Science.gov

Sample records for advanced underground coal

  1. Resource targets for advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J. H.; Whipple, D. W.; Habib-Agahi, H.; Lavin, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Resource targets appropriate for federal sponsorship of research and development of advanced underground coal mining systems are identified. A comprehensive examination of conventional and unconventional coals with particular attention to exceptionally thin and thick seams, steeply dipping beds, and multiple seam geometry was made. The results indicate that the resource of primary importance is flat lying bituminous coal of moderate thickness, under moderate cover, and located within the lower 48 states. Resources of secondary importance are the flat lying multiple seams and thin seams (especially those in Appalachia). Steeply dipping coals, abandoned pillars, and exceptionally thick western coals may be important in some regions of subregions, but the limited tonnage available places them in a position of tertiary importance.

  2. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M.L.

    1980-10-15

    This report presents overall requirements on underground mining systems suitable for coal seams exploitable in the year 2000, with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. These requirements may be summarized as follows: (1) Production Cost: demonstrate a return on incremental investment of 1.5 to 2.5 times the value required by a low-risk capital project. (2) Miner Safety: achieve at least a 50% reduction in deaths and disabling injuries per million man-hours. (3) Miner Health: meet the intent of all applicable regulations, with particular attention to coal dust, carcinogens, and mutagens; and with continued emphasis on acceptable levels of noise and vibration, lighting, humidity and temperature, and adequate work space. (4) Environmental Impact: maintain the value of mined and adjacent lands at the pre-mining value following reclamation; mitigation of off-site impacts should not cost more than the procedures used in contemporary mining. (5) Coal Conservation: the recovery of coal from the seam being mined should be at least as good as the best available contemporary technology operating in comparable conditions. No significant trade-offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  3. Advancing apparatus for coal-mining machine in underground mine

    SciTech Connect

    Schupphaus, H.

    1984-05-29

    A coal-mining machine is advanced along a face conveyor by providing a rack extending along the conveyor and a plurality of advancing units. Each advancing unit includes a hydraulic motor to rotate a drive wheel while meshing with the teeth of the gear rack. The advancing units arranged side-by-side along the mining machine have curved end faces to abut against one another. Runners are provided on the advancing units at the opposite ends of the mining machine which extend partially around the rack for guiding and maintaining the drive wheel engaged with the teeth of the rack.

  4. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  5. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  6. Requirements for the conceptual design of advanced underground coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangal, M. D.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual design requirements are presented for underground coal mining systems having substantially improved performance in the areas of production cost and miner safety. Mandatory performance levels are also set for miner health, environmental impact, and coal recovery. In addition to mandatory design goals and constraints, a number of desirable system characteristics are identified which must be assessed in terms of their impact on production cost and their compatibility with other system elements. Although developed for the flat lying, moderately thick seams of Central Appalachia, these requirements are designed to be easily adaptable to other coals.

  7. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  8. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  9. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  10. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  11. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  12. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  13. A life-cycle description of underground coal mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, M. L.; Borden, C. S.; Duda, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An initial effort to relate the major technological and economic variables which impact conventional underground coal mining systems, in order to help identify promising areas for advanced mining technology is described. The point of departure is a series of investment analyses published by the United States Bureau of Mines, which provide both the analytical framework and guidance on a choice of variables.

  14. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  15. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit...

  16. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  17. Coal bunkers in underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.; Zegzulka, J.

    1996-12-31

    In spite of the technical progress in the application of face technological equipment, the fluctuation of its output has been still considerable. A coal clearance system can be on one hand overloaded by production peaks and on the other hand its stoppages unfavorably influence production of faces. It has been proved that the most effective coal conveying system incorporates surge bunkers to eliminate the above mentioned problems. The surge bunkers have been used in the Czech mines since the middle of the sixties. There were 17 bunkers with an average capacity of 200 m{sup 3} in the biggest Czech coal mine basin OKD in 1967. Presently the number of bunkers has increased to 66 with a total capacity of 40,000 m{sup 3}. It represents the possibility of storing 56% of the daily OKD running of mine output. Two thirds of the number are gate bunkers with an average capacity of 540 m{sup 3} and the rest are skip ones with an average capacity of 740 m{sup 3}, situated at the shaft side.

  18. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  19. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Wagoner, J.; Ramirez, A.

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  20. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  1. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013....

  2. Underground coal miners' foot and boot problems.

    PubMed

    Wood, G; Marr, S; Berry, G; Nubé, V; Cole, J

    1999-11-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Joint Coal Board Health and Safety Trust funded an investigation into foot problems reported by 400 randomly selected underground coal miners from 15 mines in NSW. Miners were interviewed and their responses were entered directly into laptop computers. Digital cameras were also used to take pictures of skin conditions and miners' posture. Observations of the skin results indicate that miners find gumboots to be hot, sweaty and uncomfortable. Skin breakdown and tinea, is frequent and disabling and responsible for absences from the workforce that are costly for both miner and employer. A more comfortable and better designed boot is needed, fabricated in waterproof leather together with socks that 'wick' the moisture away from the foot. Socks worn were of varying components and washed at irregular intervals, indicating a need for regular changes of socks and improved hygiene.

  3. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  4. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  5. Soviet underground coal gasification on the rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    According to the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the U.S.S.R. has abandoned large-scale development plans for coal-gasification projects, due to the low heating value of the gas produced at test burns at Angren, and to the cost, estimated at 132% of the standard Lurgi value, in contrast to the cost of approx. 65% of the standard Lurgi value in U.S. experimental burns. The U.S.S.R. coal-gasification effort has been in development since 1950, with a peak production of approx. 2 billion cu m/yr in 1966. The poor test burn results might have been caused by: drilling the boreholes too close to each other, which would increase drilling costs; the loss of a large amount of heat through a porous overburden; the lack of good underground diagnostics before and during a burn; and a lack of a good laboratory support program. The gas heating value was too low to warrant transportation far from the burn site, but most suitable burn sites are in remote areas. In the U.S.S.R., natural gas and open-pit lignite mining appear to be cheaper sources of energy.

  6. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  7. Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  13. Underground communications and tracking technology advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-03-15

    As the June 2009 deadline set by the MINER Act grows near, several technologies have emerged as possible options for communicating and tracking underground coal miners in the event of an emergency or disaster. NIOSH is currently deciding how best to invest $10 million assigned by Congress under an Emergency Supplementary Appropriations Act (ESA) to research and develop mine safety technology. Medium and ultra high frequency (UHF) systems seem to be leading the pack with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags serving as the tracking system. Wireless mesh systems can serve as a communications infrastructure and they can do much more. Even more technologies continue to emerge, such as inertial navigation tracking systems. Mines are discovering the wonders of modern voice and data communications underground. Still no one know if it is economically practical to design a system that will function after a coal mine explosion. From the nineteen systems submitted to MSHA's request for information (RFI), six systems were selected that represented most of the technologies that had been proposed: the Rajant Breadcrumb, Innovative Wireless, Concurrent Technologies/Time Domain, Transtek, Gamma Services, and the Kutta Consulting systems. They were tested at CONSOL Energy's McElroy mine in April 2006. MSHA felt that all of those systems needed a significant amount of work before they were ready for use in a underground coal mining environment. The agency continues to work with these, and other manufacturers, to assist in arranging for field demonstration and then to gain MSHA approval.

