, thereby customizing each sweep run for exciting a particular mode. The resulting frequency response functions (FRF) from this series of sine sweeps allowed identification of all target modes and other higher-order modes, allowing good comparison to the finite element model. Furthermore, the survey-derived modal frequencies were correlated with peak frequencies observed during road-going operating tests. This

  17. 76 FR 16654 - Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Capital Metropolitan Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority Austin Western Railroad, L.L.C. (AWRR), a Class III rail carrier,...

  18. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... Advance of Funds § 302-10.300 May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports...

  19. Work Domain Analysis Methodology for Development of Operational Concepts for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a methodology to conduct a Work Domain Analysis in preparation for the development of operational concepts for new plants. This method has been adapted from the classical method described in the literature in order to better deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. The report outlines the strategy for undertaking a Work Domain Analysis of a new nuclear power plant and the methods to be used in the development of the various phases of the analysis. Basic principles are described to the extent necessary to explain why and how the classical method was adapted to make it suitable as a tool for the preparation of operational concepts for a new nuclear power plant. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method and the various presentation formats in the operational analysis of advanced reactors.

  20. Device for passive downward heat transport - Design criteria and operational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beni, G.; Friesen, R.; Thoma, H.; Veneroni, R.

    A semi-continuous device for passive downward heat transport has been designed, built and operated. Heat is transported as latent heat of vaporization as in a heat pipe; the return of the liquid is obtained through the action of an energy accumulator containing an inert gas and charged by the vapour itself during the transport of heat. The capability of winning the difference in level is exchanged with a difference of a few degrees centigrade between evaporator and condenser. The laboratory device worked with a difference in level of 1.7 m. Working under pressure, differences in level of 10 meters and more can be attained. A typical application can be the storage of heat available from solar collectors.

  1. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  2. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  3. Studies of plasma performance and transport in the advanced toroidal facility (ATF)

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, G.H.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Halliwell, J.W.; Harris, J.H.; Hedrick, C.L.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Lue, J.W.; Lyon, J.F.; Ma, C.H.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shepard, T.D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B

    1989-01-01

    An overview of recent ATF experimental results and program plans is presented, with emphasis on the role of magnetic configuration controls in transport studies. The ATF operating space is bounded by a density limit that effectively sets a limit on the energy confinement time {tau}{sub E}. Although this limit is not solely due to impurities, it has recently been raised by improved cleanliness following titanium gettering. This has led to collapse-free neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges with global {tau}{sub E} {approx} 16 ms. Preliminary experiments show that stored energy and bootstrap current are sensitive to details of the magnetic configuration. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Advanced data management for optimising the operation of a full-scale WWTP.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Sergio; Maiza, Mikel; de la Sota, Alejandro; Villanueva, José María; Ayesa, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The lack of appropriate data management tools is presently a limiting factor for a broader implementation and a more efficient use of sensors and analysers, monitoring systems and process controllers in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents a technical solution for advanced data management of a full-scale WWTP. The solution is based on an efficient and intelligent use of the plant data by a standard centralisation of the heterogeneous data acquired from different sources, effective data processing to extract adequate information, and a straightforward connection to other emerging tools focused on the operational optimisation of the plant such as advanced monitoring and control or dynamic simulators. A pilot study of the advanced data manager tool was designed and implemented in the Galindo-Bilbao WWTP. The results of the pilot study showed its potential for agile and intelligent plant data management by generating new enriched information combining data from different plant sources, facilitating the connection of operational support systems, and developing automatic plots and trends of simulated results and actual data for plant performance and diagnosis.

  5. Activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility, July-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Research activities and operations of the Advanced Computing Research Facility (ACRF) at Argonne National Laboratory are discussed for the period from July 1986 through October 1986. The facility is currently supported by the Department of Energy, and is operated by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne. Over the past four-month period, a new commercial multiprocessor, the Intel iPSC-VX/d4 hypercube was installed. In addition, four other commercial multiprocessors continue to be available for research - an Encore Multimax, a Sequent Balance 21000, an Alliant FX/8, and an Intel iPSC/d5 - as well as a locally designed multiprocessor, the Lemur. These machines are being actively used by scientists at Argonne and throughout the nation in a wide variety of projects concerning computer systems with parallel and vector architectures. A variety of classes, workshops, and seminars have been sponsored to train researchers on computing techniques for the advanced computer systems at the Advanced Computing Research Facility. For example, courses were offered on writing programs for parallel computer systems and hosted the first annual Alliant users group meeting. A Sequent users group meeting and a two-day workshop on performance evaluation of parallel computers and programs are being organized.

  6. An Assessment of Civil Tiltrotor Concept of Operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Salvano, Dan; Rinehart, David; Young, Ray; Cheng, Victor; Lindsey, James

    2012-01-01

    Based on a previous Civil Tiltrotor (CTR) National Airspace System (NAS) performance analysis study, CTR operations were evaluated over selected routes and terminal airspace configurations assuming noninterference operations (NIO) and runway-independent operations (RIO). This assessment aims to further identify issues associated with these concepts of operations (ConOps), and their dependency on the airspace configuration and interaction with conventional fixed-wing traffic. Safety analysis following a traditional Safety Management System (SMS) methodology was applied to CTR-unique departure and arrival failures in the selected airspace to identify any operational and certification issues. Additional CTR operational cases were then developed to get a broader understanding of issues and gaps that will need to be addressed in future CTR operational studies. Finally, needed enhancements to National Airspace System performance analysis tools were reviewed, and recommendations were made on improvements in these tools that are likely to be required to support future progress toward CTR fleet operations in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen).

  7. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  8. Analysis of operational requirements for medium density air transportation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The medium density air travel market is examined and defined in terms of numbers of people transported per route per day and frequency of service. The operational characteristics for aircraft to serve this market are determined and a basepoint aircraft is designed from which tradeoff studies and parametric variations can be conducted. The impact of the operational characteristics on the air travel system is evaluated along with the economic viability of the study aircraft. Research and technology programs for future study consideration are identified.

  9. Jet transport flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information during instrument meteorological conditions: Simulation evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to evaluate flight operations using cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) in a conventional jet transport aircraft. Eight two-person airline flight crews participated as test subjects flying simulated terminal area approach and departure operations under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). A fixed-base cockpit simulator configured with a full complement of conventional electromechanical instrumentation to permit full workload operations was utilized. Traffic information was displayed on a color cathode-ray tube (CRT) mounted above the throttle quadrant in the typical weather radar location. A transparent touchpanel overlay was utilized for pilot interface with the display. Air traffic control (ATC) simulation included an experienced controller and full partyline radio environment for evaluation of pilot-controlled self-separation and traffic situation monitoring tasks. Results of the study revealed the CDTI to be well received by the test subjects as a useful system which could be incorporated into an existing jet transport cockpit. Crew coordination and consistent operating procedures were identified as important considerations in operational implementation of traffic displays. Cockpit workload was increased with active CDTI tasks. However, all test subjects rated the increase to be acceptable.

  10. Statistical Measurements of Contact Conditions of 478 Transport-airplane Landings During Routine Daytime Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsby, Norman S

    1955-01-01

    Statistical measurements of contact conditions have been obtained, by means of a special photographic technique, of 478 landings of present-day transport airplanes made during routine daylight operations in clear air at the Washington National Airport. From the measurements, sinking speeds, rolling velocities, bank angles, and horizontal speeds at the instant before contact have been evaluated and a limited statistical analysis of the results has been made and is reported in this report.

  11. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  12. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  13. Applicability of the control configured design approach to advanced earth orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Zeck, H.; Walker, W. H.; Shafer, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    The applicability of the control configured design approach (CCV) to advanced earth orbital transportation systems was studied. The baseline system investigated was fully reusable vertical take-off/horizontal landing single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and had mission requirements similar to the space shuttle orbiter. Technical analyses were made to determine aerodynamic, flight control and subsystem design characteristics. Figures of merit were assessed on vehicle dry weight and orbital payload. The results indicated that the major parameters for CCV designs are hypersonic trim, aft center of gravity, and control surface heating. Optimized CCV designs can be controllable and provide substantial payload gains over conventional non-CCV design vertical take-off vehicles.

  14. Plant chromium uptake and transport, physiological effects and recent advances in molecular investigations.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria Angélica da Conceição; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Suzuki, Marina Satika; Vitória, Angela Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Increasingly, anthropogenic perturbations of the biosphere manifest in a broad array of global phenomena, causing widespread contamination of most ecosystems, with high dispersion rates of many contaminants throughout different environmental compartments, including metals. Chromium (Cr) contamination in particular, is, increasingly, posing a serious threat to the environment, emerging as a major health hazard to the biota. However, although the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant responses to many heavy metals, especially lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), have been focused upon in recent years, chromium has attracted significantly less attention. In this context, this review discusses aspects of Cr uptake and transport, some physiological and biochemical effects of Cr exposure in plants, and molecular defense mechanisms against this metal. Recent advances in determining these responses, in fields of knowledge such as genomics, proteomics and metallomics, are discussed herein.

  15. Space Shuttle 2 Advanced Space Transportation System. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the feasibility of establishing a second generation space transportation system is summarized. Incorporating successful systems from the Space Shuttle and technological advances made since its conception, the second generation shuttle was designed to be a lower-cost, reliable system which would guarantee access to space well into the next century. A fully reusable, all-liquid propellant booster/orbiter combination using parallel burn was selected as the base configuration. Vehicle characteristics were determined from NASA ground rules and optimization evaluations. The launch profile was constructed from particulars of the vehicle design and known orbital requirements. A stability and control analysis was performed for the landing phase of the orbiter's flight. Finally, a preliminary safety analysis was performed to indicate possible failure modes and consequences.

