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Sample records for advanced ultrasonic nondestructive

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    A review is presented of Lewis Research Center efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation techniques for characterizing advanced ceramic materials. Various approaches involved the use of analytical ultrasonics to characterize monolythic ceramic microstructures, acousto-ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic matrix composites, damage monitoring in impact specimens by microfocus X-ray radiography and scanning ultrasonics, and high resolution computed X-ray tomography to identify structural features in fiber reinforced ceramics.

  2. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  3. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1999-01-01

    Adhesives and adhesive joints are widely used in various industrial applications to reduce weight and costs, and to increase reliability. For example, advances in aerospace technology have been made possible, in part, through the use of lightweight materials and weight-saving structural designs. Joints, in particular, have been and continue to be areas in which weight can be trimmed from an airframe through the use of novel attachment techniques. In order to save weight over traditional riveted designs, to avoid the introduction of stress concentrations associated with rivet holes, and to take full advantage of advanced composite materials, engineers and designers have been specifying an ever-increasing number of adhesively bonded joints for use on airframes. Nondestructive characterization for quality control and remaining life prediction has been a key enabling technology for the effective use of adhesive joints. Conventional linear ultrasonic techniques generally can only detect flaws (delamination, cracks, voids, etc) in the joint assembly. However, more important to structural reliability is the bond strength. Although strength, in principle, cannot be measured nondestructively, a slight change in material nonlinearity may indicate the onset of failure. Furthermore, microstructural variations due to aging or under-curing may also cause changes in the third order elastic constants, which are related to the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter of the polymer adhesive. It is therefore reasonable to anticipate a correlation between changes in the ultrasonic nonlinear acoustic parameter and the remaining bond strength. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasonic wave passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such nonlinearity can be effectively used to characterize bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect. Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear

  4. Physical principles of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation of advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from the continued investigations into the use of ultrasonic measurement techniques for the detection and characterization of porosity. The effects that bleeder cloth impressions (left after the cure process) have on the capability of polar backscatter to interrogate volume effects such as porosity are described. Some preliminary data regarding a comparison of phase sensitive and phase insensitivie detection for materials characterization is presented.

  5. Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

    1999-02-16

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

  6. Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.; Vary, Alex; Kautz, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph format, the possibility of using laser generation and detection of ultrasound to replace piezoelectric transducers for the acousto-ultrasonic technique is advanced. The advantages and disadvantages of laser acousto-ultrasonics are outlined. Laser acousto-ultrasonics complements standard piezoelectric acousto-ultrasonics and offers non-contact nondestructive evaluation.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1988-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

  8. Handbooks for nondestructive testing using ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Four handbooks have been prepared for use in teaching metal parts inspectors and quality assurance technicians the fundamentals of nondestructive testing using ultrasonic detection methods. The handbooks may be used in the shop or laboratory, or as study texts in technical schools and in the home.

  9. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an ultrasonic method for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of engineering material is described. The method utilizes the nonlinearity parameter measurement which describes the anharmonic behavior of the solid through measurements of amplitudes of the fundamental and of the generated second harmonic ultrasonic waves. The nonlinearity parameter is also directly related to the acoustoelastic constant of the solid which can be determined by measuring the linear dependence of ultrasonic velocity on stress. A major advantage of measurements of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes it more applicable for in-service nondestructive characterization. The relationships between the nonlinearity parameter of second-harmonic generation and the percentage of solid solution phase in engineering materials such as heat treatable aluminum alloys was established. The acoustoelastic constants are measured on these alloys for comparison and confirmation. A linear relationship between the nonlinearity parameter and the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in the alloys is indicated.

  10. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Porous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ningli

    2011-12-01

    Wave propagation in porous media is studied in a wide range of technological applications. In the manufacturing industry, determining porosity of materials in the manufacturing process is required for strict quality control. In the oil industry, acoustic signals and seismic surveys are used broadly to determine the physical properties of the reservoir rock which is a porous media filled with oil or gas. In porous noise control materials, a precise prediction of sound absorption with frequency and evaluation of tortuosity are necessary. Ultrasonic nondestructive methods are a very important tool for characterization of porous materials. The dissertation deals with two types of porous media: materials with relatively low and closed porosity and materials with comparatively high and open porosity. Numerical modeling, Finite Element simulations and experimental characterization are all discussed in this dissertation. First, ultrasonic scattering is used to determine the porosity in porous media with closed pores. In order get a relationship between the porosity in porous materials and ultrasonic scattering independently and to increase the sensitivity to obtain scattering information, ultrasonic imaging methods are applied and acoustic waves are focused by an acoustic lens. To verify the technique, engineered porous acrylic plates with varying porosity are measured by ultrasonic scanning and ultrasonic array sensors. Secondly, a laser based ultrasonic technique is explored for predicting the mechanical integrity and durability of cementitious materials. The technique used involves the measurement of the phase velocity of fast and slow longitudinal waves in water saturated cement paste. The slow wave velocity is related to the specimen's tortuosity. The fast wave speed is dependent on the elastic properties of porous solid. Experimental results detailing the generation and detection of fast and slow wave waves in freshly prepared and aged water-saturated cement samples

  11. Non-destructive ultrasonic measurements of case depth. [in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flambard, C.; Lambert, A.

    1978-01-01

    Two ultrasonic methods for nondestructive measurements of the depth of a case-hardened layer in steel are described. One method involves analysis of ultrasonic waves diffused back from the bulk of the workpiece. The other method involves finding the speed of propagation of ultrasonic waves launched on the surface of the work. Procedures followed in the two methods for measuring case depth are described.

  12. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation, microstructure, and mechanical property interrelations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques for mechanical property characterizations are reviewed and conceptual models are advanced for explaining and interpreting the empirically based results. At present, the technology is generally empirically based and is emerging from the research laboratory. Advancement of the technology will require establishment of theoretical foundations for the experimentally observed interrelations among ultrasonic measurements, mechanical properties, and microstructure. Conceptual models are applied to ultrasonic assessment of fracture toughness to illustrate an approach for predicting correlations found among ultrasonic measurements, microstructure, and mechanical properties.

  13. Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

  14. Advances in nondestructive evaluation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research at NASA Langley's Materials Characterization Instrumentation Section has followed the philosophy of improving the science base of nondestructive evaluation and advancing the state of the art of quantitative interpretability of physical measurements of materials. Details of several R&D programs choosen to highlight the last several years are given. Applications of these technologies are presented in the area of stress measurement, characterization of metal heat treatment, and evaluation of material internal structure. A second focus of the program is on quantitative transducers/measurements that have resulted in better data in irregular inhomogeneous materials such as composites. Examples are presented of new capabilities resulting from these advances that include fatigue and impact damage evaluation.

  15. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  16. Interactive ultrasonic field simulation for nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Jason; Rougeron, Gilles; Chatillon, Sylvain; Lacassagne, Lionel

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an ultrasonic field simulation software, dedicated to Non Destructive Testing, aiming at interactivity. This work relies on Civa Software semi-analytical model. By restricting its scope to homogeneous isotropic specimens with simple geometry and half-skip modes, an almost completely regular algorithm, well suited to modern hardware, can be derived. The performance of three implementations on multicore SIMD general purpose processors (GPP), manycore accelerators (MIC) and graphical processing units (GPU) over a set of 18 realistic configurations (a standard one plus 17 variations) are presented and analysed. For GPP and the GPU, interactive performances with almost 30 fps have been reached on the standard configuration. This is, to our knowledge, the very first time for a NDT ultrasonic field simulation software.

  17. Nondestructive Ultrasonic Inspection of Friction Stir Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaeipour, M.; Hettler, J.; Delrue, S.; Van Den Abeele, K.

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new solid-state welding procedure developed at The Welding Institute (TWI-UK) and the technique is widely employed for welding aluminum alloys in various applications. In order to examine the quality of the welds and to detect a variety of welding flaws such as wormholes and root-flaws, it is required to develop a methodical inspection technique that can be used for the identification and localization of such defects. The most prevalent and risky defect in this type of welding is the barely visible root flaw with a length varying from 100-700 μm. Due to the extreme characteristics of the flaw, off-the-shelf ultrasonic weld inspection methods are not always able to readily detect this type of minute defect feature. Here, we propose a novel approach to characterize root flaws using an oblique incident ultrasonic C-scan backscattering analysis. The implementation consists of an immersion ultrasonic testing method in pulse echo (i.e. backscatter) mode with a 3.5 MHz transducer, and makes use of an empirical procedure to engender of a shear wave dominated excitation at the root surface, and to properly gate the received signal for root flaw examination. By scanning the surface above the welded component, a C-scan image displaying the backscatter response from the root surface of the nugget zone can be obtained which allows a simple interpretation of the root flaw status of the weld.

  18. A sparse reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic images in nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Neves Junior, Flávio; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, ω-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan-about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700

  19. A Sparse Reconstruction Algorithm for Ultrasonic Images in Nondestructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Guarneri, Giovanni Alfredo; Pipa, Daniel Rodrigues; Junior, Flávio Neves; de Arruda, Lúcia Valéria Ramos; Zibetti, Marcelo Victor Wüst

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging systems (UIS) are essential tools in nondestructive testing (NDT). In general, the quality of images depends on two factors: system hardware features and image reconstruction algorithms. This paper presents a new image reconstruction algorithm for ultrasonic NDT. The algorithm reconstructs images from A-scan signals acquired by an ultrasonic imaging system with a monostatic transducer in pulse-echo configuration. It is based on regularized least squares using a l1 regularization norm. The method is tested to reconstruct an image of a point-like reflector, using both simulated and real data. The resolution of reconstructed image is compared with four traditional ultrasonic imaging reconstruction algorithms: B-scan, SAFT, ω-k SAFT and regularized least squares (RLS). The method demonstrates significant resolution improvement when compared with B-scan—about 91% using real data. The proposed scheme also outperforms traditional algorithms in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:25905700

  20. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1997-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

  1. Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rose, J L

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

  2. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Characterization of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qu, Jianmin

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative measurements of adhesion or binding forces can be accomplished, for example, by using the reflection coefficient of an ultrasound or by using thermal waves (Light and Kwun, 1989, Achenbach and Parikh, 1991, and Bostrom and wickham, 1991). However, a quantitative determination of binding forces is rather difficult. It has been observed that higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency are generated when an ultrasound passes through a nonlinear material. It seems that such non-linearity can be effectively used to characterize the bond strength. Several theories have been developed to model this nonlinear effect (Adler and Nagy, 1991; Achenbach and Parikh, 1991; Parikh and Achenbach, 1992; and Hirose and Kitahara, 1992; Anastasi and Roberts, 1992). Based on a microscopic description of the nonlinear interface binding force, a quantitative method was presented by Pangraz and Arnold (1994). Recently, Tang, Cheng and Achenbach (1997) made a comparison between the experimental and simulated results based on this theoretical model. A water immersion mode-converted shear wave through-transmission setup was used by Berndt and Green (1997) to analyze the nonlinear acoustic behavior of the adhesive bond. In this project, the nonlinear responses of an adhesive joint was investigated through transmission tests of ultrasonic wave and analyzed by the finite element simulations. The higher order harmonics were obtained in the tests. It is found that the amplitude of higher harmonics increases as the aging increases, especially the 3dorder harmonics. Results from the numerical simulation show that the material nonlinearity does indeed generate higher order harmonics. In particular, the elastic-perfect plastic behavior generates significant 3rd and 5th order harmonics.

  3. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1998-01-01

    An overall goal of this research has been to enhance our understanding of the scientific principles necessary to develop advanced ultrasonic nondestructive techniques for the quantitative characterization of advanced composite structures. To this end, we have investigated a thin woven composite (5-harness biaxial weave). We have studied the effects that variations of the physical parameters of the experimental setup can have on the ultrasonic determination of the material properties for this thin composite. In particular, we have considered the variation of the nominal center frequency and the f-number of the transmitting transducer which in turn address issues such as focusing and beam spread of ultrasonic fields. This study has employed a planar, two-dimensional, receiving pseudo-array that has permitted investigation of the diffraction patterns of ultrasonic fields. Distortion of the ultrasonic field due to the spatial anisotropy of the thin composite has prompted investigation of the phenomenon of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver. We have performed phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive analyses to provide a measure of the amount of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver. The pursuit of robust measurements of received energy (i.e., those not susceptible to phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver) supports the development of robust techniques to determine material properties from measure ultrasonic parameters.

  4. Ultrasonic angle beam standard reflector. [ultrasonic nondestructive inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, R. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that provides an impression profile in a reference standard material utilized in inspecting critically stressed components with pulsed ultrasound is described. A die stamp having an I letter is used to impress the surface of a reference material. The die stamp is placed against the surface and struck with an inertia imparting member to impress the I in the reference standard material. Upset may appear on the surface as a result of the impression and is removed to form a smooth surface. The stamping and upset removal is repeated until the entire surface area of a depth control platform on the die stamp uniformly contacts the material surface. The I impression profile in the reference standard material is utilized for reflecting pulsed ultrasonic beams for inspection purposes.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  6. Physical Principles Underlying Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Earl Daniel

    The research described in this thesis is aimed toward extending the physics underlying the application of ultrasound to the investigation of materials. Some of the results presented deal with isotropic materials, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous. However, the primary focus is the physics of inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials, such as fiber-reinforced plastics. Fiber-reinforced plastics exhibit very favorable strength-to-weight ratios and can be fabricated to exhibit a wide range of structural properties. From a mechanical standpoint, two types of disadvantages of otherwise well -designed composite materials are fabrication defects (e.g., delamination, fiber-misalignment, and porosity) and wear damage (e.g., environmental degradation, fatigue stress, and impact damage). In this thesis, we describe the physics underlying the use of ultrasound as a tool for the detection and characterization of damage in composite materials. The thesis is composed of two inter-related portions. The first portion serves as an introduction to wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media. These chapters provide a basis of insight and intuition for the non-destructive evaluation experiments described in the second portion. The second portion deals with experimental application of ultrasonic techniques to several specific problems in nondestructive evaluation. The studies reported here examine parameters of ultrasonic propagation in materials with known flaws whose location and character have been verified by independent (non-ultrasonic) means. The ultrasonic parameters employed in these studies are backscatter, attenuation measured in transmission, and attenuation estimated from backscatter. Three chapters deal with the use of a backscatter -based technique known as polar backscatter. In this technique the effects of specular reflection from the water/sample interface in an immersion-type measurement are reduced by interrogating at nonperpendicular incidence. The anisotropic

  7. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  8. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1993-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our current research activities concerning the development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of stitched composite materials and bonded aluminum plate specimens. One purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize specific features of polar backscatter interrogation which enhance the ability of ultrasound to detect flaws in a stitched composite laminate. Another focus is to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize bonded aluminum lap joints. As an approach to implementing quantitative ultrasonic inspection methods to both of these materials, we focus on the physics that underlies the detection of flaws in such materials.

  9. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of two-phase materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of two phase engineering materials are described. The primary goal was to establish relationships between the nonlinearity parameter and the percentage of solid solution phase in two phase systems such as heat treatable aluminum alloys. The acoustoelastic constant was also measured on these alloys. A major advantage of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes the method more applicable to inservice nondestructive characterization. The results obtained on the heat treatable 7075 and the work hardenable 5086 and 5456 aluminum alloys show that both the acoustoelastic constant and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter change considerable with the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in these aluminum alloys. A mathematical model was also developed to relate the effective acoustic nonlinearity parameter to volume fraction of second phase precipitates in an alloy. The equation is approximated to within experimental error by a linear expression for volume fractions up to approx. 10%.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones. PMID:25824342

  11. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.

    1997-02-01

    Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

  12. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1992-01-01

    The development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of composite materials requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the interaction of ultrasound with the material. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize the features of complex, three dimensional materials that limit the ability of ultrasound to detect flaws in this broad class of emerging materials. In order to explore the interaction of ultrasound with such complex media, we investigate the characteristics of ultrasonic fields which have propagated through samples with complex geometries and/or internal architecture. We focus on the physics that underlies the detection of flaws in such materials.

  13. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1997-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our recent developments of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns for a thin woven composite in an immersion setup. In addition, we compare apparent signal loss measurements of the thin woven composite for phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive detection methods. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the Adobe(Trademark) Portable Document Format (PDF). Due to the extensive amount of data, however, hardcopies of only a small representative selection of the images are included within the printed report. This Progress Report presents experimental results that support successful implementation of single element as well as one and two-dimensional ultrasonic array technologies for the inspection of textile composite structures. In our previous reports, we have addressed issues regarding beam profiles of ultrasonic pressure fields transmitted through a water reference path and transmitted through a thin woven composite sample path. Furthermore, we presented experimental results of the effect of a thin woven composite on the magnitude of an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. In addition to the study of ultrasonic beam profiles, we consider issues relevant to the application of single-element, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional array technologies towards probing the mechanical properties of advanced engineering composites and structures. We provide comparisons between phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive detection methods for determination of textile composite structure parameters. We also compare phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive - - ---- ----- apparent signal loss measurements in an effort to study the phenomenon of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture single-element receiver. Furthermore, in this

  14. Investigation of capacitively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng Huan; Wilcox, Paul D; Croxford, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    Capacitive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory, feasibility, and optimization of such a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface relies on an electric field formed between four metal plates-two plates are physically connected to the electrodes of a transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit connected to the transmit/receive channel of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as an electric network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a transducer attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. A transmission line model is developed which is a function of the physical parameters of the capacitively coupled system, such as the permittivity of the material between the plates, the size of the metal plates, and their relative positions. This model provides immediate prediction of electric input impedance, pulse-echo response, and the effect of plate misalignment. The model has been validated experimentally and has enabled optimization of the various parameters. It is shown that placing a tuning inductor and series resistor on the transmitting side of the circuit can significantly improve the system performance in terms of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio. Practically, bulk-wave CCTSs have been built and demonstrated for underwater and through-composite testing. It has been found that electrical conduction in the media between the plates limits their applications. PMID:24297024

  15. Principles of construction of ultrasonic tomographs for solution of problems of nondestructive testing in mechanical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotina, I.; Bulavinov, A.; Pinchuk, R.; Salchak, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the problems of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of products intended for mechanical engineering. The functional and electronic circuits of an ultrasonic tomograph are presented. The function of signal radiation from the clocked multielement apparatus is described, the cross-functional flowchart of the prototype of a US tomograph is considered. The development trends of ultrasonic tomography for near-term outlook are demonstrated.

  16. Floating Ultrasonic Transducer Inspection System and Method for Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Johnston, Patrick H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for inspecting a structural sample using ultrasonic energy includes positioning an ultrasonic transducer adjacent to a surface of the sample, and then transmitting ultrasonic energy into the sample. Force pulses are applied to the transducer concurrently with transmission of the ultrasonic energy. A host machine processes ultrasonic return pulses from an ultrasonic pulser/receiver to quantify attenuation of the ultrasonic energy within the sample. The host machine detects a defect in the sample using the quantified level of attenuation. The method may include positioning a dry couplant between an ultrasonic transducer and the surface. A system includes an actuator, an ultrasonic transducer, a dry couplant between the transducer the sample, a scanning device that moves the actuator and transducer, and a measurement system having a pulsed actuator power supply, an ultrasonic pulser/receiver, and a host machine that executes the above method.

  17. Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation made possible by novel uses of video systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

    1990-01-01

    Complex materials are being developed for use in future advanced aerospace systems. High temperature materials have been targeted as a major area of materials development. The development of composites consisting of ceramic matrix and ceramic fibers or whiskers is currently being aggressively pursued internationally. These new advanced materials are difficult and costly to produce; however, their low density and high operating temperature range are needed for the next generation of advanced aerospace systems. These materials represent a challenge to the nondestructive evaluation community. Video imaging techniques not only enhance the nondestructive evaluation, but they are also required for proper evaluation of these advanced materials. Specific research examples are given, highlighting the impact that video systems have had on the nondestructive evaluation of ceramics. An image processing technique for computerized determination of grain and pore size distribution functions from microstructural images is discussed. The uses of video and computer systems for displaying, evaluating, and interpreting ultrasonic image data are presented.

  18. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

  19. Review of nonlinear ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation: theory, numerics, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in using the higher harmonic generation of ultrasonic guided wave modes for nondestructive evaluation continues to grow tremendously as the understanding of nonlinear guided wave propagation has enabled further analysis. The combination of the attractive properties of guided waves with the attractive properties of higher harmonic generation provides a very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate and shell structures. Guided waves can propagate relatively long distances, provide access to hidden structural components, have various displacement polarizations, and provide many opportunities for mode conversions due to their multimode character. Moreover, higher harmonic generation is sensitive to changing aspects of the microstructures such as to the dislocation density, precipitates, inclusions, and voids. We review the recent advances in the theory of nonlinear guided waves, as well as the numerical simulations and experiments that demonstrate their utility.

  20. Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    The acousto-ultrasonic method has proven to be a most interesting technique for nondestructive evaluation of the mechanical properties of a variety of materials. Use of the technique or a modification thereof, has led to correlation of the associated stress wave factor with mechanical properties of both metals and composite materials. The method is applied to the nondestructive evaluation of selected fiber reinforced structural composites. For the first time, conventional piezoelectric transducers were replaced with laser beam ultrasonic generators and detectors. This modification permitted true non-contact acousto-ultrasonic measurements to be made, which yielded new information about the basic mechanisms involved as well as proved the feasibility of making such non-contact measurements on terrestrial and space structures and heat engine components. A state-of-the-art laser based acousto-ultrasonic system, incorporating a compact pulsed laser and a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometer, was delivered to the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  1. A System for High-Resolution, Nondestructive, Ultrasonic Imaging of Weld Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, George J. ); Doctor, Steven R. ); Bond, Leonard J. )

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of nondestructive evaluation is to detect degradation in time so that corrective action can be taken before the degradation challenges the structural integrity of an industrial system or one of its components. Accurate characterization is required to distinguish progressive degradation from benign conditions. In nondestructive evaluation, characterization includes quantification and description of location, dimensions, shape, orientation, and composition of a flaw or degradation. An imaging system that uses the synthetic aperture focusing technique for ultrasonic testing is one choice for characterization of degradation in metals, especially welded assemblies. In this paper, we emphasize the ultrasonic imaging of intended weld microstructure. New technology that was invented for this purpose is described.

  2. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, T. M.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). The state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete is reviewed. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  3. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  4. Laser ultrasonic technology and its applications in nondestructive testing in solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping

    2005-02-01

    As a new branch of ultrasonics, laser-induced ultrasonics is developed quickly, and has wide applications in many areas recently, for its advantages such as non-contract operation, non-destructive testing, broad bandwidth, high time resolution, high space resolution, no shape limits on samples, etc. Firstly, the principles of the laser-induced ultrasonic generation, e.g., the thermoelastic excitation theory and the ablation excitation theory, were introduced. This paper also described the laser-induced ultrasonic detection by means of the confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer (CFPI). And then its applications in non-destructive testing in solids were introduced in detail. Based on the principles of the laser-induced ultrasonic generation and detection, the structure of the laser ultrasonic detection system was presented. From the velocities of compress wave and surface wave measured by the detection system, elastic constants of aluminium were worked out. The experimental results were in good accordance with the theoretical predictions, which demonstrated that laser ultrasonic technique is practical, reliable and effective. Future prospects for such technology were pointed out finally.

  5. A System of High-Resolution, Nondestructive, Ultrasonic Imaging of Weld Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, George J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of nondestructive evaluation is to detect degradation in time so that corrective action can be taken before the degradation challenges the structural integrity of an industrial system or one of its components. In this paper we emphasize the ultrasonic imaging of intended weld microstructure.

  6. Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A.

    2014-02-18

    The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

  7. Reliability Assessment of Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection Data Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ik-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Mook

    2003-03-01

    Ultrasonic NDE is one of important technologies in the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. Ultrasonic inspection system is consisted of the operator, equipment and procedure. The reliability of ultrasonic inspection system is affected by its ability. The performance demonstration round robin was conducted to quantify the capability of ultrasonic inspection for in-service. The small number of teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded ASME Sec. XI Code requirements detected the piping of nuclear power plant with various cracks to evaluate the capability of detection and sizing. In this paper, the statistical reliability assessment of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection data using Monte Carlo simulation is presented. The results of the probability of detection (POD) analysis using Monte Carlo simulation are compared to these of logistic probability model. In these results, Monte Carlo simulation was found to be very useful to the reliability assessment for the small NDE hit/miss data sets.

  8. Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A.

    2014-02-01

    The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

  9. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1994-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our continuing research activities concerning the development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the inspection and characterization of complex composite structures. We explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize complex materials. As an initial step toward the application of linear array imaging technology to the interrogation of a wide range of complex composite structures, we present images obtained using an unmodified medical ultrasonic imaging system of two epoxy-bonded aluminum plate specimens, each with intentionally disbonded regions. These images are compared with corresponding conventional ultrasonic contact transducer measurements in order to assess whether these images can detect disbonded regions and provide information regarding the nature of the disbonded region. We present a description of a standoff/delay fixture which has been designed, constructed, and implemented on a Hewlett-Packard SONOS 1500 medical imaging system. This standoff/delay fixture, when attached to a 7.5 MHz linear array probe, greatly enhances our ability to interrogate flat plate specimens. The final section of this Progress Report describes a woven composite plate specimen that has been specially machined to include intentional flaws. This woven composite specimen will allow us to assess the feasibility of applying linear array imaging technology to the inspection and characterization of complex textile composite materials. We anticipate the results of this on-going investigation may provide a step toward the development of a rapid, real-time, and portable method of ultrasonic inspection and characterization based on linear array technology.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of notched cracks in mortars by nonlinear ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ren, Jun; Yin, Tingyuan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear ultrasonic technique is used to nondestructively characterise concentrated defects in cement-based materials. Cracks are artificially notched in mortar samples and five different crack widths are used to simulate increased damage of samples. The relative ratio of second harmonic amplitude to the square of fundamental ultrasonic signal amplitude is defined as the damage indicator of the nonlinear ultrasonic technique, which is measured for mortar samples in conjunction with a typical linear nondestructive evaluation parameter - ultrasonic pulse velocity. It is found that both linear and nonlinear damage parameters have a good correlation with the change of crack width, while the nonlinearity parameter shows a better sensitivity to the width increase. In addition, the nonlinearity parameter presents an exponential increase with the crack growth, indicating an accelerating nonlinear ultrasonic response of materials to increased internal damage in the late phase. The results demonstrate that the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on the second harmonic principle keeps the high sensitivity to the isolated cracks in cement-based materials, similarly to the case of distributed cracks in previous studies. The developed technique could thus be a useful experimental tool for the assessment of concentrated damage of concrete structures.

  11. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of impact-damaged graphite fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lampert, N. R.

    1980-01-01

    Unidirectional Hercules AS/3501-6 graphite fiber epoxy composites were subjected to repeated controlled low-velocity drop weight impacts in the laminate direction. The degradation was ultrasonically monitored using through-thickness attenuation and a modified stress wave factor (SWF). There appears to be strong correlations between the number of drop-weight impacts, the residual tensile strength, the through-thickness attenuation, and the SWF. The results are very encouraging with respect to the NDE potential of both of these ultrasonic parameters to provide strength characterizations in virgin as well as impact-damaged fiber composite structures.

  12. Nondestructive Testing Residual Stress Using Ultrasonic Critical Refracted Longitudinal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunguang; Song, Wentao; Pan, Qinxue; Li, Huanxin; Liu, Shuai

    Residual stress has significant impacts on the performance of the mechanical components, especially on its strength, fatigue life and corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, the testing principle of ultrasonic LCR wave method is analyzed. The testing system of residual stress is build. The method of calibration of stress coefficient is proposed in order to improve the detection precision. At last, through experiments and applications on residual stress testing of oil pipeline weld joint, vehicle's torsion shaft, glass and ceramics, gear tooth root, and so on, the result show that it deserved to be studied deeply on application and popularization of ultrasonic LCR wave method.

  13. Application of multi-channel photoelastic imaging technology in array type ultrasonic nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhen-zhong; Bi, Chao

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of modern nondestructive testing technologies, ultrasonic phased array and Ultrasonic array testing technology has been used widely, at the same time the propagation process of ultrasonic in the material becomes more and more complex. In order to make the ultrasonic propagation path become visible and researchers can observe the acoustic field directly, considering the properties of the ultrasonic as a stress wave, according to the theory of polarized light interference, a multi-channel dynamic photoelastic imaging system is developed successfully. The system can generate many kinds of focusing ultrasonic fields in optical specimen by controlling the ultrasonic transmission delay time of each equipment channel, and the system has the ability to simulate the acoustic field's focusing process of the ultrasonic phased array. The image shot by CCD camera reflects the propagation process of the acoustic field in the specimen, and the dynamic video is formed under control of the timing circuit, and the system has the ability to save the captured image in the computer.

  14. Nondestructive testing of railroad wheels and rails by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clotfelter, W. M.; Risch, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    Quality control of wheels and rails can be improved by using ultrasonic technique developed for measuring stresses in metallic materials. In addition, parts already in use can be tested and replaced if they are found to be unsafe. Test equipment includes two transducers.

  15. Broadband ultrasonic backscattering applied to nondestructive characterization of materials.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Silvio E; Rebello, João M A; Charlier, Jacques

    2004-07-01

    A simple method based on the spectrum features of the backscattered signal is proposed to the assessment of scatterers size. The method takes advantage of the band-limited response of the scattering media to an incident broadband pulse. The single to multiple scattering regime transition determines this limited frequency content, which is strongly related to scatterer size. The method is applied to the estimation of graphite particle sizes in cast irons. Good quantitative correlation is obtained between graphite sizes measured by metallography and that obtained using this new ultrasonic method, in spite of the band limitations of the ultrasonic system used in the experiment. By this method, the absolute mean value of the scatterer size can be evaluated, provided that a reasonably good estimate of the concentration of particles is known. PMID:15301002

  16. Review of magnetostrictive patch transducers and applications in ultrasonic nondestructive testing of waveguides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kwon, Young Eui

    2015-09-01

    A magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) is a transducer that exploits the magnetostrictive phenomena representing interactions between mechanical and magnetic fields in ferromagnetic materials. Since MPT technology was mainly developed and applied for nondestructive ultrasonic testing in waveguides such as pipes and plates, this paper will accordingly review advances of this technology in such a context. An MPT consists of a magnetic circuit composed of permanent magnets and coils, and a thin magnetostrictive patch that works as a sensing and actuating element which is bonded onto or coupled with a test waveguide. The configurations of the circuit and magnetostrictive patch therefore critically affect the performance of an MPT as well as the excited and measured wave modes in a waveguide. In this paper, a variety of state-of-the-art MPT configurations and their applications will be reviewed along with the working principle of this transducer type. The use of MPTs in wave experiments involving phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is also briefly introduced. PMID:26048175

  17. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  18. Guided waves in a multilayered composite and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, S. K.; Karunasena, W. M.; Shah, A. H.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of wave propagation in a laminated composite plate with many layers is made difficult by the anisotropy of the laminae, different lay-ups, many layers and defects in the fabricated plate. A good understanding of the wave field in such a plate without defects is a prerequisite for use of ultrasonic techniques to evaluate the various defects that can substantially reduce the strength and service life of this structure. Results of modeling studies of wave propagation and scattering in a multilayered composite plate are presented. The analysis technique combines the finite element discretization through the thickness with wave form representation along the plate in order to calculate the dispersive modes of propagation in the plate. To study scattering of these waves by a matrix crack that grows into delaminations, a hybrid finite element representation of the field near the crack and the modal representation of the scattered exterior field are used. Results are presented showing the dependence of the reflection and transmission coefficients on the size of the crack with delamination which can be used to size the defect using ultrasonic techniques.

  19. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-1, Fundamentals of Ultrasonic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Bruce

    This first in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II introduces the student/trainee to the basic behavior of ultrasound, describes ultrasonic test equipment, and outlines the principal methods of ultrasonic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1)…

  20. Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method.

    PubMed

    Bogas, J Alexandre; Gomes, M Glória; Gomes, Augusto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the compressive strength of a wide range of structural lightweight aggregate concrete mixes is evaluated by the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. This study involves about 84 different compositions tested between 3 and 180 days for compressive strengths ranging from about 30 to 80 MPa. The influence of several factors on the relation between the ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength is examined. These factors include the cement type and content, amount of water, type of admixture, initial wetting conditions, type and volume of aggregate and the partial replacement of normal weight coarse and fine aggregates by lightweight aggregates. It is found that lightweight and normal weight concretes are affected differently by mix design parameters. In addition, the prediction of the concrete's compressive strength by means of the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test is studied. Based on the dependence of the ultrasonic pulse velocity on the density and elasticity of concrete, a simplified expression is proposed to estimate the compressive strength, regardless the type of concrete and its composition. More than 200 results for different types of aggregates and concrete compositions were analyzed and high correlation coefficients were obtained. PMID:23351273

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of depth of surface cracks using ultrasonic frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

  2. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Depth of Surface Cracks Using Ultrasonic Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

  3. Quantitative broadband ultrasonic backscatter - An approach to nondestructive evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, M.; Miller, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a broadband backscatter technique to obtain the frequency dependence of the longitudinal-wave ultrasonic backscatter coefficient from a collection of scatterers in a solid is investigated. Measurements of the backscatter coefficient were obtained over the range of ultrasonic wave vector magnitude-glass sphere radius product between 0.1 and 3.0 from model systems consisting of dilute suspensions of randomly distributed crown glass spheres in hardened polyester resin. The results of these measurements were in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Consequently, broadband measurements of the ultrasonic backscatter coefficient may represent a useful approach toward characterizing the physical properties of scatterers in intrinsically inhomogeneous materials such as composites, metals, and ceramics, and may represent an approach toward nondestructive evaluation of these materials.

  4. Nondestructive characterization of thermal barrier coating by noncontact laser ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhenzhen

    2015-09-01

    We present the application of a laser ultrasonic technique in nondestructive characterization of the bonding layer (BL) in a thermal barrier coating (TBC). A physical mode of a multilayered medium is established to describe the propagation of a longitudinal wave generated by a laser in a TBC system. Furthermore, the theoretical analysis on the ultrasonic transmission in TBC is carried out in order to derive the expression of the BL transmission coefficient spectrum (TCS) which is used to determine the velocity of the longitudinal wave in the BL. We employ the inversion method combined with TCS to ascertain the attenuation coefficient of the BL. The experimental validations are performed with TBC specimens produced by an electron-beam physical vapor deposition method. In those experiments, a pulsed laser with a width of 10 ns is used to generate an ultrasonic signal while a two-wave mixing interferometer is created to receive the ultrasonic signals. By introducing the wavelet soft-threshold method that improves the signal-to-noise ratio, the laser ultrasonic testing results of TBC with an oxidation of 1 cycle, 10 cycles, and 100 cycles show that the attenuation coefficients of the BL become larger with an increase in the oxidation time, which is evident for the scanning electron microscopy observations, in which the thickness of the thermally grown oxide increases with oxidation time.

  5. Contemporary ultrasonic signal processing approaches for nondestructive evaluation of multilayered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Ming; Harvey, David M.

    2012-03-01

    Various signal processing techniques have been used for the enhancement of defect detection and defect characterisation. Cross-correlation, filtering, autoregressive analysis, deconvolution, neural network, wavelet transform and sparse signal representations have all been applied in attempts to analyse ultrasonic signals. In ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, a large number of materials have multilayered structures. NDE of multilayered structures leads to some specific problems, such as penetration, echo overlap, high attenuation and low signal-to-noise ratio. The signals recorded from a multilayered structure are a class of very special signals comprised of limited echoes. Such signals can be assumed to have a sparse representation in a proper signal dictionary. Recently, a number of digital signal processing techniques have been developed by exploiting the sparse constraint. This paper presents a review of research to date, showing the up-to-date developments of signal processing techniques made in ultrasonic NDE. A few typical ultrasonic signal processing techniques used for NDE of multilayered structures are elaborated. The practical applications and limitations of different signal processing methods in ultrasonic NDE of multilayered structures are analysed.

  6. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of armor grade silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portune, Andrew Richard

    Ceramic materials have traditionally been chosen for armor applications for their superior mechanical properties and low densities. At high strain rates seen during ballistic events, the behavior of these materials relies upon the total volumetric flaw concentration more so than any single anomalous flaw. In this context flaws can be defined as any microstructural feature which detriments the performance of the material, potentially including secondary phases, pores, or unreacted sintering additives. Predicting the performance of armor grade ceramic materials depends on knowledge of the absolute and relative concentration and size distribution of bulk heterogeneities. Ultrasound was chosen as a nondestructive technique for characterizing the microstructure of dense silicon carbide ceramics. Acoustic waves interact elastically with grains and inclusions in large sample volumes, and were well suited to determine concentration and size distribution variations for solid inclusions. Methodology was developed for rapid acquisition and analysis of attenuation coefficient spectra. Measurements were conducted at individual points and over large sample areas using a novel technique entitled scanning acoustic spectroscopy. Loss spectra were split into absorption and scattering dominant frequency regimes to simplify analysis. The primary absorption mechanism in polycrystalline silicon carbide was identified as thermoelastic in nature. Correlations between microstructural conditions and parameters within the absorption equation were established through study of commercial and custom engineered SiC materials. Nonlinear least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the size distributions of boron carbide and carbon inclusions within commercial SiC materials. This technique was shown to additionally be capable of approximating grain size distributions in engineered SiC materials which did not contain solid inclusions. Comparisons to results from electron microscopy

  7. The development of ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Gilbert B., II

    Demands for improvements in aerospace and automotive energy-efficiency, performance, corrosion resistance, body stiffness and style have increased the use of adhesive bonds to help meet those demands by providing joining technology that accommodates a wider variety of materials and design options. However, the history of adhesive bond performance clearly indicates the need for a robust method of assuring the existence of the required consistent level of adhesive bond integrity in every bonded region. This investigation seeks to meet that need by the development of new, complementary ultrasonic techniques for the evaluation of these bonds, and thus provide improvements over previous methods by extending the range of resolution, speed and applications. The development of a 20 MHz pulse-echo method for nondestructive evaluation of adhesive bonds will accomplish the assessment of bond joints with adhesive as thin as 0.1 mm. This new method advances the state of the art by providing a high-resolution, phase-sensitive procedure that identifies the bond state at each interface of the adhesive with the substrate(s), by the acquisition and analysis of acoustic echoes reflected from interfaces between layers with large acoustic impedance mismatch. Because interface echo amplitudes are marginal when the acoustic impedance of the substrate is close to that of the adhesive, a 25 kHz Lamb wave technique was developed to be employed in such cases, albeit with reduced resolution. Modeling the ultrasonic echoes and Lamb-wave signals was accomplished using mathematical expressions developed from the physics of acoustic transmission, attenuation and reflection in layered media. The models were validated by experimental results from a variety of bond joint materials, geometries and conditions, thereby confirming the validity of the methodology used for extracting interpretations from the phase-sensitive indications, as well as identifying the range and limits of applications. Results

  8. Some Recent Advances of Ultrasonic Diagnostic Methods Applied to Materials and Structures (Including Biological Ones)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Lucio; Nobile, Stefano

    This paper gives an overview of some recent advances of ultrasonic methods applied to materials and structures (including biological ones), exploring typical applications of these emerging inspection technologies to civil engineering and medicine. In confirmation of this trend, some results of an experimental research carried out involving both destructive and non-destructive testing methods for the evaluation of structural performance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) structures are discussed in terms of reliability. As a result, Ultrasonic testing can usefully supplement coring thus permitting less expensive and more representative evaluation of the concrete strength throughout the whole structure under examination.