  14. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  15. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  16. Coal face measurement system for underground use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A measurement system was developed for the Eickhoff longwall shearer to determine the contour of the coal face as it mines coal. Contour data are obtained by an indirect measurement technique based on evaluating the motion of the shearer during mining. Starting from a known location, points along the coal face are established through a knowledge of the machines' positions and yaw movements as it moves past the coal face. The hardware and system operation procedures are described. The tests of system performance and their results are reported.

  17. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October...

  18. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Part 75 RIN 1219-AB65 Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal... Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31, 2011... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to requests from the public and to provide...

  19. 77 FR 4834 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines DATES: Submit comments on or before April 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. OMB Number: 1219-0146. Affected Public: Business or other...

  20. 76 FR 35801 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... and 104 RIN 1219-AB75, 1219-AB73 Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of... Underground Coal Mines (Examinations of Work Areas) and for Pattern of Violations. DATES: The hearings will be... Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines' submissions, and with ``RIN 1219-AB73'' for Pattern...

  1. 76 FR 25277 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... Agency's proposed rules for Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines (Examinations of Work... of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines' submissions, and with ``RIN 1219-AB73'' for Pattern...

  2. Psycho-social aspects of productivity in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, G.

    1981-10-01

    The psychosocial aspects of productivity in underground coal mining were investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) labor productivity in deep mines and the explanations for productivity changes; (2) current concepts and research on psychosocial factors in productivity; (3) a survey of experiments in productivity improvement (4) the impact of the introduction of new technology on the social system and the way that it accomplishes production (5) a clinical study of a coal mining operation, model described how production is actually accomplished by workers at the coal face; and (6) implications and recommendations for new technology design, implementation and ongoing management.

  3. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine. PMID:27775657

  4. A Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Monitoring System for Roof Safety Control in Underground Coal Mining.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiming; Zhang, Nong; Si, Guangyao

    2016-10-21

    Monitoring of roof activity is a primary measure adopted in the prevention of roof collapse accidents and functions to optimize and support the design of roadways in underground coalmines. However, traditional monitoring measures, such as using mechanical extensometers or electronic gauges, either require arduous underground labor or cannot function properly in the harsh underground environment. Therefore, in this paper, in order to break through this technological barrier, a novel monitoring system for roof safety control in underground coal mining, using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) material as a perceived element and transmission medium, has been developed. Compared with traditional monitoring equipment, the developed, novel monitoring system has the advantages of providing accurate, reliable, and continuous online monitoring of roof activities in underground coal mining. This is expected to further enable the prevention of catastrophic roof collapse accidents. The system has been successfully implemented at a deep hazardous roadway in Zhuji Coal Mine, China. Monitoring results from the study site have demonstrated the advantages of FBG-based sensors over traditional monitoring approaches. The dynamic impacts of progressive face advance on roof displacement and stress have been accurately captured by the novel roadway roof activity and safety monitoring system, which provided essential references for roadway support and design of the mine.

  5. Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, R.F.

    1988-09-29

    Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

  6. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  7. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  8. VRLane: a desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; Chen, Jingzhu; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Pengpeng; Wu, Daozheng

    2008-10-01

    VR technologies, which generate immersive, interactive, and three-dimensional (3D) environments, are seldom applied to coal mine safety work management. In this paper, a new method that combined the VR technologies with underground mine safety management system was explored. A desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine, called VRLane, was developed. The paper mainly concerned about the current research advance in VR, system design, key techniques and system application. Two important techniques were introduced in the paper. Firstly, an algorithm was designed and implemented, with which the 3D laneway models and equipment models can be built on the basis of the latest mine 2D drawings automatically, whereas common VR programs established 3D environment by using 3DS Max or the other 3D modeling software packages with which laneway models were built manually and laboriously. Secondly, VRLane realized system integration with underground industrial automation. VRLane not only described a realistic 3D laneway environment, but also described the status of the coal mining, with functions of displaying the run states and related parameters of equipment, per-alarming the abnormal mining events, and animating mine cars, mine workers, or long-wall shearers. The system, with advantages of cheap, dynamic, easy to maintenance, provided a useful tool for safety production management in coal mine.

  9. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  10. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  11. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  12. Health requirements for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Health requirements were developed as long range goals for future advanced coal extraction systems which would be introduced into the market in the year 2000. The goal of the requirements is that underground coal miners work in an environment that is as close as possible to the working conditions of the general population, that they do not exceed mortality and morbidity rates resulting from lung diseases that are comparable to those of the general population, and that their working conditions comply as closely as possible to those of other industries as specified by OSHA regulations. A brief technique for evaluating whether proposed advanced systems meet these safety requirements is presented, as well as a discussion of the costs of respiratory disability compensation.

  13. The genotoxic risk of underground coal miners from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Donbak, Lale; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Yavuz, Ayse; Topaktas, Mehmet

    2005-12-30

    A cytogenetic monitoring study was carried out on a group of workers from a bituminous coal mine in Zonguldak province of Turkey, to investigate the genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to coal mine dust. Cytogenetic analysis, namely sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronucleus (MN) tests were performed on a strictly selected group of 39 workers and compared to 34 controls matched for gender, age, and habit. Smoking and age were considered as modulating factors. Both SCE and CA frequencies in coal miners appeared significantly higher than in controls. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the frequency of total micronuclei in exposed group as compared to control group. The effect of smoking on the level of SCE and MN was significant in the control group. A positive correlation between the age and the level of SCE was also found in controls. The frequencies of both SCE and CA were significantly enhanced with the years of exposure. The results of this study demonstrated that occupational exposure to coal mine dust leads to a significant induction of cytogenetic damage in peripheral lymphocytes of workers engaged in underground coal mining.

  14. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  15. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  16. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  17. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings....

  18. 77 FR 56717 - Specifications for Medical Examinations of Underground Coal Miners

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...This final rule modifies the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations for medical examinations of underground coal miners. Existing regulations established specifications for providing, interpreting, classifying, and submitting film-based roentgenograms (now commonly called chest radiographs or X-rays) of underground coal miners. The revised standards modify the requirements......

  19. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  20. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a flooded underground coal mine groundwater system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomo, M.; Vermeulen, D.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical processes have an important influence on evolution of the groundwater chemistry and its quality. An investigation was conducted to assess the hydrogeochemical processes in a flooded underground coal mine located in a typical Karoo Basin of Southern Africa. The study utilises scatter plots, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical model and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to analyse the groundwater chemistry. 144 Samples were collected from 16 piezometers drilled into the flooded underground coal mine during a three year monitoring period (2000-2002). Field results indicate that the groundwater system is characterised by a Ca-SO4 main hydrochemical groundwater type that evolved from acid mine drainage (AMD) buffering by calcite and dolomite carbonate minerals. The carbonate AMD buffering process is hindering the leaching of metals into the flooded mine groundwater system. Hardness in at least 85% of the samples exceeded 1200 mg/L as CaCO3 and the groundwater was classified as excessively hard. Modelling results using PHREEQC suggests that increase of Ca2+ and SO42- concentration that evolve from carbonate AMD buffering process can only occur up to certain point until which the aqueous solubility of these ions becomes indirectly limited by gypsum saturation.