  16. Performance potential of an advanced technology Mach 3 turbojet engine installed on a conceptual high-speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Coen, Peter G.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of an advanced technology conceptual turbojet optimized for a high-speed civil aircraft is presented. This information represents an estimate of performance of a Mach 3 Brayton (gas turbine) cycle engine optimized for minimum fuel burned at supersonic cruise. This conceptual engine had no noise or environmental constraints imposed upon it. The purpose of this data is to define an upper boundary on the propulsion performance for a conceptual commercial Mach 3 transport design. A comparison is presented demonstrating the impact of the technology proposed for this conceptual engine on the weight and other characteristics of a proposed high-speed civil transport. This comparison indicates that the advanced technology turbojet described could reduce the gross weight of a hypothetical Mach 3 high-speed civil transport design from about 714,000 pounds to about 545,000 pounds. The aircraft with the baseline engine and the aircraft with the advanced technology engine are described.

  17. Toward a Mechanistic Source Term in Advanced Reactors: Characterization of Radionuclide Transport and Retention in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brunett, Acacia J.; Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David

    2016-04-17

    A vital component of the U.S. reactor licensing process is an integrated safety analysis in which a source term representing the release of radionuclides during normal operation and accident sequences is analyzed. Historically, source term analyses have utilized bounding, deterministic assumptions regarding radionuclide release. However, advancements in technical capabilities and the knowledge state have enabled the development of more realistic and best-estimate retention and release models such that a mechanistic source term assessment can be expected to be a required component of future licensing of advanced reactors. Recently, as part of a Regulatory Technology Development Plan effort for sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs), Argonne National Laboratory has investigated the current state of knowledge of potential source terms in an SFR via an extensive review of previous domestic experiments, accidents, and operation. As part of this work, the significant sources and transport processes of radionuclides in an SFR have been identified and characterized. This effort examines all stages of release and source term evolution, beginning with release from the fuel pin and ending with retention in containment. Radionuclide sources considered in this effort include releases originating both in-vessel (e.g. in-core fuel, primary sodium, cover gas cleanup system, etc.) and ex-vessel (e.g. spent fuel storage, handling, and movement). Releases resulting from a primary sodium fire are also considered as a potential source. For each release group, dominant transport phenomena are identified and qualitatively discussed. The key product of this effort was the development of concise, inclusive diagrams that illustrate the release and retention mechanisms at a high level, where unique schematics have been developed for in-vessel, ex-vessel and sodium fire releases. This review effort has also found that despite the substantial range of phenomena affecting radionuclide release, the

  18. Thermal Performance Expectations of the Advanced Stirling Convertor Over a Range of Operating Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Terry V.; Dyson, Rodger W.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) will enable various missions such as small body sample return, atmospheric missions around Venus, as well as long - duration deep space missions. Analysis of the temperature distributions are performed on an Advanced Stirling Convertor, and the results are compared with available experimental measurements. This analysis includes applied environmental conditions that are similar to those that will be experienced while the convertor is in operation. The applied conditions represent a potential mission profile including pre-takeoff sterilization, launch, transit, and return. The results focus on the anticipated peak temperatures of the magnets in the linear alternator. These results confirm that the ASC can support future missions to deep space targets, extreme environment landers, as well as more conventional goals.

  19. Sensitivity of chemistry-transport model simulations to the duration of chemical and transport operators: a case study with GEOS-Chem v10-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Sajeev; Martin, Randall V.; Keller, Christoph A.

    2016-05-01

    Chemistry-transport models involve considerable computational expense. Fine temporal resolution offers accuracy at the expense of computation time. Assessment is needed of the sensitivity of simulation accuracy to the duration of chemical and transport operators. We conduct a series of simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model at different temporal and spatial resolutions to examine the sensitivity of simulated atmospheric composition to operator duration. Subsequently, we compare the species simulated with operator durations from 10 to 60 min as typically used by global chemistry-transport models, and identify the operator durations that optimize both computational expense and simulation accuracy. We find that longer continuous transport operator duration increases concentrations of emitted species such as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide since a more homogeneous distribution reduces loss through chemical reactions and dry deposition. The increased concentrations of ozone precursors increase ozone production with longer transport operator duration. Longer chemical operator duration decreases sulfate and ammonium but increases nitrate due to feedbacks with in-cloud sulfur dioxide oxidation and aerosol thermodynamics. The simulation duration decreases by up to a factor of 5 from fine (5 min) to coarse (60 min) operator duration. We assess the change in simulation accuracy with resolution by comparing the root mean square difference in ground-level concentrations of nitrogen oxides, secondary inorganic aerosols, ozone and carbon monoxide with a finer temporal or spatial resolution taken as "truth". Relative simulation error for these species increases by more than a factor of 5 from the shortest (5 min) to longest (60 min) operator duration. Chemical operator duration twice that of the transport operator duration offers more simulation accuracy per unit computation. However, the relative simulation error from coarser spatial resolution generally

  20. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  1. Analysis of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The desire for higher engine efficiency has resulted in the evolution of aircraft gas turbine engines from turbojets, to low bypass ratio, first generation turbofans, to today's high bypass ratio turbofans. It is possible that future designs will continue this trend, leading to very-high or ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) engines. Although increased bypass ratio has clear benefits in terms of propulsion system metrics such as specific fuel consumption, these benefits may not translate into aircraft system level benefits due to integration penalties. In this study, the design trade space for advanced turbofan engines applied to a single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) is explored. The benefits of increased bypass ratio and associated enabling technologies such as geared fan drive are found to depend on the primary metrics of interest. For example, bypass ratios at which fuel consumption is minimized may not require geared fan technology. However, geared fan drive does enable higher bypass ratio designs which result in lower noise. Regardless of the engine architecture chosen, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  2. Refined Exploration of Turbofan Design Options for an Advanced Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Fisher, Kenneth L.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the turbofan engine design space for an advanced technology single-aisle transport (737/A320 class aircraft) was conducted previously by the authors and is documented in a prior report. Through the course of that study and in a subsequent evaluation of the approach and results, a number of enhancements to the engine design ground rules and assumptions were identified. A follow-on effort was initiated to investigate the impacts of these changes on the original study results. The fundamental conclusions of the prior study were found to still be valid with the revised engine designs. The most significant impact of the design changes was a reduction in the aircraft weight and block fuel penalties incurred with low fan pressure ratio, ultra-high bypass ratio designs. This enables lower noise levels to be pursued (through lower fan pressure ratio) with minor negative impacts on aircraft weight and fuel efficiency. Regardless of the engine design selected, the results of this study indicate the potential for the advanced aircraft to realize substantial improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise compared to the current vehicles in this size class.

  3. A simulator study for the development and evaluation of operating procedures on a supersonic cruise research transport to minimize airport-community noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Smith, P. M.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted-simulator studies were conducted to determine takeoff and landing operating procedures for a supersonic cruise research transport concept that result in predicted noise levels which meet current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification standards. With the use of standard FAA noise certification test procedures, the subject simulated aircraft did not meet the FAA traded-noise-level standards during takeoff and landing. However, with the use of advanced procedures, this aircraft meets the traded-noise-level standards for flight crews with average skills. The advanced takeoff procedures developed involved violating some of the current Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), but it was not necessary to violate any FAR noise-test conditions during landing approach. Noise contours were also determined for some of the simulated takeoffs and landings in order to indicate the noise-reduction advantages of using operational procedures other than standard.

  4. Draft Function Allocation Framework and Preliminary Technical Basis for Advanced SMR Concepts of Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo; John Forester; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Heather Medema; Julius Persensky; April Whaley

    2013-04-01

    This report presents preliminary research results from the investigation in to the development of new models and guidance for concepts of operations (ConOps) in advanced small modular reactor (aSMR) designs. In support of this objective, three important research areas were included: operating principles of multi-modular plants, functional allocation models and strategies that would affect the development of new, non-traditional concept of operations, and the requiremetns for human performance, based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements. As part of the approach for this report, we outline potential functions, including the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a new functional allocation model and the identification of specific regulatory requirements that will influence the development of future concept of operations. The report also highlights changes in research strategy prompted by confirmationof the importance of applying the work domain analysis methodology to a reference aSMR design. It is described how this methodology will enrich the findings from this phase of the project in the subsequent phases and help in identification of metrics and focused studies for the determination of human performance criteria that can be used to support the design process.

  5. Dynamic Modeling of Off-Nominal Operation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    System failures, off-nominal operation, or unexpected interruptions in processing capability can cause unanticipated instabilities in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, even long after they are repaired. Much current modeling assumes ALS systems are static and linear, but ALS systems are actually dynamic and nonlinear, especially when failures and off nominal operation are considered. Modeling and simulation provide a way to study the stability and time behavior of nonlinear dynamic ALS systems under changed system configurations or operational scenarios. The dynamic behavior of a nonlinear system can be fully explored only by computer simulation over the full range of inputs and initial conditions. Previous simulations of BIO-Plex in SIMULINK, a toolbox of Matlab, were extended to model the off-nominal operation and long-term dynamics of partially closed physical/chemical and bioregenerative life support systems. System nonlinearity has many interesting potential consequences. Different equilibrium points may be reached for different initial conditions. The system stability can depend on the exact system inputs and initial conditions. The system may oscillate or even in rare cases behave chaotically. Temporary internal hardware failures or external perturbations in ALS systems can lead to dynamic instability and total ALS system failure. Appropriate control techniques can restore reliable operation and minimize the effects of dynamic instabilities due to anomalies or perturbations in a life support system.