  9. A sparse digital signal model for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of layered materials.

    PubMed

    Bochud, N; Gomez, A M; Rus, G; Peinado, A M

    2015-09-01

    Signal modeling has been proven to be an useful tool to characterize damaged materials under ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In this paper, we introduce a novel digital signal model for ultrasonic NDE of multilayered materials. This model borrows concepts from lattice filter theory, and bridges them to the physics involved in the wave-material interactions. In particular, the proposed theoretical framework shows that any multilayered material can be characterized by a transfer function with sparse coefficients. The filter coefficients are linked to the physical properties of the material and are analytically obtained from them, whereas a sparse distribution naturally arises and does not rely on heuristic approaches. The developed model is first validated with experimental measurements obtained from multilayered media consisting of homogeneous solids. Then, the sparse structure of the obtained digital filter is exploited through a model-based inverse problem for damage identification in a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate. PMID:26092090

  10. Use of an ultrasonic-acoustic technique for nondestructive evaluation of fiber composite strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Bowles, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the ultrasonic-acoustic technique used to measure a 'Stress Wave Factor'. In a prior study this factor was found effective in evaluating the interlaminar shear strength of fiber-reinforced composites. Details of the method used to measure the stress wave factor are described. In addition, frequency spectra of the stress waves are analyzed in order to clarify the nature of the wave phenomena involved. The stress wave factor can be measured with simple contact probes requiring only one-side access to a part. This is beneficial in nondestructive evaluations because the waves can run parallel to fiber directions and thus measure material properties in directions assumed by actual loads. Moreover, the technique can be applied where conventional through transmission techniques are impractical or where more quantitative data are required. The stress wave factor was measured for a series of graphite/polyimide composite panels and results obtained are compared with through transmission immersion ultrasonic scans.

  11. Ultrasonic guided waves for nondestructive evaluation/structural health monitoring of trusses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    'Peter'Zhu, Xuan; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Marzani, Alessandro; Bruck, Jerry

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) are particularly effective in those nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring applications that benefit from built-in transduction, moderately large inspection ranges and high sensitivity to small flaws. This paper describes a method to detect cracks in large trusses that combines the advantages of UGWs with the extraction of defect-sensitive features to perform a multivariate diagnosis of damage. The proposed algorithm was applied to the guided waves propagating along one of the main chords of a dismantled overhead sign support structure. The probing hardware consisted of a data acquisition system that controlled the generation and detection of ultrasonic signals by means of piezoelectric transducers made of lead zirconate titanate. The effectiveness of the proposed approach to diagnose the presence of an artificial defect around the welded joint between one main chord and a diagonal member of the truss structure is explained.

  12. Application of laser ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique to additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Anthony J.; Kenderian, Shant; Helvajian, Henry

    2016-04-01

    The change in properties of a propagating ultrasonic wave has been a mainstay characterization tool of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) industry for identifying subsurface defects (e.g. damage). A variant of this concept could be applicable to 3D additive manufacturing where the existence of defects (e.g. pores) within a sub-layer could mark a product as non-qualifying. We have been exploring the utility of pulsed laser ultrasonic excitation coupled with CW laser heterodyne detection as an all optical scheme for characterizing sub surface layer properties. The all-optical approach permits a straight forward integration into a laser additive processing tool. To test the concept, we have developed an experimental system that generates pulsed ultrasonic waves (the probe) with high bandwidth (<<10MHz) and a surface displacement sensor that can capture the ultrasonic "return" signal with bandwidth close to 300 MHz. The use of high frequencies enables the detection of smaller defect sites. The technique is time resolved with the sensor and probe as point (>>30-200 microns) beams. Current tests include characterizing properties of spot weld joints between two thin stainless steel plates. The long term objective is to transition the technique into a laser additive manufacturing tool.

  13. Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic method has proven to be a most interesting technique for nondestructive evaluation of the mechanical properties of a variety of materials. Use of the technique or a modification thereof, has led to correlation of the associated stress wave factor with mechanical properties of both metals and composite materials. The method is applied to the nondestructive evaluation of selected fiber reinforced structural composites. For the first time, conventional piezoelectric transducers were replaced with laser beam ultrasonic generators and detectors. This modification permitted true non-contact acousto-ultrasonic measurements to be made, which yielded new information about the basic mechanisms involved as well as proved the feasibility of making such non-contact measurements on terrestrial and space structures and heat engine components. A state-of-the-art laser based acousto-ultrasonic system, incorporating a compact pulsed laser and a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometer, was delivered to the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  14. Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. E.; Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is discussed as a primary means of nondestructive evaluation of subsurface flaws. The advantages and disadvantages are listed. The elementary principles, basic components of test units, scan modes, resonance testing, detection of fatigue cracks, monitoring fatigue crack growth, and determination of residual stress are discussed.

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Grain Structure Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Belvin, A. D.; Burrell, R. K.; Cole, E.G.

    2009-08-01

    Cast material has a grain structure that is relatively non-uniform. There is a desire to evaluate the grain structure of this material non-destructively. Traditionally, grain size measurement is a destructive process involving the sectioning and metallographic imaging of the material. Generally, this is performed on a representative sample on a periodic basis. Sampling is inefficient and costly. Furthermore, the resulting data may not provide an accurate description of the entire part's average grain size or grain size variation. This project is designed to develop a non-destructive acoustic scanning technique, using Chirp waveforms, to quantify average grain size and grain size variation across the surface of a cast material. A Chirp is a signal in which the frequency increases or decreases over time (frequency modulation). As a Chirp passes through a material, the material's grains reduce the signal (attenuation) by absorbing the signal energy. Geophysics research has shown a direct correlation with Chirp wave attenuation and mean grain size in geological structures. The goal of this project is to demonstrate that Chirp waveform attenuation can be used to measure grain size and grain variation in cast metals (uranium and other materials of interest). An off-axis ultrasonic inspection technique using air-coupled ultrasonics has been developed to determine grain size in cast materials. The technique gives a uniform response across the volume of the component. This technique has been demonstrated to provide generalized trends of grain variation over the samples investigated.

  16. Nondestructive testing and characterization of residual stress field using an ultrasonic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wentao; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Song, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    To address the difficulty in testing and calibrating the stress gradient in the depth direction of mechanical components, a new technology of nondestructive testing and characterization of the residual stress gradient field by ultrasonic method is proposed based on acoustoelasticity theory. By carrying out theoretical analysis, the sensitivity coefficients of different types of ultrasonic are obtained by taking the low carbon steel(12%C) as a research object. By fixing the interval distance between sending and receiving transducers, the mathematical expressions of the change of stress and the variation of time are established. To design one sending-one receiving and oblique incidence ultrasonic detection probes, according to Snell law, the critically refracted longitudinal wave (LCR wave) is excited at a certain depth of the fixed distance of the tested components. Then, the relationship between the depth of LCR wave detection and the center frequency of the probe in Q235 steel is obtained through experimental study. To detect the stress gradient in the depth direction, a stress gradient LCR wave detection model is established, through which the stress gradient formula is derived by the relationship between center frequency and detecting depth. A C-shaped stress specimen of Q235 steel is designed to conduct stress loading tests, and the stress is measured with the five group probes at different center frequencies. The accuracy of ultrasonic testing is verified by X-ray stress analyzer. The stress value of each specific depth is calculated using the stress gradient formula. Accordingly, the ultrasonic characterization of residual stress field is realized. Characterization results show that the stress gradient distribution is consistent with the simulation in ANSYS. The new technology can be widely applied in the detection of the residual stress gradient field caused by mechanical processing, such as welding and shot peening.

  17. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  18. Advanced ultrasonic measurement methodology for non-invasive interrogation and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  19. Advanced Ultrasonic Measurement Methodology for Non-Invasive Interrogation and Identification of Fluids in Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-03-16

    The Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU) and the Counterterrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit (CTFSRU), Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have been mandated to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a portable, hand-held, hazardous materials acoustic inspection device (HAZAID) that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The HAZAID prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the HAZAID prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with the advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) impart large amounts of energy, 2) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios, and 3) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of this feasibility study demonstrated that the HAZAID experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  20. Metal composite as backing for ultrasonic transducers dedicated to non-destructive measurements in hostile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boubenia, R.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Despetis, F.; P, P.; Ferrandis, J.-Y.

    2016-03-01

    Our team is specialized in ultrasonic measurements in hostile environment especially under high temperatures. There is a need for acoustic transducers capable of continuous measurement at temperatures up to 700°C. To improve the performances of acoustic sensors we focus our works on the realisation and characterisation of transducer backings able to operate under very high temperature. Commercially, they are produced by the incorporation of tungsten powder in a plastic matrix, which limits the working temperature. The realisation of ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive measures at high temperatures requires adequate materials, manufacturing and assembly processes. To produce the backings, composites were made using very ductile metals such as tin and tungsten. These composites are manufactured by uniaxial hot pressing. First, we studied the influence of temperature and pressure on the densification of tin pellets. Then, several specimens made of tin/W were made and characterised by measuring the specific weight, speed and attenuation of sound. The acoustic measures were realised by ultrasonic spectroscopy. This test-bench was designed and tested on control samples of PMMA and on standard backings (epoxy / tungsten).

  1. Advanced Bode Plot Techniques for Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeAngelis, D. A.; Schulze, G. W.

    The Bode plot, displayed as either impedance or admittance versus frequency, is the most basic test used by ultrasonic transducer designers. With simplicity and ease-of-use, Bode plots are ideal for baseline comparisons such as spacing of parasitic modes or impedance, but quite often the subtleties that manifest as poor process control are hard to interpret or are nonexistence. In-process testing of transducers is time consuming for quantifying statistical aberrations, and assessments made indirectly via the workpiece are difficult. This research investigates the use of advanced Bode plot techniques to compare ultrasonic transducers with known "good" and known "bad" process performance, with the goal of a-priori process assessment. These advanced techniques expand from the basic constant voltage versus frequency sweep to include constant current and constant velocity interrogated locally on transducer or tool; they also include up and down directional frequency sweeps to quantify hysteresis effects like jumping and dropping phenomena. The investigation focuses solely on the common PZT8 piezoelectric material used with welding transducers for semiconductor wire bonding. Several metrics are investigated such as impedance, displacement/current gain, velocity/current gain, displacement/voltage gain and velocity/voltage gain. The experimental and theoretical research methods include Bode plots, admittance loops, laser vibrometry and coupled-field finite element analysis.

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-2, Operation of Ultrasonic Test Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espy, John

    This second in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II describes specific ultrasonic test techniques and calibration principles. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject…

  3. NDE (nondestructive examination) development for ceramics for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W. , Powell, TN ); Johnson, D.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) project was initiated in 1983 to meet the ceramic technology needs of DOE's advanced heat engines programs (i.e., advanced gas turbines and low heat rejection diesels). The objective is to establish an industrial ceramic technology base for reliable and cost-effective high-temperature components. Reliability of ceramics was recognized as the major technology need. To increase the material reliability of current and new ceramics, advances were needed in component design methodology, materials processing technology, and data base/life prediction. Nondestructive examination (NDE) was identified as one of the key elements in the approach to high-reliability components. An assessment was made of the current status of NDE for structural ceramics, and a report was prepared containing the results and recommendations for needed development. Based on these recommendations, a long-range NDE development program has been established in the CTAHE project to address these needs.

  4. Guided ultrasonic waves for non-destructive monitoring of the stress levels in prestressed steel strands.

    PubMed

    Chaki, S; Bourse, G

    2009-02-01

    The safety of prestressed civil structures such as bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, etc. directly involves the security of both environment and users. Health monitoring of the tensioning components, such as strands, tendons, bars, anchorage bolts, etc. is an important research topic and a challenging task bringing together the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and civil engineering communities. This paper deals with a guided ultrasonic wave procedure for monitoring the stress levels in seven-wire steel strands (15.7 mm in diameter). The mechanical and geometrical characteristics of the prestressed strands were taken into account for optimizing the measurement configuration and then the choice of the guided ultrasonic mode at a suitable frequency. Simplified acoustoelastic formulations were derived from the acoustoelasticity theory according to either calibration test or in situ measurement. The results from acoustoelastic measurements on the seven-wire steel strands are presented and discussed in the case of calibration tests and industrially prestressed strands. They show the potential and the suitability of the proposed guided wave method for evaluating the stress levels in the tested seven-wire steel strands. PMID:18804832

  5. NONDESTRUCTIVE DETECTION OF DELAMINATION IN THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS USING ULTRASONIC TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Roger H. L.; Zhang, Binwei; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2009-06-12

    Nondestructive testing using an acousto-ultrasonic technique has been utilized to detect the change of material properties and provide early warning of failure of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. Testing was performed on René N5 and Haynes 230 coupons with an applied NETL-bond coat, as well as on coupons containing both an applied MCrAlY bond coat and 7-YSZ top coat. The coupons were subjected to either cyclic or isothermal testing at 1100ºC. Ultrasonic testing was performed before and after thermal testing using piezoelectric sensors with dry contact on the surface of the coatings. Proof-of-concept test results indicated that changes in the properties of the 40m bond coat can be detected using the proposed technique. Waveforms generated via Pitch/Catch indicated minor changes within the bond coat applied to René N5 substrate after 400500 hours of cyclic oxidation at 1100°C. In contrast, marked differences in waveforms and travel time reflected significant crack formation and spallation of the bond coat from the Haynes 230 substrate. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation of the wave propagation on a simplified TBC system with nonlinear effects was conducted. FEA results clearly show detection of a small embedded void incorporated to simulate delamination. Comparisons between experimental measurements and finite element simulations were used to estimate the material properties of the coatings and the substrate.

  6. Nondestructive testing of rocket engine injector panel using ultrasonic burst phase thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Cunlin; Wu, Naiming; Zeng, Zhi; Xing, Chunfei; Li, Yue; Zhao, Shibin; Ning, Tao

    2010-10-01

    As the key parts of the liquid rocket oxyhydrogen engine, the injector panel is a kind of transpiration material, which is braided and Sintered with stainless steel wire. If some hidden delaminition defects that are difficult to detect appear in the process of Sintering and rolling, a significant safety problem would occur. In this paper, we use the Ultrasonic Burst Phase Thermography (UBP) to detect the delamination defects in the injector panel, UBP is a rapid and reliable nondestructive technique derived from Ultrasonic Lock-in Thermography(ULT). It uses a controllable, adjustable ultrasonic burst as the heat source to stimulate the sample, the defects within the material are revealed through their heat generation caused by friction, clapping and thermoelastic effect, as the resulting surface temperature distribution is observed by an infrared camera. The original thermal images sequence is processed by Fast Fourier Transformation to obtain the phase information of the defects. In the experiments of the delamination sample, the UBP realized the selective heating of delamination defects in the injector panel, and the signal to noise of phase image is higher than the original thermal image because the phase information can not be disturbed by the initial conditions (such as the reflective surface of sample). However, the result of the detection of flat bottom hole transpiration panel sample reflects that UBP is not appropriate for the detection of this kind of defects, because it is difficult to induce frictional heating of flat bottom holes. As contrast, Flash Pulse Thermography is used to detect the flat bottom holes, all of the holes of different depth and sizes can be seen distinctly. The results show that PT is more appropriate for the detection of flat bottom holes defects than UBP, therefore, it is important to select the appropriate excitation method according to different defects.

  7. Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation for the Characterization of Aging Degradation in Braided Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of traditional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to measure the degradation of braided polymer composite materials subjected to thermal-humidity cycling to simulate aging. A series of braided composite coupons were examined using immersion ultrasonic and pulsed thermography techniques in the as received condition. These same specimens were then examined following extended thermal-humidity cycling. Results of this examination did not show a significant change in the resulting (NDE) signals.

  8. Evaluation of an Extended Autocorrelation Phase Estimator for Ultrasonic Velocity Profiles Using Nondestructive Testing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ofuchi, César Yutaka; Coutinho, Fabio Rizental; Neves, Flávio; de Arruda, Lucia Valéria Ramos; Morales, Rigoberto Eleazar Melgarejo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the extended autocorrelation velocity estimator is evaluated and compared using a nondestructive ultrasonic device. For this purpose, three velocity estimators are evaluated and compared. The autocorrelation method (ACM) is the most used and well established in current ultrasonic velocity profiler technology, however, the technique suffers with phase aliasing (also known as the Nyquist limit) at higher velocities. The cross-correlation method (CCM) is also well known and does not suffer with phase aliasing as it relies on time shift measurements between emissions. The problem of this method is the large computational burden due to several required mathematical operations. Recently, an extended autocorrelation method (EAM) which combines both ACM and CCM was developed. The technique is not well known within the fluid engineering community, but it can measure velocities beyond the Nyquist limit without the ACM phase aliasing issues and with a lower computational cost than CCM. In this work, all three velocity estimation methods are used to measure a uniform flow of the liquid inside a controlled rotating cylinder. The root-mean-square deviation variation coefficient (CVRMSD) of the velocity estimate and the reference cylinder velocity was used to evaluate the three different methods. Results show that EAM correctly measures velocities below the Nyquist limit with less than 2% CVRMSD. Velocities beyond the Nyquist limit are only measured well by EAM and CCM, with the advantage of the former of being computationally 15 times faster. Furthermore, the maximum value of measurable velocity is also investigated considering the number of times the velocity surpasses the Nyquist limit. The combination of number of pulses and number of samples, which highly affects the results, are also studied in this work. Velocities up to six times the Nyquist limit could be measurable with CCM and EAM using a set of parameters as suggested in this work. The results validate

  9. Determination of Flaw Type and Location Using an Expert Module in Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing for Weld Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriari, D.; Zolfaghari, A.; Masoumi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is explained as nondestructive testing, nondestructive inspection, and nondestructive examination. It is a desire to determine some characteristic of the object or to determine whether the object contains irregularities, discontinuities, or flaws. Ultrasound based inspection techniques are used extensively throughout industry for detection of flaws in engineering materials. The range and variety of imperfections encountered is large, and critical assessment of location, size, orientation and type is often difficult. In addition, increasing quality requirements of new standards and codes of practice relating to fitness for purpose are placing higher demands on operators. Applying of an expert knowledge-based analysis in ultrasonic examination is a powerful tool that can help assure safety, quality, and reliability; increase productivity; decrease liability; and save money. In this research, an expert module system is coupled with ultrasonic examination (A-Scan Procedure) to determine and evaluate type and location of flaws that embedded during welding parts. The processing module of this expert system is implemented based on EN standard to classify welding defects, acceptance condition and measuring of their location via echo static pattern and image processing. The designed module introduces new system that can automate evaluating of the results of A-scan method according to EN standard. It can simultaneously recognize the number and type of defects, and determine flaw position during each scan.

  10. Waterless Coupling of Ultrasound from Planar Contact Transducers to Curved and Irregular Surfaces during Non-destructive Ultrasonic Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Wells, Mondell D.

    2012-04-30

    The Applied Physics group at the Pacific The Applied Physics group at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA has evaluated a method for waterless/liquidless coupling of ultrasonic energy from planar ultrasonic contact transducers to irregular test surfaces for ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation applications. Dry couplant material placed between a planar transducer face and a curved or uneven steel or plastic surface allows for effective sound energy coupling and preserves the integrity of the planar transducer sound field by serving as an acoustic impedance matching layer, providing good surface area contact between geometrically dissimilar surfaces and conforming to rough and unsmooth surfaces. Sound fields radiating from planar ultrasonic contact transducers coupled to curved and uneven surfaces using the dry coupling method were scanned and mapped using a Pinducer receiver connected to a raster scanner. Transducer sound field coverage at several ultrasonic frequencies and several distances from the transducer contact locations were found to be in good agreement with theoretical beam divergence and sound field coverage predictions for planar transducers coupled to simple, planar surfaces. This method is valuable for applications that do not allow for the use of traditional liquid-based ultrasonic couplants due to the sensitivity of the test materials to liquids and for applications that might otherwise require curved transducers or custom coupling wedges. The selection of dry coupling material is reported along with the results of theoretical sound field predictions, the laboratory testing apparatus and the empirical sound field data.

  11. Ultrasonic Imaging Technology Helps American Manufacturer of Nondestructive Evaluation Equipment Become More Competitive in the Global Market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sonix, Inc., of Springfield, Virginia, has implemented ultrasonic imaging methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. These methods have heretofore been unavailable on commercial ultrasonic imaging systems and provide significantly more sensitive material characterization than conventional high-resolution ultrasonic c-scanning. The technology transfer is being implemented under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Sonix, and several invention disclosures have been submitted by Dr. Roth to protect Lewis interests. Sonix has developed ultrasonic imaging systems used worldwide for microelectronics, materials research, and commercial nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In 1993, Sonix won the U.S. Department of Commerce "Excellence in Exporting" award. Lewis chose to work with Sonix for two main reasons: (1) Sonix is an innovative leader in ultrasonic imaging systems, and (2) Sonix was willing to apply the improvements we developed with our in-house Sonix equipment. This symbiotic joint effort has produced mutual benefits. Sonix recognized the market potential of our new and highly sensitive methods for ultrasonic assessment of material quality. We, in turn, see the cooperative effort as an effective means for transferring our technology while helping to improve the product of a domestic firm.

  12. Simulation of transducer-couplant effects on broadband ultrasonic signals. [in nondestructive flaw evaluation and materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing use of broadband, pulse-echo ultrasonics in nondestructive evaluation of flaws and material properties has generated a need for improved understanding of the way signals are modified by coupled and bonded thin-layer interfaces associated with transducers. This understanding is most important when using frequency spectrum analyses for characterizing material properties. In this type of application, signals emanating from material specimens can be strongly influenced by couplant and bond-layers in the acoustic path. Computer synthesized waveforms were used to simulate a range of interface conditions encountered in ultrasonic transducer systems operating in the 20to 80-MHz regime. The adverse effects of thin-layer multiple reflections associated with various acoustic impedance conditions are demonstrated. The information presented is relevant to ultrasonic transducer design, specimen preparation, and couplant selection.

  13. A time-domain finite element boundary integration method for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fan; Choi, Wonjae; Skelton, Elizabeth A; Lowe, Michael J S; Craster, Richard V

    2014-12-01

    A 2-D and 3-D numerical modeling approach for calculating the elastic wave scattering signals from complex stress-free defects is evaluated. In this method, efficient boundary integration across the complex boundary of the defect is coupled with a time-domain finite element (FE) solver. The model is designed to simulate time-domain ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation in bulk media. This approach makes use of the hybrid concept of linking a local numerical model to compute the near-field scattering behavior and theoretical mathematical formulas for postprocessing to calculate the received signals. It minimizes the number of monitoring signals from the FE calculation so that the computation effort in postprocessing decreases significantly. In addition, by neglecting the conventional regular monitoring box, the region for FE calculation can be made smaller. In this paper, the boundary integral method is implemented in a commercial FE code, and it is validated by comparing the scattering signals with results from corresponding full FE models. The coupled method is then implemented in real inspection scenarios in both 2-D and 3-D, and the accuracy and the efficiency are demonstrated. The limitations of the proposed model and future works are also discussed. PMID:25474780

  14. Non-destructive testing of ceramic balls using high frequency ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petit, S; Duquennoy, M; Ouaftouh, M; Deneuville, F; Ourak, M; Desvaux, S

    2005-12-01

    Although ceramic balls are used more and more for bearings in the aerospace and space industries, defects in this type of ceramic material could be dangerous, particularly if such defects are located close to the surface. In this paper, we propose a non-destructive testing method for silicon nitride balls, based on ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy. Through the theoretical study of their elastic vibrations, it is possible to characterize the balls using a vibration mode that is similar to surface wave propagation. The proposed methodology can both excite spheroidal vibrations in the ceramic balls and detect such vibrations over a large frequency range. Studying their resonance spectrums allows the balls' elastic parameters be characterized. Ours is an original method that can quickly estimate the velocity of surface waves using high frequency resonances, which permits surface and sub-surface areas to be tested specifically. Two applications are described in this paper. Both use velocity measurements to achieve their different goals, the first to differentiate between flawless balls from different manufacturing processes, and the second to detect small defects, such as cracks. Our method is rapid and permits the entire ceramic ball to be tested in an industrial context. PMID:16083931

  15. Plane Wave Imaging for ultrasonic non-destructive testing: Generalization to multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Le Jeune, Léonard; Robert, Sébastien; Lopez Villaverde, Eduardo; Prada, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new ultrasonic array imaging method for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) which is derived from the medical Plane Wave Imaging (PWI) technique. The objective is to perform fast ultrasound imaging with high image quality. The approach is to transmit plane waves at several angles and to record the back-scattered signals with all the array elements. Focusing in receive is then achieved by coherent summations of the signals in every point of a region of interest. The medical PWI is generalized to immersion setups where water acts as a coupling medium and to multimodal (direct, half-skip modes) imaging in order to detect different types of defects (inclusions, porosities, cracks). This method is compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM) which is the reference imaging technique in NDT. First, the two post-processing algorithms are described. Then experimental results with the array probe either in contact or in immersion are presented. A good agreement between the TFM and the PWI is observed, with three to ten times less transmissions required for the PWI. PMID:26323547

  16. A Rapid Ultrasonic Method for Nondestructive Thickness Mapping of Bronze Liner in Steel-Backed Bearing Sleeves

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Dong; Rebinsky, Douglas A.

    2004-02-26

    In this paper a nondestructive, automatic, ultrasonic scanning method was developed to permit rapid thickness mapping of the bronze liner in a steel-backed bearing sleeve. Because the sound velocity in bronze was unknown, an indirect two-step approach was used: the first step utilized a simultaneous velocity and thickness mapping method to measure the total wall thickness while the second step measured the thickness of the steel backing. The difference of the two obtained thickness maps yielded the thickness map of the bronze liner. Comparison to destructive examination results showed a measurement accuracy of approximately 20 {mu}m or 2%.

  17. A Rapid Ultrasonic Method for Nondestructive Thickness Mapping of Bronze Liner in Steel-Backed Bearing Sleeves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Dong; Rebinsky, Douglas A.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper a nondestructive, automatic, ultrasonic scanning method was developed to permit rapid thickness mapping of the bronze liner in a steel-backed bearing sleeve. Because the sound velocity in bronze was unknown, an indirect two-step approach was used: the first step utilized a simultaneous velocity and thickness mapping method to measure the total wall thickness while the second step measured the thickness of the steel backing. The difference of the two obtained thickness maps yielded the thickness map of the bronze liner. Comparison to destructive examination results showed a measurement accuracy of approximately 20 μm or 2%.

  18. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James G.

    1995-03-01

    In this Progress Report, the author describes the continuing research to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize complex materials. Images obtained using an unmodified medical ultrasonic imaging system of a bonded aluminum plate sample with a simulated disbond region are presented. The disbond region was produced by adhering a piece of plain white paper to a piece of cellophane tape and applying the paper-tape combination to one of the aluminum plates. Because the area under the paper was not adhesively bonded to the aluminum plate, this arrangement more closely simulates a disbond. Images are also presented for an aluminum plate sample with an epoxy strip adhered to one side to help provide information for the interpretation of the images of the bonded aluminum plate sample containing the disbond region. These images are compared with corresponding conventional ultrasonic contact transducer measurements in order to provide information regarding the nature of the disbonded region. The results of this on-going investigation may provide a step toward the development of a rapid, real-time, and portable method of ultrasonic inspection and characterization based on linear array technology. In Section 2 of this Progress Report, the preparation of the aluminum plate specimens is described. Section 3 describes the method of linear array imaging. Sections 4 and 5 present the linear array images and results from contact transducer measurements, respectively. A discussion of the results are presented in Section 6.

  19. Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1995-01-01

    In this Progress Report, the author describes the continuing research to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize complex materials. Images obtained using an unmodified medical ultrasonic imaging system of a bonded aluminum plate sample with a simulated disbond region are presented. The disbond region was produced by adhering a piece of plain white paper to a piece of cellophane tape and applying the paper-tape combination to one of the aluminum plates. Because the area under the paper was not adhesively bonded to the aluminum plate, this arrangement more closely simulates a disbond. Images are also presented for an aluminum plate sample with an epoxy strip adhered to one side to help provide information for the interpretation of the images of the bonded aluminum plate sample containing the disbond region. These images are compared with corresponding conventional ultrasonic contact transducer measurements in order to provide information regarding the nature of the disbonded region. The results of this on-going investigation may provide a step toward the development of a rapid, real-time, and portable method of ultrasonic inspection and characterization based on linear array technology. In Section 2 of this Progress Report, the preparation of the aluminum plate specimens is described. Section 3 describes the method of linear array imaging. Sections 4 and 5 present the linear array images and results from contact transducer measurements, respectively. A discussion of the results are presented in Section 6.

  20. Bruce Thompson: Adventures and advances in ultrasonic backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.

    2012-05-01

    Over the course of his professional career Dr. R. Bruce Thompson published several hundred articles on non-destructive evaluation, the majority dealing with topics in ultrasonics. One longtime research interest of Dr. Thompson, with applications both to microstructure characterization and defect detection, was backscattered grain noise in metals. Over a 20 year period he led a revolving team of staff members and graduate students investigating various aspects of ultrasonic backscatter. As a member of that team I had the privilege of working along side Dr. Thompson for many years, serving as a sort of Dr. Watson to Bruce's Sherlock Holmes. This article discusses Dr. Thompson's general approaches to modeling backscatter, the research topics he chose to explore to systematically elucidate a better understanding of the phenomena, and the many contributions to the field achieved under his leadership. The backscatter work began in earnest around 1990, motivated by a need to improve inspections of aircraft engine components. At that time Dr. Thompson launched two research efforts. The first led to the heuristic Independent Scatterer Model which could be used to estimate the average grain noise level that would be seen in any given ultrasonic inspection. There the contribution from the microstructure was contained in a measureable parameter known as the Figure-of-Merit or FOM. The second research effort, spearheaded by Dr. Jim Rose, led to a formal relationship between FOM and details of the metal microstructure. The combination of the Independent Scattering Model and Rose's formalism provided a powerful tool for investigating backscatter in metals. In this article model developments are briefly reviewed and several illustrative applications are discussed. These include: the determination of grain size and shape from ultrasonic backscatter; grain noise variability in engine-titanium billets and forgings; and the design of ultrasonic inspection systems to improve defect

  1. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  2. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique and Acoustic Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require an effective nondestructive evaluation technique for their bond strength prediction. To properly evaluate factors affecting bond strength, effects of defects such as voids and disbonds on stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. At the same time, in order to use acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to evaluate bond quality, the effect of these defects on dynamic response of single lap joints must be clear. The stress distribution in a single lap joint with and without defects (void or disbond) is analyzed. A bar-Theta parameter which contains adherend and adhesive thickness and properties is introduced. It is shown for bonded joints with bar-Theta greater than 10, that a symmetric void or disbond in the middle of overlap up to the 70 percent of overlap length has negligible effect on bond strength. In contrast frequency response analyses by a finite element technique showed that the dynamic response is affected significantly by the presence of voids or disbonds. These results have direct implication in the interpretations of AU results. Through transmission attenuation and a number of AU parameters for various specimens with and without defects are evaluated. It is found that although void and disbond have similar effects on bond strength (stress distribution), they have completely different effects on wave propagation characteristics. For steel-adhesive-steel specimens with voids, the attenuation changes are related to the bond strength. However, the attenuation changes for specimens with disbond are fairly constant over a disbond range. In order to incorporate the location of defects in AU parameters, a weighting function is introduced. Using an immersion system with focused transducers, a number of AU parameters are evaluated. It is found that by incorporating weighting functions in these parameters better sensitivities (AU parameters vs. bond strength) are achieved. Acoustic emission

  3. Advanced Ultrasonic Tomograph of Children's Bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaygues, Philippe; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Guillermin, Régine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Berteau, Jean-Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Petit, Philippe

    This study deals with the development of an experimental device for performing ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT) on bone in pediatric degrees. The children's bone tomographs obtained in this study, were based on the use of a multiplexed 2-D ring antenna (1 MHz and 3 MHz) designed for performing electronic and mechanical scanning. Although this approach is known to be a potentially valuable means of imaging objects with similar acoustical impedances, problems arise when quantitative images of more highly contrasted media such as bones are required. Various strategies and various mathematical procedures for modeling the wave propagation based on Born approximations have been developed at our laboratory, which are suitable for use with pediatric cases. Inversions of the experimental data obtained are presented.

  4. Recent modelling advances for ultrasonic TOFD inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Darmon, Michel; Ferrand, Adrien; Dorval, Vincent; Chatillon, Sylvain; Lonné, Sébastien

    2015-03-31

    The ultrasonic TOFD (Time of Flight Diffraction) Technique is commonly used to detect and characterize disoriented cracks using their edge diffraction echoes. An overview of the models integrated in the CIVA software platform and devoted to TOFD simulation is presented. CIVA allows to predict diffraction echoes from complex 3D flaws using a PTD (Physical Theory of Diffraction) based model. Other dedicated developments have been added to simulate lateral waves in 3D on planar entry surfaces and in 2D on irregular surfaces by a ray approach. Calibration echoes from Side Drilled Holes (SDHs), specimen echoes and shadowing effects from flaws can also been modelled. Some examples of theoretical validation of the models are presented. In addition, experimental validations have been performed both on planar blocks containing calibration holes and various notches and also on a specimen with an irregular entry surface and allow to draw conclusions on the validity of all the developed models.

  5. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for the generation of guided waves for non-destructive evaluation of pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Sinding, K.; Searfass, C.; Malarich, N.; Reinhardt, B.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2014-02-18

    Applications for non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring of steam generators require ultrasonic transducers capable of withstanding the high temperatures of the pipes and heat exchangers. These applications require a strong coupling of the transducer to the heat exchanger’s complex geometry at the elevated temperatures. Our objective is to use spray-on piezo-electrics for depositing comb transducers onto the curved surfaces. This paper shows results for composite transducers such as lead zirconate titanate/ bismuth titanate and bismuth titanate/ lithium niobate. The comb transducers were prepared by precision laser ablation. The feasibility of producing second harmonic waves in rods with these spay-on comb transducers was demonstrated and paves the way toward measuring material degradation early-on before crack initiation occurs.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  7. High temperature ultrasonic transducers for the generation of guided waves for non-destructive evaluation of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinding, K.; Searfass, C.; Malarich, N.; Reinhardt, B.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2014-02-01

    Applications for non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring of steam generators require ultrasonic transducers capable of withstanding the high temperatures of the pipes and heat exchangers. These applications require a strong coupling of the transducer to the heat exchanger's complex geometry at the elevated temperatures. Our objective is to use spray-on piezo-electrics for depositing comb transducers onto the curved surfaces. This paper shows results for composite transducers such as lead zirconate titanate/ bismuth titanate and bismuth titanate/ lithium niobate. The comb transducers were prepared by precision laser ablation. The feasibility of producing second harmonic waves in rods with these spay-on comb transducers was demonstrated and paves the way toward measuring material degradation early-on before crack initiation occurs.

  8. Design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for welding devices.

    PubMed

    Parrini, L

    2001-11-01

    A new high frequency ultrasonic transducer has been conceived, designed, prototyped, and tested. In the design phase, an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on an initial design estimate obtained with finite element method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic transducers and resonators are then built and characterized experimentally through laser interferometry and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high predictive potential and allow full control of the vibration behavior of the transducer. The new transducer is mounted on a wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the transducer to be attached on the wire bonder, not only in longitudinal nodes, but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a total decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been achieved so far. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding device is of major importance, not only for wire bonding, but also for all high power ultrasound applications and has been patented. PMID:11800125

  9. Nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E

    1998-01-01

    The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal is to provide cutting-edge technologies, that show promise for quantitative inspection and characterization tools two to three years into the future. The NDE thrust area supports a multidisciplinary team, consisting of mechanical and electronics engineers, physicists, materials and computer scientists, chemists, technicians, and radiographers. These team members include personnel that cross departments within LLNL, and some are from academia and industry, within the US and abroad. This collaboration brings together the necessary and diver disciplines to provide the key scientific and technological advancements required to meet LLNL programmatic and industrial NDE challenges. The primary contributions of the NDE thrust area this year are described in these five reports: (1) Image Recovery Techniques for X-Ray Computed Tomography for Limited-Data Environments; (2) Techniques for Enhancing Laser Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation; (3) Optical Inspection of Glass-Epoxy Bonds; (4) Miniature X-Ray Source Development; and (5) Improving Computed Tomography Design and Operation Using Simulation Tools.