  1. Moving up down in the mine: Sex segregation in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Tallichet, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study employs both individualist theories of human capital and sex-role spillover and structuralist theories from the socialist feminist perspective, emphasizing the formal and informal organizational factors operating within a patriarchal capitalist society to explain job-level sex segregation among underground coal miners. Both quantitative and qualitative data on women in coal mining are used to evaluate these theories. A logistic regression analysis performed on data obtained in 1986 by the US Bureau of Mines demonstrates that while human capital variables are predictive of a miner's job rank, variation in job rank attributed to gender is even greater. For men, training and experience in mining combine to increase the probability of being in a more skilled job in a coal mine. Age and seniority are curvilinearly related to the variation in men's job rank. For women, only age accounts for their advancement such that younger, not older women who have slightly more mining experience, occupy the more skilled positions in the work place. These findings suggest that, in terms of job advancement, men enjoy a greater return on their human capital investments than women, and that factors other than those representing a miner's human capital are affecting women's positions underground more than men's.

  2. Siting of prison complex above abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1998-10-01

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the state of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. However, one masonry building was located within the potential draw zone of mine works that still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was designed accordingly to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase 2 prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the phase 1 complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was undertaken to (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical database of subsidence events in the Illinois coal basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations. However, for others that could be affected potentially by future subsidence movement preliminary subsidence resistant designs were completed using the expected level of potential subsidence movement.

  3. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    SciTech Connect

    Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-10-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

  4. A Closed Network Queue Model of Underground Coal Mining Production, Failure, and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohman, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    Underground coal mining system production, failures, and repair cycles were mathematically modeled as a closed network of two queues in series. The model was designed to better understand the technological constraints on availability of current underground mining systems, and to develop guidelines for estimating the availability of advanced mining systems and their associated needs for spares as well as production and maintenance personnel. It was found that: mine performance is theoretically limited by the maintainability ratio, significant gains in availability appear possible by means of small improvements in the time between failures the number of crews and sections should be properly balanced for any given maintainability ratio, and main haulage systems closest to the mine mouth require the most attention to reliability.

  5. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  6. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  7. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  9. Economic baselines for current underground coal mining technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The cost of mining coal using a room pillar mining method with continuous miner and a longwall mining system was calculated. Costs were calculated for the years 1975 and 2000 time periods and are to be used as economic standards against which advanced mining concepts and systems will be compared. Some assumptions were changed and some internal model stored data was altered from the original calculations procedure chosen, to obtain a result that more closely represented what was considered to be a standard mine. Coal seam thicknesses were varied from one and one-half feet to eight feet to obtain the cost of mining coal over a wide range. Geologic conditions were selected that had a minimum impact on the mining productivity.

  10. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds... employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining operation. Direct...

  11. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds... employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining operation. Direct...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous §...

  13. Women and men coal miners: coping with gender integration underground

    SciTech Connect

    Yount, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.

  14. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  15. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  16. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  17. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of underground coal gasification (UCG) effluents. The coal rank effect.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    The effect of coal rank on the composition and toxicity of water effluents resulting from two underground coal gasification experiments with distinct coal samples (lignite and hard coal) was investigated. A broad range of organic and inorganic parameters was determined in the sampled condensates. The physicochemical tests were supplemented by toxicity bioassays based on the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri as the test organism. The principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were adopted to assist in the interpretation of the raw experimental data, and the multiple regression statistical method was subsequently employed to enable predictions of the toxicity based on the values of the selected parameters. Significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative description of the contamination profiles were identified for both types of coal under study. Independent of the coal rank, the most characteristic organic components of the studied condensates were phenols, naphthalene and benzene. In the inorganic array, ammonia, sulphates and selected heavy metals and metalloids were identified as the dominant constituents. Except for benzene with its alkyl homologues (BTEX), selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), zinc and selenium, the values of the remaining parameters were considerably greater for the hard coal condensates. The studies revealed that all of the tested UCG condensates were extremely toxic to V. fischeri; however, the average toxicity level for the hard coal condensates was approximately 56% higher than that obtained for the lignite. The statistical analysis provided results supporting that the toxicity of the condensates was most positively correlated with the concentrations of free ammonia, phenols and certain heavy metals.

  18. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mining operations. 20.402 Section 20.402 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  19. A study of leakage rates through mine seals in underground coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Krog, Robert B.; Mazzella, Andrew; Hollerich, Cynthia; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study on leakage rates through underground coal mine seals. Leakage rates of coal bed gas into active workings have not been well established. New seal construction standards have exacerbated the knowledge gap in our understanding of how well these seals isolate active workings near a seal line. At a western US underground coal mine, we determined seal leakage rates ranged from about 0 to 0.036 m3/s for seven 340 kPa seals. The seal leakage rate varied in essentially a linear manner with variations in head pressure at the mine seals. PMID:26322119

  20. Structural implications of underground coal mining in the Mesaverde Group in the Somerset Coal Field, Delta and Gunnison Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Carroll; Eric Robeck; Greg Hunt; Wendell Koontz

    2004-07-01

    Paleogene and Neogene faults and fractures on the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau are present in Mesaverde Group coal and sandstone beds. Recent observations of coal cleat orientation in relation to faults in coal mines have significant impacts for mine planning in the area. Faults, coal cleats, and natural fractures are interpreted to show a structural evolution of the Mesaverde Group through time. This field trip included a visit to two active underground coal mines, the Bowie Resources' Bowie No. 2 Mine, and Mountain Coal's West Elk Mine. Mine geologists discussed structural styles including fault orientations and timing, cleat development, and rotation. Geologic encounters ranging from fault flooding, subsidence, mine fires, methane gas problems, and land use restrictions were also discussed. Coal cleat development and open-mode fractures in adjacent sandstones were observed on outcrops and compared to underground measurements in coal mines in the Somerset Coal Field, Colorado's most productive. Coal cleat orientations along a reverse fault in one mine showed rotation in relation to possible Neogene age displacement.

  1. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  2. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260-4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806-5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938-2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured.

  3. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured. PMID:26366418

  4. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  5. Research of Characteristics of the Low Voltage Power Line in Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shaoliang; Qin, Shiqun; Gao, Wenchang; Cheng, Fengyu; Cao, Zhongyue

    The power line communications (PLCs) can count on existing electrical connections reaching each corner in the locations where such applications are required, so signal transmission over power lines is nowadays gaining more and more interest for applications like internet. The research of characteristics of the low voltage power line is the fundamental and importance task. This work presents a device to test the characteristics of the low voltage power line. The low voltage power line channel characteristics overground and the channel characteristics underground were tested in using this device. Experiments show that, the characteristics are different between the PLCs channel underground coal mine and the PLC channel overground. Different technology should be adopted to structure the PLCs channel model underground coal mine and transmit high speed digital signal. But how to use the technology better to the high-speed digital communication under coal mine is worth of further studying.

  6. 77 FR 43721 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB75 Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... requirements contained in the final rule on Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for...

  7. A Look into Miners' Health in Prevailing Ambience of Underground Coal Mine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, N. C.; Pal, S.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental factors such as noise, vibration, illumination, humidity, temperature and air velocity, etc. do play a major role on the health, comfort and efficient performance of underground coal miners at work. Ergonomics can help to promote health, efficiency and well being of miners and to make best use of their capabilities within the ambit of underground coal mine environment. Adequate work stretch and work-rest scheduling have to be determined for every category of miners from work physiology point of view so as to keep better health of the miners in general and to have their maximum efficiency at work in particular.