  6. Treatment of dairy manure using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process under a continuous mode operation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lo, Ing W; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2010-11-01

    The microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used to treat dairy manure for solubilization of nutrients and organic matters. This study investigated the effectiveness of the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP under a continuous mode of operation, and compared the results to those of batch operations. The main factors affecting solubilization by the MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP were heating temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased with an increase of microwave (MW) heating temperature; very high concentrations were obtained at 90°C. Insignificant amounts of ammonia and reducing sugars were released in all runs. An acidic pH condition was required for phosphorus solubilisation from dairy manure. The best yield was obtained at 90°C with an acid dosage of 1.0 %; about 92 % of total phosphorus and 90 % of total chemical oxygen demand were in the soluble forms. The MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP operated in a continuous operation mode showed pronounced synergistic effects between hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation when compared to a batch system under similar operating conditions, resulting in much better yields.

  7. Progress towards top-up mode operations at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, L.; Borland, M.

    1999-10-26

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV, third-generation synchrotron radiation source. To provide a more stable beam for users, in September 1998 the authors began commissioning a new operating mode called top-up. In this mode, the beam current does not decay but is maintained at a high level using frequent injection, while photon shutters are open and photon beams are delivered to users. The exhaustive analysis for top-up safety will be reviewed as well as the hardware and software required for top-up operation. Operational experience so far includes testing aspects of top-up injection, delivering beam to X-ray users for a few hours with fractional current stability of 0.001, and routinely providing beam to users by refilling the ring to 100 mA every 12 hours with shutters open. Top-up performance issues encountered are short-lived orbit and emittance transients during the injection event, which appear in user experiments as X-ray beam brightness dips. Planned system modifications to reduce these beam transients are described. The main operational issue left for continuous top-up injection will then be sharing the injector system with other operations.

  8. Simulation of the hybrid and steady state advanced operating modes in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, C. E.; Giruzzi, G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Budny, R. V.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E.; Schneider, M.; Murakami, M.; Luce, T.; St. John, Holger; Oikawa, T.; Hayashi, N.; Takizuka, T.; Ozeki, T.; Na, Y.-S.; Park, J. M.; Garcia, J.; Tucillo, A. A.

    2007-09-01

    Integrated simulations are performed to establish a physics basis, in conjunction with present tokamak experiments, for the operating modes in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Simulations of the hybrid mode are done using both fixed and free-boundary 1.5D transport evolution codes including CRONOS, ONETWO, TSC/TRANSP, TOPICS and ASTRA. The hybrid operating mode is simulated using the GLF23 and CDBM05 energy transport models. The injected powers are limited to the negative ion neutral beam, ion cyclotron and electron cyclotron heating systems. Several plasma parameters and source parameters are specified for the hybrid cases to provide a comparison of 1.5D core transport modelling assumptions, source physics modelling assumptions, as well as numerous peripheral physics modelling. Initial results indicate that very strict guidelines will need to be imposed on the application of GLF23, for example, to make useful comparisons. Some of the variations among the simulations are due to source models which vary widely among the codes used. In addition, there are a number of peripheral physics models that should be examined, some of which include fusion power production, bootstrap current, treatment of fast particles and treatment of impurities. The hybrid simulations project to fusion gains of 5.6-8.3, βN values of 2.1-2.6 and fusion powers ranging from 350 to 500 MW, under the assumptions outlined in section 3. Simulations of the steady state operating mode are done with the same 1.5D transport evolution codes cited above, except the ASTRA code. In these cases the energy transport model is more difficult to prescribe, so that energy confinement models will range from theory based to empirically based. The injected powers include the same sources as used for the hybrid with the possible addition of lower hybrid. The simulations of the steady state mode project to fusion gains of 3.5-7, βN values of 2.3-3.0 and fusion powers of 290 to 415 MW

  9. Operations management system advanced automation: Fault detection isolation and recovery prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Matt

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to address the global fault detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) requirements for Operation's Management System (OMS) automation within the Space Station Freedom program. This shall be accomplished by developing a selected FDIR prototype for the Space Station Freedom distributed processing systems. The prototype shall be based on advanced automation methodologies in addition to traditional software methods to meet the requirements for automation. A secondary objective is to expand the scope of the prototyping to encompass multiple aspects of station-wide fault management (SWFM) as discussed in OMS requirements documentation.

  10. Transportation-Driven Mars Surface Operations Supporting an Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Brown, Kendall; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study evaluating options for supporting a series of human missions to a single Mars surface destination. In this scenario the infrastructure emplaced during previous visits to this site is leveraged in following missions. The goal of this single site approach to Mars surface infrastructure is to enable "Steady State" operations by at least 4 crew for up to 500 sols at this site. These characteristics, along with the transportation system used to deliver crew and equipment to and from Mars, are collectively known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). Information in this paper is presented in the sequence in which it was accomplished. First, a logical buildup sequence of surface infrastructure was developed to achieve the desired "Steady State" operations on the Mars surface. This was based on a concept of operations that met objectives of the EMC. Second, infrastructure capabilities were identified to carry out this concept of operations. Third, systems (in the form of conceptual elements) were identified to provide these capabilities. This included top-level mass, power and volume estimates for these elements. Fourth, the results were then used in analyses to evaluate three options (18t, 27t, and 40t landed mass) of Mars Lander delivery capability to the surface. Finally, Mars arrival mass estimates were generated based upon the entry, descent, and landing requirements for inclusion in separate assessments of in-space transportation capabilities for the EMC.

  11. An Investigation of Landing-Contact Conditions for a Large Turbojet Transport During Routine Daylight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, Joseph W.; Silsby, Norman S.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made by the NASA to obtain statistical measurements of landing-contact conditions for a large turbojet transport in commercial airline operations. The investigation was conducted at the Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. Measurements were taken photographically during routine daylight operations. The quantities determined were vertical velocity, horizontal velocity, rolling velocity, bank angle, and distance from runway threshold, just prior to ground contact. The results indicated that the mean vertical velocity for the turbojet-transport landings was 1.62 feet per second and that 1 landing out of 100 would be expected to equal or exceed about 4.0 feet per second. The mean airspeed at contact was 132.0 knots, with 1 landing in 100 likely to equal or exceed about 153.0 knots. The mean rolling velocity was about 1.6 deg per second. One lending in 100 would probably equal or exceed a rolling velocity of about 4.0 deg. per second in the direction of the first wheel to touch. The mean bank angle for the turbojet transports was 1.04 deg, and right and left angles of bank were about evenly divided. One lending in 100 would be likely to equal or exceed a bank angle of about 3.5 deg. The mean value of distance to touchdown from the runway threshold was 1,560 feet. One lending in 100 would be expected to touchdown at or beyond about 2,700 feet from the runway threshold. The mean values for vertical velocity, airspeed, and distance t o touch-down for the turbojet transports were somewhat higher than those found previously for piston-engine transports. No significant differences were found for values of rolling velocity and bank angle.

  12. Advanced spent fuel conditioning process (ACP) progress with respect to remote operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-07-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing an Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) to reduce the volume of spent fuel, and the construction of the ACP facility (ACPF) for a demonstration of its technical feasibility has been completed. In 2006 two inactive demonstrations were performed with simulated fuels in the ACPF. Accompanied by process equipment performance tests, its remote operability and maintainability were also tested during that time. Procedures for remote operation tasks are well addressed in this study and evaluated thoroughly. Also, remote maintenance and repair tasks are addressed regarding some important modules with a high priority order. The above remote handling test's results provided a lot of information such as items to be revised to improve the efficiency of the remote handling tasks. This paper deals with the current status of ACP and the progress of remote handling of ACPF. (authors)

  13. Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 and Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith Advanced Surface Systems Operations Robot (RASSOR) Phase 2 is an excavation robot for mining regolith on a planet like Mars. The robot is programmed using the Robotic Operating System (ROS) and it also uses a physical simulation program called Gazebo. This internship focused on various functions of the program in order to make it a more professional and efficient robot. During the internship another project called the Smart Autonomous Sand-Swimming Excavator was worked on. This is a robot that is designed to dig through sand and extract sample material. The intern worked on programming the Sand-Swimming robot, and designing the electrical system to power and control the robot.

  14. Operating experience with advanced centrifugal contractors in the integrated equipment test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.; Welesko, P.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), advanced design centrifugal contactors for nuclear fuel reprocessing have been operated for several years in the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility using depleted uranium. The mixing of the aqueous and organic phases in these contactors is achieved in the annular zone between the stationary housing and the rotor. Mass transfer tests with these contactors using depleted uranium have shown stage efficiencies in excess of 90%. Clarification of the feed to remove particles down to 2 ..mu..m was found to be necessary to prevent operational problems with the extraction bank. The status of the contactor drive system has been monitored using vibration analysis to increase the reliability of the solvent extraction system. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Current and Advanced Technology ACT control system definition tasks of the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology project within the Energy Efficient Transport Program are summarized. The systems mechanize six active control functions: (1) pitch augmented stability; (2) angle of attack limiting; (3) lateral/directional augmented stability; (4) gust load alleviation; (5) maneuver load control; and (6) flutter mode control. The redundant digital control systems meet all function requirements with required reliability and declining weight and cost as advanced technology is introduced.