  10. Noncontact, nondestructive elasticity evaluation of sound and demineralized human dental enamel using a laser ultrasonic surface wave dispersion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsiao-Chuan; Fleming, Simon; Lee, Yung-Chun; Law, Susan; Swain, Michael; Xue, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been proposed to replace conventional in vivo dental clinical diagnosis tools that are either destructive or incapable of quantifying the elasticity of human dental enamel. In this work, a laser NDE system that can perform remote measurements on samples of small dimensions is presented. A focused laser line source is used to generate broadband surface acoustic wave impulses that are detected with a simplified optical fiber interferometer. The measured surface wave velocity dispersion spectrum is in turn used to characterize the elasticity of the specimen. The NDE system and the analysis technique are validated with measurements of different metal structures and then applied to evaluate human dental enamel. Artificial lesions are prepared on the samples to simulate different states of enamel elasticity. Measurement results for both sound and lesioned regions, as well as lesions of different severity, are clearly distinguishable from each other and fit well with physical expectations and theoretical value. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that a laser-based surface wave velocity dispersion technique is successfully applied on human dental enamel, demonstrating the potential for noncontact, nondestructive in vivo detection of the development of carious lesions.

  11. A nondestructive method for estimation of the fracture toughness of CrMoV rotor steels based on ultrasonic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Jhang, Kyung-Young; Nam, Young-Hyun

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a nondestructive method for estimating the fracture toughness (K(IC)) of CrMoV steels used as the rotor material of steam turbines in power plants. To achieve this objective, a number of CrMoV steel samples were heat-treated, and the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) was determined as a function of aging time. Nonlinear ultrasonics was employed as the theoretical basis to explain the harmonic generation in a damaged material, and the nonlinearity parameter of the second harmonic wave was the experimental measure used to be correlated to the fracture toughness of the rotor steel. The nondestructive procedure for estimating the K(IC) consists of two steps. First, the correlations between the nonlinearity parameter and the FATT are sought. The FATT values are then used to estimate K(IC) using the K(IC) versus excess temperature (i.e., T-FATT) correlation that is available in the literature for CrMoV rotor steel. PMID:12919690

  12. A Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection System for Metal Matrix Composite Track Shoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Bao; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Qian, Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2007-03-01

    Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained.

  13. A Portable Ultrasonic Nondestructive Inspection System for Metal Matrix Composite Track Shoes

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Bao; Zhao Xiaoliang; Qian Tao; Stevenson, Mark; Kwan, Chiman; Owens, Steven E.; Royer, Roger L. Jr.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2007-03-21

    Cast aluminum track shoes reinforced with metal matrix composite (MMC) inserts at heavy loading areas such as center splines and sprocket windows are light in weight, and can resist high temperature and wear. Various defects such as disbonds at the insert-substrate interface, cracks and porosity in the MMC layer, etc. can be introduced during the manufacturing process and/or in service. This paper presents a portable ultrasonic system to automatically inspect tank track shoes for disbond. Ultrasonic pulse/echo inspection has shown good reliability for disbond detection. A prototype sensor array fixture has been designed and fabricated to prove the feasibility. Good agreements between the sensor fixture results and ultrasonic C-scan images were obtained.

  14. Non-contact ultrasonic technique for rapid and advanced analysis of fibrous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periyaswamy, T.; Lerch, T. P.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-05-01

    Fibrous ensembles are, typically, multi-scale flexible assemblies with unique physical and rheological properties, unlike continuum materials. Macroscopic behaviors of these materials are greatly the result of non-linear interactions at the micro levels. These micro-scale interactions can be assessed by capturing the material behavior under low mechanical stress conditions. While ultrasonic based non-destructive testing was suitably implemented for continuum materials, their application to fibrous structures was limited primarily due to the inherent structural arrangements of these unique assemblies. Discontinuities, non-uniform orientations and multi-phase components make these ensembles difficult to study using the existing scan-based methods. This work presents a novel rapid and advanced analysis tool for complex fibrous systems using a noncontact air-coupled ultrasonic system. Five characteristic features of ultrasound signals transmitted through fibrous structures were studied, i.e., dampness in signal flight, signal velocity, power spectral density, signal power and rate of amplitude attenuation. Analysis of these features under two different acoustic frequencies, 500 kHz and 1 MHz, allowed us to study the componentized behavior of these materials for three of the key mechanical properties including bending rigidity, shear rigidity and low stress tensile stress. A material response index (MRI) was also derived using the signal features.

  15. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of porous composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1987-01-01

    Porosity in composite media using ultrasonic waves is characterized. The derivation of local approximations to the Kramers-Kronig relations are presented and it is shown that they may also be applicable to systems that could conceivably exhibit considerable dispersion such as composite laminates containing porosity.

  16. Artifact reduction in non-destructive testing by means of complementary data fusion of x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrapp, Michael; Scharrer, Thomas; Goldammer, Matthias; Rupitsch, Stefan J.; Sutor, Alexander; Ermert, Helmut; Lerch, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    In industrial non-destructive testing, x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing play an important role in the investigation of large-scale samples. One major artifact arises in CT, when the x-ray absorption in specific directions is too intense, so that the material cannot be fully penetrated. Due to different physical interaction principles, ultrasonic imaging is able to show features which are not visible in the CT image. In this contribution, we present a novel fusion method for the complementary data provided by x-ray CT and ultrasonic testing. The ultrasonic data are obtained by an adapted synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and complement the missing edge information in the CT image. Subsequently, the full edge map is incorporated as a priori information in a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction method (SIRT) and allows a significant reduction of artifacts in the CT image.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  18. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  19. Nondestructive Determination of Heat/Fire Damage to Polymer- Matrix Composites Using Obliquely Insonified Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A.; Lih, S.

    1995-01-01

    Heat and fire damage to composite structures cause loss of strength that cannot be detected by current NDE methods unless physical damage occurs. Further, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the mechanism of damage from thermal exposure of organic matrix composites to elevated temperatures. Information compiled from field reports and lab experiments increasingly suggests that there is material degradation and it is not necessarily involved with the introduction of physical defects. In recent years, various researchers examined the potential to identifying thermal degradation to organic matrix composites prior to delamination. The methods that were used include: ultrasonics, backscattered X-ray, eddy current, thermography, drift and LPF spectroscopies, acousto-ultrasonics and hardness testing. None of these methods were able to correlate NDE results with loss of mechanical properties.

  20. Development of Ultrasonic and Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Non-Destruction Inspection of Aging Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alphonso C.

    1998-01-01

    Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) sensor detection system was continued and refined modifications were made in the data acquisition and evaluation process during the last year. The ultrasonic and FPI detection system was improved from one to multiple sensor detectors. Physical models were developed to understand the physical phenomenon of this work. Multilayered flawed samples were fabricated for inspection by a prototype ultrasonic and FPI detection. Experimental data was verified with simulated results. Undergraduate students that were associated with this research gained valuable knowledge from this experience. This was a learning process helping students to understand the importance of research and its application to solve important technological problems. As a result of our students exposure to this research two and planning to continue this type of research work in graduate school. A prototype instrument package was laboratory tested an actual airframe structure for documentation purposes.

  1. Spatially resolved ultrasonic attenuation in resistance spot welds: implications for nondestructive testing.

    PubMed

    Mozurkewich, George; Ghaffari, Bita; Potter, Timothy J

    2008-09-01

    Spatial variation of ultrasonic attenuation and velocity has been measured in plane parallel specimens extracted from resistance spot welds. In a strong weld, attenuation is larger in the nugget than in the parent material, and the region of increased attenuation is surrounded by a ring of decreased attenuation. In the center of a stick weld, attenuation is even larger than in a strong weld, and the low-attenuation ring is absent. These spatial variations are interpreted in terms of differences in grain size and martensite formation. Measured frequency dependences indicate the presence of an additional attenuation mechanism besides grain scattering. The observed attenuations do not vary as commonly presumed with weld quality, suggesting that the common practice of using ultrasonic attenuation to indicate weld quality is not a reliable methodology. PMID:18325561

  2. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of PRSEUS Pressure Cube Article in Support of Load Test to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    The PRSEUS Pressure Cube Test was a joint development effort between the Boeing Company and NASA Langley Research Center, sponsored in part by the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Boeing internal R&D. This Technical Memorandum presents the results of ultrasonic inspections in support of the PRSEUS Pressure Cube Test, and is a companion document with the NASA test report and a report on the acoustic emission measurements made during the test.

  3. Low frequency ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, T.

    1994-01-04

    This thesis is a collection of research efforts in ultrasonics, conducted at the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability located at Iowa State University, as part of the Federal Aviation Administration`s ``Aging Aircraft Program.`` The research was directed toward the development of an ultrasonic prototype to inspect the aluminum/adhesive fuselage lap splices found on 1970`s vintage Boeing passenger aircraft. The ultrasonic prototype consists of a normal incidence, low frequency inspection technique, and a scanning adapter that allows focused immersion transducers to be operated in a direct contact manner in any inspection orientation, including upside-down. The inspection technique uses a computer-controlled data acquisition system to produce a C-scan image of a radio frequency (RF) waveform created by a low frequency, broadband, focused beam transducer, driven with a spike voltage pulser. C-scans produced by this technique are color representations of the received signal`s peak-to-peak amplitude (voltage) taken over an (x, y) grid. Low frequency, in this context, refers to a wavelength that is greater than the lap splice`s layer thicknesses. With the low frequency technique, interface echoes of the lap splice are not resolved and gating of the signal is unnecessary; this in itself makes the technique simple to implement and saves considerable time in data acquisition. Along with the advantages in data acquisition, the low frequency technique is relatively insensitive to minor surface curvature and to ultrasonic interference effects caused by adhesive bondline thickness variations in the lap splice.

  4. Nondestructive Evaluation of Holed CFRP Laminates by a New Technique to Visualize Propagation of Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Shigeki; Takatsubo, Junji; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Okabe, Tomonaga; Takeda, Nobuo

    This study investigated damage detection in holed CFRP laminates by using a newly developed technique for visualizing ultrasonic waves. This technique provided a moving diagram of propagating waves with non-contact scanning by a pulsed laser. Its measurement scheme overcame the difficulties of sensitivity in conventional methods and enabled us to observe ultrasonic waves on CFRP laminates. We observed two types of ultrasonic waves propagating on the CFRP laminate in the measured snapshots. These waves were identified as the S0 and the A0 Lamb modes by the dispersion curves, confirming the validity of the visualization technique for composite laminates. Furthermore, ply cracks and delamination, as well as the damage during manufacturing, were observed near the hole in the loaded specimens, and we successfully visualized the Lamb waves scattered by the delamination. The region of wave scattering agreed with the damage observed by soft X-ray radiography. These inspection results demonstrated the usefulness of the visualization technique in inspecting composite laminates.

  5. 3D Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Spot Welds Using an Enhanced Total Focusing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiuniene, Elena; Samaitis, Vykintas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sanderson, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    Spot welds are used to join sheets of metals in the automotive industry. When spot weld quality is evaluated using conventional ultrasonic manual pulse-echo method, the reliability of the inspection is affected by selection of the probe diameter and the positioning of the probe in the weld center. The application of a 2D matrix array is a potential solution to the aforementioned problems. The objective of this work was to develop a signal processing algorithm to reconstruct the 3D spot weld volume showing the size of the nugget and the defects in it. In order to achieve this, the conventional total focusing method was enhanced by taking into account the directivities of the single elements of the array and the divergence of the ultrasonic beam due to the propagation distance. Enhancements enabled a reduction in the background noise and uniform sensitivity at different depths to be obtained. The proposed algorithm was verified using a finite element model of ultrasonic wave propagation simulating three common spot weld conditions: a good weld, an undersized weld, and a weld containing a pore. The investigations have demonstrated that proposed method enables the determination of the size of the nugget and detection of discontinuities.

  6. Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of porous composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Two complementary ultrasonic techniques for characterizing porosity in fiber-reinforced composite laminates are evaluated. Five uniaxial graphite-fiber/epoxy-matrix composites having a range of 1 to 8 percent volume fraction of solid glass inclusions to model porosity were investigated. In one technique, signal loss was measured in transmission mode and slope of attenuation, obtained from the first order coefficient of a two-parameter polynomial fit about the center frequency of the useful bandwidth, was used as the ultrasonic parameter to characterize the porosity. The results of these transmission mode measurements displayed a good correlation between the volume fraction of porosity and the slope of attenuation. Integrated polar backscatter was used as a second ultrasonic parameter for the characterization of the porosity in these samples. A single transducer insonified the samples and measured the resulting backscatter at a polar angle of 30 deg with respect to the normal of the sample surface with the azimuthal angles centered at 0 deg with respect to the fiber orientation (i.e., along the fibers). Integrated polar backscatter also displayed good correlation with the volume fraction of porosity.

  7. Advancing the Technology R&D of Tabletop Mesoscale Nondestructive Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M; Barty, A; Jackson, J A; Kallman, J S; Kozioziemski, B; Nederbragt, W; Pivovaroff, M; Schneberk, D

    2004-09-24

    This Strategic Initiative (SI) will advance nondestructive characterization of mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects' entire volume. X-ray imaging will be developed that allows object characterization with materials that vary widely in composition, density, and geometry.

  8. PREFACE: 3rd International Symposium on Laser Ultrasonics and Advanced Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-06-01

    Based on the use of laser as a coherent and intense light source, the photo-acoustics originated from the discovery made by Alexander Graham Bell was extended to laser-ultrasonics (LU), and it has been applied to wide area of ultrasonics, optics, material characterization and nondestructive inspection. In 1996, a research group for LU was started in the Japanese Society for Nondestructive Inspection (JSNDI), and researches on LU and related topics such as noncontact measurements and elastic wave theories were discussed. Similar activities were pursued also in North America and in Europe. The international symposium on LU was started in Montreal, Canada in 2008 by Jean Pierre Monchalin in order to offer a forum for involved with basic researches and industrial applications of LU. In the second symposium in Bordeaux, France nearly 120 papers were presented. It is our honor to have organized the third symposium, LU2013 on 25-28 June in Yokohama, Japan. The articles published here provide a sample of achievements presented there. In LU2013, we focused on the laser generation and/or detection of acoustic waves, application to nondestructive testing, ultrafast-optoacoustics and innovative instruments. Research achievements in biomedical applications, advanced sensing including noncontact, micro/nanoscale or nonlinear measurements, as well as theory and simulation of ultrasound were also included, considering the interdisciplinary nature of this field. We enjoyed very excellent and informative 3 plenary talks, 11 invited talks, 81 oral and 41 poster presentations with 168 attendees. According to requests, we organized a post deadline poster session to give an opportunity to present recent achievements after the deadline. Contributions of the participants, the scientific and organizing committees are highly appreciated. The conference tour was a dinner cruise to the Tokyo bay, and we hope this experience will remain as a pleasant memory in attendees. As decided in the

  9. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  10. Assessment of Crack Detection in Cast Austenitic Piping Components Using Advanced Ultrasonic Methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Cast stainless steel pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employed a zone-focused, multi-incident angle inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging capabilities. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at 500 kHz and composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Re¬sults from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization and sizing effectiveness are discussed in this paper.

  11. Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment of ultrasonic beam parameters from immersion transducers used to non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, A V; Silva, C E R; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2016-07-01

    The uncertainty of ultrasonic beam parameters from non-destructive testing immersion probes was evaluated using the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) uncertainty framework and Monte Carlo Method simulation. The calculated parameters such as focal distance, focal length, focal widths and beam divergence were determined according to EN 12668-2. The typical system configuration used during the mapping acquisition comprises a personal computer connected to an oscilloscope, a signal generator, axes movement controllers, and a water bath. The positioning system allows moving the transducer (or hydrophone) in the water bath. To integrate all system components, a program was developed to allow controlling all the axes, acquire waterborne signals, and calculate essential parameters to assess and calibrate US transducers. All parameters were calculated directly from the raster scans of axial and transversal beam profiles, except beam divergence. Hence, the positioning system resolution and the step size are principal source of uncertainty. Monte Carlo Method simulations were performed by another program that generates pseudo-random samples for the distributions of the involved quantities. In all cases, there were found statistical differences between Monte Carlo and GUM methods. PMID:27107164

  12. Physical interpretation and application of principles of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of high-performance materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic measurement system employed in the experimental interrogation of the anisotropic properties (through the measurement of the elastic stiffness constants) of the uniaxial graphite-epoxy composites is presented. The continuing effort for the development of improved visualization techniques for physical parameters is discussed. The background is set for the understanding and visualization of the relationship between the phase and energy/group velocity for propagation in high-performance anisotropic materials by investigating the general requirements imposed by the classical wave equation. The consequences are considered when the physical parameters of the anisotropic material are inserted into the classical wave equation by a linear elastic model. The relationship is described between the phase velocity and the energy/group velocity three dimensional surfaces through graphical techniques.

  13. Time-frequency beamforming for nondestructive evaluations of plate using ultrasonic Lamb wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Je-Heon; Kim, Yong-Joe

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to detect structural defect locations in a plate by exciting the plate with a specific ultrasonic Lamb wave and recording reflective wave signals using a piezoelectric transducer array. For the purpose of eliminating the effects of the direct excitation signals as well as the boundary-reflected wave signals, it is proposed to improve a conventional MUSIC beamforming procedure by processing the measured signals in the time-frequency domain. In addition, a normalized, damped, cylindrical 2-D steering vector is proposed to increase the spatial resolution of time-frequency MUSIC power results. A cross-shaped array is selected to further improve the spatial resolution and to avoid mirrored virtual image effects. Here, it is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed time-frequency MUSIC beamforming procedure can be used to identify structural defect locations on an aluminum plate by distinguishing the defect-induced waves from the excitation-generated and boundary-reflected waves.

  14. Advanced instrumentation for acousto-ultrasonic based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithard, Joel; Galea, Steve; van der Velden, Stephen; Powlesland, Ian; Jung, George; Rajic, Nik

    2016-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems using structurally-integrated sensors potentially allow the ability to inspect for damage in aircraft structures on-demand and could provide a basis for the development of condition-based maintenance approaches for airframes. These systems potentially offer both substantial cost savings and performance improvements over conventional nondestructive inspection (NDI). Acousto-ultrasonics (AU), using structurallyintegrated piezoelectric transducers, offers a promising basis for broad-field damage detection in aircraft structures. For these systems to be successfully applied in the field the hardware for AU excitation and interrogation needs to be easy to use, compact, portable, light and, electrically and mechanically robust. Highly flexible and inexpensive instrumentation for basic background laboratory investigations is also required to allow researchers to tackle the numerous scientific and engineering issues associated with AU based SHM. The Australian Defence Science and Technology Group (DST Group) has developed the Acousto Ultrasonic Structural health monitoring Array Module (AUSAM+), a compact device for AU excitation and interrogation. The module, which has the footprint of a typical current generation smart phone, provides autonomous control of four send and receive piezoelectric elements, which can operate in pitch-catch or pulse-echo modes and can undertake electro-mechanical impedance measurements for transducer and structural diagnostics. Modules are designed to operate synchronously with other units, via an optical link, to accommodate larger transducer arrays. The module also caters for fibre optic sensing of acoustic waves with four intensity-based optical inputs. Temperature and electrical resistance strain gauge inputs as well as external triggering functionality are also provided. The development of a Matlab hardware object allows users to easily access the full hardware functionality of the device and

  15. Fabrication and nondestructive examination development for advanced components and materials for the SP-100 space reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Peter J.; Dobrzynski, Walter J.

    1993-01-01

    Significant progress has now been made in the development of fabrication and Nondestructive Examination techniques for the SP-100 Space Reactor. All major fabrication challenges have been faced and overcome. Methods are in place for the fabrication and inspection of composite fuel cladding, the reactor honeycomb core, cold forging of the core support nozzle course, and electron beam welding of the auxiliary cooling loop system. Specifications and procedures have been developed and proven on actual hardware for electron beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, heat treatment, solvent cleaning, chemical cleaning, ultrasonic inspection, helium leak testing, dye penetrant and microfocus rod anode radiography. Signicant work remains to be done but no problems have been identified which would prevent fabrication of the high temperature SP-100 Space Reactor.

  16. Nondestructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

  17. Applications of Advanced Nondestructive Measurement Techniques to Address Safety of Flight Issues on NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nondestructive measurement techniques are critical for ensuring the reliability and safety of NASA spacecraft. Techniques such as infrared thermography, THz imaging, X-ray computed tomography and backscatter X-ray are used to detect indications of damage in spacecraft components and structures. Additionally, sensor and measurement systems are integrated into spacecraft to provide structural health monitoring to detect damaging events that occur during flight such as debris impacts during launch and assent or from micrometeoroid and orbital debris, or excessive loading due to anomalous flight conditions. A number of examples will be provided of how these nondestructive measurement techniques have been applied to resolve safety critical inspection concerns for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and a variety of launch vehicles and unmanned spacecraft.

  18. Ultrasonic Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction covers the theory of ultrasonic sound, methods of applying soundwaves to test specimens and interpreting results, calibrating the ultrasonic equipment, and the use of standards. Study periods, group discussions, and extensive use of textbooks and training manuals are to be used. These are listed along with references and…

  19. Advanced NDE techniques for quantitative characterization of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center and their applications that have resulted in quantitative assessment of material properties based on thermal and ultrasonic measurements are reviewed. Specific applications include ultrasonic determination of bolt tension, ultrasonic and thermal characterization of bonded layered structures, characterization of composite materials, and disbonds in aircraft skins.

  20. Advanced ultrasonic testing of complex shaped composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, D.; Zhvyrblya, V.; Filippov, G.; Salchak, Y.; Sedanova, E.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the wide application of composite materials it is necessary to develop unconventional quality control techniques. One of the methods that can be used for this purpose is ultrasonic tomography. In this article an application of a robotic ultrasonic system is considered. Precise positioning of the robotic scanner and path generating are defined as ones of the most important aspects. This study proposes a non-contact calibration method of a robotic ultrasonic system. Path of the scanner requires a 3D model of controlled objects which are created in accordance with the proposed algorithm. The suggested techniques are based on implementation of structured light method.

  1. Inspection of composite materials with an advanced ultrasonic flaw detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, W.

    The structures and shapes of the composite material products are described. Methods of ultrasonic wave detection are described. New damage detection equipment for laminate and honeycomb structures is addressed.

  2. Quality Evaluation By Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Promising nondestructive-testing method based on ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. Report reviews acousto-ultrasonic technology for nondestructive testing. Discusses principles, suggests advanced signal-analysis schemes for development, and presents potential applications. Acousto-ultrasonics applied principally to assess defects in laminated and filament-wound fiber-reinforced composite materials. Technique used to determine variations in such properties as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and reductions in strength and toughness caused by defects. Also used to evaluate states of cure, porosities, orientation of fibers, volume fractions of fibers, bonding between fibers and matrices, and qualities of interlaminar bonds.

  3. Advanced defect detection algorithm using clustering in ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    A range of materials used in industry exhibit scattering properties which limits ultrasonic NDE. Many algorithms have been proposed to enhance defect detection ability, such as the well-known Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique. Scattering noise usually cannot be fully removed and the remaining noise can be easily confused with real feature signals, hence becoming artefacts during the image interpretation stage. This paper presents an advanced algorithm to further reduce the influence of artefacts remaining in A-scan data after processing using a conventional defect detection algorithm. The raw A-scan data can be acquired from either traditional single transducer or phased array configurations. The proposed algorithm uses the concept of unsupervised machine learning to cluster segmental defect signals from pre-processed A-scans into different classes. The distinction and similarity between each class and the ensemble of randomly selected noise segments can be observed by applying a classification algorithm. Each class will then be labelled as `legitimate reflector' or `artefacts' based on this observation and the expected probability of defection (PoD) and probability of false alarm (PFA) determined. To facilitate data collection and validate the proposed algorithm, a 5MHz linear array transducer is used to collect A-scans from both austenitic steel and Inconel samples. Each pulse-echo A-scan is pre-processed using SSP and the subsequent application of the proposed clustering algorithm has provided an additional reduction to PFA while maintaining PoD for both samples compared with SSP results alone.

  4. Spark ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Nondestructive testing by spark transducer induces ultrasonic pulses in materials without physical contact. High power pulse generator connected to step up transformer produces sparking between two tungsten rods and ultrasonic energy pulses in test samples placed between rods.

  5. Ultrasonic Technologies for Advanced Process Monitoring, Measurement, and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J. ); Morra, Marino ); Greenwood, Margaret S. ); Bamberger, Judith A. ); Pappas, Richard A. )

    2003-06-02

    Ultrasonic signals are well suited to the characterization of liquids, slurries and multi-phase flows. Ultrasound sensor systems provide real-time, in-situ measurements or visualizations and the sensing systems are compact, rugged and relatively inexpensive. The objective is to develop ultrasonic sensors that (1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line and (2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. Two examples of systems based on pulse-echo and transmission signal analysis are used to illustrate some of the capabilities of ultrasonic on-line measurements with technologies that have use in the nuclear, petro-chemical, and food process industries.

  6. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL_19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  7. Enhanced ultrasonic characterization of assemblies, TLL 19

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Thomas, G.

    1998-09-01

    Bonded joints, such as the autoclave bond, are critical to the performance of weapon systems. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these bonds is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line but does not measure the quality of the bond. We are extracting information from the ultrasonic signals to quantify the mechanical. properties and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that process information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. Computer algorithms recognize variations in bond quality from the acoustic signals. The ultrasonic signal processing and bond classification software will be installed on ultrasonic scanners at the appropriate sites.

  8. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Materials with X-ray Phase Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Zhengwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray radiation has been widely used for imaging applications since Rontgen first discovered X-rays over a century ago. Its large penetration depth makes it ideal for the nondestructive visualization of the internal structure and/or defects of materials unobtainable otherwise. Currently used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools, X-ray radiography and tomography, are absorption-based, and work well in heavy-element materials where density or composition variations due to internal structure or defects are high enough to produce appreciable absorption contrast. However, in many cases where materials are light-weight and/or composites that have similar mass absorption coefficients, the conventional absorption-based X-ray methods for NDE become less useful. Indeed, the light-weight and ultra-high-strength requirements for the most advanced materials used or developed for current flight mission and future space exploration pose a great challenge to the standard NDE tools in that the absorption contrast arising from the internal structure of these materials is often too weak to be resolved. In this presentation, a solution to the problem, the use of phase information of X-rays for phase contrast X-ray imaging, will be discussed, along with a comparison between the absorption-based and phase-contrast imaging methods. Latest results on phase contrast X-ray imaging of lightweight Space Shuttle foam in 2D and 3D will be presented, demonstrating new opportunities to solve the challenging issues encountered in advanced materials development and processing.

  9. A comparison of conventional and advanced ultrasonic inspection techniques in the characterization of TMC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Mark R.; Handley, Scott M.; Miller, James G.; Reighard, Mark K.

    Results obtained with a conventional ultrasonic inspection technique as well as those obtained with more advanced ultrasonic NDE methods in the characterization of an 8-ply quasi-isotropic titanium matrix composite (TMC) specimen are presented. Images obtained from a conventional ultrasonic inspection of TMC material are compared with those obtained using more sophisticated ultrasonic inspection methods. It is suggested that the latter techniques are able to provide quantitative images of TMC material. They are able to reveal the same potential defect indications while simultaneously providing more quantitative information concerning the material's inherent properties. Band-limited signal loss and slope-of-attenuation images provide quantitative data on the inherent material characteristics and defects in TMC.

  10. A comparison of conventional and advanced ultrasonic inspection techniques in the characterization of TMC materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Mark R.; Handley, Scott M.; Miller, James G.; Reighard, Mark K.

    1992-01-01

    Results obtained with a conventional ultrasonic inspection technique as well as those obtained with more advanced ultrasonic NDE methods in the characterization of an 8-ply quasi-isotropic titanium matrix composite (TMC) specimen are presented. Images obtained from a conventional ultrasonic inspection of TMC material are compared with those obtained using more sophisticated ultrasonic inspection methods. It is suggested that the latter techniques are able to provide quantitative images of TMC material. They are able to reveal the same potential defect indications while simultaneously providing more quantitative information concerning the material's inherent properties. Band-limited signal loss and slope-of-attenuation images provide quantitative data on the inherent material characteristics and defects in TMC.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  12. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  13. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  14. Ultrasonic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    Ultrasonic has proven its merit as one of the most promising sensing methods for food quality evaluation due to its non-destructive, noninvasive, precise, rapid, and on-line potential. Ultrasonic is mechanical wave at frequencies above 20 kHz propagating by vibration of the particles in the medium and penetrating through optically opaque materials to provide internal or surface information of physical attributes, such as texture and structure. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing is a way of characterizing materials by transmitting ultrasonic waves into a material, and investigating the characteristics of the transmitted and/or reflected ultrasonic waves. For the purpose of quality measurement of materials, low-intensity ultrasonic with the power level of up to 1 W/cm2 has been used. The low-intensity ultrasonic doesn't cause physical or chemical changes in the properties of the specimen when it transmits through the material. However, high-intensity ultrasonic of the power range above 1 W/cm2 may produce physical/chemical disruption and alteration in the material through which the wave propagates. High-intensity ultrasonic is usually used in cleaning, promotion of chemical reactions, homogenization, etc

  15. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  16. Advances in electromagnetic models for three-dimensional nondestructive evaluation of advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2016-02-01

    In past work we have developed a rigorous electromagnetic model and an inversion algorithm for the three-dimensional NDE of advanced composite materials. This approach extends Victor Technologies' work in eddy-current NDE of conventional metals, and allows one to determine in localized regions the fiber-resin ratio in graphite-epoxy, and to determine those anomalies, e.g., delaminations, broken fibers, moisture content, etc., that can be reconstructed by our inversion method. In developing the model, we applied rigorous electromagnetic theory to determine a Green's function for a slab of anisotropic composite material, and then determine the integral relations for the forward and inverse problems using the Green's function. In addition, we have given examples of the solution of forward and inverse problems using these algorithms.

  17. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  18. Soil remediation by an advanced oxidative method assisted with ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Flores, Roberto; Blass, Georgina; Domínguez, Vanessa

    2007-02-01

    A new process for the remediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons is proposed. The innovation consists on coupling an advanced oxidative method, using a Fenton-type catalyst, with the application of ultrasonic energy. The use of ultrasonic energy not only assists the desorption of the contaminants from the soil, but also promotes the formation of OH radicals, which are the oxidant agents involved in the oxidation process. Different Fenton-like catalysts were employed in the present study; however, the highest removal of toluene and xylenes were obtained with iron sulfate and copper sulfate, respectively. Also, hydrogen peroxide was tested at different concentrations, and it was found that increasing its concentration enhanced the removal of all the contaminants. Finally, it was demonstrated that applying ultrasonic energy to the reacting system process noticeably enhanced the global efficiency of the process due to a synergistic effect in conjunction with the hydrogen peroxide concentration and type of catalyst. PMID:17079076

  19. New technology for the design of advanced ultrasonic transducers for high-power applications.

    PubMed

    Parrini, Lorenzo

    2003-06-01

    A new high-frequency ultrasonic transducer for wire bonding has been conceived, designed, prototyped and tested. In the design phase an advanced approach was used and established. The method is based on the two basic principles of modularity and iteration. The transducer is decomposed to its elementary components. For each component an initial design is obtained with finite elements method (FEM) simulations. The simulated ultrasonic modules are then built and characterized experimentally through laser-interferometry measurements and electrical resonance spectra. The comparison of simulation results with experimental data allows the parameters of FEM models to be iteratively adjusted and optimized. The achieved FEM simulations exhibit a remarkably high-predictive potential and allow full control on the vibration behavior of the ultrasonic modules and of the whole transducer. The new transducer is fixed on the wire bonder with a flange whose special geometry was calculated by means of FEM simulations. This flange allows the converter to be attached on the wire bonder not only in longitudinal nodes but also in radial nodes of the ultrasonic field excited in the horn. This leads to a nearly complete decoupling of the transducer to the wire bonder, which has not been previously obtained. The new approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on a welding-device is of major importance not only for wire bonding but also for all high-power ultrasound applications and has been patented. PMID:12782257

  20. Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system for in-situ nondestructive inspection of Space Shuttle RCC heat shields.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Walkington, Phillip D.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) heat shield components on the Space Shuttle's wings must withstand harsh atmospheric reentry environments where the wing leading edge can reach temperatures of 3,000 F. Potential damage includes impact damage, micro cracks, oxidation in the silicon carbide-to-carbon-carbon layers, and interlaminar disbonds. Since accumulated damage in the thick, carbon-carbon and silicon-carbide layers of the heat shields can lead to catastrophic failure of the Shuttle's heat protection system, it was essential for NASA to institute an accurate health monitoring program. NASA's goal was to obtain turnkey inspection systems that could certify the integrity of the Shuttle heat shields prior to each mission. Because of the possibility of damaging the heat shields during removal, the NDI devices must be deployed without removing the leading edge panels from the wing. Recently, NASA selected a multi-method approach for inspecting the wing leading edge which includes eddy current, thermography, and ultrasonics. The complementary superposition of these three inspection techniques produces a rigorous Orbiter certification process that can reliably detect the array of flaws expected in the Shuttle's heat shields. Sandia Labs produced an in-situ ultrasonic inspection method while NASA Langley developed the eddy current and thermographic techniques. An extensive validation process, including blind inspections monitored by NASA officials, demonstrated the ability of these inspection systems to meet the accuracy, sensitivity, and reliability requirements. This report presents the ultrasonic NDI development process and the final hardware configuration. The work included the use of flight hardware and scrap heat shield panels to discover and overcome the obstacles associated with damage detection in the RCC material. Optimum combinations of custom ultrasonic probes and data analyses were merged with the inspection procedures needed to properly survey the heat

  1. Non-destructive evaluation means and method of flaw reconstruction utilizing an ultrasonic multi-viewing transducer data acquistion system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1989-03-28

    A multi-viewing ultrasound transducer acquisition system for non-destructive evaluation, flaw detection and flaw reconstruction in materials. A multiple transducer assembly includes a central transducer surrounded by a plurality of perimeter transducers, each perimeter transducer having an axis of transmission which can be angularly oriented with respect to the axis of transmission of the central transducer to intersect the axis of transmission of the central transducer. A control apparatus automatically and remotely positions the transducer assembly with respect to the material by a positioning apparatus and adjusts the pe GRANT REFERENCE This invention was conceived and reduced to practice at least in part under a grant from the Department of Energy under Contract No. W-7407-ENG-82.

  2. On the processing of highly nonlinear solitary waves and guided ultrasonic waves for structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Abdollah

    The in-situ measurement of thermal stress in civil and mechanical structures may prevent structural anomalies such as unexpected buckling. In the first half of the dissertation, we present a study where highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) were utilized to measure axial stress in slender beams. HNSWs are compact non-dispersive waves that can form and travel in nonlinear systems such as one-dimensional chains of particles. The effect of the axial stress acting in a beam on the propagation of HNSWs was studied. We found that certain features of the solitary waves enable the measurement of the stress. In general, most guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs)-based health monitoring approaches for structural waveguides are based on the comparison of testing data to baseline data. In the second half of the dissertation, we present a study where some baseline-free signal processing algorithms were presented and applied to numerical and experimental data for the structural health monitoring (SHM) of underwater or dry structures. The algorithms are based on one or more of the following: continuous wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, Hilbert transform, competitive optimization algorithm, probabilistic methods. Moreover, experimental data were also processed to extract some features from the time, frequency, and joint time-frequency domains. These features were then fed to a supervised learning algorithm based on artificial neural networks to classify the types of defect. The methods were validated using the numerical model of a plate and a pipe, and the experimental study of a plate in water. In experiment, the propagation of ultrasonic waves was induced by means of laser pulses or transducer and detected with an array of immersion transducers. The results demonstrated that the algorithms are effective, robust against noise, and able to localize and classify the damage.

  3. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, Martin

    2010-01-01

    These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

  4. 29 CFR 1919.78 - Nondestructive examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nondestructive examinations. 1919.78 Section 1919.78 Labor... Nondestructive examinations. (a) Wherever it is considered necessary by the accredited person or his authorized...., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods may be...

  5. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) During Large-Scale Load Testing and Rod Push-Out Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a structural concept developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. The HWB has long been a focus of NASA's environmentally responsible aviation (ERA) project, following a building block approach to structures development, culminating with the testing of a nearly full-scale multi-bay box (MBB), representing a segment of the pressurized, non-circular fuselage portion of the HWB. PRSEUS is an integral structural concept wherein skins, frames, stringers and tear straps made of variable number of layers of dry warp-knit carbon-fiber stacks are stitched together, then resin-infused and cured in an out-of-autoclave process. The PRSEUS concept has the potential for reducing the weight and cost and increasing the structural efficiency of transport aircraft structures. A key feature of PRSEUS is the damage-arresting nature of the stitches, which enables the use of fail-safe design principles. During the load testing of the MBB, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to monitor several sites of intentional barely-visible impact damage (BVID) as well as to survey the areas surrounding the failure cracks after final loading to catastrophic failure. The damage-arresting ability of PRSEUS was confirmed by the results of NDE. In parallel with the large-scale structural testing of the MBB, mechanical tests were conducted of the PRSEUS rod-to-overwrap bonds, as measured by pushing the rod axially from a short length of stringer.

  6. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  7. Sono-bromination of aromatic compounds based on the ultrasonic advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Mitsue; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; Komatsu, Naoki; Kimura, Takahide

    2015-11-01

    A novel, mild "sono-halogenation" of various aromatic compounds with potassium halide was investigated under ultrasound in a biphasic carbon tetrachloride/water medium. The feasibility study was first undertaken with the potassium bromide and then extended to chloride and iodide analogues. This methodology could be considered as a new expansion of the ultrasonic advanced oxidation processes (UAOPs) into a synthetic aspect as the developed methodology is linked to the sonolytic disappearance of carbon tetrachloride. Advantages of the present method are not only that the manipulation of the bromination is simple and green, but also that the halogenating agents used are readily available, inexpensive, and easy-handling. PMID:26186842

  8. Nondestructive evaluation of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, Stanley J.; Baaklini, George Y.; Abel, Phillip B.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on research and development of techniques for nondestructive evaluation and characterization of advanced ceramics for heat engine applications. Highlighted in this review are Lewis Research Center efforts in microfocus radiography, scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning electron acoustic microscopy (SEAM), and photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). The techniques were evaluated by applying them to research samples of green and sintered silicon nitride and silicon carbide in the form of modulus-of-rupture bars containing seeded voids. Probabilities of detection of voids were determined for diameters as small as 20 microns for microfucus radiography, SLAM, and SAM. Strengths and limitations of the techniques for ceramic applications are identified. Application of ultrasonics for characterizing ceramic microstructures is also discussed.