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Lie; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents). Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), overcommitment (OC), perceived physical environment (PPE), work-family conflict (WFC), and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99). Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers' family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  9. Investigation of dust levels in different areas of underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Akdag, Tuncay; Ozgun, Firat

    2009-01-01

    Dust concentration levels in underground coal mines are of primary importance and have to be controlled to prevent pulmonary disease in miners. Different mining areas are exposed to different dust levels and to minimize the probability of occupational respiratory disease of coal miners, it is necessary to evaluate dust concentration in the different working areas. This study aimed to evaluate dust concentration levels in different areas of underground coal mines. Data obtained from the measurements in 1978-2006 were evaluated with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer procedure. It was concluded that production areas had higher dust concentration levels; thus, production workers may have respiratory disorders related to exposure to coal dust in their work environment.

  10. Regional price targets appropriate for advanced coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terasawa, K. L.; Whipple, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is presented for predicting coal prices in regional markets for the target time frames 1985 and 2000 that could subsequently be used to guide the development of an advanced coal extraction system. The model constructed is a supply and demand model that focuses on underground mining since the advanced technology is expected to be developed for these reserves by the target years. Coal reserve data and the cost of operating a mine are used to obtain the minimum acceptable selling price that would induce the producer to bring the mine into production. Based on this information, market supply curves can be generated. Demand by region is calculated based on an EEA methodology that emphasizes demand by electric utilities and demand by industry. The demand and supply curves are then used to obtain the price targets. The results show a growth in the size of the markets for compliance and low sulphur coal regions. A significant rise in the real price of coal is not expected even by the year 2000. The model predicts heavy reliance on mines with thick seams, larger block size and deep overburden.

  11. Characterization of a potential underground coal gasification site in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, in-seam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

  12. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United

    1991-07-30

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. The results of this research are to be made available to ICF Kaiser Engineers who are currently working on the Engineering Development of Advanced Flotation under a separate contract with DOE under the Acid Rain Control Initiative program. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying degrees of weathering, namely, open to the atmosphere, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals of weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 29 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Harris, G. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. (Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United Stat

    1991-05-15

    The primary objective in the scope of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from three major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Investigation of mechanisms for the control of coal and pyrite surfaces prior to fine coal flotation is the main aspect of the project objectives. Research topics covered during this quarter include the characterization of the base coals, various flotation studies on optimization and pyrite rejection, and a detailed flotation kinetic study. The effect of hexanol, butanol, dodecane, and polyethylene glycol on flotation is described. A second major objective is to investigate factors involved in the progressive weathering and oxidation of coal that had been exposed to varying weathered degrees, namely, open, covered and in an argon-inerted'' atmosphere, over a period of twelve months. After regular intervals if weathering, samples of the three base coals (Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Upper Freeport PA) were collected and shipped to both the University of Pittsburgh and the University of California at Berkeley for characterization studies of the weathered material. 35 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. 78 FR 35975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Underground Coal Mine Ventilation--Belt Entry Used as an Intake Air Course To Ventilate Working Sections and... and approved by the district manager in the mine ventilation plan and operators must follow a number... operator must include in a ventilation plan a justification that the use of air from a belt entry...

  15. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page...

  16. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  17. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...- Hands-on training for miners in the use of self-contained self-rescue (SCSR) devices (52 FR 24373, June 30, 1987); Training and mine evacuation procedures for underground coal mines (67 FR 76658, Dec. 12... emergency evacuations (71 FR 12252, Mar. 9, 2006); and Sealing of abandoned areas (72 FR 28797, May 22,...

  18. Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

  19. 78 FR 48593 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... and Health (NIOSH) to conduct research and tests concerning the use of refuge chambers in underground... Psychological Factors, and Additional Requests for Information. Continued development of refuge equipment and... applicant or a third- party must test the refuge alternative or component. The applicant, usually...

  20. Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

  1. 76 FR 11187 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards. It proposed... coal mines. This extension gives commenters an additional 30 days to comment on the proposed...

  2. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and structures. 800.17 Section 800.17 Mineral Resources... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  3. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and structures. 800.17 Section 800.17 Mineral Resources... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  4. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and structures. 800.17 Section 800.17 Mineral Resources... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  5. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal's emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  6. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  7. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  8. New cleaning technologies advance coal

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.

    1984-05-01

    Alternative options are discussed for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning utility and industrial sources. Test results indicate that it may be most advantageous to use the AED Process after coal preparation or on coals that do not need much ash removal. However, the developer claims that research efforts after 1981 have led to process improvements for producing clean coals containing 1.5% to 3% ash. This paper describes the test facility where a full-scale test of the AED Process is underway.

  9. TRW advanced slagging coal combustor utility demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. The TRW-Utility Demonstration Unit (UDU) is responsible for the implementation of program policies and overall direction of the project. The following projects will be carried out: process and design development of clean coal technology CCT-1 the development and operation of the entrained coal combustor will enable the boiler to burn low and medium sulfur coal while meeting all the Federal/State emission requirements; demonstrate sulfur dioxide emissions control by pulverized limestone injection into the entrained coal combustor system.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  11. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  12. Numerical modeling of open pit (OP) to underground (UG) transition in coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Phu Minh Vuong; Niedbalski, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of the present paper is an attempt at evaluating the influence of sub-level caving operations on the slope stability of a still-functioning open pit coal mine in Vietnam. Initially, various methods of predicting the impact of underground mining on surface stability are discussed. Those theoretical considerations were later utilized in the process of constructing a Flac-2D-software-based numerical model for calculating the influence of underground operation on the deformation and possible loss of stability of an open pit slope. The numerical analysis proved that the values of open pit slope displacements were affected mainly by underground exploitation depth, direction of operation (i.e., from one slope to the other) and the distance from the slope plane. Real geomechanical strata parameters from the Vietnamese coal basin of Cam Pha were used in the modeling process. The paper is, therefore, a critical review of the hitherto proposed methods of predicting the impact of underground operation (UG) on open pit mining (OP), illustrated with selected examples of case studies on OP-UG interaction, followed by an original experiment based on numerical modeling method. This is first such study for the genuine conditions of the coal mining in Vietnam. The obtained results, however, should not be generalized due to a highly specific character of the analyzed phenomenon of mining-induced surface deformation. The practical implications of the study may occur extremely useful in the case of an UG-OP transition. Such a transition is often necessary for both technical and economical reasons, as in some coal basins open pit operations at greater depths occur unfeasible, which calls for a proper selection of parameters for a planned underground operation.

  13. Rock mass response to the decline in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, K.

    2006-01-15

    Geomechanical problems of mining in the Ostrava-Karvina Coal Basin were studied on the basis of longterm experience gained from seismological observations. They could serve as reasonable models of rock-mass response to temporary reduction and gradual decline in mining activities and mine closure.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Sastry, K.V.S.; Hanson, J.S.; Harris, G.; Sotillo, F.; Diao, J. ); Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C. ); Hu, Weibai; Zou, Y.; Chen, W. ); Choudhry, V.; Sehgal, R.; Ghosh, A. )

    1990-08-15

    The primary objective of this research project is to develop advanced flotation methods for coal cleaning in order to achieve near total pyritic-sulfur removal at 90% Btu recovery, using coal samples procured from six major US coal seams. Concomitantly, the ash content of these coals is to be reduced to 6% or less. Work this quarter concentrated on the following: washability studies, which included particle size distribution of the washability samples, and chemical analysis of washability test samples; characterization studies of induction time measurements, correlation between yield, combustible-material recovery (CMR), and heating-value recovery (HVR), and QA/QC for standard flotation tests and coal analyses; surface modification and control including testing of surface-modifying reagents, restoration of hydrophobicity to lab-oxidized coals, pH effects on coal flotation, and depression of pyritic sulfur in which pyrite depression with calcium cyanide and pyrite depression with xanthated reagents was investigated; flotation optimization and circuitry included staged reagent addition, cleaning and scavenging, and scavenging and middling recycling. Weathering studies are also discussed. 19 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  16. Underground coal operators install several new longwall mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Several new names appear in the annual US Longwall Census, but the population remains the same: 52 although the number of longwall mines dropped from 40 to 47. CONSOL Energy remains the leader with 12 faces. Robert E. Murray owns 8 longwall mines followed by Arch Coal with 5 and Foundation Coal with 3. West Virginia has 13 longwalls followed by 9 in Pennsylvania, 7 in Utah and 6 in Alabama. The article describes CONSOL Energy's operations. A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). 2 tabs.