  16. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  17. Advanced satellite workstation: An integrated workstation environment for operational support of satellite system planning and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, Stewart A.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), is described that has been developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central mission of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysts of complex systems such as satellites. There have been many workstation implementations recently which incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems. ASW is a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based upon the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets. A variety of tools have been constructed in support of this prototype environment including: an automated pass planner for scheduling vehicle support activities, architectural modeler for hierarchical simulation and analysis of satellite vehicle subsystems, multimedia-based information systems that provide an intuitive and easily accessible interface to Orbit Operations Handbook and other relevant support documentation, and a data analysis architecture that integrates user modifiable telemetry display systems, expert systems for background data analysis, and interfaces to the multimedia system via inter-process communication.

  18. Examination of loop-operator-initiated events for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Durney, J.L.; Majumdar, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a unique high-flux test reactor having nine major test positions for irradiation of reactor materials. These test positions contain inpile tubes (IPT) that are connected to external piping and equipment (loops) to provide the high-temperature, high-pressure environment for the testing. The design of the core has intimately integrated the IPTs into the fuel region by means of a serpentine fuel arrangement resulting in a close reactivity coupling between the loop thermal hydraulics and the core. Consequently, operator actions potentially have an impact on the reactor power transients resulting from off-normal conditions in these facilities. This paper examines these operator-initiated events and their consequences. The analysis of loop-operator-initiated events indicates there is no damage to the reactor core even when assuming no operator intervention for mitigation. However, analysis does assume a scram occurs when required by the reactor protection systems.

  19. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The

  20. Post-operative radiation therapy for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Panwala, Kathryn; Holland, John

    2002-11-01

    Between 1985 and 1999, 43 patients with locally-advanced, resectable oropharyngeal cancer were treated with combined surgery and post-operative radiation therapy (RT) at Oregon Health and Science University. Five patients (12 per cent) had Stage III disease and 38 patients (88 per cent) had Stage IV disease. All patients had gross total resections of the primary tumour. Thirty-seven patients had neck dissections for regional disease. RT consisted of a mean tumour-bed dose of 63.0 Gy delivered in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions over a mean of 49 days. At three- and five-years, the actuarial local control was 96 per cent and the actuarial local/regional control was 80 per cent. The three- and five-year actuarial rates of distant metastases were 41 per cent and 46 per cent, respectively. The actuarial overall survival at three- and five-years was 41 per cent and 34 per cent, respectively. The actuarial rates of progression-free survival were 49 per cent at three-years and 45 per cent at five years. Combined surgery and post-operative RT for advanced-stage oropharyngeal cancer results in excellent local/regional control. This particular group of patients experienced a high-rate of developing distant metastases.

  1. Designing and Operating Through Compromise: Architectural Analysis of CKMS for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Duren, Mike; Aldridge, Hal; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2013-01-01

    Compromises attributable to the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) highlight the necessity for constant vigilance. The APT provides a new perspective on security metrics (e.g., statistics based cyber security) and quantitative risk assessments. We consider design principals and models/tools that provide high assurance for energy delivery systems (EDS) operations regardless of the state of compromise. Cryptographic keys must be securely exchanged, then held and protected on either end of a communications link. This is challenging for a utility with numerous substations that must secure the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) that may comprise complex control system of systems. For example, distribution and management of keys among the millions of intelligent meters within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is being implemented as part of the National Smart Grid initiative. Without a means for a secure cryptographic key management system (CKMS) no cryptographic solution can be widely deployed to protect the EDS infrastructure from cyber-attack. We consider 1) how security modeling is applied to key management and cyber security concerns on a continuous basis from design through operation, 2) how trusted models and key management architectures greatly impact failure scenarios, and 3) how hardware-enabled trust is a critical element to detecting, surviving, and recovering from attack.

  2. Test Hardware Design for Flightlike Operation of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC-E3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) since 2006. A key element of the ASRG project is providing life, reliability, and performance testing of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC). For this purpose, the Thermal Energy Conversion branch at GRC has been conducting extended operation of a multitude of free-piston Stirling convertors. The goal of this effort is to generate long-term performance data (tens of thousands of hours) simultaneously on multiple units to build a life and reliability database. The test hardware for operation of these convertors was designed to permit in-air investigative testing, such as performance mapping over a range of environmental conditions. With this, there was no requirement to accurately emulate the flight hardware. For the upcoming ASC-E3 units, the decision has been made to assemble the convertors into a flight-like configuration. This means the convertors will be arranged in the dual-opposed configuration in a housing that represents the fit, form, and thermal function of the ASRG. The goal of this effort is to enable system level tests that could not be performed with the traditional test hardware at GRC. This offers the opportunity to perform these system-level tests much earlier in the ASRG flight development, as they would normally not be performed until fabrication of the qualification unit. This paper discusses the requirements, process, and results of this flight-like hardware design activity.

  3. Operation regimes and electrical transport of steep slope Schottky Si-FinFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Dae-Young; Zhang, Jian; Trommer, Jens; Park, So Jeong; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; De Micheli, Giovanni; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2017-02-01

    In the quest for energy efficient circuits, considerable focus has been given to steep slope and polarity-controllable devices, targeting low supply voltages and reduction of transistor count. The recently proposed concept of the three-independent gated Si-FinFETs with Schottky-barriers (SBs) has proven to bring both functionalities even in a single device. However, the complex combination of transport properties including Schottky emission and weak impact ionization as well as the body effect makes the design of such devices challenging. In this work, we perform a deep electrical characterization analysis to visualize and decouple the different operation regimes and electrical properties of the SB Si-FinFETs using a graphical transport map. From these, we give important guidelines for the design of future devices.

  4. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  5. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  6. A Status of the Advanced Space Transportation Program from Planning to Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry; Griner, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business was presented at the 48th International Astronautical Congress in Turin, Italy. This paper presents a status of the program's accomplishments. Technology demonstrations have progressed in each of the four elements of the program; (1) Low Cost Technology, (2) Advanced Reusable Technology, (3) Space Transfer Technology and (4) Space Transportation Research. The Low Cost Technology program element is primarily focused at reducing development and acquisition costs of aerospace hardware using a "design to cost" philosophy with robust margins, adapting commercial manufacturing processes and commercial off-the-shelf hardware. The attributes of this philosophy for small payload launch are being demonstrated at the component, sub-system, and system level. The X-34 "Fastrac" engine has progressed through major component and subsystem demonstrations. A propulsion system test bed has been implemented for system-level demonstration of component and subsystem technologies; including propellant tankage and feedlines, controls, pressurization, and engine systems. Low cost turbopump designs, commercial valves and a controller are demonstrating the potential for a ten-fold reduction in engine and propulsion system costs. The Advanced Reusable Technology program element is focused on increasing life through high strength-to-weight structures and propulsion components, highly integrated propellant tanks, automated checkout and health management and increased propulsion system performance. The validation of rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion is pro,-,ressing through component and subsystem testing. RBCC propulsion has the potential to provide performance margin over an all rocket system that could result in lower gross liftoff weight, a lower propellant mass fraction or a higher payload mass fraction. The Space Transfer Technology element of the program is pursuing technology that can improve performance and

  7. Development of an advanced atmospheric/transport model for emergency response purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.; Addis, R.P.

    1991-07-12

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed for real-time calculations of the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These models are based Gaussian distributions and have been incorporated into an automated menu-driven program called the WIND (Weather INformation and Display) system. The WIND system atmospheric models employ certain assumptions that allow the computations of the ground-level concentration of toxic or radioactive materials to be made quickly. Gaussian models, such as PF/PL and 2DPUF, suffer from serious limitations including the inability to represent recirculation of pollutants in complex terrain, the use of one stability class at a given time to represent turbulent mixing over heterogeneous terrain, and the use of a wind field computed at only one height in the atmosphere. These limitations arise because the fundamental conservation relations of the atmosphere have been grossly simplified. Three-dimensional coupled atmospheric-dispersion models are not limited by the over-simplifications of the Gaussian assumption and have been used in the past to predict the transport of pollutants in a variety of atmospheric circulations. The disadvantage of these models is that they require large amounts of computational time; however, technology has progressed enough so that real-time simulations of dispersion may be made. These complex models can be run in an operational mode so that routine forecasts of the wind field and particulate concentration can be made.

  8. Technology and Engineering Advances Supporting EarthScope's Alaska Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miner, J.; Enders, M.; Busby, R.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska and Canada is an ongoing deployment of 261 high quality broadband seismographs. The Alaska TA is the continuation of the rolling TA/USArray deployment of 400 broadband seismographs in the lower 48 contiguous states and builds on the success of the TA project there. The TA in Alaska and Canada is operated by the IRIS Consortium on behalf of the National Science Foundation as part of the EarthScope program. By Sept 2015, it is anticipated that the TA network in Alaska and Canada will be operating 105 stations. During the summer of 2015, TA field crews comprised of IRIS and HTSI station specialists, as well as representatives from our partner agencies the Alaska Earthquake Center and the Alaska Volcano Observatory and engineers from the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory will have completed a total of 36 new station installations. Additionally, we will have completed upgrades at 9 existing Alaska Earthquake Center stations with borehole seismometers and the adoption of an additional 35 existing stations. Continued development of battery systems using LiFePO4 chemistries, integration of BGAN, Iridium, Cellular and VSAT technologies for real time data transfer, and modifications to electronic systems are a driving force for year two of the Alaska Transportable Array. Station deployment utilizes custom heliportable drills for sensor emplacement in remote regions. The autonomous station design evolution include hardening the sites for Arctic, sub-Arctic and Alpine conditions as well as the integration of rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries with traditional AGM batteries We will present new design aspects, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing deployments, as well as efforts to integrate TA stations with other existing networks in Alaska including the Plate Boundary Observatory and the Alaska Volcano Observatory.