  9. Application of Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Cylindrical Composite Test Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Two nondestructive methods were applied to composite cylinder samples pressurized to failure in order to determine manufacturing quality and monitor damage progression under load. A unique computed tomography (CT) image processing methodology developed at NASA Glenn Research was used to assess the condition of the as-received samples while acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to identify both the extent and location of damage within the samples up to failure. Results show the effectiveness of both of these methods in identifying potentially critical fabrication issues and their resulting impact on performance.

  10. Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  11. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, B.P.

    1994-08-02

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges. 4 figs.

  12. Nondestructive ultrasonic testing of materials

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1994-01-01

    Reflection wave forms obtained from aged and unaged material samples can be compared in order to indicate trends toward age-related flaws. Statistical comparison of a large number of data points from such wave forms can indicate changes in the microstructure of the material due to aging. The process is useful for predicting when flaws may occur in structural elements of high risk structures such as nuclear power plants, airplanes, and bridges.

  13. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Welds On Tube Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Arjun N.; Nummelin, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Scanning ultrasonic apparatus designed for use in nondestructive inspection of electron-beam welds between heat-exchanger tube and end fittings. Includes ultrasonic probe, scanning mechanism, ultrasonic-signal-generating and -processing circuits, and computers. Not necessary to immerse any part of apparatus or tube/fitting assembly in water during inspection. Output ultrasonic-test signals displayed on computer to reveal defects.

  14. Advances in the development of ultrasonic search units for coarse-grained structures

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, F.; Bernus, L.V.; Schmid, R.; Malmer, C.

    1994-12-31

    Increasingly stringent inspection requirements at home and abroad are being matched by further advances in the existing range of examination systems and equipment. These requirements are the driving force behind the expansion of inspection programs for austenitic materials. A general description on inspection methods for austenitic steel which would be suitable for inclusion in the pertinent codes and standards has yet to be elaborated. The results of measurements obtained using electromagnetic ultrasonic transducers show considerable promise. With horizontally polarized transverse waves it is possible to detect longitudinal discontinuities through the weld metal, even if the inspection is performed from one side only. Examination for transverse discontinuities is more difficult. For such applications it is necessary to use inspection techniques which have been specially optimized to the particular application. Cast austenitic steel is the most difficult material to examine. The following measures can improve its examinability: (1) selection of lower frequencies to prevent scattering of the ultrasonic beam; (2) use of focusing techniques, e.g. synthetic aperture techniques to improve the signal-to-noise; (3) exact matching of search units to the geometry of the item to be examined. The problems encountered in connection with search units and inspection methods are discussed in the following on the basis of actual practical examples.

  15. Nondestructive testing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Don E.; McBride, Don

    A comprehensive reference covering a broad range of techniques in nondestructive testing is presented. Based on years of extensive research and application at NASA and other government research facilities, the book provides practical guidelines for selecting the appropriate testing methods and equipment. Topics discussed include visual inspection, penetrant and chemical testing, nuclear radiation, sonic and ultrasonic, thermal and microwave, magnetic and electromagnetic techniques, and training and human factors. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  16. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-08-30

    Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.

  17. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of engineering properties in metals, composites and ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic technology from the perspective of nondestructive evaluation approaches to material strength prediction and property verification is reviewed. Emergent advanced technology involving quantitative ultrasonic techniques for materials characterization is described. Ultrasonic methods are particularly useful in this area because they involve mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by the same morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and dynamic failure processes. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before all the available techniques can be transferred from laboratory to industrial environments.

  18. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2321 - Nondestructive tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2321 Nondestructive tests. (a) The butt welds in metal shells... with internal design pressures at 15 psig or less, ultrasonic examinations of welds on metal containers... ultrasonic equipment is found to be out of calibration, all previous weld inspections that are suspect...

  20. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  1. A review of issues and strategies in nondestructive evaluation of fiber reinforced structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    The need for advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for quantitative assessment of the mechanical strength and integrity of fiber composites during manufacture and service and following repair operations is stressed. The discussion covers problems and different approaches in regard to acceptance criteria, calibration standards, and methods for NDE of composites in strength critical applications. Finally, it is concluded that acousto-ultrasonic techniques provide the 'methods of choice' in this area.

  2. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of composite-to-metal bond interface of a wind turbine blade using an acousto-ultrasonic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gieske, J.H.; Rumsey, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    An acousto-ultrasonic inspection technique was developed to evaluate the structural integrity of the epoxy bond interface between a metal insert and the fiber glass epoxy composite of a wind turbine blade. Data was generated manually as well as with a PC based data acquisition and display system. C-scan imaging using a portable ultrasonic scanning system provided an area mapping of the delamination or disbond due to fatigue testing and normal field operation conditions of the turbine blade. Comparison of the inspection data with a destructive visual examination of the bond interface to determine the extent of the disbond showed good agreement between the acousto-ultrasonic inspection data and the visual data.

  3. A feasibility and optimization study to determine cooling time and burnup of advanced test reactor fuels using a nondestructive technique

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available non-destructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burn-up and cooling time of the fuel elements onsite at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads3 to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements non-destructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed was used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method

  4. An eddy-current model for three-dimensional nondestructive evaluation of advanced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a rigorous electromagnetic model and an inversion algorithm for the three-dimensional NDE of advanced composite materials. This approach extends Victor Technologies' work in eddy-current NDE of conventional metals, and allows one to determine in localized regions the fiber-resin ratio in graphite-epoxy, and to determine those anomalies, e.g., delaminations, broken fibers, moisture content, etc., that can be reconstructed by our inversion method. In developing the model, we apply rigorous electromagnetic theory to determine a Green's function for a slab of anisotropic composite material, and then determine the integral relations for the forward and inverse problems using the Green's function. We will give examples of the solution of forward problems using this model.

  5. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    drawings and documentation (iii) Lack of compatibility with modern computers, software, data transfer networks, digital protocols and electrical code standards, (iv) Non-compliance with current and future mandatory standards and regulations for nuclear facilities (v) Design focused on measurement and control points that may be specific to the facility process (vi) Lack of utilization of recent technological advances where better performing, less complex and more cost-effective options are now available. Key radiometric measurement drivers and control points for future recycling facilities have been determined and a review of the adequacy of existing instrumentation has been performed. Areas where recent technology improvements may be more effectively deployed and future technology development may be appropriate are identified. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    MicroUltrasonics PLR-1000 is a refined microprocessor-controlled version (usable on bolts, plates, liquids and gases) of the P2L2 developed by Langley Research Center. New technique is for nondestructive measurement of residual stress in various types of structures, for example, nuclear pressure vessels, pipes in nuclear reactors, offshore platforms, bridges, railroad tracks and wheels, aircraft wings, and engines. The instrument produces sound tone pulses that travel through a test specimen. PLR-1000 precisely measures speeds as stress increases speed of sound, tone changes, making precise measurements possible.

  7. A study of the stress wave factor technique for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarrafzadeh-Khoee, A.; Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    The acousto-ultrasonic method of nondestructive evaluation is an extremely sensitive means of assessing material response. Efforts continue to complete the understanding of this method. In order to achieve the full sensitivity of the technique, extreme care must be taken in its performance. This report provides an update of the efforts to advance the understanding of this method and to increase its application to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. Included are descriptions of a novel optical system that is capable of measuring in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, an IBM PC-based data acquisition system, an extensive data analysis software package, the azimuthal variation of acousto-ultrasonic behavior in graphite/epoxy laminates, and preliminary examination of processing variation in graphite-aluminum tubes.

  8. Enhanced Ultrasonic Characterization of Assemblies,TLL{_}9

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Chinn, D.

    2000-02-22

    The solid state bonded joint between two components; called an autoclave bond, is critical to the performance of a weapon system. A nondestructive method to assess the integrity of these joints is needed to certify the weapon for extended life. This project is developing ultrasonic technologies for bond quality assessment. Existing ultrasonic technology easily maps totally unbonded areas in a bond line. As an example, Figure 1 is an ultrasonic image of the bondline in a tensile specimen that was taken from a surrogate autoclave bond. We enhanced this technology to quantify the mechanical properties of a bond. There are situations when a bond interface appears intact by existing inspection methods, but fails under minimal loading. We developed an ultrasonic technique to eliminate this problem and assess the durability of the bond. Our approach is based on advanced signal processing and artificial intelligence techniques that extract information from the ultrasonic signal after it interacts with the bondline. We successfully demonstrated this technique on surrogate samples. We also designed and began assembly of an ultrasonic system to evaluate weapon components. Our next step is to acquire ultrasonic data on real parts and tailor the bond classification algorithm to detect and image defective bond regions.

  9. Practical applications of nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert E., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are reviewed for applications to the industrial production of materials including microstructural, physical, and chemical analyses. NDE techniques addressed include: (1) double-pulse holographic interferometry for sealed-package leak testing; (2) process controls for noncontact metals fabrication; (3) ultrasonic detections of oxygen contamination in titanium welds; and (4) scanning acoustic microscopy for the evaluation of solder bonds. The use of embedded sensors and emerging NDE concepts provides the means for controlling the manufacturing and quality of quartz crystal resonators, nickel single-crystal turbine blades, and integrated circuits. Advances in sensor technology and artificial intelligence algorithms and the use of embedded sensors combine to make NDE technology highly effective in controlling industrial materials manufacturing and the quality of the products.

  10. Quarterly Research Performance Progress Report (2015 Q3). Ultrasonic Phased Arrays and Interactive Reflectivity Tomography for Nondestructive Inspection of Injection and Production Wells in Geothermal Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Polsky, Yarom; Kisner, Roger A; Johnson, Christi R; Collins, Case; Bouman, Charles; Abdulrahman, Hani; Foster, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    For the past quarter, we have placed our effort in implementing the first version of the ModelBased Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm, assembling and testing the electronics, designing transducers mounts, and defining our laboratory test samples. We have successfully developed the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasound imaging. The current algorithm was tested with synthetic data and we are currently making new modifications for the reconstruction of real ultrasound data. Beside assembling and testing the electronics, we developed a LabView graphic user interface (GUI) to fully control the ultrasonic phased array, adjust the time-delays of the transducers, and store the measured reflections. As part of preparing for a laboratory-scale demonstration, the design and fabrication of the laboratory samples has begun. Three cement blocks with embedded objects will be fabricated, characterized, and used to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. During the next quarter, we will continue to improve the current MBIR forward model and integrate the reconstruction code with the LabView GUI. In addition, we will define focal laws for the ultrasonic phased array and perform the laboratory demonstration. We expect to perform laboratory demonstration by the end of October 2015.

  11. Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, M.W.

    2001-01-11

    A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

  12. Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Brown, A.

    1997-10-01

    Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch in diameter. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corrosion. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is working with the California Department of Water Resources to develop advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructively inspecting their tendons. A unique transducer was designed and fabricated to interrogate the entire tendon. A robust,portable unit was assembled that included a computer controlled data acquisition system and specialized data processing software to analyze the ultrasonic signals. This system was tested on laboratory specimens and is presently being fielded at two dam sites.

  13. Further development of ultrasonic techniques for non-destructive evaluation based on Fourier analysis of signals from irregular and inhomogeneous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the use of Fourier analysis techniques model systems had to be designed to test some of the general properties of the interaction of sound with an inhomogeneity. The first models investigated were suspensions of solid spheres in water. These systems allowed comparison between theoretical computation of the frequency dependence of the attenuation coefficient and measurement of the attenuation coefficient over a range of frequencies. Ultrasonic scattering processes in both suspensions of hard spheres in water, and suspensions of hard spheres in polyester resin were investigated. The second model system was constructed to test the applicability of partial wave analysis to the description of an inhomogeneity in a solid, and to test the range of material properties over which the measurement systems were valid.

  14. Ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors for electronic canopy characterization in vineyards: advances to improve pesticide application methods.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (C(VU)) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R(2) = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R(2) = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (C(HL)) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  15. Ultrasonic and LIDAR Sensors for Electronic Canopy Characterization in Vineyards: Advances to Improve Pesticide Application Methods

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Llop, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Canopy characterization is a key factor to improve pesticide application methods in tree crops and vineyards. Development of quick, easy and efficient methods to determine the fundamental parameters used to characterize canopy structure is thus an important need. In this research the use of ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors have been compared with the traditional manual and destructive canopy measurement procedure. For both methods the values of key parameters such as crop height, crop width, crop volume or leaf area have been compared. Obtained results indicate that an ultrasonic sensor is an appropriate tool to determine the average canopy characteristics, while a LIDAR sensor provides more accuracy and detailed information about the canopy. Good correlations have been obtained between crop volume (CVU) values measured with ultrasonic sensors and leaf area index, LAI (R2 = 0.51). A good correlation has also been obtained between the canopy volume measured with ultrasonic and LIDAR sensors (R2 = 0.52). Laser measurements of crop height (CHL) allow one to accurately predict the canopy volume. The proposed new technologies seems very appropriate as complementary tools to improve the efficiency of pesticide applications, although further improvements are still needed. PMID:22319405

  16. Assessment of weld quality of aerospace grade metals by using ultrasonic matrix phased array technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-03-01

    Advantages of two dimensional electronic ultrasonic beam focusing, steering and scanning with the matrix phased array (MPA) technology has been used to visualize the conditions of resistance spot welds in auto vehicle grade advanced high strength steel carbon steels nondestructively. Two of the commonly used joining techniques, resistance spot welding and resistance seam welding, for thin aerospace grade plates made of aluminum, titanium, and stainless steels have also been inspected with the same MPA NDE system. In this study, a detailed discussions of the current MPA based ultrasonic real time imaging methodology has been made followed by some of the NDT results obtained with various welded test coupons.

  17. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  18. Advance in friction welding and ultrasonic welding of ceramics to metals

    SciTech Connect

    Greitmann, M.J.; Weib, R.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have joined four different ceramic materials (MgO-PSZ, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cylinders 10 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length) to the aluminum alloy Al-Si1MgMn by friction welding. Process parameters such as friction speed, axial force, burn-off and torque have been recorded continuously. For some specimens the authors recorded the temperature at the interface using thermocouples. The joints obtained were tested in tension. Fracture occurred either in the ceramic or at the interface. Heat conduction calculations to estimate the temperature distribution during welding have been conducted by the Finite Element Method (FEM), using experimental data for input. Afterwards, residual stresses introduced through thermal expansion mismatch and stresses introduced through a tensile test have been determined by FEM. Applying multiaxial Weibull statistics to the ceramic specimen, tensile strength for different geometries of the joint and different material combinations was estimated. Ultrasonic welded joints of MgO-PSZ and Steel X 4 CrNi 18-10 according to DIN EN (comparable to the US-steel AISI No. 304) could be realized using aluminum interlayers. In addition to a conventional ultrasonic welding equipment for metal welding a new molecular coldwelding technique (ultrasonic torsional welding system) was tested. In comparison to friction welding the ultrasonic welding technique results in limited deformation of the ceramic-metal joint parts and in a decreased welding time. Nevertheless a special solution must be found to the problem of tool wear and the vibration conditions.

  19. An approach for relating the results of quantitative nondestructive evaluation to intrinsic properties of high-performance materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most difficult problems the manufacturing community has faced during recent years has been to accurately assess the physical state of anisotropic high-performance materials by nondestructive means. In order to advance the design of ultrasonic nondestructive testing systems, a more fundamental understanding of how ultrasonic waves travel and interact within the anisotropic material is needed. The relationship between the ultrasonic and engineering parameters needs to be explored to understand their mutual dependence. One common denominator is provided by the elastic constants. The preparation of specific graphite/epoxy samples to be used in the experimental investigation of the anisotropic properties (through the measurement of the elastic stiffness constants) is discussed. Accurate measurements of these constants will depend upon knowledge of refraction effects as well as the direction of group velocity propagation. The continuing effort for the development of improved visualization techniques for physical parameters is discussed. Group velocity images are presented and discussed. In order to fully understand the relationship between the ultrasonic and the common engineering parameters, the physical interpretation of the linear elastic coefficients (the quantities that relate applied stresses to resulting strains) are discussed. This discussion builds a more intuitional understanding of how the ultrasonic parameters are related to the traditional engineering parameters.

  20. Neutron radiography as a non-destructive method for diagnosing neutron converters for advanced thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraro, A.; Albani, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Croci, G.; Angella, G.; Birch, J.; Cazzaniga, C.; Caniello, R.; Dell'Era, F.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Höglund, C.; Hultman, L.; Schimdt, S.; Robinson, L.; Rebai, M.; Salvato, G.; Tresoldi, D.; Vasi, C.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the well-known problem of 3He shortage, a series of different thermal neutron detectors alternative to helium tubes are being developed, with the goal to find valid candidates for detection systems for the future spallation neutron sources such as the European Spallation Source (ESS). A possible 3He-free detector candidate is a charged particle detector equipped with a three dimensional neutron converter cathode (3D-C). The 3D-C currently under development is composed by a series of alumina (Al2O3) lamellas coated by 1 μ m of 10B enriched boron carbide (B4C). In order to obtain a good characterization in terms of detector efficiency and uniformity it is crucial to know the thickness, the uniformity and the atomic composition of the B4C neutron converter coating. In this work a non-destructive technique for the characterization of the lamellas that will compose the 3D-C was performed using neutron radiography. The results of these measurements show that the lamellas that will be used have coating uniformity suitable for detector applications. This technique (compared with SEM, EDX, ERDA, XPS) has the advantage of being global (i.e. non point-like) and non-destructive, thus it is suitable as a check method for mass production of the 3D-C elements.

  1. Nondestructive testing of brazed rocket engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, C. J.; Hagemaier, D. J.; Meyer, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    Report details study made of nondestructive radiographic, ultrasonic, thermographic, and leak test methods used to inspect and evaluate the quality of the various brazed joints in liquid-propellant rocket engine components and assemblies. Descriptions of some of the unique equipment and methods developed are included.

  2. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  3. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  4. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of high voltage circuit boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Riley, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary observations indicate that an ultrasonic scanning technique may be useful as a quick, low cost, nondestructive method for judging the quality of circuit board materials for high voltage applications. Corona inception voltage tests were conducted on fiberglass-epoxy and fiberglass-polyimide high pressure laminates from 20 to 140 C. The same materials were scanned ultrasonically by utilizing the single transducer, through-transmission technique with reflector plate, and recording variations in ultrasonic energy transmitted through the board thickness. A direct relationship was observed between ultrasonic transmission level and corona inception voltage. The ultrasonic technique was subsequently used to aid selection of high quality circuit boards for the Communications Technology Satellite.

  6. Use Of Video In Microscopic And Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.

    1994-01-01

    Two combinations of video and image-data-processing techniques, tone-pulse encoding and precision acoustic imaging, yield grain- and pore-size distributions. Knowledge of such and of fiber orientation important because these characteristics directly related to tensile strength, hardness, fracture toughness, fracture stress, and resistance to impact. One of these combinations of techniques used in nondestructive evaluation of composite parts; both play important roles in development of lightweight composites for use at high temperatures in advanced engines and aircraft. Video system provides easy access to information on diffraction and refraction like that described in article, "Ultrasonic Inspection With Angular-Power-Spectrum Scanning" (LEW-15386).

  7. Prototype instrument for noninvasive ultrasonic inspection and identification of fluids in sealed containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brian J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Eckenrode, Brian A.

    2006-05-01

    Government agencies and homeland security related organizations have identified the need to develop and establish a wide range of unprecedented capabilities for providing scientific and technical forensic services to investigations involving hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological materials, including extremely dangerous chemical and biological warfare agents. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a prototype portable, handheld, hazardous materials acoustic inspection prototype that provides noninvasive container interrogation and material identification capabilities using nondestructive ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements. Due to the wide variety of fluids as well as container sizes and materials encountered in various law enforcement inspection activities, the need for high measurement sensitivity and advanced ultrasonic measurement techniques were identified. The prototype was developed using a versatile electronics platform, advanced ultrasonic wave propagation methods, and advanced signal processing techniques. This paper primarily focuses on the ultrasonic measurement methods and signal processing techniques incorporated into the prototype. High bandwidth ultrasonic transducers combined with an advanced pulse compression technique allowed researchers to 1) obtain high signal-to-noise ratios and 2) obtain accurate and consistent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements through a variety of highly attenuative containers and fluid media. Results of work conducted in the laboratory have demonstrated that the prototype experimental measurement technique also provided information regarding container properties, which will be utilized in future container-independent measurements of hidden liquids.

  8. Interdisciplinary program for quantitative nondestructive evaluation. Semiannual report, 1 October 1981-31 March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This report constitutes the semiannual report of the Air Force/Defense Advanced Research Project Agency research program in quantitative nondestructive evaluation covering the period October 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982. It is organized by projects, each of which contains the reports of individual investigations. Because the goals of the projects are largely such that strong interdisciplinary interactions are necessary in order to achieve them, the individual reports reflect a close cooperation between various investigators. Projects included in this year's effort are: application of ultrasonic QNDE to RFC window problems; electromagnetic detection and sizing; new technical opportunities; and new flaw detection techniques. Twenty-three project reports are presented.

  9. Correlations among ultrasonic propagation factors and fracture toughness properties of metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1976-01-01

    Empirical evidence was developed to show that a close relation exists among fracture toughness, yield strength, and ultrasonic attenuation properties of metallic materials. The evidence was obtained by ultrasonic probing of specimens of two maraging steels and a titanium alloy. It was concluded that nondestructive ultrasonic methods can be used to indirectly evaluate fracture-related material properties. The results suggest that these nondestructive ultrasonic measurements can also serve as an adjunct to destructive testing, measurement, and analysis of fracture properties.

  10. Tracking accelerated aging of composites with ultrasonic attenuation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Durbin, P.F.; Thomas, G.H.; Groves, S.E.

    1996-10-01

    Composite materials are steadily replacing traditional materials in many industries. For many carbon composite materials, particularly in aerospace applications, durability is a critical design parameter which must be accurately characterized. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group have established a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to assist in the high speed research program at Boeing. LLNL`s expertise in fiber composites, computer modeling, mechanical testing, chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation (ND) will contribute to the study of advanced composite materials in commercial aerospace applications. Through thermo-mechanical experiments with periodic chemical analysis and nondestructive evaluation, the aging mechanisms in several continuous fiber polymer composites will be studied. Several measurement techniques are being studied for their correlation with aging. This paper describes through-transmission ultrasonic attenuation measurements of isothermally aged composite materials and their use as a tracking parameter for accelerated aging.

  11. Local defect resonance for sensitive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebahr, W.; Solodov, I.; Rahammer, M.; Gulnizkij, N.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave-defect interaction is a background of ultrasound activated techniques for imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and industrial components. The interaction, primarily, results in acoustic response of a defect which provides attenuation and scattering of ultrasound used as an indicator of defects in conventional ultrasonic NDT. The derivative ultrasonic-induced effects include e.g. nonlinear, thermal, acousto-optic, etc. responses also applied for NDT and defect imaging. These secondary effects are normally relatively inefficient so that the corresponding NDT techniques require an elevated acoustic power and stand out from conventional ultrasonic NDT counterparts for their specific instrumentation particularly adapted to high-power ultrasonic. In this paper, a consistent way to enhance ultrasonic, optical and thermal defect responses and thus to reduce an ultrasonic power required is suggested by using selective ultrasonic activation of defects based on the concept of local defect resonance (LDR). A strong increase in vibration amplitude at LDR enables to reliably detect and visualize the defect as soon as the driving ultrasonic frequency is matched to the LDR frequency. This also provides a high frequency selectivity of the LDR-based imaging, i.e. an opportunity of detecting a certain defect among a multitude of other defects in material. Some examples are shown how to use LDR in non-destructive testing techniques, like vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography and shearography in order to enhance the sensitivity of defect visualization.

  12. Acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical development, methodology, and potential applications of acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive testing are set forth in an overview to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Stochastic wave propagation is utilized to isolate and describe defects in fiber-reinforced composites, particularly emphasizing the integrated effects of diffuse populations of subcritical flaws. The generation and nature of acousto-ultrasonic signals are described in detail, and stress-wave factor analysis of the signals is discussed. Applications of acousto-ultrasonics are listed including the prediction of failure sites, assessing fatique and impact damage, calculating ultimate tensile strength, and determining interlaminar bond strength. The method can identify subtle but important variations in fiber-reinforced composites, and development of the related instrumentation technology is emphasized.

  13. Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

  14. System Model for MEMS based Laser Ultrasonic Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.

    2002-01-01

    A need has been identified for more advanced nondestructive Evaluation technologies for assuring the integrity of airframe structures, wiring, etc. Laser ultrasonic inspection instruments have been shown to detect flaws in structures. However, these instruments are generally too bulky to be used in the confined spaces that are typical of aerospace vehicles. Microsystems technology is one key to reducing the size of current instruments and enabling increased inspection coverage in areas that were previously inaccessible due to instrument size and weight. This paper investigates the system modeling of a Micro OptoElectroMechanical System (MOEMS) based laser ultrasonic receiver. The system model is constructed in software using MATLAB s dynamical simulator, Simulink. The optical components are modeled using geometrical matrix methods and include some image processing. The system model includes a test bench which simulates input stimuli and models the behavior of the material under test.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Developed for Certifying Composite Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Konno, Kevin E.; Martin, Richard E.; Thompson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing readiness of composite rotors and certification of flywheels depend in part on the maturity of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology for process optimization and quality assurance, respectively. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the capabilities and limitations of x-ray-computed tomography and radiography, as well as advanced ultrasonics were established on NDE ring and rotor standards with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches and drilled holes. Also, intentionally seeded delamination, tow break, and insert of bagging material were introduced in hydroburst-rings to study the NDE detection capabilities of such anomalies and their effect on the damage tolerance and safe life margins of subscale rings and rotors. Examples of possible occurring flaws or anomalies in composite rings as detected by NDE and validated by destructive metallography are shown. The general NDE approach to ensure the quality of composite rotors and to help in the certification of flywheels is briefly outlined.

  16. Nondestructive evaluation of environmental barrier coatings in CFCC combustor liners.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Benz, J.; Ellingson, W. A.; Kimmel, J. B.; Price, J. R.; Energy Technology; Solar Turbines, Inc

    2007-01-01

    Advanced combustor liners fabricated of SiC/SiC continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composite (CFCC) and covered with environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) have been successfully tested in Solar Turbines Inc. field engines. The primary goal for the CFCC/EBC liners is to reach a 30,000-h lifetime. Because the EBCs, when applied on the hot surfaces of liners, protect the underlying CFCC from oxidation damage, their performance is critical in achieving the lifetime goal. To determine CFCC/EBC liner condition and assess operating damage, the liners were subjected to nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during various processing stages, as well as before and after the engine test. The NDE techniques included pulsed infrared thermal imaging, air-coupled ultrasonic scanning, and X-ray computerized tomography. It was found that EBC damage and spallation depend on the condition of the CFCC material. The NDE results and correlations with destructive examination are discussed.

  17. Bonding and nondestructive evaluation of graphite/PEEK composite and titanium adherends with thermoplastic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, W. T.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Berry, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bonded single overlap shear specimens were fabricated from Graphite/PEEK (Polyetheretherketone) composite adherends and titanium adherends. Six advanced thermoplastic adhesives were used for the bonding. The specimens were bonded by an electromagnetic induction technique producing high heating rates and high-strength bonds in a few minutes. This contrasts with conventionally heated presses or autoclaves that take hours to process comparable quality bonds. The Graphite/PEEK composites were highly resistant to delamination during the testing. This allowed the specimen to fail exclusively through the bondline, even at very high shear loads. Nondestructive evaluation of bonded specimens was performed ultrasonically by energizing the entire thickness of the material through the bondline and measuring acoustic impedance parameters. Destructive testing confirmed the unique ultrasonic profiles of strong and weak bonds, establishing a standard for predicting relative bond strength in subsequent specimens.

  18. Near Real-Time Nondestructive Active Inspection Technologies Utilizing Delayed γ-Rays and Neutrons for Advanced Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Alan; Reedy, E. T.E.; Mozin, V.; Tobin, S. J.

    2015-02-12

    In this two year project, the research team investigated how delayed γ-rays from short-lived fission fragments detected in the short interval between irradiating pulses can be exploited for advanced safeguards technologies. This program contained experimental and modeling efforts. The experimental effort measured the emitted spectra, time histories and correlations of the delayed γ-rays from aqueous solutions and solid targets containing fissionable isotopes. The modeling effort first developed and benchmarked a hybrid Monte Carlo simulation technique based on these experiments. The benchmarked simulations were then extended to other safeguards scenarios, allowing comparisons to other advanced safeguards technologies and to investigate combined techniques. Ultimately, the experiments demonstrated the possible utility of actively induced delayed γ-ray spectroscopy for fissionable material assay.

  19. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  20. Acoustic wave generation by microwaves and applications to nondestructive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hosten, Bernard; Bacon, Christophe; Guilliorit, Emmanuel

    2002-05-01

    Although acoustic wave generation by electromagnetic waves has been widely studied in the case of laser-generated ultrasounds, the literature on acoustic wave generation by thermal effects due to electromagnetic microwaves is very sparse. Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the phenomenon of microwave generation, i.e. radiation pressure, electrostriction or thermal expansion. Now it is known that the main cause is the thermal expansion due to the microwave absorption. This paper will review the recent advances in the theory and experiments that introduce a new way to generate ultrasonic waves without contact for the purpose of nondestructive evaluation and control. The unidirectional theory based on Maxwell's equations, heat equation and thermoviscoelasticity predicts the generation of acoustic waves at interfaces and inside stratified materials. Acoustic waves are generated by a pulsed electromagnetic wave or a burst at a chosen frequency such that materials can be excited with a broad or narrow frequency range. Experiments show the generation of acoustic waves in water, viscoelastic polymers and composite materials shaped as rod and plates. From the computed and measured accelerations at interfaces, the viscoelastic and electromagnetic properties of materials such as polymers and composites can be evaluated (NDE). Preliminary examples of non-destructive testing applications are presented. PMID:12159977

  1. Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.; Randall, M. D.; Mitchell, D. K.; Williams, L. P.; Pattee, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The ability to fabricate design critical and man-rated aerospace structures using materials near the limits of their capabilities requires a comprehensive and dependable assurance program. The quality assurance program must rely heavily on nondestructive testing methods for thorough inspection to assess properties and quality of hardware items. A survey of nondestructive testing methods is presented to provide space program managers, supervisors and engineers who are unfamiliar with this technical area with appropriate insight into the commonly accepted nondestructive testing methods available, their interrelationships, used, advantages and limitations. Primary emphasis is placed on the most common methods: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonics and eddy current. A number of the newer test techniques including thermal, acoustic emission, holography, microwaves, eddy-sonic and exo-electron emission, which are beginning to be used in applications of interest to NASA, are also discussed briefly.

  2. Ultrasonic examination techniques for multicouple thermoelectric subcomponents and assemblies: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Since the early 1960s, the United States has been using radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), developed by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors, for a variety of environments including space. A recent concept in building RTGs uses modular components to allow for an advanced, lighter space mission generator that provides scaled power level outputs. The scalability feature of the modular isotopic thermoelectric generator (MITG) represents a major advance over earlier RTG designs. However, special problems are encountered in applying nondestructive testing methods because of the miniature size of parts that require inspection. This report describes the status of ultrasonic inspection methods being developed to examine the subcomponents and assemblies of the; MITG. The principal emphasis has been to evaluate various bonds between subcomponents using ultrasonic techniques that employ focused search units and a pulse-echo method.

  3. Cement-based materials' characterization using ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punurai, Wonsiri

    The quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of cement-based materials is a critical area of research that is leading to advances in the health monitoring and condition assessment of the civil infrastructure. Ultrasonic NDE has been implemented with varying levels of success to characterize cement-based materials with complex microstructure and damage. A major issue with the application of ultrasonic techniques to characterize cement-based materials is their inherent inhomogeneity at multiple length scales. Ultrasonic waves propagating in these materials exhibit a high degree of attenuation losses, making quantitative interpretations difficult. Physically, these attenuation losses are a combination of internal friction in a viscoelastic material (ultrasonic absorption), and the scattering losses due to the material heterogeneity. The objective of this research is to use ultrasonic attenuation to characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous cement-based materials. The study considers a real, but simplified cement-based material, cement paste---a common bonding matrix of all cement-based composites. Cement paste consists of Portland cement and water but does not include aggregates. First, this research presents the findings of a theoretical study that uses a set of existing acoustics models to quantify the scattered ultrasonic wavefield from a known distribution of entrained air voids. These attenuation results are then coupled with experimental measurements to develop an inversion procedure that directly predicts the size and volume fraction of entrained air voids in a cement paste specimen. Optical studies verify the accuracy of the proposed inversion scheme. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of using attenuation to measure the average size, volume fraction of entrained air voids and the existence of additional larger entrapped air voids in hardened cement paste. Finally, coherent and diffuse ultrasonic waves are used to develop a direct

  4. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  5. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1985-09-04

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  6. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    DOEpatents

    Hood, D.W.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.

    1987-12-15

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder is disclosed. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws. 5 figs.

  7. Thermography And Ultrasonics Find Flaws In Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Smith, Barry T.; Winfree, William P.

    1993-01-01

    Flaws first located in infrared imagery, then probed ultrasonically to reveal details. Thermographic and ultrasonic techniques, applied sequentially, constitute basis of developmental method of nondestructive inspection of structures made of lightweight composite materials like carbon-fiber/epoxy-matrix laminates. Method enables rapid detection and evaluation of damage and other flaws in composite structures. Does not require access to both sides of structure to be inspected.

  8. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Smith, John F.; Lee, Seung S.; Li, Yan

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  9. Method of ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Taejon Ch'ungmam; Yan Li.

    1993-10-12

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improves reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figures.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation technique guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

  11. Advanced Recording and Preprocessing of Physiological Signals. [data processing equipment for flow measurement of blood flow by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of the volume flow-rate of blood in an artery or vein requires both an estimate of the flow velocity and its spatial distribution and the corresponding cross-sectional area. Transcutaneous measurements of these parameters can be performed using ultrasonic techniques that are analogous to the measurement of moving objects by use of a radar. Modern digital data recording and preprocessing methods were applied to the measurement of blood-flow velocity by means of the CW Doppler ultrasonic technique. Only the average flow velocity was measured and no distribution or size information was obtained. Evaluations of current flowmeter design and performance, ultrasonic transducer fabrication methods, and other related items are given. The main thrust was the development of effective data-handling and processing methods by application of modern digital techniques. The evaluation resulted in useful improvements in both the flowmeter instrumentation and the ultrasonic transducers. Effective digital processing algorithms that provided enhanced blood-flow measurement accuracy and sensitivity were developed. Block diagrams illustrative of the equipment setup are included.

  12. Advanced Numerical Modeling of the Dispersion of Ceramic Nanoparticles during Ultrasonic Cavitation Processing and Solidification of 6061-based Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Nastac, L.

    2015-06-01

    The metal-matrix-nano-composites (MMNCs) in this study consist of a 6061 alloy matrix reinforced with 1.0 wt.% SiC 50 nm diameter nanoparticles that are dispersed uniformly within the matrix in large volume using an ultrasonic cavitation dispersion technique (UCDS) available in the Solidification Laboratory at UA. The required ultrasonic parameters to achieve the required cavitation for adequate degassing and refining of the aluminium alloy as well as the fluid flow characteristics for uniform dispersion of the nanoparticles into the 6061 matrix are being investigated in this study by using an in-house developed CFD ultrasonic cavitation model. The multiphase CFD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification as well as the complex interaction between the solidifying alloy and nanoparticles by using the Ansys's Fluent Dense Discrete Phase Model (DDPM) and a particle engulfment and pushing (PEP) model. The PEP model accounts for the Brownian motion. SEM analysis was performed on the as-cast MMNC coupons processed via UCDS and confirmed the distribution of the nanoparticles predicted by the current CFD model. A parametric study was performed using the validated CFD model. The study includes the effects of magnitude of the fluid flow and ultrasonic probe location (gravity direction).

  13. Forty years with nondestructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, George

    1999-12-01

    The author takes the opportunity to strike the balance of his activity. He was the first establishing the qualitative and quantitative influence of curing conditions of concrete on the relations between nondestructively measured values, ultrasonic pulse velocity or attenuation and rebound indices (V,A,R) and its compressive strength. Since 1969 he had been behind a new approach for simultaneous use of concrete. The advantage of this multiple correlation concept (an off-spring of an original method for statistical quality analysis for the control of concrete quality) have been already well documented. The author established also a new criterium for the frost resistance of concrete, based on the variation of the logarithmic decrement of the vibrations (both free or forced). His activity as an expert led to the foundation of the "Engineering Society Cologne." He was entrusted with its presidency. Further examples shall inform about different field investigations carried out.

  14. Concept for a Micro Autonomous Ultrasonic Instrument (MAUI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate a concept for the construction a mobile Micro Optical ElectroMechanical Systems (MOEMS) based laser ultrasonic instrument to serve as a Micro Autonomous Ultrasonic Instrument (MAUI). The system will consist of a laser ultrasonic instrument fabricated using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, and a MEMS based walking platform like those developed by Pister et al. at Berkeley. This small system will allow for automated remote Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of aerospace vehicles.

  15. Laser-Scan Ultrasonic/Thermographic Inspection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Marzwell, Neville; Chung, Tom; Carman, Greg

    1996-01-01

    Laser ultrasonic/thermographic inspection system is conceptual instrument used in nondestructive inspection of large areas of structures for subsurface defects. For example, operated in field to examine aircraft and pressure vessels for hidden cracks. System would not require contact with inspected structure or use of ultrasonic-coupling medium. Instrument obtains data in ultrasonic and thermographic C-scans over structural surfaces with contours characterized by surface normal vectors varying by angles as large as 45 degrees.