  17. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  19. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  20. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  1. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  2. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  3. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  4. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE... COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.17 Bonding requirements...

  5. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bonding requirements for underground coal mines... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE... COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.17 Bonding requirements...

  6. Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrović, Dejan; Denić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje; Milić, Vitomir

    2012-12-01

    Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment.

  7. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  8. Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene.

  9. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  10. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  11. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  12. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. The potential for underground coal gasification in Indiana. Final report to the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research (CCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    John Rupp; Evgeny Shafirovich; Arvind Varma; Maria Mastalerz; Agnieszka Drobniak

    2009-03-15

    The preliminary feasability assessment analyses the potential for underground coal gasification within Indiana. A review of existing worldwide operations and geological requirements demonstrates that the application of UCG practices in Indiana has very significant potential benefits, but careful analysis of the specific geological conditions, physical and chemical properties of coals, water resources, coupled with an assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies must be conducted to identify potential UCG sites and to determine the feasibility of employing this technology in Indiana. Of particular importance is the relatively small number of active and successful operators of UCG projects around the world and that collaborations with one or two among them could be beneficial for all concerned. There are significant opportunities for economic development that will provide dividends for first movers in the Illinois basin. The report recommends nine 'promising zones' for UCG in two large coal deposits (the Springfield and Seelyville coal beds) in Knox, Gibson, Vanderburgh, Warrick and Posey counties. 69 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app.

  14. Method of producing synthesis gas by underground gasification of coal using specific well configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, B.W.; Arri, L.E.; Hunt, E.B. Jr.; Parrish, D.R.

    1987-03-10

    A method is described of producing synthesis gas by the underground gasification of coal in individual noninteracting cavities formed by the gasification of the coal in a thick coal seam which is generally horizontal under an overburden and wherein loose coal and char formed from the combustion of the coal in the seam have a known angle of repose. The seam is provided with an injection well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of less than the angle of repose and with a production well positioned at an angle with respect to the horizontal of greater than the angle of repose but less than 90/sup 0/. The distance between the wells decreases toward the bottom of the seam. The method comprises linking the wells, initiating combustion near the bottom of the seam and thereby producing a cavity in the seam, introducing an oxygen-containing gas mixture into the seam through the injection well, and removing combustion products through the production well.

  15. An integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines--Wireless Sensor Network subsystem with multi-parameter monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wei; Han, Dongsheng; Kim, Young-Il

    2014-07-21

    Environment monitoring is important for the safety of underground coal mine production, and it is also an important application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We put forward an integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mine, which uses the existing Cable Monitoring System (CMS) as the main body and the WSN with multi-parameter monitoring as the supplementary technique. As CMS techniques are mature, this paper mainly focuses on the WSN and the interconnection between the WSN and the CMS. In order to implement the WSN for underground coal mines, two work modes are designed: periodic inspection and interrupt service; the relevant supporting technologies, such as routing mechanism, collision avoidance, data aggregation, interconnection with the CMS, etc., are proposed and analyzed. As WSN nodes are limited in energy supply, calculation and processing power, an integrated network management scheme is designed in four aspects, i.e., topology management, location management, energy management and fault management. Experiments were carried out both in a laboratory and in a real underground coal mine. The test results indicate that the proposed integrated environment monitoring system for underground coal mines is feasible and all designs performed well as expected.

  16. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Moritomi, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  17. The oxygen cost of an escape from an underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kamon, E.

    1983-07-01

    Six 27 to 63-year-old coal miners performed an 'escape' exercise from an underground mine along a passageway that required walking and running erect or stooped, duckwalking or crawling. The miners travelled at different speeds, for each mode of locomotion. The minute pulmonary ventilation, O/sub 2/ uptake and heart ratio, recorded continuously on magnetic tape, indicated similar average and peak values for all modes of locomotion. Compared to the aerobic capacity obtained during graded treadmill test to exhaustion, the average effort of the 'escape' was performed at 64% and the peak effort at 70% of the miners' aerobic capacity for an 'escape' time of 58 min.

  18. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  20. Underground coal mine monitoring with wireless sensor networks - article no. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.H.

    2009-03-15

    Environment monitoring in coal mines is an important application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that has commercial potential. We discuss the design of a Structure-Aware Self-Adaptive WSN system, SASA. By regulating the mesh sensor network deployment and formulating a collaborative mechanism based on a regular beacon strategy, SASA is able to rapidly detect structure variations caused by underground collapses. We further develop a sound and robust mechanism for efficiently handling queries under instable circumstances. A prototype is deployed in a real coal mine. We present our implementation experiences as well as the experimental results. To better evaluate the scalability and reliability of SASA, we also conduct a large-scale trace-driven simulation based on real data collected from the experiments.

  1. Medium frequency propagation characteristics of different transmission lines in an underground coal mine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingcheng; Waynert, Joseph A.; Whisner, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    A medium frequency (MF) communication system operating in an underground coal mine couples its signals to a long conductor, which acts as an MF transmission line (TL) in a tunnel to permit communications among transceivers along the line. The TL is generally the longest signal path for the system, and its propagation characteristics will have a major impact on the performance of the MF communication system. In this study, the propagation characteristics of three types of MF TLs in two layouts—on the roof and on the floor of a coal mine tunnel—were obtained in an effort to understand the propagation characteristics of different TLs in different locations. The study confirmed a low MF signal loss on all of these TLs. The study also found that the TLs in different layouts had substantially different propagation characteristics. The propagation characteristics of these different TLs in different layouts are presented in the paper. PMID:26203349

  2. Medium frequency propagation characteristics of different transmission lines in an underground coal mine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingcheng; Waynert, Joseph A; Whisner, Bruce G

    A medium frequency (MF) communication system operating in an underground coal mine couples its signals to a long conductor, which acts as an MF transmission line (TL) in a tunnel to permit communications among transceivers along the line. The TL is generally the longest signal path for the system, and its propagation characteristics will have a major impact on the performance of the MF communication system. In this study, the propagation characteristics of three types of MF TLs in two layouts-on the roof and on the floor of a coal mine tunnel-were obtained in an effort to understand the propagation characteristics of different TLs in different locations. The study confirmed a low MF signal loss on all of these TLs. The study also found that the TLs in different layouts had substantially different propagation characteristics. The propagation characteristics of these different TLs in different layouts are presented in the paper.