  9. Non-Inductive Current Drive Modeling Extending Advanced Tokamak Operation to Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Casper, T.A.; Lodestro, L.L.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Porter, G.D.; Murakami, M.; Lao, L.L.; Lin-Lui, Y.R.; St. John, H.E.

    2000-06-06

    A critical issue for sustaining high performance, negative central shear (NCS) discharges is the ability to maintain current distributions that are maximum off axis. Sustaining such hollow current profiles in steady state requires the use of non-inductively driven current sources. On the DIII-D experiment, a combination of neutral beam current drive (NBCD) and bootstrap current have been used to create transient NCS discharges. The electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system is currently being upgraded from three gyrotrons to six to provide more than 3MW of absorbed power in long-pulse operation to help sustain the required off-axis current drive. This upgrade SuPporrs the long range goal of DIII-D to sustain high performance discharges with high values of normalized {beta}, {beta}{sub n} = {beta}/(I{sub p}/aB{sub T}), confinement enhancement factor, H, and neutron production rates while utilizing bootstrap current fraction, f{sub bs}, in excess of 50%. At these high performance levels, the likelihood of onset of MHD modes that spoil confinement indicates the need to control plasma profiles if we are to extend this operation to long pulse or steady state. To investigate the effectiveness of the EC system and to explore operating scenarios to sustain these discharges, we use time-dependent simulations of the equilibrium, transport and stability. We explore methods to directly alter the safety factor profile, q, through direct current drive or by localized electron heating to modify the bootstrap current profile. Time dependent simulations using both experimentally determined [1] and theory-based [2] energy transport models have been done. Here, we report on simulations exploring parametric dependencies of the heating, current drive, and profiles that affect our ability to sustain stable discharges.

  10. Terminal-area flight procedures and route design for supersonic transport New York-transatlantic operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, R. H.; Mclaughlin, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an analytical investigation of two departure and arrival transition procedures between John F. Kennedy International Airport and projected North Atlantic track systems for supersonic transport (SST) operations are presented. The procedures studied were: (1) separated departure and arrival transition routes with departures made at supersonic speeds, and (2) superimposed departure and arrival routes with departures restricted to subsonic speed until the airplane is on the track system. For both procedures, transition routes with intercept angles of 30 deg to 90 deg to both six-and four-track systems were investigated. Track spacings of 30 and 60 nautical miles were studied.

  11. Advanced operation scenarios toward high-beta, steady-state plasmas in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Si-Woo; Jeon, Y. M.; Woo, M. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, J. M.; Park, Y. S.; Kstar Team

    2016-10-01

    For the realization of the fusion reactor, solving issues for high-beta steady-state operation is one of the essential topics for the present superconducting tokamaks and in this regard, KSTAR has been focusing on maximizing performance and increasing pulse length simultaneously. Typically, study on high beta operation has been focusing on advanced scenario limited at relatively short pulse discharge and partial success has been reported previously. However, it must be stressed that it is critical to verify compatibility of the developed scenario to long-pulse operation and compared with that of the short-pulse, it is turned out stable long-pulse operation is possible only with a reduced level of beta. In this work, the results of recent approaches in long-pulse operation are presented focusing respectively on high betaN, high betap and high li scenarios. For high betaN, the achieved level is close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =1.4T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by m/n =2/1 tearing mode and is also sensitive on the internal inductance. For high betap, conditions of the maximum betap is investigated mainly by parametric scans of plasma current (Ip =0.4-0.7 MA) and also neutral beam injection power (3-5MW). The achieved betap is also close to 3 with Ip =0.4 MA, BT =2.9T and Pext 6MW and it is found to be limited by heating power and without indication of MHD activities. Finally, attempt for high li discharge will be addressed on scenario development and transient results.

  12. Eye Safe, Visible Wavelength Lidar Systems: Design and Operational Advances, Results and Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Berkoff, Timothy; Campbell, James

    2007-01-01

    In the early nineties the first of the eye safe visible wavelength lidar systems known now as Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) became operational. The important advance of the design was a system that, unlike most existing lidar, operated at eye safe energy densities and could thus operate unattended for full time monitoring. Since that time there have been many dozens of these systems produced and applied for full time profiling of atmospheric cloud and aerosol structure. There is currently an observational network of MPL sites to support global climate research. In thc course of application of these instruments there have been significant improvements in the, design and performance of the systems. In the last half decade particularly there has been significant application and technical development of MPL systems. In this paper we review progress. The current MPL systems in use are all single wavelength systems designed for cloud and aerosol applications. For the cloud and aerosol applications, both lidar depolarization and multi wavelength measurements have significant applications. These can be accomplished with the MPL, approach. The main current challenge for the lidar network activity are in the area of the reliability, repeatability and efficiency of data processing. The network makes use of internet data downloads and automated processing. The heights of all cloud and aerosol layers are needed. The recent emphasis has been in operationally deriving aerosol extinction cross section. Future emphasis will include adding cirrus optical parameters. For operational effectiveness, improvements to simplify routine data signal calibration are being researched. Overall the MPL systems have proven very effective. A large data base of results from globally distributed sites can be easily accessed through the internet. Applications have included atmospheric model development. Validation of current global satellite observations of aerosol and clouds, including now orbital lidar

  13. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO. Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, James B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the work breakdown structure (WBS) and its associated WBS dictionary for task area 1 of contract NAS8-39207, advanced transportation system studies (ATSS). This WBS format is consistent with the preliminary design level of detail employed by both task area 1 and task area 4 in the ATSS study and is intended to provide an estimating structure for parametric cost estimates.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nish, William A.; Walsh, William F.; Land, Patricia; Swedenburg, Mark

    1989-06-01

    With the increase of the number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States, the potential to interference with any of the aircraft's electrical systems by the electromagnetic interference (EMI) produced by medical equipment is steadily increasing. About 70 percent of neonatal incubators, monitors, and ventilators tested over the past 15 years produced excessive EMI, by military standards. It is recommended that standards for acceptable EMI levels shold be developed by the FAA and that hospitals should not purchase transport equipment from manufacturers who refuse to meet EMI standards. It is also suggested that aircraft operators must be aware of possible interference with their aircraft, and insist on equipment which meets EMI standards.

  15. A non-equilibrium equation-of-motion approach to quantum transport utilizing projection operators.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-11-12

    We consider a projection operator approach to the non-equilibrium Green function equation-of-motion (PO-NEGF EOM) method. The technique resolves problems of arbitrariness in truncation of an infinite chain of EOMs and prevents violation of symmetry relations resulting from the truncation (equivalence of left- and right-sided EOMs is shown and symmetry with respect to interchange of Fermi or Bose operators before truncation is preserved). The approach, originally developed by Tserkovnikov (1999 Theor. Math. Phys. 118 85) for equilibrium systems, is reformulated to be applicable to time-dependent non-equilibrium situations. We derive a canonical form of EOMs, thus explicitly demonstrating a proper result for the non-equilibrium atomic limit in junction problems. A simple practical scheme applicable to quantum transport simulations is formulated. We perform numerical simulations within simple models and compare results of the approach to other techniques and (where available) also to exact results.

  16. The Consolidated Planning and Scheduling System for Space Transportation and Space Station operations - Successful development experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Willoughby, John K.; Gardner, Jo A.; Shinkle, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, NASA made the decision to evolve a Consolidated Planning System (CPS) by adding the Space Transportation System (STS) requirements to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) planning software. This paper describes this evolutionary process, which began with a series of six-month design-build-test cycles, using a domain-independent architecture and a set of developmental tools known as the Advanced Scheduling Environment. It is shown that, during these tests, the CPS could be used at multiple organizational levels of planning and for integrating schedules from geographically distributed (including international) planning environments. The potential for using the CPS for other planning and scheduling tasks in the SSF program is being currently examined.

  17. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  18. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  19. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  20. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  1. Composite transport wing technology development: Design development tests and advanced structural concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; Harvill, William E.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated for the covers and spars of a transport box wing. Cover panels and spar segments were fabricated and tested to verify the structural integrity of design concepts and fabrication techniques. Compression tests on stiffened panels demonstrated the ability of graphite/epoxy wing upper cover designs to achieve a 35 percent weight savings compared to the aluminum baseline. The impact damage tolerance of the designs and materials used for these panels limits the allowable compression strain and therefore the maximum achievable weight savings. Bending and shear tests on various spar designs verified an average weight savings of 37 percent compared to the aluminum baseline. Impact damage to spar webs did not significantly degrade structural performance. Predictions of spar web shear instability correlated well with measured performance. The structural integrity of spars manufactured by filament winding equalled or exceeded those fabricated by hand lay-up. The information obtained will be applied to the design, fabrication, and test of a full-scale section of a wing box. When completed, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  2. 25 CFR 170.931 - Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal transportation department operating costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal... Transportation Departments § 170.931 Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal transportation department operating costs? Yes. Tribes can use IRR Program funds to pay the cost of planning, administration,...