  16. Imaging Inhomogeneities From Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Scans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1995-01-01

    Method of imaging spatial distribution of selected physical properties and microstructure of specimen of material based on dry-coupled contact ultrasonic pulse/echo scanning. Ultrasonic transducer scanned across top surface of specimen. At each of many positions on two-dimensional grid on top surface, ultrasonic pulse/echo measurements taken and processed. Offers rapid, nondestructive alternative to destructive metallographic sectioning to obtain picture of inhomogeneity of specimen.

  17. Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, A.

    1968-01-01

    Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

  18. Nondestructive Crack Detection in a Fuel System Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay; Ruffino, Norman; Wincheski, Russell; Prosser, William; Winfree, William; Russell, Richard; Bryson, Craig; Devries, Robert; Engel, James; Landy, James

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines the background and objective of nondestructive crack detection, flow control valve assembly and poppet post flight evaluation, poppet properties. magnetic property characterization of lab data, NDE, eddy current inspection, simulation, eddy current criteria, poppet cycle testing and NDE criteria, and the use of ultrasonic surface wave for crack detection.

  19. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  20. Apparatus for the concurrent ultrasonic inspection of partially completed welds

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, John A.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus for the concurrent nondestructive evaluation of partially completed welds is described and which is used in combination with an automated welder and which includes an ultrasonic signal generator mounted on the welder and which generates an ultrasonic signal which is directed toward one side of the partially completed welds; an ultrasonic signal receiver mounted on the automated welder for detecting ultrasonic signals which are transmitted by the ultrasonic signal generator and which are reflected or diffracted from one side of the partially completed weld or which passes through a given region of the partially completed weld; and an analysis assembly coupled with the ultrasonic signal receiver and which processes the ultrasonic signals received by the ultrasonic signal receiver to identify welding flaws in the partially completed weld.

  1. Educational ultrasound nondestructive testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Genis, Vladimir; Zagorski, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The ultrasound nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials course was developed for applied engineering technology students at Drexel University's Goodwin College of Professional Studies. This three-credit, hands-on laboratory course consists of two parts: the first part with an emphasis on the foundations of NDE, and the second part during which ultrasound NDE techniques are utilized in the evaluation of parts and materials. NDE applications are presented and applied through real-life problems, including calibration and use of the latest ultrasonic testing instrumentation. The students learn engineering and physical principles of measurements of sound velocity in different materials, attenuation coefficients, material thickness, and location and dimensions of discontinuities in various materials, such as holes, cracks, and flaws. The work in the laboratory enhances the fundamentals taught during classroom sessions. This course will ultimately result in improvements in the educational process ["The greater expectations," national panel report, http://www.greaterexpectations.org (last viewed February, 2008); R. M. Felder and R. Brent "The intellectual development of Science and Engineering Students. Part 2: Teaching to promote growth," J. Eng. Educ. 93, 279-291 (2004)] since industry is becoming increasingly reliant on the effective application of NDE technology and the demand on NDE specialists is increasing. NDE curriculum was designed to fulfill levels I and II NDE in theory and training requirements, according to American Society for Nondestructive Testing, OH, Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A (2006). PMID:19045633

  2. Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

  3. Ultrasonic Guided-Wave Scan System Used to Characterize Microstructure and Defects in Ceramic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Martin, Richard E.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being developed for advanced aerospace propulsion applications to save weight, improve reuse capability, and increase performance. However, mechanical and environmental loads applied to CMCs can cause discrete flaws and distributed microdamage, significantly reducing desirable physical properties. Such microdamage includes fiber/matrix debonding (interface failure), matrix microcracking, fiber fracture and buckling, oxidation, and second phase formation. A recent study (ref. 1) of the durability of a C/SiC CMC discussed the requirement for improved nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for monitoring degradation in these materials. Distributed microdamage in CMCs has proven difficult to characterize nondestructively because of the complex microstructure and macrostructure of these materials. This year, an ultrasonic guided-wave scan system developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center was used to characterize various microstructural and flaw conditions in SiC/SiC (silicon carbide fiber in silicon carbide matrix) and C/SiC (carbon fiber in silicon carbide matrix) CMC samples.

  4. Delaminations Investigated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2003-01-01

    A previous study suggested that the ultrasonic spectroscopy technique identified possible disbonds or delaminations in polymer matrix composite (PMC) rings sectioned from flywheel rotors (ref. 1). These results went unsubstantiated by other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. To explain the results, PMC rings were further investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy (ref. 2). The ultrasonic spectroscopy system utilizes a continuous-swept sine waveform as the input. After the swept sine wave traverses the material, the captured waveform is subjected to two fast Fourier transforms. The second fast Fourier transform along with equalization of the frequency spectrum, allows for evaluation of the fundamental resonant frequency. The full-thickness resonance, the resonance corresponding to the location of the intentional disbond, and the frequency spectrum were examined in an effort to characterize the sensitivity of the NDE method to various delamination conditions.

  5. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  6. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  7. System and method for ultrasonic tomography

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed Sami

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for doing both transmission mode and reflection mode three-dimensional ultrasonic imagining. The multimode imaging capability may be used to provide enhanced detectability of cancer tumors within human breast, however, similar imaging systems are applicable to a number of other medical problems as well as a variety of non-medical problems in non-destructive evaluation (NDE).

  8. Nondestructive Determination of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Although many nondestructive techniques have been applied to detect disbonds in adhesive joints, no absolutely reliable nondestructive method has been developed to detect poor adhesion and evaluate the strength of bonded joints prior to the present work which used nonlinear ultrasonic methods to investigate adhesive bond cure conditions. Previously, a variety of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods with water coupling had been used to study aluminum-adhesive-aluminum laminates, prepared under different adhesive curing conditions, for possible bond strength determination. Therefore, in the course of this research effort, a variety of finite-amplitude experimental methods which could possibly differentiate various cure conditions were investigated, including normal and oblique incidence approaches based on nonlinear harmonic generation as well as several non-collinear two-wave interaction approaches. Test samples were mechanically scanned in various ways with respect to the focus of a transmitting transducer operated at several variable excitation frequencies and excitation levels. Even when powerful sample-related resonances were exploited by means of a frequency scanning approach, it was very difficult to isolate the nonlinear characteristics of adhesive bonds. However, a multi-frequency multi-power approach was quite successful and reliable. Ultrasonic tone burst signals at increasing power levels, over a wide frequency range, were transmitted through each bond specimen to determine its excitation dependent nonlinear harmonic resonance behavior. Relative amplitude changes were observed particularly in the higher harmonic spectral data and analyzed using a local displacement and strain analysis in the linear approximation. Two analysis approaches of the excitation-dependent data at specific resonances were found to be quite promising. One of these approaches may represent a very robust algorithm for classifying an adhesive bond as being properly cured or not

  9. Nondestructive biomarkers in ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Fossi, M C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to attempt a concise review of the state of the art of the nondestructive biomarkers approach in vertebrates, establishing a consensus on the most useful and sensitive nondestructive biomarker techniques, and proposing research priorities for the development and validation of this promising methodology. The following topics are discussed: the advantages of the use of nondestructive strategies in biomonitoring programs and the research fields in which nondestructive biomarkers can be applied; the biological materials suitable for nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis in vertebrates; which biomarkers lend themselves to noninvasive techniques; and the validation and implementation strategy of the nondestructive biomarker approach. Examples of applications of this methodology in the hazard assessment of endangered species are also presented. Images Figure 1. C PMID:7713034

  10. NON-DESTRUCTIVE BEAM MEASUREMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.

    2004-07-05

    In high energy accelerators, especially storage rings, non-destructive beam measurements are highly desirable to minimize the impact on the beam quality. In principle, the non-destructive tools can be either passive detectors like Schottky, or active devices which excite either longitudinal or transverse beam motions for the corresponding measurements. An example of such a device is an ac dipole, a magnet with oscillating field, which can be used to achieve large coherent betatron oscillations. It has been demonstrated in the Brookhaven AGS that by adiabatically exciting the beam, the beam emittance growth due to the filamentation in the phase space can be avoided. This paper overviews both techniques in general. In particular, this paper also presents the beam tune measurement with a Schottky detector, phase advance measurements as well as nonlinear resonance measurements with the ac dipoles in the Brookhaven RHIC.

  11. Determine the Compressive Strength of Calcium Silicate Bricks by Combined Nondestructive Method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  12. Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method.

    PubMed

    Brozovsky, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures. PMID:25276864

  13. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  14. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasonics, microwaves, optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), and computational chemistry approaches have shown relevance to bond strength determination. Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods, however, have shown the most effectiveness over other methods on adhesive bond analysis. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown related to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been measured. This paper reviews bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1998.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  16. Nondestructive characterization of woven fabric ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D.K.; Saini, V.; Liaw, P.K.; Yu, N.; Miriyala, N.; McHargue, C.J.; Snead, L.L.; Lowden, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    Woven fabric ceramic composites fabricated by the chemical vapor infiltration method are susceptible to high void content and inhomogeneity. The condition of such materials may be characterized nondestructively with ultrasonic methods. In this work, longitudinal and shear waves were used in the quantitative determination of elastic constants of Nicalon{trademark}/SiC composites as a function of volume percent of porosity. Elastic stiffness constants were obtained for both the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with respect to fiber fabric. The effect of porosity on the modulus of woven fabric composites was also modeled and compared to the measured results. Scan images based on the amplitude and time-of-flight of radio frequency (RF) ultrasonic pulses were used for evaluating the material homogeneity for the purpose of optimizing the manufacturing process and for correlation with the mechanical testing results.

  17. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

  18. Materials analysis by ultrasonics: Metals, ceramics, composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properties, and dynamic response.

  19. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  20. Nondestructive Evaluation Approaches Developed for Material Characterization in Aeronautics and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Kautz, Harold E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Martin, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) approaches were developed or tailored for characterizing advanced material systems. The emphasis was on high-temperature aerospace propulsion applications. The material systems included monolithic ceramics, superalloys, and high-temperature composites. In the aeronautics area, the major applications were cooled ceramic plate structures for turbine applications, gamma-TiAl blade materials for low-pressure turbines, thermoelastic stress analysis for residual stress measurements in titanium-based and nickel-based engine materials, and acousto-ultrasonics for creep damage assessment in nickel-based alloys. In the space area, applications consisted of cooled carbon-carbon composites for gas generator combustors and flywheel rotors composed of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites for energy storage on the International Space Station.

  1. Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic and metal matrix composites for NASA's HITEMP and enabling propulsion materials programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1992-01-01

    In a preliminary study, ultrasonic, x-ray opaque, and fluorescent dye penetrants techniques were used to evaluate and characterize ceramic and metal matrix composites. Techniques are highlighted for identifying porosity, fiber alignment, fiber uniformity, matrix cracks, fiber fractures, unbonds or disbonds between laminae, and fiber-to-matrix bond variations. The nondestructive evaluations (NDE) were performed during processing and after thermomechanical testing. Specific examples are given for Si3N4/SiC (SCS-6 fiber), FeCrAlY/Al2O3 fibers, Ti-15-3/SiC (SCS-6 fiber) materials, and Si3N4/SiC (SCS-6 fiber) actively cooled panel components. Results of this study indicate that the choice of the NDE tools to be used can be optimized to yield a faithful and accurate evaluation of advanced composites.

  2. Theory and experimental technique for nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    The important ultrasonic scattering mechanisms for SiC and Si3N4 ceramic composites were identified by examining the interaction of ultrasound with individual fibers, pores, and grains. The dominant scattering mechanisms were identified as asymmetric refractive scattering due to porosity gradients in the matrix material, and symmetric diffractive scattering at the fiber-to-matrix interface and at individual pores. The effect of the ultrasonic reflection coefficient and surface roughness in the ultrasonic evaluation was highlighted. A new nonintrusive ultrasonic evaluation technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS), was presented that is sensitive to microstructural variations in composites. Preliminary results indicate that APSS will yield information on the composite microstructure that is not available by any other nondestructive technique.

  3. Use of nondestructive inspection and fiber optic sensing for damage characterization in carbon fiber fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidigk, Stephen; Le, Jacqui; Roach, Dennis; Duvall, Randy; Rice, Tom

    2014-04-01

    To investigate a variety of nondestructive inspection technologies and assess impact damage characteristics in carbon fiber aircraft structure, the FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center, operated by Sandia National Labs, fabricated and impact tested two full-scale composite fuselage sections. The panels are representative of structure seen on advanced composite transport category aircraft and measured approximately 56"x76". The structural components consisted of a 16 ply skin, co-cured hat-section stringers, fastened shear ties and frames. The material used to fabricate the panels was T800 unidirectional pre-preg (BMS 8-276) and was processed in an autoclave. Simulated hail impact testing was conducted on the panels using a high velocity gas gun with 2.4" diameter ice balls in collaboration with the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Damage was mapped onto the surface of the panels using conventional, hand deployed ultrasonic inspection techniques, as well as more advanced ultrasonic and resonance scanning techniques. In addition to the simulated hail impact testing performed on the panels, 2" diameter steel tip impacts were used to produce representative impact damage which can occur during ground maintenance operations. The extent of impact damage ranges from less than 1 in2 to 55 in2 of interply delamination in the 16 ply skin. Substructure damage on the panels includes shear tie cracking and stringer flange disbonding. It was demonstrated that the fiber optic distributed strain sensing system is capable of detecting impact damage when bonded to the backside of the fuselage.

  4. Research on the application of laser ultrasonic technique in weaponry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingjian; Xu, Jun; Yan, Yisheng; Gu, Xiaofei; Zhu, Guifang

    2005-12-01

    Laser Ultrasonics is a new branch in Ultrasonics, which is based on the generation of ultrasonic by a laser and the detection of stress wave with laser interferometer, and is an ideal combination of laser and ultrasonic for non-destructive testing. It is a noncontact, remote and precise technique for nondestructive testing of materials and products. Firstly, this paper introduces the principles of laser ultrasonic generation, and the ablation excitation theory. And then optical detection method of laser-induced ultrasonic with the confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is introduced. Based on the principles of laser-induced ultrasonic generation and detection, the integrated structure of the laser ultrasonic induced by laser line source and detected by a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented to detect multilayer structure such as solid propellant rocket motor structures in weaponry. Considering how laser ultrasonics would be used in the field and some mostly effects to the results. The laser system, accepting its present limitations, was optimized and developed for the inspection of the multilayer structure of solid propellant rocket motor as the experimental program progressed.

  5. Ultrasonic Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Ultraprobe 2000, manufactured by UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, NY, is a hand-held ultrasonic system that detects indications of bearing failure by analyzing changes in amplitude. It employs the technology of a prototype ultrasonic bearing-failure monitoring system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc., Latham, New York and Marshall Space Flight Center (which was based on research into Skylab's gyroscope bearings). Bearings on the verge of failure send ultrasonic signals indicating their deterioration; the Ultraprobe changes these to audible signals. The operator hears the signals and gages their intensity with a meter in the unit.

  6. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for enhanced bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.; Benson, S.; Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.; Haskins, J.; Brown, A.; Schneberk, D.

    1993-10-01

    Nondestructive evaluation of bridges is a critical aspect in the US aging infrastructure problem. For example in California there are 26,000 bridges, 3000 are made of steel, and of the steel bridges, 1000 are fracture critical. California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Federal Highway Administration, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are collaborating to develop and field NDE techniques to improve bridge inspections. We have demonstrated our NDE technologies on several bridge inspection applications. An early collaboration was to ultrasonically evaluate the steel pins in the E-9 pier on the San Francisco Bay Bridge. Following the Loma-Prieta earthquake in 1989 and the road way collapse at the E-9 pier, a complete nondestructive evaluation was conducted by Caltrans inspectors and several ultrasonic indications were noted. LLNL worked with Caltrans to help identify the source of these reflections. Another project was to digitally enhance high energy radiographs of bridge components such as cable end caps. We demonstrated our ability to improve the detection of corrosion and fiber breakage inside the end cap. An extension of this technology is limited view computer tomography (CT). We implemented our limited view CT software and produced cross-sectional views of bridge cables from digitized radiographic films. Most recently, we are developing dual band infrared imaging techniques to assess bridge decks for delaminations. We have demonstrated the potential of our NDE technology for enhancing the inspection of the country`s aging bridges.

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

    2011-07-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

  8. Ultrasonic assessment of tooth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, David W.

    2002-06-01

    A means of assessing the internal structure of teeth based upon use of high frequency, highly localized ultrasound (acoustic waves) generated by a short laser pulse is discussed. Some key advantages of laser-generated ultrasound over more traditional contact transducer methods are that it is noncontact and nondestructive in nature and requires no special surface preparation. Optical interferometric detection of ultrasound provides a complementary nondestructive, noncontact technique with a very small detection footprint. This combination of techniques, termed laser-based ultrasonics, holds promise for future in-vivo diagnostics of tooth health. In this paper, initial results using laser-based ultrasound for assessment of dental structures are presented on an extracted human incisor. Results show the technique to be sensitive to the enamel/dentin, dentin/pulp, and dentin/cementum junctions as well as a region of dead tracts in the dentin.

  9. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  10. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  11. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  12. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2002-12-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace structures using traditional methods is a complex, time-consuming process critical to maintaining mission readiness and flight safety. Limited access to corrosion-prone structure and the restricted applicability of available NDE techniques for the detection of hidden corrosion or other damage often compound the challenge. In this paper we discuss our recent work using ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography to address this pressing NDE technology need. Lamb waves are ultrasonic guided waves, which allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected for structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion and delaminations. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our work focuses on tomographic reconstruction to produce quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians or fed directly into structural integrity and lifetime prediction codes. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using a square perimeter array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography is appropriate for detecting flaws in aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this paper.

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

  14. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes. PMID:24268679

  15. Passive wireless ultrasonic transducer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, C. H.; Croxford, A. J.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2014-02-01

    Inductive coupling and capacitive coupling both offer simple solutions to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory and feasibility of such system in the context of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. Firstly, the physical principles and construction of an inductively coupled transducer system (ICTS) and a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) are introduced. Then the development of a transmission line model with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a sensor attached to an arbitrary solid substrate for both systems is described. The models are validated experimentally. Several applications of CCTS are presented, such CCTS for the underwater and through-composite testing.

  16. Development of Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Composite Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, D. K.; Barnard, D. J.; Peters, J. J.; Dayal, V.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two complementary nondestructive inspection methods for repairs made on aircraft composite honeycomb structures: computer aided tap testing (CATT) and air-coupled ultrasonic testing (AC-UT). The CATT, being a semi-automated and quantitative technique, is exploited to map out the interior conditions of a repaired part. The same repair is also imaged with air-coupled ultrasound and both compared with the results from destructive sectioning.

  17. Federal laboratory nondestructive testing research and development applicable to industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Moore, N.L.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents the results of a survey of nondestructive testing (NDT) and related sensor technology research and development (R and D) at selected federal laboratories. Objective was to identify and characterize NDT activities that could be applied to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in US manufacturing. Numerous federally supported R and D programs were identified in areas such as acoustic emissions, eddy current, radiography, computer tomography and ultrasonics. A Preliminary Findings Report was sent to industry representatives, which generated considerable interest.

  18. NASA CR-2120 - Summary of nondestructive testing theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    This is a familiarization report of nondestructive testing (ndt) prepared by staff of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories on a NASA contract. There is a short introduction, a chapter on applicability of ndt which is illustrated with examples of typical defects and includes tables comparing the characteristics, interrelationships, and costs of the different techniques. There are chapters dealing with penetrants, magnetic particle radiography, ultrasonics, and eddy currents. New techniques are described.

  19. The Effects of Stress Mitigation on Nondestructive Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Eric D. Larsen; Timothy R. Mcjunkin; Arthur D. Watkins

    2004-08-01

    Ultrasonic volumetric and eddy current and visual profile surface inspections of the completed weld securing the outer lid of the Yucca Mountain waste package are required after stress mitigation. However, the technique implemented may affect the ability of the different evaluation techniques to properly characterize the completed weld. An evaluation was performed to determine the extent the nondestructive evaluation techniques are affected by two candidate mitigation processes: controlled plasticity burnishing and laser peening. This report describes the work performed and summarizes the results.

  20. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  1. Ultrasonic Plate Wave Evaluation Of Natural Fiber Composite Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J. ); Bender, Donald A.; Pollock, David G.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2003-04-01

    Two key shortcomings of current ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for plywood, medium density fiberboard (MDF), and oriented strandboard are the reliance on empirical correlations and the neglect of valuable waveform information. The research reported herein examined the feasibility of using fundamental mechanics, wave propagation, and laminated, shear deformable plate theories to nondestructively evaluate material properties in natural fiber-based composite panels. Dispersion curves were constructed exhibiting the variation of flexural plate wave phase velocity with frequency. Based on shear deformable laminated plate wave theory, flexural and transverse shear rigidity values for solid transversely isotropic, laminated transversely isotropic, and solid orthotropic natural fiber-based composite panels were obtained from the dispersion curves. Axial rigidity values were obtained directly from extensional plate wave phase velocity. Excellent agreement (within 3%) of flexural rigidity values was obtained between NDE and mechanical testing for most panels. Transverse shear modulus values obtained from plate wave tests were within 4% of values obtained from through-thickness ultrasonic shear wave speed. Tensile and compressive axial rigidity values obtained from NDE were 22% to 41% higher than mechanical tension and compression test results. These differences between NDE and axial mechanical testing results are likely due to load-rate effects; however, these large differences were not apparent in the flexural and transverse shear comparisons. This fundamental research advances the state-of-the-art of NDE of wood-based composites by replacing empirical approaches with a technique based on fundamental mechanics, shear deformation laminated plate theory, and plate wave propagation theory.

  2. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  3. Application of nondestructive testing in underwater evaluation of bridges and related structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlich, Michael J.

    1995-05-01

    Determining a bridge structure's existing conditions and load carrying capacity often requires more complete data than can be gathered by visual observation and simple measurements. This is true below water as well as above. Various nondestructive testing techniques may be utilized underwater to gather such detailed data. Techniques to be addressed in this paper include ultrasonic nondestructive testing of timber and correlation to destructive and partially destructive testing, pulse velocity of concrete, ultrasonics in steel inspection, and an example of the underwater usage of diver-carried ground penetrating radar.

  4. Semi-automatic for ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Smith, John F.; Lee, Seung S.; Li, Yan

    1990-02-13

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improved reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet.

  5. Ultrasonic characterization of microwave joined silicon carbide/silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    House, M.B.; Day, P.S.

    1997-05-01

    High frequency (50--150 MHz), ultrasonic immersion testing has been used to characterize the surface and interfacial joint conditions of microwave bonded, monolithic silicon carbide (SiC) materials. The high resolution ultrasonic C-scan images point to damage accumulation after thermal cycling. Image processing was used to study the effects of the thermal cycling on waveform shape, amplitude and distribution. Such information is useful for concurrently engineering material fabrication processes and suitable nondestructive test procedures.

  6. Semi-automatic for ultrasonic measurement of texture

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.; Smith, J.F.; Lee, S.S.; Li, Y.

    1990-02-13

    A method for measuring texture of metal plates or sheets using non-destructive ultrasonic investigation includes measuring the velocity of ultrasonic energy waves in lower order plate modes in one or more directions, and measuring phase velocity dispersion of higher order modes of the plate or sheet if needed. Texture or preferred grain orientation can be derived from these measurements with improved reliability and accuracy. The method can be utilized in production on moving metal plate or sheet. 9 figs.

  7. Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

    2004-02-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

  8. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 4 of 6: ON-LINE, NON-DESTRUCTIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENT USING LASER-ULTRASOUND

    SciTech Connect

    Andre' Moreau; Martin Lord; Daniel Levesqure; Marc Dubois; Jean Bussiere; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Christian Padioleau; Guy Lamouche; Teodor Veres; Martin Viens; Harold Hebert; Pierre Basseras; Cheng-Kuei Jen

    2001-03-31

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility to measure the mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, strain hardening exponent and plastic strain ratio parameters, of low carbon steel sheets on the production line using laser ultrasound. The ultrasound generated by the developed apparatus travels mostly back and forth in the thickness of the steel sheet. By measuring the time delay between two echoes, and the relative amplitude of these two echoes, one can measure ultrasound velocity and attenuation. These are governed by the microstructure: grain size, crystallographic texture, dislocations, etc. Thus, by recording the time behavior of the ultrasonic signal, one can extract microstructural information. These microstructural information together with the modified Hall-Petch equation allow measurement of the mechanical properties. Through laboratory investigations with a laboratory laser ultrasound system, followed by the installation of a prototype system at LTV Steel Company's No.1 Inspection Line in Cleveland, all target mechanical properties of ultra low carbon (ULC), low carbon (LC) and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sample lots were measured meeting or nearly meeting all the target accuracies. Thus, the project realized its goal to demonstrate that the mechanical properties of low carbon steel sheets can be measured on-line using laser ultrasound

  9. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Qingze; Tan, Jun; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the “writing” (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the “writing” speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 μm in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be

  10. Mechanical-plowing-based high-speed patterning on hard material via advanced-control and ultrasonic probe vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihua; Tan, Jun; Zou, Qingze; Jiang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we present a high-speed direct pattern fabrication on hard materials (e.g., a tungsten-coated quartz substrate) via mechanical plowing. Compared to other probe-based nanolithography techniques based on chemical- and/or physical-reactions (e.g., the Dip-pen technique), mechanical plowing is meritorious for its low cost, ease of process control, and capability of working with a wide variety of materials beyond conductive and/or soft materials. However, direct patterning on hard material faces two daunting challenges. First, the patterning throughput is ultimately hindered by the "writing" (plowing) speed, which, in turn, is limited by the adverse effects that can be excited/induced during high-speed, and/or large-range plowing, including the vibrational dynamics of the actuation system (the piezoelectric actuator, the cantilever, and the mechanical fixture connecting the cantilever to the actuator), the dynamic cross-axis coupling between different axes of motion, and the hysteresis and the drift effects related to the piezoelectric actuators. Secondly, it is very challenging to directly pattern on ultra-hard materials via plowing. Even with a diamond probe, the line depth of the pattern via continuous plowing on ultra-hard materials such as tungsten, is still rather small (<0.5 nm), particularly when the "writing" speed becomes high. To overcome these two challenges, we propose to utilize a novel iterative learning control technique to achieve precision tracking of the desired pattern during high-speed, large-range plowing, and introduce ultrasonic vibration of the probe in the normal (vertical) direction during the plowing process to enable direct patterning on ultra hard materials. The proposed approach was implemented to directly fabricate patterns on a mask with tungsten coating and quartz substrate. The experimental results demonstrated that a large-size pattern of four grooves (20 μm in length with 300 nm spacing between lines) can be

  11. Ultrasonic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  12. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  13. Ultrasonic neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field's foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions. PMID:27153566

  14. Ultrasonic velocity technique for monitoring property changes in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for measuring ultrasonic velocity was used to monitor changes that occur during processing and heat treatment of a SiC/RBSM composite. Results indicated that correlations exist between the ultrasonic velocity data and elastic modulus and interfacial shear strength data determined from mechanical tests. The ultrasonic velocity data can differentiate strength. The advantages and potential of this nondestructive evaluation method for fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite applications are discussed.

  15. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  16. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  17. Stresses in ultrasonically assisted bone cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, K.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Bäker, M.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2009-08-01

    Bone cutting is a frequently used procedure in the orthopaedic surgery. Modern cutting techniques, such as ultrasonic assisted drilling, enable surgeons to perform precision operations in facial and spinal surgeries. Advanced understanding of the mechanics of bone cutting assisted by ultrasonic vibration is required to minimise bone fractures and to optimise the technique performance. The paper presents results of finite element simulations on ultrasonic and conventional bone cutting analysing the effects of ultrasonic vibration on cutting forces and stress distribution. The developed model is used to study the effects of cutting and vibration parameters (e.g. amplitude and frequency) on the stress distributions in the cutting region.

  18. Ultrasonic angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Robert J.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past 3 years we have developed a percutaneous ultrasonic angioplasty device and recently applied it in human peripheral arteries. This paper describes some of the background preceding the development of intravascular ultrasound for arterial recanalization. The chronology of our development of ultrasonic angioplasty is discussed from in vitro studies on atherosclerotic plaque to in vivo studies in canine models with differing types of arterial occlusions (thrombotic fibrotic calcific-atherosclerotic) and to initial human application. SPIE Vol. 1321 Modern Technologies Applied to Medical Practice (1989) / 69

  19. Ultrasonic Studies of Composites Undergoing Thermal and Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Johnston, Patrick H.

    1997-01-01

    New composite materials possess attractive properties for use in advanced aircraft. A necessary requirement for their introduction into aeronautic use is an accurate understanding of their long term aging processes so that proper design criteria can be established. In order to understand those properties, these composites must be exposed to thermal and load cycles that are characteristic of flight conditions. Additionally, airline companies will require nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be used in the field to assess the condition of these new materials as they age. As part of an effort to obtain the required information about new composites for aviation use, we are performing ultrasonic measurements both in the NDE laboratory and in the materials testing laboratory at NASA. The materials testing laboratory is equipped with environmental chambers mounted on load frames so that composite samples can be exposed to thermal and loading cycles representative of flight protocols. Applying both temperature and load simultaneously will help to highlight temperature and load interactions during the aging of these composite materials. This study reports on our initial ultrasonic attenuation results from thermoset and thermoplastic composite samples. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements have been used reliably to assess the effects of material degradation. For example, recently, researchers have shown that by using frequencies of ultrasound on the order of 24 MHz, they could obtain adequate contrast in the evaluation of thermal degradation in these composites. This paper will present data that shows results at a lower frequency range. In addition, we report results on the frequency dependence of attenuation as the slope of attenuation with respect to frequency, beta = delta alpha (f) / delta f. The slope of attenuation is an attractive parameter since it is quantitative, yet does not require interface corrections like conventional quantitative attenuation

  20. Gain-Compensating Circuit For NDE and Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushnick, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    High-frequency gain-compensating circuit designed for general use in nondestructive evaluation and ultrasonic measurements. Controls gain of ultrasonic receiver as function of time to aid in measuring attenuation of samples with high losses; for example, human skin and graphite/epoxy composites. Features high signal-to-noise ratio, large signal bandwidth and large dynamic range. Control bandwidth of 5 MHz ensures accuracy of control signal. Currently being used for retrieval of more information from ultrasonic signals sent through composite materials that have high losses, and to measure skin-burn depth in humans.

  1. Ultrasonic Phased-Array Characterization for NDE Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, John J.; Tennis, Richard F.; Pickens, Keith S.

    1995-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) recently fabricated and delivered the 100-channel Ultrasonic Phased-Array Testbed System (UPATS) for NASA's Langley Research Center. NASA prepared the specifications and provided the funding to develop UPATS in order to provide a tool for the improvement of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and characterization of materials. UPATS incorporates state-of-the-art phased-array concepts such as beam steering, focusing, apodization, and phase-sensitive detection which make it possible to develop more sophisticated testing methodologies. It also can be used to investigate fundamental ultrasonic propagation and detection phenomena such as refraction, diffraction, scattering, and beam broadening.

  2. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Testing on a Laboratory Concrete Bridge Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Shannon E.; Woodward, C.; Cramer, M. J.

    2007-03-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonic testing has been shown to be extremely sensitive to distributed damage in concrete. Nonlinear nondestructive ultrasonic tests were performed on a laboratory bridge to detect distributed damage in the deck after it had been overloaded. The NLUT detected damage throughout the deck, and of particular interest in locations where damage was not visible. These results were compared to results obtained using pulse velocity tests at the same locations. The nonlinear ultrasonics were several orders of magnitude more sensitive than results obtained from pulse velocity.

  3. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques discussed in the present paper indicate potentials for material characterization and property prediction. Stress wave interaction and material transfer function concepts are examined as a basis for explaining correlations between material mechanical behavior and ultrasonically measured quantities. It is observed that the effect and criticality of any discrete flaw, such as crack, inclusion, or any other stress raiser, is definable only in terms of its material microstructural environment. This underscores the importance of ultrasonic techniques capable of characterizing the stress wave energy transfer properties of a material.

  4. Ultrasonic measurement of stress in 2219-T87 aluminum plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clotfelter, W. N.; Risch, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    The basic relationship of ultrasonic signal velocity to directional subsurface stress is reviewed. Inappropriateness of dependency on a single correlative value of constant for a three dimensional stress field in metallic materials is discussed. Implementation of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive testing capabilities integrated to provide a composite technique for the measurement of orthogonal stress components is described, and the procedures for performing the preparatory calibration and subsequent stress field measurements are presented. In conclusion, the prime effect of stress on ultrasonic signal velocity occurs only in the direction of material excitation or particle motion.

  5. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  6. Ultrasonic test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony; Goff, Dan; Kruchowy, Roman; Rhoads, Carl

    1994-08-01

    An ultrasonic system for determining the quality of concrete under water without inaccuracies caused by electromagnetic interference from the ultrasonic generator. An ultrasonic generator applies pulses to the concrete. An ultrasonic detector detects the ultrasonic pulses and produces corresponding signals that are indicative of ultrasonic pulses that have passed through the material. Signal processing circuitry processes the signals to determine the transit time of the ultrasonic pulses through the material. The signal processing circuitry is disabled for a predetermined time after application of each ultrasonic pulse to the material to prevent noise produced by the means for applying ultrasonic pulses to the material from entering the signal processing circuitry and causing spurious measurements.

  7. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. PMID:27400217

  8. Flexible ultrasonic array sensors for health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Wu, K.-T.; Song, L.; Liu, Q.; Jen, C.-K.

    2007-04-01

    Flexible ultrasonic array transducers which can be attached to the desired structures or materials for nondestructive testing and structural health monitoring applications at room and elevated temperatures are developed. These flexible ultrasonic transducers (UTs) arrays consist of a thin polyimide membrane with a bottom electrode or stainless steel foil, a piezoelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) composite film and top electrodes. The flexibility is realized owing to the porosity of piezoelectric film and the thinness of substrate and electrodes. Top and bottom electrode materials are silver paste, silver paint or electroless plated nickel alloys. The UT array is configured by the several top electrodes. The flexible UT has been successfully tested at 150°C and also immersed into water as immersion ultrasonic probe operated in the pulse-echo mode with good signal to noise ratio.

  9. VIEW OF ULTRASONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ULTRA-SONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT NON-DESTRUCTIVELY TESTS WEAPONS COMPONENTS FOR FLAWS AND CRACKS. (9/11/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Characterization of mechanical properties of leather with airborne ultrasonics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nondestructive method to accurately evaluate the quality of hides and leather is urgently needed by leather and hide industries. We previously reported the research results for airborne ultrasonic (AU) testing using non-contact transducers to evaluate the quality of hides and leather. The abilit...

  11. An ultrasonic system for determining papaya physiological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Sallehuddin; Ramli, Azlin; Yunus, Mohd Amri Md

    2015-05-01

    There is an increasing need for high quality fruit. As such it is important to have a fast, accurate and reliable method for measuring and monitoring the quality of fruit from the field to the consumer. This paper presents an investigation on the use of a non-destructive ultrasonic system which can be used to measure the quality of papaya.

  12. The acousto-ultrasonic approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1987-01-01

    The nature and underlying rationale of the acousto-ultrasonic approach is reviewed, needed advanced signal analysis and evaluation methods suggested, and application potentials discussed. Acousto-ultrasonics is an NDE technique combining aspects of acoustic emission methodology with ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. This approach uses analysis of simulated stress waves for detecting and mapping variations of mechanical properties. Unlike most NDE, acousto-ultrasonics is less concerned with flaw detection than with the assessment of the collective effects of various flaws and material anomalies. Acousto-ultrasonics has been applied chiefly to laminated and filament-wound fiber reinforced composites. It has been used to assess the significant strength and toughness reducing effects that can be wrought by combinations of essentially minor flaws and diffuse flaw populations. Acousto-ultrasonics assesses integrated defect states and the resultant variations in properties such as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and fracture resistance. Matrix cure state, porosity, fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, fiber-matrix bonding, and interlaminar bond quality are underlying factors.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  14. Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Research Progress in 1988, Proceedings From the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research has led to improved technologies and new procedures for inspecting electric generating plant components. This review of 1988 EPRI research discusses NDE procedures for pressure vessel and containment weld examinations, assessments of the eddy-current technology for steam generators, and integrated ultrasonic techniques for examining cast austenitic stainless components.

  16. Interdisciplinary program for quantitative nondestructive evaluation. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1982-February 28, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers published in the following areas: (1) Application of Ultrasonic Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation to Radio Frequency System Window Problems, (a) Improvements in Probability of Detection and (b) Sizing of Internal Flaws in Bore and Web Geometries; (2) Electromagnetic Detection and Sizing; (3) New Technical Opportunities; and (4) New Flaw Detection Techniques.

  17. A review of issues and strategies in nondestructive evaluation of fiber reinforced structural composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for quantitative assessment of the mechanical strength and integrity of fiber composites during manufacture and service and following repair operations are presented. Problems and approaches are discussed relative to acceptance criteria, calibrating standards, and methods for nondestructive evaluation of composites in strength-critical applications. Acousto-ultrasonic techniques provide the methods of choice in this area.

  18. Nondestructive evaluation: A survey of NASA contributions, chapter 1, Chapter 11, cover page, acknowledgements, and contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A survey of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology, which is discussed in terms of popular demands for a greater degree of quality, reliability, and safety in industrial products, is presented as an overview of the NDE field to serve the needs of middle management. Three NDE methods are presented: acoustic emission, the use of coherent (laser)light, and ultrasonic holography.

  19. Benchmarking of the state-of-the-art in nondestructive testing/evaluation for applicability in the Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) Advanced Technology Demonstrator (ATD) program, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriveau, Gary W.