  3. Underground coal mining disasters and fatalities--United States, 1900-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-01-02

    During a 5-month period in 2006, three underground coal mining incidents in the United States resulted in the deaths of 19 miners. All three incidents received nationwide attention, particularly the Sago Mine disaster, which occurred on January 2 and resulted in the deaths of 12 miners. The other two incidents, which occurred at the Alma No. 1 Mine on January 19 and the Darby No. 1 Mine on May 20, resulted in the deaths of two miners and five miners, respectively. The occurrence of three fatal incidents in 5 months was a departure from recent trends in underground coal mining safety. Before 2006, the number of mining disasters had decreased from a high of 20 in 1909 to an average of one every 4 years during 1985--2005. Deaths resulting from the three incidents were the stimulus for the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which amended the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 to improve safety, health, preparedness, and emergency response in U.S. mining. This report briefly describes the three 2006 mining incidents, reviews mining disasters in the United States during 1900--2006, and traces the effect of the disasters and the 2006 incidents on mining health and safety regulations.

  4. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Salter, Amy; Thomas, Paul; Leigh, James; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19-58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20-64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV(1) (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group, no significant association was detected between eNO levels and underground work duration but a significant negative association was shown between eNO and age. Data suggest that exposure to airborne hazards in coal mining is not significantly associated with lung function changes but is correlated with decreased eNO concentrations in exposed workers. While underground work duration was not found to

  5. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M M

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  6. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining. PMID:26549926

  7. Shale Failure Mechanics and Intervention Measures in Underground Coal Mines: Results From 50 Years of Ground Control Safety Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground control research in underground coal mines has been ongoing for over 50 years. One of the most problematic issues in underground coal mines is roof failures associated with weak shale. This paper will present a historical narrative on the research the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has conducted in relation to rock mechanics and shale. This paper begins by first discussing how shale is classified in relation to coal mining. Characterizing and planning for weak roof sequences is an important step in developing an engineering solution to prevent roof failures. Next, the failure mechanics associated with the weak characteristics of shale will be discussed. Understanding these failure mechanics also aids in applying the correct engineering solutions. The various solutions that have been implemented in the underground coal mining industry to control the different modes of failure will be summarized. Finally, a discussion on current and future research relating to rock mechanics and shale is presented. The overall goal of the paper is to share the collective ground control experience of controlling roof structures dominated by shale rock in underground coal mining.

  8. Proceedings, twenty-fourth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    Topics covered include: gasification technologies; coal production and preparation; combustion technologies; environmental control technologies; synthesis of liquid fuels, chemicals, materials and other non-fuel uses of coal; hydrogen from coal; advanced synthesis gas cleanup; coal chemistry, geosciences and resources; Fischer-Tropsch technology; coal and sustainability; global climate change; gasification (including underground gasification); materials, instrumentation and controls; and coal utilisation byproducts.

  9. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  10. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  11. The siting of a prison complex above an abandoned underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses in detail the process undertaken to mitigate the effects of any future mine subsidence on prison structures proposed above old abandoned underground workings. The site for a proposed prison complex purchased by the State of Indiana was located in west-central Indiana and was undermined by an old abandoned room and pillar mine. The original plan for construction consisted of one phase. Based on a study of the mine map and subsurface verification of the extent of mining it was determined that all prison buildings and important structures could be placed above solid coal to the north. One masonry building, however, was located within the potential draw zone of mine works which still contained significant mine voids. Based on empirical data the subsidence potential was estimated and the building was accordingly designed to be mine subsidence resistant. It was decided that a phase two prison complex should be constructed adjacent to and just south of the Phase I complex. This complex would be directly above the underground workings. The first stage of design was to minimize subsidence potential by positioning the exposure of significant structures to the subjacent mining assuming the mine map was sufficiently accurate. Subsequently, an extensive subsurface investigation program was then undertaken to: (1) ascertain whether or not mine areas where buildings would be located were already collapsed and thus only nominal, if any, subsidence could occur in the future; and (2) verify the presence of solid coal areas within the mine as indicated on the mine map. Based on all the site information gathered subsidence profiles were developed from an empirical data base of subsidence events in the Illinois Coal Basin. As a result of this work many structures on the site required no or nominal subsidence considerations.

  12. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  14. Coal and Coal Constituent Studies by Advanced EMR Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Alex I. Smirnov; Mark J. Nilges; R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson

    1998-03-31

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. We have achieved substantial progress on upgrading the high field (HF) EMR (W-band, 95 GHz) spectrometers that are especially advantageous for such studies. Particularly, we have built a new second W-band instrument (Mark II) in addition to our Mark I. Briefly, Mark II features: (i) an Oxford custom-built 7 T superconducting magnet which is scannable from 0 to 7 T at up to 0.5 T/min; (ii) water-cooled coaxial solenoid with up to ±550 G scan under digital (15 bits resolution) computer control; (iii) custom-engineered precision feed-back circuit, which is used to drive this solenoid, is based on an Ultrastab 860R sensor that has linearity better than 5 ppm and resolution of 0.05 ppm; (iv) an Oxford CF 1200 cryostat for variable temperature studies from 1.8 to 340 K. During this grant period we have completed several key upgrades of both Mark I and II, particularly microwave bridge, W-band probehead, and computer interfaces. We utilize these improved instruments for HF EMR studies of spin-spin interaction and existence of different paramagnetic species in carbonaceous solids.

  15. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  16. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  17. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  18. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  19. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS § 761.200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due... or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the definition of...

  20. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS FROM METHANE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AT U.S. UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of EPA research into the emission processes and control strategies associated with underground coal mines in the U.S. (NOTE: Methane is a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere which ranks behind carbon dioxide as the second largest contributor to global warmin...

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  2. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  3. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  4. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse's Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO[sub x] emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO[sub x] levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  5. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  6. A knowledge-based expert system for managing underground coal mines in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Grayson, R.L.; Yuan, S.; Dean, J.M.; Reddy, N.P. )

    1990-07-01

    Research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines (BOM) on the reasons why some mines are more productive than others has revealed the importance of good mine management practices. The Mine Management Support System is being developed, under the cosponsorship of the BOM and the West Virginia Energy and Water Research Center, as a knowledge-based expert system for better management of underground coal mines. Concentrating on capturing the complex body of knowledge needed to enhance efficient management of a mine, it will encompass information and preferred rules on work scheduling, work practices, regulations impinging on the accomplishment of work, responses to operating problems, and the labor-management work agreement. In this paper different components of the mine system, modeled using an object-oriented layering technique, will be displayed graphically to aid in coordinating work plans, and to present locations of equipment, supplies, and proposed subsystem components.

  7. Effect of control order on steering a simulated underground coal shuttle car.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine; Wallis, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Most terrestrial vehicles are steered via a first-order control for vehicle heading, such as a conventional steering wheel. A joystick which provides second-order control of vehicle heading is used to steer some underground coal shuttle cars. A desktop virtual simulation of the situation was employed to compare the steering accuracy of 24 novice participants randomly assigned to either first-order or second-order joystick steering conditions. The average steering accuracy of participants assigned to the first-order joystick condition was superior, however there was considerable individual variability and some participants assigned to the second-order steering condition were able to perform the task equally and successfully. Desktop virtual simulation may be a useful component of training and competency assessment for operators of these vehicles.