  3. 25 CFR 170.931 - Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal transportation department operating costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal... Transportation Departments § 170.931 Can tribes use IRR Program funds to pay tribal transportation department operating costs? Yes. Tribes can use IRR Program funds to pay the cost of planning, administration,...

  4. Contracted versus District-Operated Pupil Transportation Programs: An Analysis of Cost and Program Differences. Report 96-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Legislature, Boise. Office of Performance Evaluation.

    In June 1995, the Idaho Joint Legislative Oversight Committee directed the Office of Performance Evaluations to conduct an evaluation of school district pupil transportation. This report, the last in a series of four, examines the apparent cost difference between district-operated transportation programs and those that are contracted to…

  5. Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    by potato, radish , and soybean leaf tissue treated with simulated acid rain. Envir. Exp. Bot. 26:9-15. (22) Lebowitz, L. 1983. Statistical analysis...1 33 TRANSPORT AND FATE OF NITROAROMATIC AND NITRAMINE EXPLOSIVES IN SOILS FROM OPEN BURNING/OPEN DETONATION OPERATIONS: RADFORD ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT...NUMBERS Transport and Fate of Nitroaromatic and Nitramine Explosives in Soils from Open Burning/Open Detonation Saeo rN.4 Operations: Radford Army

  6. Evaluation of Flying Qualities and Guidance Displays for an Advanced Tilt-Wing STOL Transport Aircraft in Final Approach and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Chad R.; Franklin, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2002-01-01

    A piloted simulation was performed on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center to evaluate flying qualities of a tilt-wing Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) transport aircraft during final approach and landing. The experiment was conducted to assess the design s handling qualities, and to evaluate the use of flightpath-centered guidance for the precision approach and landing tasks required to perform STOL operations in instrument meteorological conditions, turbulence, and wind. Pilots rated the handling qualities to be satisfactory for all operations evaluated except those encountering extreme crosswinds and severe windshear; even in these difficult meteorological conditions, adequate handling qualities were maintained. The advanced flight control laws and guidance displays provided consistent performance and precision landings.

  7. Transportability, distributability and rehosting experience with a kernel operating system interface set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, F. C.; Reedy, A.; Yodis, E.

    1986-01-01

    For the past two years, PRC has been transporting and installing a software engineering environment framework, the Automated Product control Environment (APCE), at a number of PRC and government sites on a variety of different hardware. The APCE was designed using a layered architecture which is based on a standardized set of interfaces to host system services. This interface set called the APCE Interface Set (AIS), was designed to support many of the same goals as the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). The APCE was developed to provide support for the full software lifecycle. Specific requirements of the APCE design included: automation of labor intensive administrative and logistical tasks: freedom for project team members to use existing tools: maximum transportability for APCE programs, interoperability of APCE database data, and distributability of both processes and data: and maximum performance on a wide variety of operating systems. A brief description is given of the APCE and AIS, a comparison of the AIS and CAIS both in terms of functionality and of philosophy and approach and a presentation of PRC's experience in rehosting AIS and transporting APCE programs and project data. Conclusions are drawn from this experience with respect to both the CAIS efforts and Space Station plans.

  8. Safety Verification of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor; Munoz, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    A critical factor in the adoption of any new aeronautical technology or concept of operation is safety. Traditionally, safety is accomplished through a rigorous process that involves human factors, low and high fidelity simulations, and flight experiments. As this process is usually performed on final products or functional prototypes, concept modifications resulting from this process are very expensive to implement. This paper describe an approach to system safety that can take place at early stages of a concept design. It is based on a set of mathematical techniques and tools known as formal methods. In contrast to testing and simulation, formal methods provide the capability of exhaustive state exploration analysis. We present the safety analysis and verification performed for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Concept of Operations (ConOps). The concept of operations is modeled using discrete and hybrid mathematical models. These models are then analyzed using formal methods. The objective of the analysis is to show, in a mathematical framework, that the concept of operation complies with a set of safety requirements. It is also shown that the ConOps has some desirable characteristic such as liveness and absence of dead-lock. The analysis and verification is performed in the Prototype Verification System (PVS), which is a computer based specification language and a theorem proving assistant.

  9. The Chimera II Real-Time Operating System for advanced sensor-based control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the Chimera II Real-Time Operating System, which has been developed for advanced sensor-based control applications. The Chimera II provides a high-performance real-time kernel and a variety of IPC features. The hardware platform required to run Chimera II consists of commercially available hardware, and allows custom hardware to be easily integrated. The design allows it to be used with almost any type of VMEbus-based processors and devices. It allows radially differing hardware to be programmed using a common system, thus providing a first and necessary step towards the standardization of reconfigurable systems that results in a reduction of development time and cost.

  10. Flight investigation of cockpit-displayed traffic information utilizing coded symbology in an advanced operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Traffic symbology was encoded to provide additional information concerning the traffic, which was displayed on the pilot's electronic horizontal situation indicators (EHSI). A research airplane representing an advanced operational environment was used to assess the benefit of coded traffic symbology in a realistic work-load environment. Traffic scenarios, involving both conflict-free and conflict situations, were employed. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefings. These results grouped conveniently under two categories: display factors and task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few airplanes. In terms of task performance, the cockpit-displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness. Additionally, mile separation prescribed during these tests.

  11. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  12. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS): A New Operational Sensor Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-H Joseph; Leslie, R. Vince; Baker, Neal; Mo, Tsan; Sun, Ninghai; Bi, Li; Anderson, Mike; Landrum, Mike; DeAmici, Giovanni; Gu, Degui; Foo, Alex; Ibrahim, Wael; Robinson, Kris; Chidester, Lynn; Shiue, James

    2012-01-01

    ATMS is a new satellite microwave sounding sensor designed to provide operational weather agencies with atmospheric temperature and moisture profile information for global weather forecasting and climate applications. ATMS will continue the microwave sounding capabilities first provided by its predecessors, the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The first ATMS was launched October 28, 2011 on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Microwave soundings by themselves are the highest-impact input data used by Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; and ATMS, when combined with the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), forms the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS). The microwave soundings help meet NWP sounding requirements under cloudy sky conditions and provide key profile information near the surface

  13. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, J. P.; Confer, K.

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  14. Road and Roadside Feature Extraction Using Imagery and LIDAR Data for Transportation Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ural, S.; Shan, J.; Romero, M. A.; Tarko, A.

    2015-03-01

    Transportation agencies require up-to-date, reliable, and feasibly acquired information on road geometry and features within proximity to the roads as input for evaluating and prioritizing new or improvement road projects. The information needed for a robust evaluation of road projects includes road centerline, width, and extent together with the average grade, cross-sections, and obstructions near the travelled way. Remote sensing is equipped with a large collection of data and well-established tools for acquiring the information and extracting aforementioned various road features at various levels and scopes. Even with many remote sensing data and methods available for road extraction, transportation operation requires more than the centerlines. Acquiring information that is spatially coherent at the operational level for the entire road system is challenging and needs multiple data sources to be integrated. In the presented study, we established a framework that used data from multiple sources, including one-foot resolution color infrared orthophotos, airborne LiDAR point clouds, and existing spatially non-accurate ancillary road networks. We were able to extract 90.25% of a total of 23.6 miles of road networks together with estimated road width, average grade along the road, and cross sections at specified intervals. Also, we have extracted buildings and vegetation within a predetermined proximity to the extracted road extent. 90.6% of 107 existing buildings were correctly identified with 31% false detection rate.

  15. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  16. A Multifaceted Approach to Modernizing NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, Jeff A.; Giovannoni, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Mission Operations Systems (AMMOS) is NASA's premier space mission operations product line offering for use in deep-space robotic and astrophysics missions. The general approach to AMMOS modernization over the course of its 29-year history exemplifies a continual, evolutionary approach with periods of sponsor investment peaks and valleys in between. Today, the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) office-the program office that manages the AMMOS for NASA-actively pursues modernization initiatives and continues to evolve the AMMOS by incorporating enhanced capabilities and newer technologies into its end-user tool and service offerings. Despite the myriad of modernization investments that have been made over the evolutionary course of the AMMOS, pain points remain. These pain points, based on interviews with numerous flight project mission operations personnel, can be classified principally into two major categories: 1) information-related issues, and 2) process-related issues. By information-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the management and flow of MOS data across the various system interfaces. By process-related issues, we mean pain points associated with the MOS activities performed by mission operators (i.e., humans) and supporting software infrastructure used in support of those activities. In this paper, three foundational concepts-Timeline, Closed Loop Control, and Separation of Concerns-collectively form the basis for expressing a set of core architectural tenets that provides a multifaceted approach to AMMOS system architecture modernization intended to address the information- and process-related issues. Each of these architectural tenets will be further explored in this paper. Ultimately, we envision the application of these core tenets resulting in a unified vision of a future-state architecture for the AMMOS-one that is intended to result in a highly adaptable, highly efficient, and highly cost

  17. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  18. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  19. Evaluation of advanced sodium receiver losses during operation of the IEA/SSPS central receiver system

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, R.; Rosa, F.; Jacobs, H.; Sanchez, M.