    1993-11-01

    This technology assessment report is the result of compilation, review, and assessment of information and data concerning the development and use of NDE/T as applied to advanced composites that may be used in the CAV (Composite Armored Vehicle) ATD (Advanced Technology Demonstrator) Program. This information has been gained from both published literature and as well as work in progress. It includes the results of a detailed bibliographic search using all the data bases held within the Defense Technical Information Center, supplemented wherever possible by other data bases. In addition, direct contacts and academic, industrial, and government research and development centers and applications laboratories were made. Discussions and recommendations contained in this report focus on the current state-of-the-art of composite NDE/T technologies and their capabilities and limitations for both the classical post process and real-time in-process inspection techniques. Furthermore, this effort includes an assessment of future developments and research trends including a projected time line.

  20. Ultrasonic NDE of Multilayered Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Quarry, M J; Fisher, K A; Lehman, S K

    2005-02-14

    This project developed ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques based on guided and bulk waves in multilayered structures using arrays. First, a guided wave technique was developed by preferentially exciting dominant modes with energy in the layer of interest via an ultrasonic array. Second, a bulk wave technique uses Fermat's principle of least time as well as wave-based properties to reconstruct array data and image the multilayered structure. The guided wave technique enables the inspection of inaccessible areas of a multilayered structure without disassembling it. Guided waves propagate using the multilayer as a waveguide into the inaccessible areas from an accessible position. Inspecting multi-layered structures with a guided wave relies on exciting modes with sufficient energy in the layer of interest. Multilayered structures are modeled to determine the possible modes and their distribution of energy across the thickness. Suitable modes were determined and excited by designing arrays with the proper element spacing and frequency. Bulk wave imaging algorithms were developed to overcome the difficulties of multiple reflections and refractions at interfaces. Reconstruction algorithms were developed to detect and localize flaws. A bent-ray algorithm incorporates Fermat's principle to correct time delays in the ultrasonic data that result from the difference in wave speeds in each layer and refractions at the interfaces. A planar wave-based algorithm was developed using the Green function for the multilayer structure to enhance focusing on reception for improved imaging.

  1. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Fan W; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Spicer, James B

    2015-01-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements

  2. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using iridium capsules, TIG welded, to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Since experience in the past had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of the capsule weld is required. A ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors that exceeded the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

  3. Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

  4. Nonlinear acoustic nondestructive testing for concrete durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Warnemuende, Kraig

    2000-06-01

    Several nondestructive testing methods can be used to determine the damage in a concrete structure. Linear ultrasonic techniques, e.g. pulse-velocity and amplitude attenuation, are very common in nondestructive evaluation. Velocity of propagation is not very sensitive to the degrees of damage unless a great deal of micro-damage having evolving into localized macro-damage. This transition typically takes place around 80% of the ultimate compressive strength. Amplitude attenuation is potentially more sensitive than pulse-velocity. However, this method depends strongly on the coupling conditions between transducers and concrete, hence unreliable. A baseline test of the linear acoustics of several mortar samples was conducted. These mortar samples have been previously damaged to different levels. Several other testing methods were also performed on the same samples to form a comparison. The focus is in comparing the sensitivity of a new testing method (Non-linear Acoustic NDE) with several more traditional testing methods. Non-linearity of the material stiffness is expressed in non-linear acoustics as the effect that damage and flaws have on the modulation of a signal as it propagates through the material. Spectral (non-linear) analysis is much more sensitive to lower damage states and less dependent on the repeatability of the coupling of the transducers.

  5. The application research of laser ultrasonic technique used in testing compound material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Kong, Lingjian; Gu, Xiaofei; Luo, Jijun; Hou, Xun

    2005-01-01

    The principles of laser ultrasonic generation and measurements with pulsed laser are presented. There are two kinds of means to actuate ultrasonic pulse: elasticity actuating and ablation actuating. The progress in laser ultrasonic about laser ultrasound generation, detection, propagation and its applications is introduced briefly. Applications in the field of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) are reviewed. In the field of Non-Destructive Testing, according to the principle, the laser ultrasonic testing system consists of laser system, laser interferometer, photoelectric detector and receiving system with signal amplifier. Thus, long-range and non-contact on-line detection of ultrasonic testing system was realized. In view of some of the problems, the developing trends of such techniques are analyzed.

  6. Nondestructive analysis and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moslehy, Faissal A.

    1993-01-01

    This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

  7. Nondestructive inspection of a composite missile launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, O.; Chung, S.; Butera, M.; Valatka, T.; Triplett, M. H.; Godinez, V.

    2012-05-01

    Lighter weight alternatives are being sought to replace metallic components currently used in high performance aviation and missile systems. Benefits of lightweight, high strength carbon fiber reinforced composites in missile launchers and rocket motor cases include improved fuel economy, increased flight times, enhanced lethality and/or increased velocity. In this work, various nondestructive inspection techniques are investigated for the damage assessment of a composite missile launcher system for use in U.S. Army attack helicopters. The launcher system, which includes rails and a hardback, can be subject to impact damage from accidental tool drops, routine operation, and/or ballistic threats. The composite hardback and the launch rails both have complex geometries that can challenge the inspection process. Scanning techniques such as line scanning thermography, ultrasonic, and acousto-ultrasonics will be used and compared to determine damage detection accuracy, reliability, and efficiency. Results will also be compared with visual observations to determine if there is a correlation. The goal is to establish an inspection method that quickly and accurately assesses damage extent in order to minimize service time and return the missile system back into the field [1].

  8. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    SciTech Connect

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  9. Lamb Wave Helical Ultrasonic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, K. R.; Hinders, M. K.

    2004-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been used for a wide variety of ultrasonic inspection techniques. We describe here a new variation called helical ultrasound tomography (HUT). This new technique, among other things, has direct application to advanced pipe inspection. HUT uses guided ultrasonic waves along with an adaptation of the tomographic reconstruction algorithms developed by seismologists for what they call "cross borehole" tomography. In HUT, the Lamb-like guided waves travel in various helical crisscross paths between two parallel circumferential transducer arrays instead of the planar crisscross seismic paths between two boreholes. Although the measurement itself is fairly complicated, the output of the tomographic reconstruction is a readily interpretable map of a quantity of interest such as pipe wall thickness. We demonstrate the feasibility of the HUT technique via laboratory scans on steel pipe segments into which controlled thinnings have been introduced.

  10. Ultrasonic cleaning of fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Keisuke; Fujita, Chitoshi; Sakai, Hitoshi

    1994-12-31

    During fuel transportation, contamination of the transfer cask can lead to radiation dosage. That is radioactive crud becomes detached from the fuel surface and is deposited inside the cask. To avoid this at the Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, crud was removed from fuel assemblies in advance of fuel transportation work. An ultrasonic cleaning process was adopted for this purpose; ultrasonic methods excel over other methods for this type of cleaning. Our process is also able to clean fuel assemblies without removing the channel box. Since this is the first time that the ultrasonic method was applied to fuel assemblies at the light water reactor in Japan on a large scale, the efficiency and the impact on plant instrumentation of the method were examined by performing preliminary test. Based on these tests, an optimum cleaning procedure was established.

  11. Ultrasonic guided wave nondestructive evaluation using generalized anisotropic interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Michael D.

    The motivation for this work is a goal to inspect interfaces between thick layers of materials that can be anisotropic. The specific application is a thick composite bonded to a metal substrate. The interface is inspected for disbonds between the metal and composite. The large thickness allows the problem to be modeled as a half space. The theory behind guided waves in plates is presented. This theory includes the calculation and analysis of dispersion curves and the resulting wave structure. It is noted that for high frequency-thickness values, certain modes will converge to the half-space waves, e.g. the Rayleigh wave and the Stoneley wave. Points of high energy, especially shear energy, at the interface are desirable for interfacial inspection. Therefore, the wave structure for all modes and frequencies is searched for ideal inspection points. Interface waves are inherently good modes to use for interface inspection. Results from the dispersion curves and wave structures are verified in the finite element model software package called Abaqus. It is confirmed that the group speeds and wave structures of the modes match the predicted values. A theoretical development of interface waves is given wherein Rayleigh, Stoneley, and generalized interface waves are discussed. This is applied to both isotropic and anisotropic materials. It is shown that the Stoneley wave only exists for a certain range of material parameters. Because the Stoneley wave is the interface wave between two solid half spaces, it might appear that only certain pairs of solids would allow for inspection via interface wave. However, it is shown that for perturbations of the Stoneley-wave-valid material properties, interface waves which leak energy away from the interface can still propagate. They can also be used for inspection. Certain choices of materials will leak less energy and will therefore allow for longer inspection distances. The solutions to the isotropic leaky wave problem exist on eight different Riemann sheets which allow one to confine multivalued functions such as the square root onto these single-valued Riemann sheets. The ranges of existence for three of these sheets is presented along with the values of the complex wave speed. The three types of interface waves are Rayleigh-like, Stoneley, and interface. For anisotropic materials, the solutions to the anisotropic leaky wave problem exist on thirty-two different sheets and the possibility of all three displacement components being coupled exists. The predicted values of sound speed and absorption for the leaky waves are confirmed by way of a finite element simulation. The wave structure for leaky waves grows in amplitude away from the boundary in any half space where leaked energy is allowed. The leaked partial waves are visualized via a snapshot of a finite element animation. A discussion of composite materials is given. Classical lamination theory is presented as well as the cube-cutting procedure for elastic constant determination. The composite used in this research is cut into cubes and measured; the results are presented. Physical experiments were performed on two specimens. The same unidirectional composite was bonded to both aluminum and nickel-aluminum-bronze. Mylar inserts were placed before bonding to simulate a debonding type defect. A phased array comb transducer was used to inspect the parts with varying time delays and frequencies in a mode-sweep technique to account for uncertainty in the material parameters and bonding conditions. The 1-direction (fiber-direction) results were predicted to be better than the 2-direction results because of the lower leakage and higher in-plane energy at the interface for the 1 direction. These predictions were confirmed in the experiment. These results were also found to be repeatable. An immersion scan was also performed on the aluminum part wherein the leaked energy was detected as it leaked into the water. Results showed that the 1-direction results were superior to the 2-direction results at detecting the defect. Measurement of the complex sound speed for the interface wave in the aluminum part was made. Results were within an acceptable range of predictions.

  12. Split spectrum technique as a preprocessor for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpur, Prasanna

    Split-spectrum preprocessing (SSP) is shown in light of the present results to process A-scans in a way that allows its incorporation into artificial neural networks and other AI methods, as well as into feature-analysis techniques. SSP is consistently nonlinear in A-scan processing. Attention is given to the results obtained from the use of the magnitude spectra of the SSP-processed A-scans as inputs to a back-propagation artificial neural network.

  13. Ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.; Kraft, Nancy C.

    2007-03-13

    An ultrasonic transducer having an effective center frequency of about 42 MHz; a bandwidth of greater than 85% at 6 dB; a spherical focus of at least 0.5 inches in water; an F4 lens; a resolution sufficient to be able to detect and separate a 0.005 inch flat-bottomed hole at 0.005 inches below surface; and a beam size of approximately 0.006–0.008 inches measured off a 11/2 mm ball in water at the transducer's focal point.

  14. Nondestructive testing with thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Tarpani, José Ricardo; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography is a nondestructive testing (NDT) technique based on the principle that two dissimilar materials, i.e., possessing different thermo-physical properties, would produce two distinctive thermal signatures that can be revealed by an infrared sensor, such as a thermal camera. The fields of NDT applications are expanding from classical building or electronic components monitoring to more recent ones such as inspection of artworks or composite materials. Furthermore, thermography can be conveniently used as a didactic tool for physics education in universities given that it provides the possibility of visualizing fundamental principles, such as thermal physics and mechanics among others.

  15. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  16. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers, and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis. This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in…

  17. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2007-03-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers,2 and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis.3 This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in acoustic interferometers instead of the usual one.

  18. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  19. Modern ultrasonic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, V. M.; Truman, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of ultrasonic flowmeters were reviewed on the basis of materials published in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. The following advantages of ultrasonic flowmeters over earlier instruments are cited. A comparative analysis is made of the design methods employed in ultrasonic flowmeters. The evolution of ultrasonic flowmetering is traced from the first generation and trends in their development are analyzed.

  20. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1984-04-17

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time ''t'' between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance ''d'' between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time ''t'', the sonic velocity ''V'' is calculated with the equation ''V=2d/t''. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/ C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  1. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  2. Nondestructive Characterization of As-Fabricated Composite Ceramic Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-01

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  3. Nondestructive characterization of as-fabricated composite ceramic panels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, W. H.; Brennan, R. E.

    2011-06-23

    Decreasing the weight of protective systems, while minimizing the decrease in ballistic performance, is an ongoing goal of the Army. Ceramic materials are currently combined with other materials in these types of structures in order to decrease weight without losing ballistic performance. This includes structures in which the ceramic material is confined in some way and in which the ceramic material is completely encapsulated. Confinement or encapsulation of ceramic material within a structure generally adds complexity and cost. Relatively simple panel specimens fabricated with ceramic tiles on aluminum backings and side confinement using steel were evaluated using nondestructive methods, including x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic testing. The nondestructive evaluation results will be discussed and compared, including the detectability and mapping of fabrication features.

  4. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

  5. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D.; Gizewski, T.

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  6. Integrated ultrasonic and petrographical characterization of carbonate building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligas, Paola; Fais, Silvana; Cuccuru, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the application of non-destructive ultrasonic techniques in evaluating the conservation state and quality of monumental carbonate building materials. Ultrasonic methods are very effective in detecting the elastic characteristics of the materials and thus their mechanical behaviour. They are non-destructive and effective both for site and laboratory tests, though it should be pointed out that ultrasonic data interpretation is extremely complex, since elastic wave velocity heavily depends on moisture, heterogeneity, porosity and other physical properties of the materials. In our study, considering both the nature of the building materials and the constructive types of the investigated monuments, the ultrasonic investigation was carried out in low frequency ultrasonic range (24 kHz - 54 kHz) with the aim of detecting damages and degradation zones and assessing the alterability of the investigated stones by studying the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses. In fact alterations in the materials generally cause a decrease in longitudinal pulse velocity values. Therefore starting from longitudinal velocity values the elasto-mechanical behaviour of the stone materials can be deduced. To this aim empirical and effective relations between longitudinal velocity and mechanical properties of the rocks can be used, by transferring the fundamental concepts of the studies of reservoir rocks in the framework of hydrocarbon research to the diagnostic process on stone materials. The ultrasonic measurements were performed both in laboratory and in situ using the Portable Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Digital Indicating Tester (PUNDIT) by C.N.S. Electronics LTD. A number of experimental sessions were carried out choosing different modalities of data acquisition. On the basis of the results of the laboratory measurements, an in situ ultrasonic survey on significant monuments, have been carried out. The ultrasonic measurements were integrated by a

  7. Concepts and techniques for ultrasonic evaluation of material mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods that can be used for material strength are reviewed. Emergency technology involving advanced ultrasonic techniques and associated measurements is described. It is shown that ultrasonic NDE is particularly useful in this area because it involves mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and also dynamic failure modes. These aspects of ultrasonic NDE are described in conjunction with advanced approaches and theoretical concepts for signal acquisition and analysis for materials characterization. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before the techniques and concepts can be transferred from laboratory to field conditions.

  8. Fluctuation Analyses for Pattern Classification in Nondestructive Materials Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. P.; de Moura, E. P.; Gonçalves, L. L.

    2010-12-01

    We review recent work on the application of fluctuation analyses of time series for pattern classification in nondestructive materials inspection. These analyses are based on the evaluation of time-series fluctuations across time intervals of increasing size, and were originally introduced in the study of fractals. A number of examples indicate that this approach yields relevant features allowing the successful classification of patterns such as (i) microstructure signatures in cast irons, as probed by backscattered ultrasonic signals; (ii) welding defects in metals, as probed by TOFD ultrasonic signals; (iii) gear faults, based on vibration signals; (iv) weld-transfer modes, as probed by voltage and current time series; (v) microstructural composition in stainless steel, as probed by magnetic Barkhausen noise and magnetic flux signals.

  9. Process-interactive nondestructive evaluation for metal-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, P. K.; Shannon, R. E.; Clark, W. G., Jr.; Harrigan, W. C., Jr.

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has been conducted on composite products at various stages of fabrication processes including raw powders, powder mixtures, billets and final product extrusions. Eddy current was found to be effective in identifying matrix powder alloy chemistry and particle size, and in determining the mix ratio of silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix alloy powders. Ultrasonic techniques were capable of identifying SiC clusters in large-scale, consolidated powder metallurgy (P/M) metal matrix composite (MMC) billets, while eddy current methods could be used to determine near-surface density variations in the billets. Multiple NDE techniques (eddy current, ultrasonics and resistivity) could be employed to quantify microstructural characteristics of composite extrusions. These results suggest that NDE methods can be integrated into manufacturing processes to provide online, closed-loop control of fabrication parameters.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jiangang G.; Verrilli, Michael J.; Stephan, Robert R.; Barnett, Terry R.; Ojard, Greg C.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite (silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix) were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by x-ray, ultrasonic, and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications correlated with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations.

  11. Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

    2003-01-01

    Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations. [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics

  12. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  13. Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

  14. Ultrasonic technology improves drill cuttings disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Avern, N.; Copercini, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advancements are being made by employing ultrasonics for onsite cuttings size reduction for slurrification prior to disposal. The size reduction proficiency of this new ultrasonics slurrification system as a medium to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings presents operators with a system that can enhance existing disposal techniques. This article presents results from a recent field trial, where ultrasonic processors were used to Agip (UK) Limited to reduce the particle size of drill cuttings prior to disposal into the water column and natural dispersement.

  15. Process for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Quality of a Crimped Wire Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Williams, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process and apparatus for collecting data for nondestructive evaluation of the quality of a crimped wire connector are provided. The process involves providing a crimping tool having an anvil and opposing jaw for crimping a terminal onto a stranded wire, moving the jaw relative to the anvil to close the distance between the jaw and the anvil and thereby compress the terminal against the wire, while transmitting ultrasonic waves that are propagated through the terminal-wire combination and received at a receiving ultrasonic transducer as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil, and detecting and recording the position of the jaw relative to the anvil as a function of time and detecting and recording the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave that is received at the receiving ultrasonic transducer as a function of time as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil.

  16. Nondestructive Test Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under the Aircraft Structural Integrity program, Langley Research Center invented a device to detect fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy plates. Krautkramer Branson obtained an exclusive license and commercialized a hand-held device, the "CrackFinder," an electromagnetic probe for nondestructive evaluation, used to scan aircraft skins for surface breaks. The technology involves an eddy current, which is an electrical current induced by an alternating magnetic field. The CrackFinder also employs an innovative self-nulling feature, where the device automatically recalibrates to zero so that each flaw detected produces a reading. Compared to conventional testing systems, the CrackFinder is affordable, small, simple to use, and needs no calibration.

  17. Prediction of building limestone physical and mechanical properties by means of ultrasonic P-wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r(2) between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced. PMID:24511286

  18. Prediction of Building Limestone Physical and Mechanical Properties by Means of Ultrasonic P-Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Concu, Giovanna; De Nicolo, Barbara; Valdes, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic P-wave velocity as a feature for predicting some physical and mechanical properties that describe the behavior of local building limestone. To this end, both ultrasonic testing and compressive tests were carried out on several limestone specimens and statistical correlation between ultrasonic velocity and density, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity was studied. The effectiveness of ultrasonic velocity was evaluated by regression, with the aim of observing the coefficient of determination r2 between ultrasonic velocity and the aforementioned parameters, and the mathematical expressions of the correlations were found and discussed. The strong relations that were established between ultrasonic velocity and limestone properties indicate that these parameters can be reasonably estimated by means of this nondestructive parameter. This may be of great value in a preliminary phase of the diagnosis and inspection of stone masonry conditions, especially when the possibility of sampling material cores is reduced. PMID:24511286

  19. Split-mode ultrasonic transducer.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskii, Igor; Cremaldi, Lucien

    2013-08-01

    A split-mode ultrasonic transducer is investigated in both theory and experiment. This transducer is a two-dimensional structure of periodically poled domains in a ferroelectric wafer with free surfaces. The acoustic vibrations are excited by a radio frequency electric current applied along the length of the wafer, which allows the basal-plane surfaces to be free of metal coatings and thus ready for further biomedical applications. A specific physical property of this transducer consists of the multiple acousto-electric resonances, which occur due to an acoustic mode split when the acoustic half-wavelength is equal to the domain length. Possible applications include ultrasonic generation and detection at the micro-scale, intravascular sonification and visualization, ultrasound therapy of localized small areas such as the eye, biomedical applications for cell cultures, and traditional nondestructive testing including bones and tissues. A potential use of a non-metallized wafer is a therapeutic application with double action that is both ultrasound itself and an electric field over the wafer. The experimental measurements and theoretical calculations are in good agreement. PMID:23927212

  20. Characterization of TiN coating layers using ultrasonic backward radiation.

    PubMed

    Song, Sung-Jin; Yang, Dong-Joo; Kim, Hak-Joon; Kwon, Sung D; Lee, Young-Ze; Kim, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Song-Chun

    2006-12-22

    Since ceramic layers coated on machinery components inevitably experience the changes in their properties it is necessary to evaluate the characteristics of ceramic coating layers nondestructively for the reliable use of coated components and the remaining life prediction. To address such a need, in the present study, the ultrasonic backward radiation technique is applied to examine the very thin TiN ceramic layers coated on AISI 1045 steel or austenitic 304 steel substrate. Specifically, the ultrasonic backward radiation profiles have been measured with variations in specimen preparation conditions such as coating layer thickness and sliding loading. In the experiments performed in the current study, the peak angle and the peak amplitude of ultrasonic backward radiation profile varied sensitively according to two specimen preparation conditions. In fact, this result demonstrates a high possibility of the ultrasonic backward radiation as an effective tool for the nondestructive characterization of the TiN ceramic coating layers even in such a thin regime. PMID:16797659

  1. The Quality Evaluation of Concrete Structures with the Ultrasonic Low-Frequency Tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smokotin, A.; Bogatyreva, M.; Protasova, I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the research findings obtained as a result of the ultrasonic nondestructive testing of flaw detection in one-sided access confined concrete. The ultrasonic nondestructive testing is applied to detect the size and location of internal defects in confined concrete that allows the accurate taking cores and their mechanical testing. Tomographic images of the scanned internal structure are given herein as well as the results of compressive strength testing of cores taken from defective portions of the concrete one-sided access construction.

  2. Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, composite materials are applied to fracture-critical structures of aircraft and spacecraft...Ultrasonics offer the most capable inspection technology and recently developed techniques appear to improve this technology significantly... Recent progress in ultrasonic NDE of composites will be reviewed.

  3. Nondestructive assay measurements of GNEP related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A; Crooks, William J.; Geist, William H.; Gonzales, Robert; Helland, Carolyn A.; Jackson, Jay M.; Frame, Katherine C.; Martinez, Michael M.; Scherer, Caroylnn P.; Vo, Duc T.

    2008-06-12

    Because the reprocessing technologies that are currently being considered for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) will keep various actinides commingled with plutonium at all times throughout the process, the resulting nuclear fuel that is intended for the Advanced Burner Reactor will present unique measurement challenges for the various Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques. In order to begin clarifying which types of materials and measurement scenarios that may exist within GNEP require the development of new measurement technologies, an initial series of measurements have been performed on materials with radiation properties that are similar to those being considered within GNEP.

  4. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, M.J.; Hsu, D.K.; Thompson, D.O.; Wormley, S.J.

    1993-04-06

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  5. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Michael S.; Hsu, David K.; Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  6. Ultrasonic Probing Of Complexly Shaped Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madaras, Eric I.

    1993-01-01

    Technique developed involves use of ultrasonics to inspect first bond surfaces of solid-rocket-motor joints. By fitting pieces of insulating materials to mate exactly with complicated shapes of affected parts of insulation, complicated shapes redefined into simpler ones probed more easily. When technique used to insonify from insulation side, one readily detects difference between disbond and good bond. Same technique applied to field tang joints, field clevis joints, and aft-dome-to-fixed-nozzle-housing attachment points. Although developed for inspecting joints in solid rocket motors, also applicable to nondestructive evaluation of other complicated joints.

  7. Root-cause estimation of ultrasonic scattering signatures within a complex textured titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackshire, James L.; Na, Jeong K.; Freed, Shaun

    2016-02-01

    The nondestructive evaluation of polycrystalline materials has been an active area of research for many decades, and continues to be an area of growth in recent years. Titanium alloys in particular have become a critical material system used in modern turbine engine applications, where an evaluation of the local microstructure properties of engine disk/blade components is desired for performance and remaining life assessments. Current NDE methods are often limited to estimating ensemble material properties or detecting localized voids, inclusions, or damage features within a material. Recent advances in computational NDE and material science characterization methods are providing new and unprecedented access to heterogeneous material properties, which permits microstructure-sensing interactions to be studied in detail. In the present research, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) methods and tools are being leveraged to gain a comprehensive understanding of root-cause ultrasonic scattering processes occurring within a textured titanium aerospace material. A combination of destructive, nondestructive, and computational methods are combined within the ICME framework to collect, holistically integrate, and study complex ultrasound scattering using realistic 2-dimensional representations of the microstructure properties. Progress towards validating the computational sensing methods are discussed, along with insight into the key scattering processes occurring within the bulk microstructure, and how they manifest in pulse-echo immersion ultrasound measurements.

  8. Single-Transducer, Ultrasonic Imaging Method for High-Temperature Structural Materials Eliminates the Effect of Thickness Variation in the Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Life Prediction Branch, in partnership with Sonix, Inc., and Cleveland State University, recently advanced the development of, refined, and commercialized an advanced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection method entitled the Single Transducer Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Method. Selected by R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant new products of 1996, the method uses a single transducer to eliminate the superimposing effects of thickness variation in the ultrasonic images of materials. As a result, any variation seen in the image is due solely to microstructural variation. This nondestructive method precisely and accurately characterizes material gradients (pore fraction, density, or chemical) that affect the uniformity of a material's physical performance (mechanical, thermal, or electrical). Advantages of the method over conventional ultrasonic imaging include (1) elimination of machining costs (for precision thickness control) during the quality control stages of material processing and development and (2) elimination of labor costs and subjectivity involved in further image processing and image interpretation. At NASA Lewis, the method has been used primarily for accurate inspections of high temperature structural materials including monolithic ceramics, metal matrix composites, and polymer matrix composites. Data were published this year for platelike samples, and current research is focusing on applying the method to tubular components. The initial publicity regarding the development of the method generated 150 requests for further information from a wide variety of institutions and individuals including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Lockheed Martin Corporation, Rockwell International, Hewlett Packard Company, and Procter & Gamble Company. In addition, NASA has been solicited by the 3M Company and Allison Abrasives to use this method to inspect composite materials that are

  9. Quantitative nondestructive characterization of visco-elastic materials at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji; Ohno, Jun

    1995-11-01

    New anvil apparatus was developed to realize high pressure atmosphere suitable to investigation of viscoelastic behaviors of such soft materials as polymers, lubricants, proteins and so forth. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy system was also newly constructed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of elasticity and viscosity of soft materials at high pressure. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system and methodology for quantitative nondestructive visco-elastic characterization, various silicone oils are employed, and measured spectra are compared to the theoretical results calculated by the three linear element model.

  10. Ultrasonic magnetostrictive transducers for guided ultrasonic waves in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropf, Matthew M.; Tittmann, B. R.

    2007-04-01

    The magnetostrictive effect is used to generate ultrasonic waves for a variety of health monitoring applications. Given the ductile nature of many ferromagnetic materials and the common geometrical configuration of magnetic inductance coils, magnetostrictive generation of ultrasound is especially suitable for long cylindrical waveguides such as thin wires. Furthermore, utilizing ultrasonic guided wave modes in such waveguides provides a robust tool for remote inspection of materials or environments over long distances. Through the use of different guided wave modes, structural health monitoring sensors could be tailored to suit individual applications. Guided wave modes offer a choice in displacement profile allowing sensors to be designed to be either sensitive or impervious to surface effects. The dispersivity of the guided wave velocity can also be optimized for applications involving time-of-flight measurements. Despite the advantages afforded by guided wave analysis, current magnetostrictive transducers, consisting of coil of wire and a bias magnet, can not perform at the frequencies necessary to excite higher order guided wave modes. In order to advance the capability of magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic guided waves in wires, the design parameters of inductance coils are examined. Using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, ultrasonic displacements are measured over a range of excitation frequencies for different coil configurations and parameters to determine the feasibility of developing a higher mode magnetostrictive transducer.

  11. Ultrasonic imaging of hidden defects using dry-coupled ultrasonic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komsky, Igor N.

    2006-03-01

    Safety criteria of aircraft industry require careful inspection of aircraft components for structural integrity since airworthiness of aging aircraft can be significantly affected by combination of corrosion and fatigue damage. Surface defects can be efficiently detected by visual or other surface inspection techniques. Detection of hidden defects, on the other hand, is still a challenging task. Therefore, it is essential to develop non-destructive methods that can inspect different layers of the aircraft structures for internal defects before they become a safety concern. Ultrasonic probes with the dry-coupled substrates are highly efficient for all modalities of ultrasonic techniques including pulse-echo, pitch-catch, or through-transmission modes. The probes can be deployed in conjunction with portable ultrasonic instruments for B- and C-scanning. The dry-coupled probes have already been tested on a number of aircraft for rapid inspections of the aircraft structures from the outside without any disassembly. However, adequate inspection for small pitting corrosion and incipient fatigue cracks in metallic structures or delaminations in composite panels may require superior sensitivity and resolution of the applied ultrasonic technique. Several novel configurations of the dry-coupled probes with increased sensitivity and resolution will be presented. Ultrasonic imaging with single- or double-element dry-coupled probes will be demonstrated on the specimens with heavy pitting corrosion, machined planar and volumetric defects, and embedded internal flaws.

  12. Ultrasonic verification of microstructural changes due to heat treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for polycrystalline samples of nickel and copper with various grain-size distributions produced by heat treatment. Attenuation as a function of frequency was determined for a sample having a known mean grain diameter. Once this function was determined, it could be scaled to determine the mean grain size of other samples of the same material with different mean grain diameters. These results were obtained by using broadband pulse-echo ultrasound in the 25 to 100 MHz frequency range. The results suggest an ultrasonic, nondestructive approach for verifying heat treatment of metals.

  13. Continuous Ultrasonic Inspection of Extruded Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Brian J. ); Bender, Donald A.

    2003-06-19

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are needed for in-line monitoring of wood-plastic composite (WPC) quality during manufacturing for process control. Through-transmission ultrasonic inspection is useful in characterizing stiffness and detecting cracks and voids in a range of materials; however, little is documented about ultrasound propagation in WPC materials. The objectives of this research were to determine applicable ultrasonic transducer frequencies, coupling methods, configurations and placements for wave speed monitoring and web defect detection within an extrusion process; to quantify the effects of temperature on ultrasonic parameters; and to develop a prototype ultrasonic inspection system for a full-size extrusion line. An angled beam, water-coupled ultrasonic inspection system using a pair of 50-kHz narrowband transducers was adequate for monitoring wave speed parallel to the extrusion direction. For locating internal web defects, water-coupled, 500-kHz broadband ultrasonic transducers were used in a through-thickness transmission setup. Temperature compensation factors were developed to adjust ultrasonic wave speed measurements. The prototype inspection system was demonstrated in a 55 mm conical twin-screw extrusion line.

  14. Ultrasonic Inspection Results of Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AP-108 [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    2000-09-11

    This document presents the results and documentation of the non-destructive ultrasonic examination (NDE) of tank 241-AP-107. An NDE contractor was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic inspection system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of the primary tank wall, welds, and lower knuckle of double-shell tank 241-AP-107. The exam found no reportable indications of wall thinning, pits, or crack in excess of the acceptance criteria.

  15. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AZ-101. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AZ-101 primary tank wall and welds. The inspection found one reportable indication of thinning and no reportable pitting, corrosion, or cracking.

  16. Interrelation of material microstructure, ultrasonic factors, and fracture toughness of two phase titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The pivotal role of an alpha-beta phase microstructure in governing fracture toughness in a titanium alloy, Ti-662, is demonstrated. The interrelation of microstructure and fracture toughness is demonstrated using ultrasonic measurement techniques originally developed for nondestructive evaluation and material property characterization. It is shown that the findings determined from ultrasonic measurements agree with conclusions based on metallurgical, metallographic, and fractographic observations concerning the importance of alpha-beta morphology in controlling fracture toughness in two phase titanium alloys.

  17. Final results of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 ultrasonic inspection

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-08-23

    This document presents the results and documentation of the nondestructive ultrasonic examination of tank 241-AN-105. A tank inspection supplier was retained to provide and use an ultrasonic examination system (equipment, procedures, and inspectors) to scan a limited area of double-shell tank 241-AN-105 primary tank wall primary knuckle, and secondary tank bottom. The inspection found some indication of general and local wall thinning with no cracks detected.

  18. Measuring elastic constants using non-contact ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. S.; Perry, R.; Cleanthous, D.; Backhouse, D. J.; Moore, I. J.; Clough, A. R.; Stone, D. I.

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasound for measuring elastic constants and phase transitions is well established. Standard measurements use piezoelectric transducers requiring couplant and contact with the sample. Recently, non-destructive testing (NDT) has seen an increase in the use of non-contact ultrasonic techniques, for example electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) and laser ultrasound, due to their many benefits. For measurements of single crystals over a range of temperatures non-contact techniques could also bring many benefits. These techniques do not require couplant, and hence do not suffer from breaking of the bond between transducer and sample during thermal cycling, and will potentially lead to a simpler and more adaptable measurement system with lower risk of sample damage. We present recent work adapting EMAT advances from NDT to measurements of single crystals at cryogenic temperatures and illustrate this with measurements of magnetic phase transitions in Gd64Sc36 using both contact and non-contact transducers. We discuss the measurement techniques implemented to overcome noise problems, and a digital pulse-echo-overlap technique, using data analysis in the frequency domain to measure the velocity.

  19. Scanning of the internal structure part with laser ultrasonic in aviation industry.

    PubMed

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2011-01-01

    The detection of internal defects is a major production and safety issue for the newest generations of aircraft. New materials and manufacturing processes in the aircraft industry demand efficient quality assurance in manufacturing and inspection in maintenance. Advanced metallic material processes (titanium) are used or developed for the production of heavily loaded flying components (in fan blade construction). The inspection of these parts mainly made out of titanium (or CFRP) requires the determination of the percentage of bonded grain sizes around 10-30 µm. This is primarily due to the advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio and good detection sensitivity. In this article, a diagnosing method of the blade interior by means of the laser ultrasonic is presented. Identification of small fatigue cracks presents a challenging problem during nondestructive testing of fatigue-damaged structures. Laser ultrasonic is a technique that uses two laser beams; one with a short pulse for the generation of ultrasound and another with a long pulse or continuous coupled to an optical interferometer for detection. The results of research of the internal blade structure are presented. PMID:21809348

  20. ULTRASONIC NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Truell, R.; de Klerk, J.; Levy, P.W.

    1960-02-23

    A neutron dosimeter is described which utilizes ultrasonic waves in the megacycle region for determination of the extent of neutron damage in a borosilicate glass through ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation measurements before and after damage.

  1. Ultrasonic pulser-receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.

    2006-09-12

    Ultrasonic pulser-receiver circuitry, for use with an ultrasonic transducer, the circuitry comprising a circuit board; ultrasonic pulser circuitry supported by the circuit board and configured to be coupled to an ultrasonic transducer and to cause the ultrasonic transducer to emit an ultrasonic output pulse; receiver circuitry supported by the circuit board, coupled to the pulser circuitry, including protection circuitry configured to protect against the ultrasonic pulse and including amplifier circuitry configured to amplify an echo, received back by the transducer, of the output pulse; and a connector configured to couple the ultrasonic transducer directly to the circuit board, to the pulser circuitry and receiver circuitry, wherein impedance mismatches that would result if the transducer was coupled to the circuit board via a cable can be avoided.

  2. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  3. Automated nondestructive evaluation method for characterizing ceramic and metallic hot gas filters.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Deemer, C.; Pastilla, P.; Wheeler, B.; Forster, G. A.

    2002-06-03

    In advanced coal-fired power generation, one technology under development to clean up hot gases before their use as fuel for gas turbines is rigid ceramic candle filters. These porous filters are typically 1.5 m long and 60 mm in diameter and are made of various ceramic materials, including clay-bonded SiC. The high costs of downtime in a large utility demands that nondestructive evaluation/characterization (NDE/C) methods be available. At shutdowns, data from such analysis are needed to decide which filters are still usable and which need to be replaced, and if possible, to estimate the remaining lifetimes. Thus our objective was to develop reliable low-cost NDE technology for these filters. Our approach was to develop NDE/C technology, referred to as acousto-ultrasonics (AU), for application to hot gas filters. Lamb waves generated by the AU method were analyzed to derive a stress wave factor (SWF). This technology was tested by comparing SWF data with the measured strength for a variety of rigid ceramic filters and was shown to work on iron-aluminide filters as well but no strength data have been obtained on the iron-aluminides at this time.

  4. Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Detection and Characterization of Degradation Precursors, Technical Progress Report for FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, P.; Meyer, R.M.; Fricke, J.M.; Prowant, M.S.; Coble, J.B.; Griffin, J.W.; Pitman, S.G.; Dahl, M.E.; Kafentzis, T.A.; Roosendaal, T.J.

    2012-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of nondestructive examination (NDE) technology in detecting material degradation precursors by initiating and growing cracks in selected materials and using NDE methods to measure crack precursors prior to the onset of cracking. Nuclear reactor components are subject to stresses over time that are not precisely known and that make the life expectancy of components difficult to determine. To prevent future issues with the operation of these plants because of unforeseen failure of components, NDE technology is needed that can be used to identify and quantify precursors to macroscopic degradation of materials. Some of the NDE methods being researched as possible solutions to the precursor detection problem are magnetic Barkhausen noise, nonlinear ultrasonics, acoustic emission, eddy current measurements, and guided wave technology. In FY12, the objective was to complete preliminary assessment of advanced NDE techniques for sensitivity to degradation precursors, using prototypical degradation mechanisms in laboratory-scale measurements. This present document reports on the deliverable that meets the following milestone: M3LW-12OR0402143 – Report detailing an initial demonstration on samples from the crack-initiation tests will be provided (demonstrating acceleration of the work).