  8. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1997-07-01

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  10. Citation-related reliability analysis for a pilot sample of underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Kinilakodi, Harisha; Grayson, R Larry

    2011-05-01

    The scrutiny of underground coal mine safety was heightened because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-2007, and more recently in 2010. In the aftermath of the 2006 incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address various issues related to emergency preparedness and response, escape from an emergency situation, and protection of miners. The National Mining Association-sponsored Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission study highlighted the role of risk management in identifying and controlling major hazards, which are elements that could come together and cause a mine disaster. In 2007 MSHA revised its approach to the "Pattern of Violations" (POV) process in order to target unsafe mines and then force them to remediate conditions in their mines. The POV approach has certain limitations that make it difficult for it to be enforced. One very understandable way to focus on removing threats from major-hazard conditions is to use citation-related reliability analysis. The citation reliability approach, which focuses on the probability of not getting a citation on a given inspector day, is considered an analogue to the maintenance reliability approach, which many mine operators understand and use. In this study, the citation reliability approach was applied to a stratified random sample of 31 underground coal mines to examine its potential for broader application. The results clearly show the best-performing and worst-performing mines for compliance with mine safety standards, and they highlight differences among different mine sizes.

  11. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  12. Returning coal waste underground. Technical progress report, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-15

    The initial approach for returning coal waste underground at the No. 4 Mine will be limited to the current 1'' x 0 refuse product (132 TPH; 540 GPM) from the Wolf Creek plant at Pilgrim, Kentucky. It is possible to bypass existing units in the refuse circuits by pumping the refuse directly out of the cleaning circuits for backfilling. the refuse dryer, filter screen and static thickener will not be used when the refuse is backfilled. A necessary condition of this concept is to maintain continuous backfilling operations by providing two outlets underground and always keeping at least one unit working. To avoid settling and unstable conditions in the pipe, the percentage of solids in the refuse slurry should not exceed 45% by weight and the velocity of the slurry should be about 10 feet per second. The pumping of the 150 TPH of refuse solids (45% by weight) requires that the slurry flow at approximately 1000 GPM. The velocity will be about 10 feet per second if the inside diameter of the pipeline is six (6) inches. The backfilling process could function with an open-end outlet pipe if there was a sufficient gradient in the mine. The areas to be backfilled in the No. 4 Mine are generally flat. This condition will require the installation of bulkheads for containing the material. The slurry water, however, will be free flowing and may deterioriate the floor. The water will therefore have to be collected and pumped back to the surface.

  13. Application of decision tree model for the ground subsidence hazard mapping near abandoned underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Saro; Park, Inhye

    2013-09-30

    Subsidence of ground caused by underground mines poses hazards to human life and property. This study analyzed the hazard to ground subsidence using factors that can affect ground subsidence and a decision tree approach in a geographic information system (GIS). The study area was Taebaek, Gangwon-do, Korea, where many abandoned underground coal mines exist. Spatial data, topography, geology, and various ground-engineering data for the subsidence area were collected and compiled in a database for mapping ground-subsidence hazard (GSH). The subsidence area was randomly split 50/50 for training and validation of the models. A data-mining classification technique was applied to the GSH mapping, and decision trees were constructed using the chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) and the quick, unbiased, and efficient statistical tree (QUEST) algorithms. The frequency ratio model was also applied to the GSH mapping for comparing with probabilistic model. The resulting GSH maps were validated using area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis with the subsidence area data that had not been used for training the model. The highest accuracy was achieved by the decision tree model using CHAID algorithm (94.01%) comparing with QUEST algorithms (90.37%) and frequency ratio model (86.70%). These accuracies are higher than previously reported results for decision tree. Decision tree methods can therefore be used efficiently for GSH analysis and might be widely used for prediction of various spatial events.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS IN THE EASTERN PART OF INDIA.

    PubMed

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Nath, Suva; Sharma, Gourab Dhara; Mallik, Avijit

    2014-12-01

    Coal in India is extracted generally by semi-mechanized and mechanized underground mining methods. The Bord and Pillar (B & P) mining method still continues to be popular where deployment of manual miners is more than that of other mining methods. The study is conducted at haulage based mine of Eastern Coalfields of West Bengal. Underground miners confront with a lot of hazards like extreme hostile environment, awkward working posture, dust, noise as well as low luminosity. It is difficult to delay the onset of fatigue. In order to study the physiological responses of trammers, various parameters like working heart rates, net cardiac cost and relative cardiac cost including recovery heart rate patterns are recorded during their work at site. Workload classification of trammers has been done following various scales of heaviness. The effect of environment on the physiological responses has been observed and suitable recommendations are made. The work tasks are bound to induce musculoskeletal problems and those problems could be better managed through rationalizing the work-rest scheduling.

  15. SPONCOM - a computer program for the prediction of the spontaneous combustion potential of an underground coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Rumancik, W.P.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed SPONCOM to aid in the assessment of the spontaneous combustion risk of an underground mining operation. A prior knowledge of the spontaneous combustion risk of the coal and factors that increase that risk can be useful in the planning and development of proactive monitoring, ventilation, and prevention plans for the mining operation. Interactive data input screens prompt the user for information about the coal`s chemical and physical properties, the geologic and mining conditions encountered in the mining of the coal, and the mining practices employed. During the input process, {open_quote}expand{close_quote} screens provide the user with specific information on each input parameter. This information includes a description of the parameter and its effect on the overall spontaneous combustion risk. The program logic determines the coal`s relative spontaneous combustion potential, based on the coal`s proximate and ultimate analyses, and heating value. The program then evaluates the impact of the coal properties, geologic and mining conditions, and mining practices on the spontaneous combustion risk of the mining operation. The program output provides details on each factor that increases the risk of spontaneous combustion.

  16. Numerical and experimental study of strata behavior and land subsidence in an underground coal gasification project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirdesai, N. N.; Singh, R.; Singh, T. N.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    Underground Coal Gasification, with enhanced knowledge of hydrogeological, geomechanical and environmental aspects, can be an alternative technique to exploit the existing unmineable reserves of coal. During the gasification process, petro-physical and geomechanical properties undergo a drastic change due to heating to elevated temperatures. These changes, caused due to the thermal anisotropy of various minerals, result in the generation of thermal stresses; thereby developing new fracture pattern. These fractures cause the overhead rock strata to cave and fill the gasification chamber thereby causing subsidence. The degree of subsidence, change in fluid transport and geomechanical properties of the rock strata, in and around the subsidence zone, can affect the groundwater flow. This study aims to predict the thermo-geomechanical response of the strata during UCG. Petro-physical and geomechanical properties are incorporated in the numerical modelling software COMSOL Multiphysics and an analytical strength model is developed to validate and further study the mechanical response and heat conduction of the host rock around the gasification chamber. Once the problems are investigated and solved, the enhanced efficiency and the economic exploitation of gasification process would help meet country's energy demand.

  17. Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site

    SciTech Connect

    Covell, J.R.; Thomas, M.H.

    1996-12-01

    EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG testing from 1976 through 1979 contaminated three water-bearing units at the site with benzene. Previous pump and treat operations at the site showed the presence of a persistent non-dissolved benzene source material. The Felix I coal seam is the most contaminated unit at the site and was the target unit for the initial demonstration. Air sparging was selected to strip dissolved benzene, volatilize the non- dissolved benzene source material, and to provide oxygen for increasing aerobic bacteria populations. Indigenous bacteria populations were stimulated with ammonium phosphate addition. EG&G designed the remediation system to take advantage of the hydrogeologic environment to produce a cost-effective approach to the groundwater remediation. Groundwater pumping was used to manipulate subsurface air flow, nutrient transport, and biomass management. Demonstration operations began on September 29, 1995, and were suspended on April 30, 1996 to begin demonstration expansion. Initial results of the demonstration show substantial reduction in benzene concentrations across the demonstration area. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended.