    1989-02-01

    This article presents the measurements and experiments conducted on the external receiver: the so-called Advanced Sodium Receiver (ASR) of the Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Project of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in southern Spain. The basis of this experiment was to provide loss measurements for later use in determining receiver performance. The tests to evaluate thermal losses consisted in operating the receiver with the doors open and circulating the sodium in normal and reverse flow without providing any incident power from the heliostat field (flux-off technique). In this way, total thermal losses are calculated as the energy lost by the sodium. Radiative losses have been calculated based on theoretical calculations and some results have been compared with infrared thermography measurements. Conductive losses are small and have been estimated by flux-off experiments with the receiver doors closed. Convective losses were evaluated subtracting radiative and conductive losses from the total thermal losses. Optical losses were assessed using absorptance measurements of the receiver coating. A simplified analytical model has been developed to calculate losses and ASR efficiency during operation. In spite of the method's simplicity, the results are very similar to those found by other investigators, verified simulation programs and test results.

  20. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5%. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9% respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1%. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  1. Wind tunnel results of advanced high speed propellers in the takeoff, climb, and landing operating regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Jeracki, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel performance tests of two advanced propellers were completed. The 62.2 cm diameter adjustable pitch models were tested at Mach numbers typical of takeoff, initial climbout, and landing speeds in the 10 by 10 ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Both models had eight blades and a cruise design point operating condition of 0.80 Mach number, 10.668 km S.A. altitude, 243.8 m/s tip speed and a high power loading of 301 kW sq m. No adverse or unusual low speed operating conditions were found during the test with either the straight blade SR-2 or the 45 deg swept SR-3 propellers. The 45 deg swept propeller efficiency exceeded the straight blade efficiency by 4 to 5 percent. Typical net efficiencies of the straight and 45 deg swept propeller at a Mach 0.20 takeoff condition were 50.2 and 54.9 percent respectively. At a Mach 0.34 climb condition, the efficiencies were 53.7 and 59.1 percent. Reverse thrust data indicates that these propellers are capable of producing more reverse thrust at Mach 0.20 than a high bypass turbofan engine at Mach 0.20.

  2. NASA's Advanced Multimission Operations System: A Case Study in Formalizing Software Architecture Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    All software systems of significant size and longevity eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by evolving requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the cause, software architecture evolution is commonplace in real world software projects. Recently, software architecture researchers have begun to study this phenomenon in depth. However, this work has suffered from problems of validation; research in this area has tended to make heavy use of toy examples and hypothetical scenarios and has not been well supported by real world examples. To help address this problem, I describe an ongoing effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to re-architect the Advanced Multimission Operations System (AMMOS), which is used to operate NASA's deep-space and astrophysics missions. Based on examination of project documents and interviews with project personnel, I describe the goals and approach of this evolution effort and then present models that capture some of the key architectural changes. Finally, I demonstrate how approaches and formal methods from my previous research in architecture evolution may be applied to this evolution, while using languages and tools already in place at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  3. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator: Design Processes, Reliability Analyses Impacts, and Extended Operation Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Chuong T.; Fernandez, René; Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is currently funding an effort involving the Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin (LM), Glenn Research Center (GRC), and Sunpower (SP), Inc. to develop a high specific power Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). GRC and SP are responsible for providing the Stirling convertor, while LM is responsible for the generator housing, controller, and system integration. GRC also provides supporting technologies for various components as well as extended operation testing, both in air and in a thermal vacuum environment. Because of the 17-year life requirement of the ASRG, reliability considerations are the main design driver. Components such as the heater head, fasteners, magnets, and planar spring have been studied to ensure high reliability. To encompass unique design features, long lifetimes and extreme environmental conditions, both reliability analyses and qualification tests are used to support the design process. This paper presents an overview of the ASRG reliability approach and the impact of the Reliability Working Group (RWG) on the recently finished design effort. It also provides a summary of current and planned extended operation tests, specifically targeted to demonstrate long-life capability and to support further reliability assessment. In the event of no, or minimal failures during these extended tests, a Weibayes approach will be used to create a trend of improving reliability predictions.

  4. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy–related deaths? One–year operational assessment in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Godefay, Hagos; Kinsman, John; Admasu, Kesetebirhan; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background To maximise the potential benefits of maternity care services, pregnant women need to be able to physically get to health facilities in a timely manner. In most of sub–Saharan Africa, transport represents a major practical barrier. Here we evaluate the extent to which an innovative national ambulance service in Ethiopia, together with mobile phones, may have been successful in averting pregnancy–related deaths. Methods An operational assessment of pregnancy–related deaths in relation to utilisation of the new national ambulance service was undertaken in six randomly selected Districts in northern Ethiopia. All 183 286 households in the six randomly selected Districts were visited to identify live–births and deaths among women of reproductive age that occurred over a one–year period. The uptake of the new ambulance transport service for women’s deliveries in the same six randomly selected Districts over the same period was determined retrospectively from ambulance log books. Pregnancy–related deaths as determined by the World Health Organization (WHO 2012) verbal autopsy tool [13] and the InterVA–4 model [14] were analysed against ambulance utilisation by District, month, local area, distance from health facility and mobile network coverage. Findings A total of 51 pregnancy–related deaths and 19 179 live–births were documented. Pregnancy–related mortality for Districts with above average ambulance utilisation was 149 per 100 000 live–births (95% confidence interval CI 77–260), compared with 350 per 100 000 (95% CI 249–479) for below average utilisation (P = 0.01). Distance to a health facility, mobile network availability and ambulance utilisation were all significantly associated with pregnancy–related mortality on a bivariable basis. On a multivariable basis, ambulance non–utilisation uniquely persisted as a significant determinant of mortality (mortality rate ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05–3.69; P = 0

  5. 41 CFR 302-9.11 - May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds for transportation and emergency storage of my POV? 302-9.11 Section 302-9.11 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 9-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION AND EMERGENCY STORAGE OF A PRIVATELY OWNED VEHICLE General Rules § 302-9.11 May I receive an advance of funds for transportation and emergency storage of...

  6. A Versatile Lifting Device for Lunar Surface Payload Handling, Inspection and Regolith Transport Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Collins, Timothy J.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting and transporting payloads and material are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar-outpost construction, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation, grading and payload placement. Past studies have proposed that only a few carefully selected devices are required for a lunar outpost. One particular set of operations involves lifting and manipulating payloads in the 100 kg to 3,000 kg range, which are too large or massive to be handled by unassisted astronauts. This paper will review historical devices used for payload handling in space and on earth to derive a set of desirable features for a device that can be used on planetary surfaces. Next, an innovative concept for a lifting device is introduced, which includes many of the desirable features. The versatility of the device is discussed, including its application to lander unloading, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation and site preparation. Approximate rules, which can be used to size the device for specific payload mass and reach requirements, are provided. Finally, details of a test-bed implementation of the innovative concept, which will be used to validate the structural design and develop operational procedures, is provided.

  7. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  8. ATOS-1: Designing the infrastructure for an advanced spacecraft operations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, K. J.; Smith, H. N.

    1993-03-01

    The space industry has identified the need to use artificial intelligence and knowledge based system techniques as integrated, central, symbolic processing components of future mission design, support and operations systems. Various practical and commercial constraints require that off-the-shelf applications, and their knowledge bases, are reused where appropriate and that different mission contractors, potentially using different KBS technologies, can provide application and knowledge sub-modules of an overall integrated system. In order to achieve this integration, which we call knowledge sharing and distributed reasoning, there needs to be agreement on knowledge representations, knowledge interchange-formats, knowledge level communications protocols, and ontology. Research indicates that the latter is most important, providing the applications with a common conceptualization of the domain, in our case spacecraft operations, mission design, and planning. Agreement on ontology permits applications that employ different knowledge representations to interwork through mediators which we refer to as knowledge agents. This creates the illusion of a shared model without the constraints, both technical and commercial, that occur in centralized or uniform architectures. This paper explains how these matters are being addressed within the ATOS program at ESOC, using techniques which draw upon ideas and standards emerging from the DARPA Knowledge Sharing Effort. In particular, we explain how the project is developing an electronic Ontology of Spacecraft Operations and how this can be used as an enabling component within space support systems that employ advanced software engineering. We indicate our hope and expectation that the core ontology developed in ATOS, will permit the full development of standards for such systems throughout the space industry.

  9. A Complex-Geometry Validation Experiment for Advanced Neutron Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    David W. Nigg; Anthony W. LaPorta; Joseph W. Nielsen; James Parry; Mark D. DeHart; Samuel E. Bays; William F. Skerjanc

    2013-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated a focused effort to upgrade legacy computational reactor physics software tools and protocols used for support of core fuel management and experiment management in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and its companion critical facility (ATRC) at the INL.. This will be accomplished through the introduction of modern high-fidelity computational software and protocols, with appropriate new Verification and Validation (V&V) protocols, over the next 12-18 months. Stochastic and deterministic transport theory based reactor physics codes and nuclear data packages that support this effort include MCNP5[1], SCALE/KENO6[2], HELIOS[3], SCALE/NEWT[2], and ATTILA[4]. Furthermore, a capability for sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification based on the TSUNAMI[5] system has also been implemented. Finally, we are also evaluating the Serpent[6] and MC21[7] codes, as additional verification tools in the near term as well as for possible applications to full three-dimensional Monte Carlo based fuel management modeling in the longer term. On the experimental side, several new benchmark-quality code validation measurements based on neutron activation spectrometry have been conducted using the ATRC. Results for the first four experiments, focused on neutron spectrum measurements within the Northwest Large In-Pile Tube (NW LIPT) and in the core fuel elements surrounding the NW LIPT and the diametrically opposite Southeast IPT have been reported [8,9]. A fifth, very recent, experiment focused on detailed measurements of the element-to-element core power distribution is summarized here and examples of the use of the measured data for validation of corresponding MCNP5, HELIOS, NEWT, and Serpent computational models using modern least-square adjustment methods are provided.