  5. Ultrasonic Phased Array Simulations of Welded Components at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate inspections of welded components have become of increasing importance as NASA develops new hardware such as Ares rocket segments for future exploration missions. Simulation and modeling will play an increasing role in the future for nondestructive evaluation in order to better understand the physics of the inspection process, to prove or disprove the feasibility for an inspection method or inspection scenario, for inspection optimization, for better understanding of experimental results, and for assessment of probability of detection. This study presents simulation and experimental results for an ultrasonic phased array inspection of a critical welded structure important for NASA future exploration vehicles. Keywords: nondestructive evaluation, computational simulation, ultrasonics, weld, modeling, phased array

  6. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  7. Ultrasonic texture characterization of aluminum, zirconium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.J.

    1997-10-08

    This work attempts to show the feasibility of nondestructive characterization of non-ferrous alloys. Aluminum alloys have a small single crystal anisotropy which requires very precise ultrasonic velocity measurements for derivation of orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs); the precision in the ultrasonic velocity measurement required for aluminum alloys is much greater than is necessary for iron alloys or other alloys with a large single crystal anisotropy. To provide greater precision, some signal processing corrections need to be applied to account for the inherent, half-bandwidth offset in triggered pulses when using a zero-crossing technique for determining ultrasonic velocity. In addition, alloys with small single crystal anisotropy show a larger dependence on the single crystal elastic constants (SCECs) when predicting ODCs which require absolute velocity measurements. Attempts were made to independently determine these elastics constants in an effort to improve correlation between ultrasonically derived ODCs and diffraction derived ODCs. The greater precision required to accurately derive ODCs in aluminum alloys using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques is easily attainable. Ultrasonically derived ODCs show good correlation with derivations made by Bragg diffraction techniques, both neutron and X-ray. The best correlation was shown when relative velocity measurements could be used in the derivations of the ODCs. Calculation of ODCs in materials with hexagonal crystallites can also be done. Because of the crystallite symmetries, more information can be extracted using ultrasonic techniques, but at a cost of requiring more physical measurements. Some industries which use materials with hexagonal crystallites, e.g. zirconium alloys and titanium, have traditionally used texture parameters which provide some specialized measure of the texture. These texture parameters, called Kearns factors, can be directly related to ODCs.

  8. Ultrasonic technique for inspection of GPHS capsule girth weld integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Placr, Arnost

    1993-05-01

    An innovative nondestructive examination (NDE) technique for the inspection of integrity of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) capsule girth welds (Figure 1) was developed employing a Lamb (plate) wave as the mode of the sound propagation. Reliability of the Lamb wave technique was tested on GPHS capsules using plutonium pallet simulators. All ten capsules, which were previously rejected, passed ultrasonic (UT) inspection using the Lamb wave technique.

  9. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  10. On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Examining Fuel Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Good, Morris S.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Saurwein, John J.; Gray, Joseph N.

    2007-09-15

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels, being considered for use in various advanced nuclear power reactors, consist of sub-millimeter diameter uranium oxide spheres uniformly coated to prevent the release of fission products into the reactor. About 15 billion of these spheres are needed to fuel a single reactor. Current quality control (QC) methods are manual, can destroy test specimens, and are not economically feasible. Replacing these methods with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, automated for higher speed, will make fuel production and reactor operation economically feasible, considering the requirement for extremely large fuel particle throughput rates. This paper reports a project to develop and demonstrate nondestructive examination methods to detect and reject defective particles, and in particular progress made in the final year of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project . The work explored adapting, developing, and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to cost-effectively assure the quality of large percentages of the fuel particles.

  11. Ultrasonic/Sonic Impacting Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Sherrit, Stewart; Stark, Randall A.

    2008-01-01

    are so effective that the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into the material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary twist drilling, ultrasonic drilling, or ordinary steady pushing.

  12. Ultrasonic Microtransport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Richard Morgan, III

    We have observed numerous kinetic effects using ultrasonic flexural plate waves (FPWs) in 4mu -thick composite plates of low-stress silicon nitride, piezoelectric zinc oxide and aluminum. The wavelength is typically 100 mum, and the area 3 x 8 mm^2. A successful new surface micromachining fabrication process is presented here for the first time. FPWs have been used to move liquids and gasses with motion typically indicated by polysilicon blocks in air and polystyrene spheres in water; the velocity in air is 4.5 mm/s (with a zero-to-peak input of 3 V), and in water it is 100 mum/s (with an input of 7.8 V). Other observations include pumping of a liquid dye, and mixing near the FPW surface. All quantitative observations demonstrate that the kinetic effects of FPWs are proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The amplitude for a typical device is 250 A at 9 V input; the power in a typical FPW is about 2 mW. The amplitude can be accurately measured using a laser diffraction technique. Experimental error is about +/-10%, and many of the results agree well with a simple theory to predict the FPW amplitude; extensions of the theory model the fluid loading of FPW devices, but experiment and theory disagree by about 15%. Pumping by flexural plate waves is an example of the phenomenon known as acoustic streaming. A common solution approach is the method of successive approximations, where the nonlinear equations are first linearized and solved. This "first-order" solution is then used to determine the inhomogeneous source terms in the linearized, "second -order" equations of motion. Theoretical predictions of streaming theory are in excellent agreement with experiment in the case where the FPW device contacts a half-space of fluid; predictions for flow in small channels encourage the development of integrated micropumps. Applications for microflow include thermal redistribution in integrated circuits and liquid movement in analytical instruments--particularly where

  13. Innovative use of adhesive interface characteristics to nondestructively quantify the strength of bonded joints.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2010-05-01

    Advances in structural adhesives have permitted engineers to contemplate the use of bonded joints in areas that have long been dominated by mechanical fasteners and welds. Although strength, modulus, and toughness have been improved in modern adhesives, the typical concerns with using these polymers still exist. These include concerns over long-term durability and an inability to quantify bond strength (i.e., identify weak bonds) in adhesive joints. Bond deterioration in aging structures and bond strength in original construction are now critical issues that require more than simple flaw detection. Whether the structure involves metallic or composite materials, it is necessary to extend inspections beyond the detection of disbond flaws to include an assessment of the strength of the bond. Use of advanced nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods to measure the mechanical properties of a bonded joint and associated correlations with post-inspection failure tests have provided some clues regarding the key parameters involved in assessing bond strength. Recent advances in ultrasonic- and thermographic-based inspection methods have shown promise for measuring such properties. Specialized noise reduction and signal enhancement schemes have allowed thermographic interrogations to image the subtle differences between bond lines of various strengths. Similarly, specialized ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques, including laser UT, guided waves, UT spectroscopy, and resonance methods, can be coupled with unique signal analysis algorithms to accurately characterize the properties of weak interfacial bonds. The generation of sufficient energy input levels to derive bond strength variations, the production of sufficient technique sensitivity to measure such minor response variations, and the difficulty in manufacturing repeatable weak bond specimens are all issues that exacerbate these investigations. The key to evaluating the bond strength lies in the ability to exploit the

  14. Non-Destructive Testing A Developing Tool in Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT), sometimes also known as non-destructive inspection (NDI) or non-destructive examination (NDE), has been applied to solve a wide range of science and industry problems including construction, aerospace, nuclear engineering, manufacturing, space exploration, art objects, forensic studies, biological and medical fields, etc. Without any permanent changing or alteration of testing objects, NDT methods provide great advantages such as increased testing reliability, efficiency, and safety, as well as reduced time and cost. Since the second half of the 20th century, NDT technology has seen significant growth. Depending on the physical properties being measured, NDT techniques can be classified into several branches. This article will provide a brief overview of commonly used NDT methods and their up-to-date progresses including optical examination, radiography, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. For extended reviews on many presently used NDT methods, please refer to articles by Mullins [1, 2].

  15. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface. PMID:12159930

  16. Using piezoelectric sensors for ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Seong-Hoon; Zhu, Jinying

    2013-11-01

    The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test has been a widely used non-destructive testing method for concrete structures. However, the conventional UPV test has limitations in consistency of results and applicability in hard-to-access regions of structures. The authors explore the feasibility of embedded piezoelectric (PZT) sensors for ultrasonic measurements in concrete structures. Two PZT sensors were embedded in a reinforced concrete specimen. One sensor worked as an actuator driven by an ultrasonic pulse-receiver, and another sensor worked as a receiver. A series of ultrasonic tests were conducted to investigate the performance of the embedded sensors in crack-free concrete and concrete specimens having a surface-breaking crack under various external loadings. Signals measured by the embedded sensors show a broad bandwidth with a centre frequency around 80 kHz, and very good coherence in the frequency range from 30 to 180 kHz. Furthermore, experimental variability in ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation is substantially reduced compared to previously reported values from conventional UPV equipment. Findings from this study demonstrate that the embedded sensors have great potential as a low-cost solution for ultrasonic transducers for health monitoring of concrete in structures.

  17. Sparse signal representation and its applications in ultrasonic NDE.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Harvey, David M

    2012-03-01

    Many sparse signal representation (SSR) algorithms have been developed in the past decade. The advantages of SSR such as compact representations and super resolution lead to the state of the art performance of SSR for processing ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) signals. Choosing a suitable SSR algorithm and designing an appropriate overcomplete dictionary is a key for success. After a brief review of sparse signal representation methods and the design of overcomplete dictionaries, this paper addresses the recent accomplishments of SSR for processing ultrasonic NDE signals. The advantages and limitations of SSR algorithms and various overcomplete dictionaries widely-used in ultrasonic NDE applications are explored in depth. Their performance improvement compared to conventional signal processing methods in many applications such as ultrasonic flaw detection and noise suppression, echo separation and echo estimation, and ultrasonic imaging is investigated. The challenging issues met in practical ultrasonic NDE applications for example the design of a good dictionary are discussed. Representative experimental results are presented for demonstration. PMID:22040650

  18. Ultrasonic monitoring of Iberian fat crystallization during cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, E.; García-Pérez, J. V.; Santacatalina, J. V.; Peña, R.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of ultrasonic measurements to characterize the crystallization process and to assess the textural changes of Iberian fat and Iberian ham during cold storage. The ultrasonic velocity was measured in two types of Iberian fats (Montanera and Cebo) during cold storage (0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C) and in vacuum packaged Iberian ham stored at 6°C for 120 days. The fatty acid profile, thermal behaviour and textural properties of fat were determined. The ultrasonic velocity and textural measurements showed a two step increase during cold storage, which was related with the separate crystallization of two fractions of triglycerides. It was observed that the harder the fat, the higher the ultrasonic velocity. Likewise, Cebo fat resulted harder than Montanera due to a higher content of saturated triglycerides. The ultrasonic velocity in Iberian ham showed an average increase of 55 m/s after 120 days of cold storage due to fat crystallization. Thus, non-destructive ultrasonic technique could be a reliable method to follow the crystallization of fats and to monitor the changes in the textural properties of Iberian ham during cold storage.

  19. Cluster-enhanced sparse approximation of overlapping ultrasonic echoes.

    PubMed

    Mor, Etai; Aladjem, Mayer; Azoulay, Amnon

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse-echo methods have been used extensively in non-destructive testing of layered structures. In acoustic measurements on thin layers, the resulting echoes from two successive interfaces overlap in time, making it difficult to assess the individual echo parameters. Over the last decade sparse approximation methods have been extensively used to address this issue. These methods employ a large dictionary of elementary functions (atoms) and attempt to select the smallest subset of atoms (sparsest approximation) that represent the ultrasonic signal accurately. In this paper we propose the cluster-enhanced sparse approximation (CESA) method for estimating overlapping ultrasonic echoes. CESA is specifically adapted to deal with a large number of signals acquired during an ultrasonic scan. It incorporates two principal algorithms. The first is a clustering algorithm, which divides a set of signals comprising an ultrasonic scan into groups of signals that can be approximated by the same set of atoms. The second is a two-stage iterative algorithm, which alternates between update of the atoms associated with each cluster, and re-clustering of the signals according to the updated atoms. Because CESA operates on clusters of signals, it achieves improved results in terms of approximation error and computation time compared with conventional sparse methods, which operate on each signal separately. The superior ability of CESA to approximate highly overlapping ultrasonic echoes is demonstrated through simulation and experiments on adhesively bonded structures. PMID:25643086

  20. New Approach to Ultrasonic Spectroscopy Applied to Flywheel Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for use in the International Space Station. A flywheel system includes the components necessary to store and discharge energy in a rotating mass. The rotor is the complete rotating assembly portion of the flywheel, which is composed primarily of a metallic hub and a composite rim. The rim may contain several concentric composite rings. This article summarizes current ultrasonic spectroscopy research of such composite rings and rims and a flat coupon, which was manufactured to mimic the manufacturing of the rings. Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method for material characterization and defect detection. In the past, a wide bandwidth frequency spectrum created from a narrow ultrasonic signal was analyzed for amplitude and frequency changes. Tucker developed and patented a new approach to ultrasonic spectroscopy. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform on the frequency spectrum to create the spectrum resonance spacing domain, or fundamental resonant frequency. Ultrasonic responses from composite flywheel components were analyzed at Glenn to assess this NDE technique for the quality assurance of flywheel applications.

  1. Model Predictions to the 2005 Ultrasonic Benchmark Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo

    2006-03-01

    The World Federation of NDE Centers (WFNDEC) has addressed the 2005 ultrasonic benchmark problems including linear scanning of the side drilled hole (SDH) specimen with oblique incidence with an emphasis on further study on SV-wave responses of the SDH versus angles around 60 degrees and responses of a circular crack. To solve these problems, we adopted the multi-Gaussian beam model as beam models and the Kirchhoff approximation and the separation of variables method as far-field scattering models. By integration of the beam and scattering models and the system efficiency factor obtained from the given reference experimental setups provided by Center for Nondestructive Evaluation into our ultrasonic measurement models, we predicted the responses of the SDH and the circular cracks (pill-box crack like flaws). This paper summarizes our models and predicted results for the 2005 ultrasonic benchmark problems.

  2. Simulation of transducer-couplant effects on broadband ultrasonic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1980-01-01

    The increasing use of broadband, pulse-echo ultrasonics in nondestructive evaluation of flaws and material properties has generated a need for improved understanding of the way signals are modified by coupled and bonded thin-layer interfaces associated with transducers. This understanding is most important when using frequency spectrum analyses for characterizing material properties. In this type of application, signals emanating from material specimens can be strongly influenced by couplant and bond-layers in the acoustic path. Computer synthesized waveforms were used to simulate a range of interface conditions encountered in ultrasonic transducer systems operating in the 20 to 80 MHz regime. The adverse effects of thin-layer multiple reflections associated with various acoustic impedance conditions are demonstrated. The information presented is relevant to ultrasonic transducer design, specimen preparation, and couplant selection.

  3. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  4. Technology Base 2004 Report on the Ultrasonic Calibration Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-29

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the LLNL annular array scanner known as the KCI scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present some example data sets, and preliminary reconstructions. The project goals are to design and build a reconfigurable ultrasonic phantom for the KCI scanner. Use it to collect well characterized data under controlled conditions for use as ''canonical data sets'' in testing and evaluating new inversion algorithms. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of objects and media of interest to LLNL/DOE/DOD is an essential part of LLNL's mission. Many NDE situations have put demands beyond the scope of the current suite of imaging algorithms. As new algorithms and codes come on line, they must be evaluated on well characterized phantoms. The Ultrasonic Calibration Test Phantom provides such a data set.

  5. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Telschow; R. S. Schley; S. M. Watson; V. A. Deason

    1999-08-22

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  6. Material Property Measurement of Metallic Parts using the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-08-01

    Ultrasonic waves form a useful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) probe for determining physical, microstructural, and mechanical properties of materials and parts. Noncontacting laser ultrasonic methods are desired for remote measurements and on-line manufacture process monitoring. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed a versatile new method for detection of ultrasonic motion at surfaces. This method directly images, without the need for scanning, the surface distribution of subnanometer ultrasonic motion. By eliminating the need for scanning over large areas or complex parts, the inspection process can be greatly speeded up. Examples include measurements on parts with complex geometries through resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and of the properties of sheet materials determined through anisotropic elastic Lamb wave propagation. The operation and capabilities of the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera are described along with measurement results.

  7. Nondestructive characterization of embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel steels -- A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, H.I.; Alers, G.A.

    1998-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission recently initiated a study by NIST to assess the feasibility of using physical-property measurements for evaluating radiation embrittlement in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Ultrasonic and magnetic measurements provide the most promising approaches for nondestructive characterization of RPV steels because elastic waves and magnetic fields can sense the microstructural changes that embrittle materials. The microstructural changes of particular interest are copper precipitation hardening, which is the likely cause of radiation embrittlement in RPV steels, and the loss of dislocation mobility that is an attribute of the ductile-to-brittle transition. Measurements were made on a 1% copper steel, ASTM grade A710, in the annealed, peak-aged and overaged conditions, and on an RPV steel, ASTM grade A533B. Nonlinear ultrasonic and micromagnetic techniques were the most promising measures of precipitation hardening. Ultrasonic velocity measurements and the magnetic properties associated with hysteresis-loop measurements were not particularly sensitive to either precipitation hardening or the ductile-to-brittle transition. Measurements of internal friction using trapped ultrasonic resonance modes detected energy losses due to the motion of pinned dislocations; however, the ultrasonic attenuation associated with these measurements was small compared to the attenuation caused by beam spreading that would occur in conventional ultrasonic testing of RPVs.

  8. Nondestructive-test standards for evaluation of fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Weil, B. L.; Lewis, W. H.; Burton, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced composite standards, representing potential variations occurring when composites are processed into finished structures, were designed, fabricated and tested. Testing methods utilized were ultrasonic C-scan, radiography, and infrared.

  9. Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative adhesive bond strength measurement has been an issue for over thirty years. Utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods has shown more effectiveness than linear methods on adhesive bond analysis, resulting in an increased sensitivity to changes in bondline conditions. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown and could relate to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. This increased sensitivity will assist in getting closer to quantitative measurement of adhesive bond strength. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been successfully measured. This paper reviews nonlinear bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1997.

  10. Development of an automated ultrasonic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuxiang, Jiao; Wong, Brian Stephen

    2005-04-01

    Non-Destructive Testing is necessary in areas where defects in structures emerge over time due to wear and tear and structural integrity is necessary to maintain its usability. However, manual testing results in many limitations: high training cost, long training procedure, and worse, the inconsistent test results. A prime objective of this project is to develop an automatic Non-Destructive testing system for a shaft of the wheel axle of a railway carriage. Various methods, such as the neural network, pattern recognition methods and knowledge-based system are used for the artificial intelligence problem. In this paper, a statistical pattern recognition approach, Classification Tree is applied. Before feature selection, a thorough study on the ultrasonic signals produced was carried out. Based on the analysis of the ultrasonic signals, three signal processing methods were developed to enhance the ultrasonic signals: Cross-Correlation, Zero-Phase filter and Averaging. The target of this step is to reduce the noise and make the signal character more distinguishable. Four features: 1. The Auto Regressive Model Coefficients. 2. Standard Deviation. 3. Pearson Correlation 4. Dispersion Uniformity Degree are selected. And then a Classification Tree is created and applied to recognize the peak positions and amplitudes. Searching local maximum is carried out before feature computing. This procedure reduces much computation time in the real-time testing. Based on this algorithm, a software package called SOFRA was developed to recognize the peaks, calibrate automatically and test a simulated shaft automatically. The automatic calibration procedure and the automatic shaft testing procedure are developed.

  11. Development of nondestructive-evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat-exchanger components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupperman, D. S.; Yuhas, D.; Michaels, T. E.; Michaels, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment was made of ultrasonic techniques developed to date for nondestructive evaluation of SiC heat exchanger tubes. The results suggest that ultrasonic inspection is a useful and valuable technique for inspecting these tubes, including ceramic butt joints. However, this method alone is currently not sufficiently effective to detect all critical flaws because of (1) the difficulties in following the surface of an out of round tube; (2) the high velocity and thus the large angle of refraction of sound in SiC, which for small diameter tubes leads to significant beam distortion; and (3) insuffient resolution, relative to the small critical flaw size in ceramics, at conventional ultrasonic testing frequencies. The experiments show that higher frequencies (up to 35 MHz) are required for effective wall thickness measurements and detection of laminar type flaws.

  12. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Volkov-Husoviæ, T. D.; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Leonelli, C.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  13. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Volkov-Husoviae, T. D.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  14. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization. PMID:18471849

  15. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  16. Ultrasonic comb transducer for smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    Installation of a small multi-element comb type ultrasonic transducer is proposed as a component of a smart structure. It can be used in either an active or passive mode in carrying out ultrasonic bulk or guided wave nondestructive evaluation. Theoretical methods are developed and experimental results are presented for guided wave generation and mode control with this very efficient and versatile novel comb type ultrasonic transducer. Excitation and probe design is crucial in mode selection. The comb transducer generates waves that are influenced by such parameters as number of elements, spacing between elements, dimension, pulsing sequence, and pressure distribution. The excited elastic field depends on the excitation frequency, plate thickness, and elastic properties. Techniques are studied to optimize the applied loading and the comb transducer design parameters so that only modes that are most sensitive to particular material characteristics can be generated. Complete understanding of the comb transducer parameters and their impact on the elastic field allows us to efficiently generate higher order modes as well as low phase velocity modes which are valuable in composite material characterization. Sample experiments are presented for various plate and tube like structures.

  17. Sandwich Panels Evaluated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment systems for next-generation engines. The bond strength between the core and face sheets is critical in maintaining the structural integrity of the sandwich structure. To improve the inspection and production of these systems, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, to evaluate the brazing quality between the face plates and the metallic foam core. The capabilities and limitations of a swept-frequency approach to ultrasonic spectroscopy were evaluated with respect to these sandwich structures. This report discusses results from three regions of a sandwich panel representing different levels of brazing quality between the outer face plates and a metallic foam core. Each region was investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy. Then, on the basis of the NDE results, three shear specimens sectioned from the sandwich panel to contain each of these regions were mechanically tested.

  18. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  19. The power of ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Profit, Alan L; Martini, Luigi G

    2005-01-01

    This overview of ultrasonic technologies describes their effectiveness for a number of applications. Product examples illustrate use for welding, cutting and boring as well as atomising. PMID:16334603

  20. Ultrasonic Bolt Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleman, Stuart M. (Inventor); Rowe, Geoffrey K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An ultrasonic bolt gage is described which uses a crosscorrelation algorithm to determine a tension applied to a fastener, such as a bolt. The cross-correlation analysis is preferably performed using a processor operating on a series of captured ultrasonic echo waveforms. The ultrasonic bolt gage is further described as using the captured ultrasonic echo waveforms to perform additional modes of analysis, such as feature recognition. Multiple tension data outputs, therefore, can be obtained from a single data acquisition for increased measurement reliability. In addition, one embodiment of the gage has been described as multi-channel, having a multiplexer for performing a tension analysis on one of a plurality of bolts.

  1. Ultrasonic destruction of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brannen, G E; Bush, W H

    1984-02-01

    Kidney stones may be removed without using a surgical incision by a combination of techniques and skills recently developed in the fields of urology and radiology. Percutaneous access to the kidney is established under fluoroscopic control. A guide wire placed into the renal pelvis allows a nephroscope to be inserted and the collecting system visualized. A long hollow metal probe is advanced through the nephroscope and placed in contact with the stone. This probe conducts the ultrasonic energy. The stone absorbs the energy and breaks into fine granules, which are evacuated by suction.Twenty-three consecutively seen patients presenting with 27 upper urinary tract calculi for which removal was indicated underwent successful percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy. Fifteen stones were located in the renal pelvis, eight in a calix, three at the ureteropelvic junction and one in the upper ureter. One infected staghorn calculus was removed. Two complications resulted in extended hospital stays, but in no patients were surgical incisions required. Of the 23 patients, 9 had previously had a surgical lithotomy. The authors believe that most renal and upper ureteral calculi for which removal is indicated may be extracted percutaneously with the aid of the ultrasonic lithotriptor. The patients may expect a rapid convalescence with diminished pain. PMID:6730470

  2. Considerations for ultrasonic testing application for on-orbit NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper addresses some on-orbit nondestructive evaluation (NDE) needs of NASA for International Space Station (ISS). The presentation gives NDE requirements for inspecting suspect damage due to micro-meteoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impact on the pressure wall of the ISS. This inspection is meant to be conducted from inside of the ISS module. The metallic wall of the module has a fixed wall thickness but also has integral orthogrid ribs for reinforcement. Typically, a single MMOD hit causes localized damage in a small area causing loss of material similar to pitting corrosion, but cracks may be present too. The impact may cause bulging of the wall. Results of the ultrasonic and eddy current demonstration scans on test samples are provided. The ultrasonic technique uses shear wave scans to interrogate the localized damage area from the surrounding undamaged area. The scanning protocol results in multiple scans, each with multiple "vee" paths. A superimposition and mosaic of the three-dimensional ultrasonic data from individual scans is desired to create C-scan images of the damage. This is a new data reduction process which is not currently implemented in state-of-art ultrasonic instruments. Results of ultrasonic scans on the simulated MMOD damage test plates are provided. The individual C-scans are superimposed manually creating mosaic of the inspection. The resulting image is compared with visibly detected damage boundaries, X-ray images, and localized ultrasonic and eddy current scans for locating crack tips to assess effectiveness of the ultrasonic scanning. The paper also discusses developments needed in improving ergonomics of the ultrasonic testing for on-orbit applications.

  3. Ultrasonic Waves and Strength Reduction Indexes for the Assessment of the Advancement of Deterioration Processes in Travertines from Pamukkale and Hierapolis (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrowska, Alicja; Domonik, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    In constructions, the usefulness of modern technical diagnostics of stone as a raw material requires predicting the effects of long-term environmental impact of its qualities and geomechanical properties. The paper presents geomechanical research enabling presentation of the factors for strength loss of the stone and forecasting the rate of development of destructive phenomena on the stone structure on a long-time basis. As research material Turkish travertines were selected from the Denizli-Kaklık Basin (Pamukkale and Hierapolis quarries), which have been commonly used for centuries in global architecture. The rock material was subjected to testing of the impact of various environmental factors, as well as European standards recommended by the author of the research program. Their resistance to the crystallization of salts from aqueous solutions and the effects of SO2, as well as the effect of frost and high temperatures are presented. The studies allowed establishing the following quantitative indicators: the ultrasonic waves index (IVp) and the strength reduction index (IRc). Reflections on the assessment of deterioration effects indicate that the most active factors decreasing travertine resistance in the aging process include frost and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Their negative influence is particularly intense when the stone material is already strongly weathered.

  4. Advancements in NDE for utilities and the petrochemical industry through electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, M. O.; Stevens, Donald M.; Schlader, Daniel M.; Tilley, Richard M.

    1998-03-01

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) method continues to broaden in its effectiveness and capabilities for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Much of this expansion can be attributed to advancements in specific techniques of the method. The utilization of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) in dedicated ultrasonic systems has provided McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), formerly Babcock & Wilcox, with significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics. In recent years, through significant R&D, MTI has been instrumental in bringing about considerable advancements in the maturing EMAT technology. Progress in electronic design, magnet configurations, and sensor concepts has greatly improved system capabilities while reducing cost and equipment size. These improvements, coupled with the inherent advantages of utilizing the non-contact EMAT technique, have combined to make this technology a viable option for many commercial system inspection applications. MTI has recently completed the development and commercialization of an EMAT-based UT scanner for boiler tube thickness measurements. MTI is currently developing an automated EMAT scanner, based on phased array technology, for complete volumetric inspection of circumferential girth welds associated with pipelines (intended primarily for offshore applications). Additional benefits of phased array technology for providing materials characterization are currently being researched.

  5. Thermographic nondestructive evaluation: overview of recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Galmiche, Francois; Darabi, Akbar; Pilla, Mariacristina; Klein, Matthieu; Ziadi, Adel; Vallerand, Steve; Pelletier, Jean-François; Maldague, Xavier P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent research activities carried out at our laboratory in the field of Infrared Thermography for Nondestructive Evaluation (TNDE). First, we explore the latest developments in signal improvement. We describe three approaches: multiple pulse stimulation; the use of Synthetic Data for de-noising of the signal; and a new approach derived from the Fourier diffusion equation called the Differentiated Absolute Contrast method (DAC). Secondly, we examine the advances carried out in inverse solutions. We describe the use of the Wavelet Transform to manage pulsed thermographic data, and we present a summary on Neural Networks for TNDE. Finally, we look at the problem of complex geometry inspection. In this case, due to surface shape, heat variations might be incorrectly identified as flaws. We describe the Shape-from-Heating approach and we propose some potential research avenues to deal with this problem.

  6. Application of wavelet filtering and Barker-coded pulse compression hybrid method to air-coupled ultrasonic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhenggan; Ma, Baoquan; Jiang, Jingtao; Yu, Guang; Liu, Kui; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Weiping

    2014-10-01

    Air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) technique has been viewed as a viable solution in defect detection of advanced composites used in aerospace and aviation industries. However, the giant mismatch of acoustic impedance in air-solid interface makes the transmission efficiency of ultrasound low, and leads to poor signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of received signal. The utilisation of signal-processing techniques in non-destructive testing is highly appreciated. This paper presents a wavelet filtering and phase-coded pulse compression hybrid method to improve the SNR and output power of received signal. The wavelet transform is utilised to filter insignificant components from noisy ultrasonic signal, and pulse compression process is used to improve the power of correlated signal based on cross-correction algorithm. For the purpose of reasonable parameter selection, different families of wavelets (Daubechies, Symlet and Coiflet) and decomposition level in discrete wavelet transform are analysed, different Barker codes (5-13 bits) are also analysed to acquire higher main-to-side lobe ratio. The performance of the hybrid method was verified in a honeycomb composite sample. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method is very efficient in improving the SNR and signal strength. The applicability of the proposed method seems to be a very promising tool to evaluate the integrity of high ultrasound attenuation composite materials using the ACUT.

  7. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  8. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  9. Advanced Welding Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Four advanced welding techniques and their use in NASA are briefly reviewed in this poster presentation. The welding techniques reviewed are: Solid State Welding, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), Thermal Stir Welding (TSW) and Ultrasonic Stir Welding.

  10. Overview of space propulsion systems for identifying nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1991-01-01

    The next generation of space propulsion systems will be designed to incorporate advanced health monitoring and nondestructive inspection capabilities. As a guide to help the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) community impact the development of these space propulsion systems, several questions should be addressed. An overview of background and current information on space propulsion systems at both the programmatic and technical levels is provided. A framework is given that will assist the NDE community in addressing key questions raised during the 2 to 5 April 1990 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Nondestructive Evaluation Subcommittee (NDES).

  11. NDE of advanced ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonic, and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) techniques were used to characterize silicon nitride and silicon carbide modulus-of-rupture test specimens in various stages of fabrication. Conventional and microfocus X-ray techniques were found capable of detecting minute high-density inclusions in as-received powders, green compacts, and fully densified specimens. Significant density gradients in sintered bars were observed by radiography, ultrasonic velocity, and SLAM. Ultrasonic attenuation was found sensitive to microstructural variations due to grain and void morphology and distribution. SLAM was capable also of detecting voids, inclusions, and cracks in finished test bars. Consideration is given to the potential for applying thermoacoustic microscopy techniques to green and densified ceramics. Some limitations and the detection probability statistics of the aforementioned nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes are also discussed.

  12. Physical model assisted probability of detection in nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q.; Thompson, R. B.

    2011-06-23

    Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of a ceramic matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosskopf, Paul P.; Duke, John C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic materials have proven their usefulness in many applications, yet, their potential for critical structural applications is limited because of their sensitivity to small imperfections. To overcome this extreme sensitivity to small imperfections, ceramic matrix composite materials have been developed that have the ability to withstand some distributed damage. A borosilicate glass reinforced with several layers of silicon-carbide fiber mat has been studied. Four-point flexure and tension tests were performed not only to determine some of the material properties, but also to initiate a controlled amount of damage within each specimen. Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) measurements were performed periodically during mechanical testing. This paper will compare the AU results to the mechanical test results and data from other nondestructive methods including acoustic emission monitoring and X-ray radiography. It was found that the AU measurements were sensitive to the damage that had developed within the material.

  14. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  15. Automatic processing of ultrasound images for nondestructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Leon

    1993-12-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of carbon fiber composite (CFC) aircraft panels has, in the past, been a time-consuming and laborious process. Data acquisition (using C-scan techniques) takes of order 1 hour per m2, and the decision as to whether the panel meets the testing standard (technically known as sentencing) is an unexciting and repetitive visual task for a human operator. This paper introduces a new system for automated sentencing of CFC panels of solid or matrix (honeycomb) construction. It begins with a brief description of a new parallel-scanning ultrasound rig which greatly reduces the time required for data acquisition. A detailed description is then given of the design and implementation of a computer vision system which processes the resulting ultrasound images.

  16. Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, L.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique for assessing bonding. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to apply induction thermography technique to evaluate adhesively bonded steel plates. Samples were fabricated with artificial defects such as air gap, foreign material, and improper adhesive filling. Induction thermography technique was found to detect defects and foreign inclusions. The sample specimen was also inspected using standard techniques such as Ultrasonic testing and Radiography testing. Defect detecting capabilities of the three techniques are compared. Induction thermography heating was FE modelled in 3D using COMSOL 3.5a. The simulated Induction thermography model was compared and validated with experimental results.

  17. Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q.; Thompson, R. B.

    2011-06-01

    Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

  18. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  19. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  20. Ultrasonic measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, J.; Mayes, J.C.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes borehole measurement apparatus. It comprises a tool adapted for connection in a drill string in the borehole through earth formations, first and second ultra-sonic transmitter means disposed diametrically opposed from each other in the cylindrical body, first and second ultra-sonic transducer means disposed in the cylindrical body, and logic means, processing means, and memory means.

  1. Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

  2. Composition assessment of raw meat mixtures using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Rossello, C; Mulet, A

    2001-04-01

    The use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to determine the composition of dry fermented sausages was assessed. Mixtures of ground lean and fatty tissues were prepared to cover a wide range of fat (2-90 wt.%), moisture (7-76 wt.%), and protein (2-21 wt.%) contents. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased on average 5.6 ms(-1) per °C increase in temperature, due to the negative temperature coefficient for fat and the fat melting, which is observed in (DSC) differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The ultrasonic velocity temperature dependence allowed the determining of the fat, moisture and protein+others content, by measuring the ultrasonic velocity in the mixtures at 4 and 25°C and using a semi-empirical equation. The explained variance was 99.6% for fat, 98.7% for moisture and 85.4% for protein+others. The results obtained show the feasibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurement to assess the composition of meat products such as dry fermented sausages, rapidly and non-destructively. PMID:22061708

  3. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectroscopy of Composite Rims for Flywheel Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Laura M.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Flywheel energy storage devices comprising multilayered composite rotor systems are being studied extensively for utilization in the International Space Station. These composite material systems were investigated with a recently developed ultrasonic resonance spectroscopy technique. The ultrasonic system employs a continuous swept-sine waveform and performs a fast Fourier transform (FFT) on the frequency response spectrum. In addition, the system is capable of equalizing the amount of energy at each frequency. Equalization of the frequency spectrum, along with interpretation of the second FFT, aids in the evaluation of the fundamental frequency. The frequency responses from multilayered material samples, with and without known defects, were analyzed to assess the capabilities and limitations of this nondestructive evaluation technique for material characterization and defect detection. Amplitude and frequency changes were studied from ultrasonic responses of thick composite rings and a multiring composite rim. A composite ring varying in thickness was evaluated to investigate the full thickness resonance. The frequency response characteristics from naturally occurring voids in a composite ring were investigated. Ultrasonic responses were compared from regions with and without machined voids in a composite ring and a multiring composite rim. Finally, ultrasonic responses from the multiring composite rim were compared before and after proof spin testing to 63,000 rpm.

  4. Repeat scanning technology for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yenn Chong, See; Sunuwar, Nitam; Park, Chan Yik

    2013-08-01

    Laser ultrasonic scanning in combination with contact or non-contact sensors provides new paradigms in structural health management (SHM) and non-destructive in-process quality control (IPQC) for large composite structures. Wave propagation imaging technology based on laser ultrasonic scanning and fixed-point sensing shows remarkable advantages, such as minimal need for embedded sensors in SHM, minimum invasive defect visualization in IPQC and general capabilities of curved and complex target inspection, and temporal reference-free inspection. However, as with other SHM methods and non-destructive evaluation based on ultrasound, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a prevalent issue in real structural applications, especially with non-contact thin-composite sensing or with thick and heterogeneous composites. This study proposes a high-speed repeat scanning technique for laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) technology, which is realized with the scanning speed of 1 kHz of a Q-switched continuous wave laser, and precise control of the laser beam pulses for identical point scanning. As a result, the technique enables the achievement of significant improvement in the SNR to inspect real-world composite structures. The proposed technique provides enhanced results for impact damage detection in a 2 mm thick wing box made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the low sensitivity of non-contact laser ultrasonic sensing. A field-applicable pure laser UPI system has been developed using a laser Doppler vibrometer as the non-contact ultrasonic sensor. The proposed technique enables the visualization of the disbond defect in a 15 mm thick wind blade specimen made of glass-fiber-reinforced plastic, despite the high dissipation of ultrasound in the thick composite.

  5. Frequency control of sol–gel composite films fabricated by stencil printing for nondestructive testing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tsukasa; Kibe, Taiga; Kimoto, Keisuke; Nishimura, Ryota; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers made of sol–gel composites have been developed for nondestructive testing (NDT) applications in various industrial fields. Stencil printing of sol–gel composite films has been developed for the reduction of fabrication time and cost. However, it was necessary to develop low frequency (<10 MHz) ultrasonic transducers for inspecting industrial structures under severe high-temperature conditions, because high-frequency components suffer attenuation effect caused by high temperature. To realize this, increasing the thickness of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)/PZT films fabricated by stencil printing was attempted in this study. The samples were fabricated by single-layer stencil printing with a thick stencil mask and multilayer pure stencil printing with prespraying and postspraying. The film thicknesses were 150–185 µm, and the center frequencies of ultrasonic responses were 6.0–6.4 MHz. Throughout three thermal cycles of up to 370 K, the ultrasonic performance was stable, and the frequency characteristics were not markedly different from the beginning to the end of the test. Therefore, low-frequency ultrasonic transducers were successfully manufactured using a stencil-printing-based technique.

  6. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.; George, T.G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M.W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Nondestructive inspection of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fueled clad girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M. A. H.; George, T. G.; Lynch, C.; Padilla, M.; Moniz, P.; Guerrero, A.; Moyer, M. W.; Placr, A.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. The GPHS is fabricated using an iridium-alloy to contain the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. GPHS capsules will be utilized in the upcoming Cassini mission to explore Saturn and its moons. The physical integrity of the girth weld is important to mission safety and performance. Because past experience had revealed a potential for initiation of small cracks in the girth weld overlap zone, a nondestructive inspection of each capsule weld is required. An ultrasonic method was used to inspect the welds of capsules fabricated for the Galileo mission. The instrument, transducer, and method used were state of the art at the time (early 1980s). The ultrasonic instrumentation and methods used to inspect the Cassini GPHSs was significantly upgraded from those used for the Galileo mission. GPHSs that had ultrasonic reflectors in excess of the reject specification level were subsequently inspected with radiography to provide additional engineering data used to accept/reject the heat source. This paper describes the Galileo-era ultrasonic instrumentation and methods and the subsequent upgrades made to support testing of Cassini GPHSs. Also discussed is the data obtained from radiographic examination and correlation to ultrasonic examination results.

  8. Overview of nondestructive evaluation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.

    1995-04-01

    The infrastructure in the US and the world is aging. There is an increasing awareness of the need to assess the severity of the damage occurring to the infrastructure. Limited resources preclude the replacement of all structures that need repairs or have exceeded their life times. Methods to assess the amount and severity of damage are crucial to implementing a systematic, cost effective approach to repair and/or replace the damaged structures. The challenges of inspecting aging structures without impairing their usefulness rely on a variety of technologies and techniques for nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper will briefly describe several nondestructive evaluation technologies that are required for inspecting a variety of systems and structures.

  9. Nondestructive Degradation Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.H.L.; Parthasarathy, B.

    1996-12-31

    The structural integrity of ceramic candle filters is a key element for hot gas cleanup systems, They protect the heat exchanger and gas turbine components from getting clogged and also prevent erosion. Ceramic candle filters used in the recent demonstration plant have experienced degradation and fracturing. Preliminary examination of these ceramic filters indicated that damage of the filters may have resulted from strength degradation at consistent high temperature operation, thermal transient events, excessive ash accumulation and bridging and pulse cleaning. The ceramic candle filter is a slender structure made of layers of porous materials. The structure has high acoustic attenuation which has greatly limited the conventional ultrasonic detection capability. In general, stiffness reduction of a structure will cause the change of the modal parameters of the structure. This study proposes a nondestructive approach for evaluating the structural properties of the ceramic filters using dynamic characterization method. The vibration signatures of the ceramic filters at different degradation levels are established using transient impact-response technique. Results from this study indicate that the vibration signatures of the filters can be used as an index to quantify the darnage condition of the filters. The results also indicate the feasibility of using the vibration mode shapes to predict the damage location. The application of this study can be implemented to develop a nondestructive evaluation method for future in-situ inspection of the ceramic filters.

  10. Center crack detection during continuous casting of aluminum by laser ultrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Hubert; Mitter, Thomas; Roither, Jürgen; Betz, Andreas; Bozorgi, Salar; Burgholzer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Crack detection during continuous direct chill casting of aluminum is a matter of economics. Determining cracks during production process saves money, energy and raw material. Of course, a non-destructive method is required for this evaluation. Because of temperature concerns conventional ultrasound is not applicable. One non-contact alternative is laser ultrasonics. In laser ultrasonics short laser pulses illuminate the sample. The electromagnetic energy gets absorbed at the surface of the sample and results in local heating followed by expansion. Thereby broadband ultrasonic waves are launched which propagate through the sample and get back reflected or scattered at interfaces (cracks, blowholes,…) like conventional ultrasonic waves. Therefore laser ultrasonics is an alternative thermal infrared technology. By using an interferometer also the detection of the ultrasonic waves at the sample surface is done in a remote manner. During preliminary examinations in the lab by scanning different aluminum studs it was able to distinguish between studs with and without cracks. The prediction of the dimension of the crack by evaluation of the damping of the broadband ultrasonic waves was possible. With simple image reconstruction methods one can localize the crack and give an estimation of its extent and even its shape. Subsequent first measurements using this laser ultrasonic setup during the continuous casting of aluminum were carried out and showed the proof of principle in an industrial environment with elevated temperatures, dust, cooling water and vibrations.

  11. A Method For The Verification Of Wire Crimp Compression Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William t.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to assess quantitatively wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. To demonstrate the technique, the case of incomplete compression of crimped connections is ultrasonically tested, and the results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently predicts good crimps when the ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A quantitative measure of the quality of the crimped connection based on the ultrasonic energy transmitted is shown to respond accurately to crimp quality. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. A comparison of the results of two different instruments is presented and shows reproducibility between instruments within a 95% confidence bound.

  12. Laser excitation and fully non-contact sensing ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Dipesh; Lee, Jung Ryul; Park, Chan Yik; Flynn, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Various types of damages occur in aerospace, mechanical and many other engineering structures, and a reliable nondestructive evaluation technique is essential to detect any possible damage at the initiation phase. Ultrasound has been widely used but the conventional contact ultrasonic inspection techniques are not suitable for mass and couplant sensitive structures and are relatively slow. This study presents a fully non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic generation and piezoelectric air-coupled transducer (ACT)/laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensing technique combined with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI), ultrasonic spectral imaging (USI) and wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging (WUPI) algorithms to extract defect-sensitive features aimed at performing a thorough diagnosis of damage. Optimization enables improved performance efficiency of ACT and LDV to be used as receivers for non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system as shown from the experimental results in this study. Real fatigue closed surface micro crack on metal structure was detected using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/ACT sensing system, with size detection accuracy as high as 96%. Impact damages on carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite wing-box specimen were detected and localized using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/LDV sensing system.

  13. Study of ultrasonic sensor that is effective for all direction using an electromagnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Kazuki; Murayama, Riichi; Hirayama, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Non-destructive inspection using ultrasonic sensors is widely utilized to guarantee the safety of large structures. However, there is the problem that it will take a very long time to complete. Therefore, it was decided to develop a sensor capable of testing a wide range of structures at a high inspection speed. The ultrasonic wave that the ultrasonic sensor can generate must be equally emitted in any direction and the ultrasonic wave returned from any direction be detected. To attain this objective, an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) consisting of a circular-shaped magnet and an electric induction coil (EM) has been developed, because it is impossible to fabricate such a special ultrasonic sensor using a commercial-type ultrasonic sensor with a piezoelectric element, and it is convenient to automatically scan over the surface of the structure. First, the detail specifications of the new ultrasonic sensor have been determined by changing many of the parameters, for example, the impedance and the size of the EM coil, the size of the magnet, etc. The performance of the new sensor was then tested under different conditions. Based on the results of the experimental tests, it was demonstrated that the new sensor could generate ultrasonic waves in any direction and detect them from any direction. However, the performance was not high enough to apply the new sensor to a real structure. The new sensor has been improved to increase the performance by adding a new concept.

  14. Holographic system for nondestructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a holographic system for nondestructive testing. The system is comprised of a mirror which illuminates the test object surface; the mirror is positionable to direct illumination on an object at varying angles with respect to a line normal to the surface of the object. In this manner holograms may be produced with varying degrees of sensitivity enabling optimum observation of dimensions of deformation of an object occurring between test exposures.

  15. In-process nondestructive evaluation of the pultrusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, David L.; Heider, Dirk; Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Steiner, Karl V.

    1995-07-01

    Substantial growth potential for composite materials exists in the private sector, where high volume, low cost production is required. Post processing inspection can represent a significant percentage of the cost of composite products. Alternate ways of assuring quality must be examined. In-process inspection can be easily adapted to continuous composite manufacturing techniques such as the pultrusion process, enabling 100% inspection. Recent research efforts at the Center for Composite Materials has focused on ways of evaluating pultruded composites on-line by using ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. The most accurate method to date is based upon Lamb wave velocity measurements. This inspection technique uses two transducers positioned at normal incidence to the composite in a through-transmission mode to generate and receive ultrasonic waves which propagate through the sample. Careful processing of the waveform data reveals the degree of porosity in the composite samples. A series of tests were performed in-situ on an actual laboratory scale pultrusion process which accurately predicted the porosity in a 6.4 mm multiplied by 3.2 mm (0.25' multiplied by 0.125') cross-section pultruded rod over a range of 0.5% to 12% void volume fraction.

  16. Non-destructive testing of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Wohlmuther, M.; Boutellier, V.; Hahl, S.; Lagotzki, A.; Leu, H.; Linder, H. P.; Schwarz, R.; Spahr, A.; Zanini, L.; Kuster, D.; Gavillet, D.; Wagner, W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is one important part of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the MEGAPIE target. It includes visual inspection and ultrasonic measurement of the beam window of the T91 LBE container and gamma mapping of the beam window of the AlMg3 safety-container. The visual inspection showed no visible failure in the proton beam window area of the T91 LBE container. The ultrasonic measurement demonstrated no detectable change in the wall thickness of the T91 beam window, which implies no severe corrosion effect induced by flowing LBE during the four-month irradiation period. The gamma mapping provided the distribution of 22Na, a spallation product, in the proton beam window area of the AlMg3 safety-container. The result was used to evaluate the accumulated proton fluence distribution profile, the input data for determining irradiation parameters. A maximum proton fluence of 1.9 × 1025 p/m2 was deduced. The corresponding displacement damage degree in the T91 beam window was 7.1 dpa.

  17. A nondestructive test contribution to the safety of offshore cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hands, G.; Bourgeors-Jacquet, P.

    1995-10-01

    Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) plays a vital role in safety as well as in economics of manufacturing. This paper shows an example of how NDT has been successfully used offshore in Europe for a number of years, inspecting slewing bearings. Slewing bearings are the bearings that support among other things cranes and earth-moving equipment. These bearings carry a very heavy slow moving unbalanced axial-load. Due to the extreme environment and the very heavy and unbalanced loading supported by the bearings, particularly on oil exploration and production platforms in the North Sea, some bearings have failed catastrophically. In order to minimize the dangers, authorities have stipulated that slewing bearings for cranes employed in the North Sea are to be periodically inspected. The normal life-restricting failure mode of slewing bearings is spalling of the raceways. This is the rolling contact surface of the bearing breaking-up under the very heavy loads imposed upon it. The developed ultrasonic testing technique, apart from detecting and monitoring cracks in the stressed areas of the bearing, is also able to monitor the initiation and growth of any spalling on the main raceways of the bearings, thus enabling better planning on maintenance and replacements. This paper describes the development of the ultrasonic testing system.

  18. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  19. Void detection beneath reinforced concrete sections: The practical application of ground-penetrating radar and ultrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Nigel J.; Eddies, Rod; Dods, Sam

    2011-08-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ultrasonic 'pulse echo' techniques are well-established methods for the imaging, investigation and analysis of steel reinforced concrete structures and are important civil engineering survey tools. GPR is, arguably, the more widely-used technique as it is suitable for a greater range of problem scenarios (i.e., from rebar mapping to moisture content determination). Ultrasonic techniques are traditionally associated with the engineering-based, non-destructive testing of concrete structures and their integrity analyses (e.g., flaw detection, shear/longitudinal velocity determination, etc). However, when used in an appropriate manner, both techniques can be considered complementary and provide a unique way of imaging the sub-surface that is suited to a range of geotechnical problems. In this paper, we present a comparative study between mid-to-high frequency GPR (450 MHz and 900 MHz) and array-based, shear wave, pulse-echo ultrasonic surveys using proprietary instruments and conventional GPR data processing and visualisation techniques. Our focus is the practical detection of sub-metre scale voids located under steel reinforced concrete sections in realistic survey conditions (e.g., a capped, relict mine shaft or vent). Representative two-dimensional (2D) sections are presented for both methods illustrating the similarities/differences in signal response and the temporal-spatial target resolutions achieved with each technique. The use of three-dimensional data volumes and time slices (or 'C-scans') for advanced interpretation is also demonstrated, which although common in GPR applications is under-utilised as a technique in general ultrasonic surveys. The results show that ultrasonic methods can perform as well as GPR for this specific investigation scenario and that they have the potential of overcoming some of the inherent limitations of GPR investigations (i.e., the need for careful antenna frequency selection and survey design in

  20. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  1. Ultrasonic Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, Steven (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging system is described which can be used to either passively search for sources of ultrasonics or as an active phase imaging system. which can image fires. gas leaks, or air temperature gradients. This system uses an array of ultrasonic receivers coupled to an ultrasound collector or lens to provide an electronic image of the ultrasound intensity in a selected angular region of space. A system is described which includes a video camera to provide a visual reference to a region being examined for ultrasonic signals.

  2. Ultrasonic determination of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and colume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  3. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  4. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  5. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  6. Development and validation of nondestructive inspection techniques for composite doubler repairs on commercial aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1998-05-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single boron-epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. In order for the use of composite doublers to achieve widespread use in the civil aviation industry, it is imperative that methods be developed which can quickly and reliably assess the integrity of the doubler. In this study, a specific composite application was chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Primary among inspection requirements for these doublers is the identification of disbonds, between the composite laminate and aluminum parent material, and delaminations in the composite laminate. Surveillance of cracks or corrosion in the parent aluminum material beneath the doubler is also a concern. No single nondestructive inspection (NDI) method can inspect for every flaw type, therefore it is important to be aware of available NDI techniques and to properly address their capabilities and limitations. A series of NDI tests were conducted on laboratory test structures and on full-scale aircraft fuselage sections. Specific challenges, unique to bonded composite doubler applications, were highlighted. An array of conventional and advanced NDI techniques were evaluated. Flaw detection sensitivity studies were conducted on applicable eddy current, ultrasonic, X-ray and thermography based devices. The application of these NDI techniques to composite doublers and the results from test specimens, which were loaded to provide a changing flaw profile, are presented in this report. It was found that a team of these techniques can identify flaws in composite doubler installations well before they reach critical size.

  7. Ultrasonic detection technology based on joint robot on composite component with complex surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Juan; Xu, Chunguang; Zhang, Lan

    2014-02-18

    Some components have complex surface, such as the airplane wing and the shell of a pressure vessel etc. The quality of these components determines the reliability and safety of related equipment. Ultrasonic nondestructive detection is one of the main methods used for testing material defects at present. In order to improve the testing precision, the acoustic axis of the ultrasonic transducer should be consistent with the normal direction of the measured points. When we use joint robots, automatic ultrasonic scan along the component surface normal direction can be realized by motion trajectory planning and coordinate transformation etc. In order to express the defects accurately and truly, the robot position and the signal of the ultrasonic transducer should be synchronized.

  8. Identification of weak ultrasonic signals in testing of metallic materials using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xianfeng; Zuo, Ming J.; Wang, Xiaodong

    2006-12-01

    Non-destructive testing using ultrasonic signals has been widely employed to detect material damage and prevent accidents. A collected ultrasonic signal may be noisy and weak because of the grains in materials, incomplete contact between transducers and the mounting surface, and the long transmission path. Stationary wavelet transform has been applied together with kurtosis and universal de-noising to analyze ultrasonic signals in an attempt to identify the weak signals encountered in testing of metallic materials. The time-of-flight of signal in a metallic material is estimated by cross-correlation analysis. Application of the method is demonstrated through the ultrasonic testing of a thin steel plate with a slot.

  9. Ultrasonic test of resistance spot welds based on wavelet package analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Xu, Guocheng; Gu, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Guanghao

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic test of spot welds for stainless steel sheets has been studied. It is indicated that traditional ultrasonic signal analysis in either time domain or frequency domain remains inadequate to evaluate the nugget diameter of spot welds. However, the method based on wavelet package analysis in time-frequency domain can easily distinguish the nugget from the corona bond by extracting high-frequency signals in different positions of spot welds, thereby quantitatively evaluating the nugget diameter. The results of ultrasonic test fit the actual measured value well. Mean value of normal distribution of error statistics is 0.00187, and the standard deviation is 0.1392. Furthermore, the quality of spot welds was evaluated, and it is showed ultrasonic nondestructive test based on wavelet packet analysis can be used to evaluate the quality of spot welds, and it is more reliable than single tensile destructive test. PMID:25454096

  10. Composite NDE using full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seung-Chan; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Park, Jongwoon

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel ultrasonic propagation imaging system, called a full-field pulse-echo ultrasonic propagation imaging (FF PE UPI) system is presented. The coincided laser beams for ultrasonic sensing and generation are scanned and pulse-echo mode laser ultrasounds are captured. This procedure makes it possible to generate full-field ultrasound in through-the-thickness direction as large as the scan area. The system nondestructively inspected targets with two-axis translation stages. Various structural inspection results in the form of full-field ultrasonic wave propagation videos are introduced, which are an aluminum honeycomb sandwich, ailerons and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) honeycomb sandwich structures including various defects.

  11. Soft tissue cutting with ultrasonic mechanical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Mark. P.; McGuinness, Garrett; Gavin, Graham P.

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic vibrations transmitted via small diameter wire waveguides represents a technology that has potential for minimally invasive procedures in surgery. This form of energy delivery results in distal tip mechanical vibrations with amplitudes of vibration of up to 50 μm and at frequencies between 20-50 kHz commonly reported. This energy can then be used by micro-cutting surgical tools and end effectors for a range of applications such as bone cutting, cement removal in joint revision surgery and soft tissue cutting. One particular application which has gained regulatory approval in recent years is in the area of cardiovascular surgery in the removal of calcified atherosclerotic plaques and chronic total occlusions. This paper builds on previous work that was focused on the ultrasonic perforation of soft vascular tissue using ultrasonically activated mechanical waveguides and the applied force required to initiate failure in soft tissue when compared with non-ultrasonic waveguides. An ultrasonic device and experimental rig was developed that can deliver ultrasonic vibrations to the distal tip of 1.0 mm diameter nickel-titanium waveguides. The operation of the ultrasonic device has been characterized at 22.5 kHz with achievable amplitudes of vibration in the range of 16 - 40μm. The experimental rig allows the ultrasonically activated waveguide to be advanced through a tissue sample over a range of feedrates and the waveguide-tissue interaction force can be measured during perforation into the tissue. Preliminary studies into the effects of feedrate on porcine aortic arterial tissue perforation forces are presented as part of this work. A range of amplitudes of vibration at the wire waveguide distal tip were examined. The resulting temperature increase when perforating artery wall when using the energized wire waveguides is also examined. Results show a clear multistage failure of the tissue. The first stage involves a rise in force up to some

  12. NDE: An effective approach to improved reliability and safety. A technology survey. [nondestructive testing of aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Technical abstracts are presented for about 100 significant documents relating to nondestructive testing of aircraft structures or related structural testing and the reliability of the more commonly used evaluation methods. Particular attention is directed toward acoustic emission; liquid penetrant; magnetic particle; ultrasonics; eddy current; and radiography. The introduction of the report includes an overview of the state-of-the-art represented in the documents that have been abstracted.

  13. Nondestructive characterization of structural ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.; Steckenrider, J.S.; Sivers, E.A.; Ling, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    Advanced structural ceramic components under development for heat-engine applications include both monolithic and continuous fiber composites (CFC). Nondestructive characterization (NDC) methods being developed differ for each material system. For monolithic materials, characterization during processing steps is important. For many CFC, only post process characterization is possible. Many different NDC systems have been designed and built A 3D x-ray micro computed tomographic (3DXCT) imaging system has been shown to be able to map density variations to better than 3% in pressure slip cast Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} monolithic materials. In addition, 3DXCT coupled to image processing has been shown to be able to map through-thickness fiber orientations in 2D lay-ups of 0{degrees}/45{degrees}, 0{degrees}/75{degrees}, 0{degrees}/90{degrees}, in SiC/SiC CVI CFC. Fourier optics based laser scatter systems have been shown to be able to detect surface and subsurface defects (as well as microstructural variations) in monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bearing balls. Infrared methods using photothermal excitation have been shown to be able to detect and measure thermal diffusivity differences on SiC/SiC 2D laminated CFC which have been subjected to different thermal treatments including thermal shock and oxidizing environments. These NDC methods and their applications help provide information to allow reliable usage of ceramics in advanced heat engine applications.

  14. Three dimensional image-based simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in polycrystalline metal using phase-field modeling.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, K; Sugahara, H; Barth, M; Köhler, B; Schubert, F

    2016-04-01

    When modeling ultrasonic wave propagation in metals, it is important to introduce mesoscopic crystalline structures because the anisotropy of the crystal structure and the heterogeneity of grains disturb ultrasonic waves. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) polycrystalline structure generated by multiphase-field modeling was introduced to ultrasonic simulation for nondestructive testing. 3D finite-element simulations of ultrasonic waves were validated and compared with visualization results obtained from laser Doppler vibrometer measurements. The simulation results and measurements showed good agreement with respect to the velocity and front shape of the pressure wave, as well as multiple scattering due to grains. This paper discussed the applicability of a transversely isotropic approach to ultrasonic wave propagation in a polycrystalline metal with columnar structures. PMID:26773789

  15. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  16. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  17. Signal processing techniques for damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors and embedded ultrasonic structural radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingyu; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-07-01

    Embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is developed for using piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) array to detect defects within a large area of a thin-plate specimen. Signal processing techniques are used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages, and thereby to determine the location of the defects with the EUSR algorithm. In our research, the transient tone-burst wave propagation signals are generated and collected by the embedded PWAS. Then, with signal processing, the frequency contents of the signals and the time of flight of individual frequencies are determined. This paper starts with an introduction of embedded ultrasonic structural radar algorithm. Then we will describe the signal processing methods used to extract the time of flight of the wave packages. The signal processing methods being used include the wavelet denoising, the cross correlation, and Hilbert transform. Though hardware device can provide averaging function to eliminate the noise coming from the signal collection process, wavelet denoising is included to ensure better signal quality for the application in real severe environment. For better recognition of time of flight, cross correlation method is used. Hilbert transform is applied to the signals after cross correlation in order to extract the envelope of the signals. Signal processing and EUSR are both implemented by developing a graphical user-friendly interface program in LabView. We conclude with a description of our vision for applying EUSR signal analysis to structural health monitoring and embedded nondestructive evaluation. To this end, we envisage an automatic damage detection application utilizing embedded PWAS, EUSR, and advanced signal processing.

  18. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  19. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  20. Quantitative Ultrasound for Nondestructive Characterization of Engineered Tissues and Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Dalecki, Diane; Mercado, Karla P; Hocking, Denise C

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive, non-destructive technologies for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the development of artificial tissues are critical for the advancement of tissue engineering. Current standard techniques for evaluating engineered tissues, including histology, biochemical assays and mechanical testing, are destructive approaches. Ultrasound is emerging as a valuable tool for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered tissues and biomaterials longitudinally during fabrication and post-implantation. Ultrasound techniques are rapid, non-invasive, non-destructive and can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of ultrasound imaging, quantitative ultrasound techniques, and elastography, with representative examples of applications of these ultrasound-based techniques to the field of tissue engineering. PMID:26581347

  1. A hybrid method for damage detection and quantification in advanced X-COR composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neerukatti, Rajesh Kumar; Rajadas, Abhishek; Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Huff, Daniel W.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced composite structures, such as foam core carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites, are increasingly being used in applications which require high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and low weight. However, the presence of in situ damage due to manufacturing defects and/or service conditions can complicate the failure mechanisms and compromise their strength and reliability. In this paper, the capability of detecting damages such as delaminations and foam-core separations in X-COR composite structures using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques is investigated. Two NDE techniques, flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics, were used to detect and quantify the damage size and locations. Macro fiber composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors to study the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations and foam-core separations. The results indicate that both flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics were capable of detecting damage in X-COR sandwich structures, although low frequency ultrasonic methods were capable of detecting through thickness damages more accurately than flash thermography. It was also observed that the presence of foam-core separations significantly changes the wave behavior when compared to delamination, which complicates the use of wave based SHM techniques. Further, a wave propagation model was developed to model the wave interaction with damages at different locations on the X-COR sandwich plate.

  2. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers: fabrication technology.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Arif Sanli; Huang, Yongli; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Oralkan, Omer; Yaralioglu, Goksen G; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2005-12-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology is a prime candidate for next generation imaging systems. Medical and underwater imaging and the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) societies have expressed growing interest in cMUTs over the years. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer technology is expected to make a strong impact on imaging technologies, especially volumetric imaging, and to appear in commercial products in the near future. This paper focuses on fabrication technologies for cMUTs and reviews and compares variations in the production processes. We have developed two main approaches to the fabrication of cMUTs: the sacrificial release process and the recently introduced wafer-bonding method. This paper gives a thorough review of the sacrificial release processes, and it describes the new wafer-bonding method in detail. Process variations are compared qualitatively and quantitatively whenever possible. Through these comparisons, it was concluded that wafer-bonded cMUT technology was superior in terms of process control, yield, and uniformity. Because the number of steps and consequent process time were reduced (from six-mask process to four-mask process), turn-around time was improved significantly. PMID:16463490

  3. Characterisation of CFRP Through Enhanced Ultrasonic Testing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfen, T. B.; Venkat, R. Sridaran; Rabe, U.; Hirsekorn, S.; Boller, C.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced composite materials enjoy an increasing field of application in the aeronautical environment and are due to expand into the automotive and leisure sectors in due course. Those materials need to be qualified at reasonable cost and with considerable experience, where ultrasonic testing has become the procedure of primary choice for nondestructive testing (NDT) so far. However, the two-phase anisotropic structure of a composite material implies a variety of challenges such as scattering, beam skewing, and sound field distortion complicating the localization, sizing, and characterization of defects. Besides qualification during the manufacturing stage, additional tasks emerge once the composite material ages, maybe by mechanical fatigue, chemical ageing, or irradiation. Again characterisation of the material based on ultrasonics would allow comparisons to be made along a material's life cycle. The knowledge generated could be used for in-situ monitoring procedures such as considered in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  4. Acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of ceramic matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosreis, Henrique L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of ceramic composite specimens with a lithium-alumino-silicate glass matrix reinforced with unidirectional silicon carbide (NICALON) fibers was conducted to evaluate their reserve of strength. Ceramic composite specimens with different amount of damage were prepared by four-point cyclic fatigue loading of the specimens at 500 C for a different number of cycles. The reserve of strength of the specimens was measured as the maximum bending stress recorded during four-pointed bending test with the load monotonically increased until failure occurs. It was observed that the reserve of strength did not correlate with the number of fatigue cycles. However, it was also observed that higher values of the stress wave factor measurements correspond to higher values of the reserve of strength test data. Therefore, these results show that the acousto-ultrasonic approach has the potential of being used to monitor damage and to estimate the reserve of strength of ceramic composites.

  5. Development of a High Performance Acousto-ultrasonic Scan System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Martin, R. E.; Harmon, L. M.; Gyekenyesi, A. L.; Kautz, H. E.

    2002-01-01

    Acousto-ultrasonic (AU) interrogation is a single-sided nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique employing separated sending and receiving transducers. It is used for assessing the microstructural condition/distributed damage state of the material between the transducers. AU is complementary to more traditional NDE methods such as ultrasonic c-scan, x-ray radiography, and thermographic inspection that tend to be used primarily for discrete flaw detection. Through its history, AU has been used to inspect polymer matrix composite, metal matrix composite, ceramic matrix composite, and even monolithic metallic materials. The development of a high-performance automated AU scan system for characterizing within-sample microstructural and property homogeneity is currently in a prototype stage at NASA. In this paper, a review of essential AU technology is given. Additionally, the basic hardware and software configuration, and preliminary results with the system, are described.

  6. Development of ultrasonic tomography for residual stress mapping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boland, A.J.; Davis, T.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Harrington, T.P.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Lemon, D.K.; Posakony, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The volumetric stress distribution in nuclear reactor piping and pressure vessels is becoming an increasingly important parameter in nondestructive evaluation. This report describes research and development of instrumentation leading toward a means of measuring subsurface stress distributions in metals. Based on the principles of Computerized Tomography (CT), an ultrasonic tomographic instrument system has been developed. The microprocessor-based system uses an ultrasonic linear array to acquire time-of-flight data to an accuracy of 0.5 to 1.0 ns. The data is processed using a modified ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) program. A two-dimensional map of the velocity distribution is displayed on a monitor. The velocity distribution is interpreted or calibrated in terms of stress through the acousto-elastic coefficients.

  7. Ultrasonic techniques for the evaluation of ceramic joints

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.A. Jr.; McClung, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    The increasing use of structural ceramics in high-temperature applications has led to the need for nondestructive evaluation techniques to ensure the integrity of the ceramic materials and the quality of joints consisting of ceramics bonded to ceramics or to metals. We describe the development of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of ceramic materials and for the detection of flaws in these materials and at ceramic joints. This work has led to the ability to determine which face of a 60-..mu..m-thick layer of braze filler material is unbonded, thus providing information about the integrity of the ceramic-filler metal bond. We also describe the development of a rapid technique using Lamb waves to probe the bond between alumina coupons in flexure-strength specimens, whose geometry makes conventional ultrasonic evaluation of the bond difficult.

  8. Ultrasonic monitoring of asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junqing; Yang, Fan; Wang, Rongguo

    2013-08-01

    Asymmetric carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy laminates was manufactured for the purpose with repeat tensile test, which will be applied in composite pressure vessel. Ultrasonic C scan and A scan approach are used to evaluate the damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al (carbon fibre reinforced aluminum alloy) laminates. Nondestructive detection is carried out for the CFRP-Al laminates before and after tensile test. Comparison results and pulse echo analysis show that when subjected to repeat tensile test with 70% elastic limit strain load of the CFRP laminates, the interface debonding between CFRP and Al will not occur but the delamination within CFRP laminates becomes the main damage of the asymmetric CFRP-Al laminates. This investigation indicated that combined ultrasonic C scan and A scan is available for damage evaluation of fibre metal laminates.

  9. Method of Noncontact Calibration of the Robotic Ultrasonic Tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borikov, V. N.; Galtseva, O. V.; Filippov, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The method of calibration of robotic ultrasonic tomograph with the construction of the trajectory of movement of the robot-manipulator on the object of control by using 3D- scanner is described. This method can significantly accelerate the process of calibration of tomograph and prevent possible displacement of the object during calibration. The algorithm of transition from use of a contact method of calibration of the tomograph to noncontact calibration is offered. Experimental data of application of this algorithm show a positive result: the time of research of object considerably decreases. Results of researches prove the practical relevance of the presented work and high efficiency of application of robotic ultrasonic tomography for nondestructive testing of objects of different forms.

  10. High frequency ultrasonic characterization of sintered SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Generazio, Edward R.; Kiser, James D.

    1987-01-01

    High frequency (60 to 160 MHz) ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation was used to characterize variations in density and microstructural constituents of sintered SiC bars. Ultrasonic characterization methods included longitudinal velocity, reflection coefficient, and precise attenuation measurements. The SiC bars were tailored to provide bulk densities ranging from 90 to 98 percent of theoretical, average grain sizes ranging from 3.0 to 12.0 microns, and average pore sizes ranging from 1.5 to 4.0 microns. Velocity correlated with specimen bulk density irrespective of specimen average grain size, average pore size, and average pore orientation. Attenuation coefficient was found to be sensitive to both density and average pore size variations, but was not affected by large differences in average grain size.

  11. Ultrasonic impact damage assessment in 3D woven composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannai, E.; Lamboul, B.; Roche, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    An ultrasonic nondestructive methodology is proposed for the assessment of low velocity impact damage in a 3D woven composite material. The output data is intended for material scientists and numerical scientists to validate the damage tolerance performance of the manufactured materials and the reliability of damage modeling predictions. A depth-dependent threshold based on the reflectivity of flat bottom holes is applied to the ultrasonic data to remove the structural noise and isolate echoes of interest. The methodology was applied to a 3 mm thick 3D woven composite plate impacted with different energies. An artificial 3D representation of the detected echoes is proposed to enhance the spatial perception of the generated damage by the end user. The paper finally highlights some statistics made on the detected echoes to quantitatively assess the impact damage resistance of the tested specimens.

  12. Nondestructive Detection of Delamination in Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastics Using Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Kasai, Naoko; Ishiyama, Atsushi

    2001-06-01

    The use of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) in aircraft and space structures is recently increasing. We investigated the possibility of nondestructively detecting a delamination in CFRP using a low-Tc first-order gradiometric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) loop. A CFRP plate including a thin insulator sheet between the central layers was prepared. The injected current method was adopted. The magnetic field due to the sheet was measured by a SQUID nondestructive evaluation system using the lock-in detection technique. The position and size of the sheet were successfully detected by mapping the measured field. The result agreed with that by ultrasonic testing. Future application of this method for detecting deep-lying flaws was discussed.

  13. Evaluation of Damage in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Loading - Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Mackiewicz, Sławomir; Szelążek, Jacek; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Augustyniak, Bolesław

    Damage due to creep and plastic flow is assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods in steels (40HNMA and P91). In the destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after prestraining and variations of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A very promising correlation between parameters of methods for damage development evaluation was achieved. It is well proved for the ultimate tensile stress and birefringence coefficient.

  14. Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Simulations of Welded Components at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Tokars, R. P.; Martin, R. E.; Rauser, R. W.; Aldrin, J. C.; Schumacher, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive and accurate inspections of welded components have become of increasing importance as NASA develops new hardware such as Ares rocket segments for future exploration missions. Simulation and modeling will play an increased role in the future for nondestructive evaluation in order to better understand the physics of the inspection process and help explain the experimental results. It will also help to prove or disprove the feasibility for an inspection method or inspection scenario, help optimize inspections, and allow to a first approximation limits of detectability. This study presents simulation and experimental results for an ultrasonic phased array inspection of a critical welded structure important for NASA future exploration vehicles.

  15. Ultrasonic scanning system for inspection of brazed tube joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. L.; Maurer, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning system used to inspect and evaluate in-place brazed tube joints is considered. The system was designed, developed, and built especially for nondestructive testing and was selected because of its known response to brazing defects not associated with material density changes. The scan system is capable of scanning brazed joints in union, tee, elbow and cross configuration of 3/16-inch through 5/8-inch diameters. It is capable of detecting brazed defects as small as 0.008 by 0.010-inch, which exceeds the 0.015-inch diameter defect resolution required by specification.

  16. Ultrasonic determination of carbon content in uranium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncelow, J.; Morrell, J.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.

    2012-05-01

    A nondestructive method to determine solute content of carbon in polycrystalline uranium by ultrasonic techniques is currently being developed. The problem is approached by considering first theories developed in the field of physical acoustics applicable to variation in attenuation and elasticity with respect to interstitial and second-phase contents. Attention is given to the physical metallurgy of uranium, specifically phase stability and the effects of carbon concentration on physical properties. Experimental verification of theory is provided using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) and pulse-echo time of flight measurements, the former yielding elastic moduli and quality factors and the latter supplying attenuation and velocity information.

  17. Elastic characterization of nanoporous gold foams using laser based ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Phillip; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2014-03-01

    A resonance based laser ultrasonics technique is explored for the characterization of low density nanoporous gold foams. Laser generated zero group velocity (ZGV) lamb waves are measured in the foams using a Michelson interferometer. The amplitude spectra obtained from the processed time-domain data are analyzed using a theoretical model from which the foam Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are obtained. The technique is non-contact and nondestructive, and the ZGV resonance modes are spatially localized, allowing for spatial mapping of the bulk sample properties. The technique may be suitable for process control monitoring and mechanical characterization of low density nanoporous structures. PMID:24524154

  18. Effects of specimen resonances on acoustic-ultrasonic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Kahn, E. B.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of specimen resonances on acoustic ultrasonic (AU) nondestructive testing were investigated. Selected resonant frequencies and the corresponding normal mode nodal patterns of the aluminum block are measured up to 75.64 kHz. Prominent peaks in the pencil lead fracture and sphere impact spectra from the two transducer locations corresponded exactly to resonant frequencies of the block. It is established that the resonant frequencies of the block dominated the spectral content of the output signal. The spectral content of the output signals is further influenced by the transducer location relative to the resonant frequency nodal lines. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to AU parameters and measurements.

  19. Simulation of ultrasonic inspection for sodium cooled reactors using CIVA

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdy, F.; Baque, F.; Lu, B.; Jezzine, K.; Dorval, V.; Augem, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    In-service inspection of sodium fast reactors (SFR) requires the development of non-destructive techniques adapted to the harsh conditions of the environment (opaque and hot) and the complexity of the examination (large and littered reactor block). Ultrasonic techniques are seen as suitable candidates for the inspection of SFRs and two approaches are being followed: inside inspection where transducers are directly immersed in sodium coolant and inspection from outside with transducers positioned along the wall of the main vessel. Probe design and inspection performances can be predicted by using comprehensive models that can take into account the various variables of the problem. These models are explained in this paper. (authors)

  20. The correlation of ultrasonic attenuation and shear strength in graphite-polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayford, D. T.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The buffer rod technique for measuring attenuation in thin specimens is modified here to apply to specimens having intermediate thicknesses and high attenuation. The described procedure, which requires only one accessible surface of the material, was used to determine the initial attenuation values of ultrasonic waves in short beam shear specimens of graphite-polyimide composite material. It is shown that there is good correlation between the initial attenuation values and the shear strengths of the specimens determined by the standard short beam shear test method. The modified ultrasonic buffer block technique offers much potential for service as a quantitative, nondestructive, quality assurance test for composite materials.