  10. Potential impacts of advanced aerodynamic technology on air transportation system productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of a workshop held at NASA Langley Research Center in 1993 to explore the application of advanced aerodynamics to airport productivity improvement are discussed. Sessions included discussions of terminal area productivity problems and advanced aerodynamic technologies for enhanced high lift and reduced noise, emissions, and wake vortex hazard with emphasis upon advanced aircraft configurations and multidisciplinary solution options.

  11. Advanced Technology Vehicle Program of the Maryland Department of Transportation and Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Freudberg, Stuart A.

    2001-03-31

    A multi-year Clean Alternative program is designed to integrate low-emission advanced technology vehicles into high mileage/high-fuel-use public and private fleets, which are major contributors to high pollution levels. The primary goal of the program is reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from on-road vehicles in the Maryland counties surrounding Washington, DC. The program is targeted at fleets operating in Calvert, Charles, Frederick, Montgomery and Prince George's counties. Eligible types of vehicle applications include taxicabs, shuttles, buses, and delivery vans and trucks. Other types may qualify if they meet certain annual fuel-use or mileage criteria. Minimum requirements have been established for participating companies, including size of fleet and age of firm. The first vehicles under this program were placed in service in 1999. The Clean Alternative provides financial incentives to selected qualified firms that purchase original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles or heavy-duty engines that have been certified to Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emission levels or lower. This program is intended to be flexible and to evolve over time. For instance, in coming years the standards for acceptable emission levels may be tightened. The level of financial incentive will be determined on a case-by-case basis and other types of incentives may be provided in some cases. The range of counties included may be extended in the future or criteria for participation changed to help meet the air quality goals of the region.

  12. Some Operational Characteristics of Glycine Release in Rat Retina: The Role of Reverse Mode Operation of Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) in Ischemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanuska, Adrienn; Szénási, Gábor; Albert, Mihaly; Koles, Laszlo; Varga, Agoston; Szabo, Andras; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2016-02-01

    Rat posterior eyecups containing the retina were prepared, loaded with [(3)H]glycine and superfused in order to determine its release originated from glycinergic amacrine cells and/or glial cells. Deprivation of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs-bicarbonate buffer used for superfusion evoked a marked increase of [(3)H]glycine release, an effect that was found to be external Ca(2+)-independent. Whereas oxygen and glucose deprivation increased [(3)H]glycine release, its uptake was reduced suggesting that energy deficiency shifts glycine transporter type-1 operation from normal to reverse mode. The increased release of [(3)H]glycine evoked by oxygen and glucose deprivation was suspended by addition of the non-competitive glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor NFPS and the competitive inhibitor ACPPB further suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the mediation of [(3)H]glycine release. Oxygen and glucose deprivation also evoked [(3)H]glutamate release from rat retina and the concomitantly occurring release of the NMDA receptor agonist glutamate and the coagonist glycine makes NMDA receptor pathological overstimulation possible in hypoxic conditions. [(3)H]Glutamate release was suspended by addition of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA. Sarcosine, a substrate inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1, also increased [(3)H]glycine release probably by heteroexchange shifting transporter operation into reverse mode. This effect of sarcosine was also external Ca(2+)-independent and could be suspended by NFPS. Energy deficiency in retina induced by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-dependent ATPase, and by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor added with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose, led to increase of retinal [(3)H]glycine efflux. These effects of ouabain and rotenone/2-deoxy-D-glucose could also be blocked by NFPS pointed to the preferential reverse mode operation of glycine transporter type-1 as a consequence of

  13. Pool boiler heat transport system for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Saaski, E. L.; Noble, J.; Tower, L.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments to determine alkali metal/enhanced surface combinations that have stable boiling at the temperatures and heat fluxes that occur in the Stirling engine are reported. Two enhanced surfaces and two alkali metal working fluids were evaluated. The enhanced surfaces were an EDM hole covered surface and a sintered-powder-metal porous layer surface. The working fluids tested were potassium and eutectic sodium-potasium alloy (NaK), both with and without undissolved noncondensible gas. Noncondensible gas (He and Xe) was added to the system to provide gas in the nucleation sites, preventing quenching of the sites. The experiments demonstrated the potential of an alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system for use in a solar-powered Stirling engine. The most favorable fluid/surface combination tested was NaK boiling on a -100 +140 mesh 304L stainless steel sintered porous layer with no undissolved noncondensible gas. This combination provided stable, high-performance boiling at the operating temperature of 700 C. Heat fluxes into the system ranged from 10 to 50 W/sq cm. The transition from free convection to nucleate boiling occurred at temperatures near 540 C. Based on these experiments, a pool boiler was designed for a full-scale 25-kWe Stirling system.

  14. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    assets will continue to accomplish DOE's critical nuclear material missions (e.g., processing in H-Canyon and plutonium storage in K-Area). Thus, the demonstration can be accomplished by leveraging the incremental cost of performing demonstrations without needing to cover the full operational cost of the facility. Current Center activities have been focused on integrating advanced safeguards monitoring technologies demonstrations into the SRS H-Canyon and advanced location technologies demonstrations into K-Area Materials Storage. These demonstrations are providing valuable information to researchers and customers as well as providing the Center with an improved protocol for demonstration management that can be exercised across the entire SRS (as well as to offsite venues) so that future demonstrations can be done more efficiently and provide an opportunity to utilize these unique assets for multiple purposes involving national laboratories, academia, and commercial entities. Key among the envisioned future demonstrations is the use of H-Canyon to demonstrate new nuclear materials separations technologies critical for advancing the mission needs DOE-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to advance the research for next generation fuel cycle technologies. The concept is to install processing equipment on frames. The frames are then positioned into an H-Canyon cell and testing in a relevant radiological environment involving prototypic radioactive materials can be performed.

  15. ENTERPRISE SRS: LEVERAGING ONGOING OPERATIONS TO ADVANCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Wilmarth, W.; Marra, J.; Mcguire, P.; Wheeler, V.

    2013-05-16

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, strategic view of SRS as a united endeavor for “all things nuclear” as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key objective of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear materials management advancements and large-scale deployment of the technology by using SRS assets (e.g. facilities, staff, and property) for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the R&D team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform R&D demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact that these SRS assets will

  16. 20 CFR 202.7 - Service or operation in connection with railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, if..., storage, or handling of property transported by railroad. ... railroad transportation. 202.7 Section 202.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...

  17. 20 CFR 202.7 - Service or operation in connection with railroad transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., transfer in transit, refrigeration or icing, storage, or handling of property transported by railroad, if..., storage, or handling of property transported by railroad. ... railroad transportation. 202.7 Section 202.7 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD...

  18. Safety and security issues in developing and operating in intelligent transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this panel is to introduce the safety and security issues related to the development and operation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to Compass participants. Many of these issues need to be addressed by the system safety and computer security communities prior to the development and deployment of ITS. For example, how can information technology be applied in the context of a fully automated highway system (AHS) such that the safety, security, and performance of the system are not compromised? At present, the US and other countries are funding academia and industry to build prototype automated highway systems in which vehicles are controlled via drive-by-wire technology, with vehicles traveling at high speeds (in excess of 30 m/s) at close spacing (1 to 4 m). The potential impact of software errors or hardware errors on system safety and security are great.

  19. Design of an autonomous teleoperated cargo transporting vehicle for lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James; Lao, Tom; Monali, Nkoy

    1989-01-01

    At the turn of the century NASA plans to begin construction of a lunar base. The base will likely consist of developed areas (i.e., habitation, laboratory, landing and launching sites, power plant) separated from each other due to safety considerations. The Self-Repositioning Track Vehicle (SRTV) was designed to transport cargo between these base facilities. The SRTV operates by using two robotic arms to raise and position segments of track upon which the vehicle travels. The SRTV utilizes the semiautonomous mobility (SAM) method of teleoperation; actuator-controlled interlocking track sections; two robotic arms each with five degrees of freedom; and these materials: titanium for structural members and aluminum for shell members, with the possible use of light-weight, high-strength composites.

  20. Apparatus, components and operating methods for circulating fluidized bed transport gasifiers and reactors

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-02-24

    The improvements proposed in this invention provide a reliable apparatus and method to gasify low rank coals in a class of pressurized circulating fluidized bed reactors termed "transport gasifier." The embodiments overcome a number of operability and reliability problems with existing gasifiers. The systems and methods address issues related to distribution of gasification agent without the use of internals, management of heat release to avoid any agglomeration and clinker formation, specific design of bends to withstand the highly erosive environment due to high solid particles circulation rates, design of a standpipe cyclone to withstand high temperature gasification environment, compact design of seal-leg that can handle high mass solids flux, design of nozzles that eliminate plugging, uniform aeration of large diameter Standpipe, oxidant injection at the cyclone exits to effectively modulate gasifier exit temperature and reduction in overall height of the gasifier with a modified non-mechanical valve.