  18. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  19. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  20. Human health and safety risks management in underground coal mines using fuzzy TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Mahdevari, Satar; Shahriar, Kourosh; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2014-08-01

    The scrutiny of health and safety of personnel working in underground coal mines is heightened because of fatalities and disasters that occur every year worldwide. A methodology based on fuzzy TOPSIS was proposed to assess the risks associated with human health in order to manage control measures and support decision-making, which could provide the right balance between different concerns, such as safety and costs. For this purpose, information collected from three hazardous coal mines namely Hashouni, Hojedk and Babnizu located at the Kerman coal deposit, Iran, were used to manage the risks affecting the health and safety of their miners. Altogether 86 hazards were identified and classified under eight categories: geomechanical, geochemical, electrical, mechanical, chemical, environmental, personal, and social, cultural and managerial risks. Overcoming the uncertainty of qualitative data, the ranking process is accomplished by fuzzy TOPSIS. After running the model, twelve groups with different risks were obtained. Located in the first group, the most important risks with the highest negative effects are: materials falling, catastrophic failure, instability of coalface and immediate roof, firedamp explosion, gas emission, misfire, stopping of ventilation system, wagon separation at inclines, asphyxiation, inadequate training and poor site management system. According to the results, the proposed methodology can be a reliable technique for management of the minatory hazards and coping with uncertainties affecting the health and safety of miners when performance ratings are imprecise. The proposed model can be primarily designed to identify potential hazards and help in taking appropriate measures to minimize or remove the risks before accidents can occur.

  1. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  2. The Video Collaborative Localization of a Miner’s Lamp Based on Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks for Underground Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    You, Kaiming; Yang, Wei; Han, Ruisong

    2015-01-01

    Based on wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) deployed in an underground coal mine, a miner’s lamp video collaborative localization algorithm was proposed to locate miners in the scene of insufficient illumination and bifurcated structures of underground tunnels. In bifurcation area, several camera nodes are deployed along the longitudinal direction of tunnels, forming a collaborative cluster in wireless way to monitor and locate miners in underground tunnels. Cap-lamps are regarded as the feature of miners in the scene of insufficient illumination of underground tunnels, which means that miners can be identified by detecting their cap-lamps. A miner’s lamp will project mapping points on the imaging plane of collaborative cameras and the coordinates of mapping points are calculated by collaborative cameras. Then, multiple straight lines between the positions of collaborative cameras and their corresponding mapping points are established. To find the three-dimension (3D) coordinate location of the miner’s lamp a least square method is proposed to get the optimal intersection of the multiple straight lines. Tests were carried out both in a corridor and a realistic scenario of underground tunnel, which show that the proposed miner’s lamp video collaborative localization algorithm has good effectiveness, robustness and localization accuracy in real world conditions of underground tunnels. PMID:26426023

  3. Rocketdyne's advanced coal slurry pumping program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. E.; Wong, G. S.; Gilman, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation is conducting a program for the engineering, fabrication, and testing of an experimental/prototype high-capacity, high-pressure centrifugal slurry feed pump for coal liquefaction purposes. The abrasion problems in a centrifugal slurry pump are primarily due to the manner in which the hard, solid particles contained in the slurry are transported through the hydraulic flow passages within the pump. The abrasive particles can create scraping, grinding, cutting, and sandblasting effects on the various exposed parts of the pump. These critical areas involving abrasion and impact erosion wear problems in a centrifugal pump are being addressed by Rocketdyne. The mechanisms of abrasion and erosion are being studied through hydrodynamic analysis, materials evaluation, and advanced design concepts.

  4. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to

  5. Availability and Quality of Water from Underground Coal Mines in Johnson and Martin Counties, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, D.S.; Cordivio1a, Steven; Risser, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides water users with detailed information on the location, quantity, and quality of water available from underground coal mines in the Breathitt Formation of Pennsylvanian age in part of eastern Kentucky. The principal coal seams mined are the Van Lear in Johnson County and the Alma in Martin County. Coal mines that contained water were located by field inventory and coal-mine maps. The principal factors that affect the occurrence of water in coal mines are the size of the recharge area overlying the mine, the intensity and duration of precipitation, and the altitude of the mine relative to that of the nearest perennial stream. Ten above-drainage mines (that is, mines at higher elevations than that of the nearest perennial stream) are considered potential sources of water. Discharge from these mines ranged from 12 to 1,700 gallons per minute. The highest sustained discharge from a mine ranged from 750 to 1,200 gallons per minute. The water in coal mines is part of the hydrologic system and varies seasonally with precipitation. Annual discharge from most above-drainage mines ranged from 3 to 10 percent of annual precipitation on the 1and-surface area above the mine. Eight below-drainage mines are considered potential sources of water. Two were test-pumped at rates of 560 to 620 gallons per minute for as long as 6 hours. After test pumping the Warfield Mining No. 1 mine during September 1977 and March 1978, the recovery (or recharge) rates were significantly different. In September, the recharge rate was about 1,150 gallons per minute, but in March the recharge rate was 103,500 gallons per minute. This difference reflects the seasonal variations in the amount of water available to the ground-water system. Estimates of water stored in below-drainage mines ranged from 22 to 1,462 million gallons. This storage represents a safety factor sufficient to provide water through periods of limited recharge to the mine. Most mine water is of the calcium

  6. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  7. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  8. Factors associated with disabling injuries in underground coal mines. [USA; bituminous mines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This study compared conditions, practices, and attitudes at underground bituminous coal mines having low injury incidence rates with those found at mines having high injury incidence rates. Several characteristics common to many of the low incidence rate mines that differentiate them from those having high incidence rates were identified. (1) Training programs: adequate and relevant training materials; qualified instructors; restricted classroom size to encourage student participation; and tailored to meet individual miner needs. (2) Management/labor relations tend to have a positive impact upon a mine's accident and injury experience when: both management and labor have a positive attitude toward safety and health; open lines of communication permit management and labor to jointly reconcile problems affecting safety and health; representatives of labor become actively involved in issues concerning safety, health and production; and management and labor identify and accept their joint responsibility for correcting unsafe conditions and practices. (3) Safety and health conditions are improved when: standard operating procedures are established, understood, and implemented; management equitably enforces established policies concerning absenteeism, job assignments, and standard operating procedures; formal safety and health programs are communicated to all employees and subsequently implemented by management and labor; safety department has top management support in terms of funds, manpower, and the authority necessary to implement the safety and health program; mine plans are thoroughly reviewed by management, labor, and MSHA to insure that such plans incorporate measures to adequately control the physical environment of a coal mine; and MSHA inspection activity is most effective when the inspectors encourage increased cooperative interaction between themselves, mine management, and labor.

  9. Proceedings of the fifth advanced coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, A.; Alpert, S.; Beck, B.; Chen, C.; Dalrymple, D.; Gummel, P.; Henley, J.; Hileman, E.; Holmgren, J.; Lau, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Fifth Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China in September 1987, was sponsored by the Shanxi Provincial Government, Shanxi Science and Technology Association, Shanxi Energy Research Association, and the Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation. Opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Thirteen papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and research and development activities. Papers have been indexed separately.

  10. CO2 Storage in Shallow Underground and Surface Coal Mines: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Ackman, Terry E.; Soong, Yee; Kleinman, Robert L.

    2009-02-01

    For coal to be a viable energy source, its excessive CO2 emissions must be curtailed. Sequestration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases is a possibility, but success therein is preceded by a significant number of challenges. Perhaps the most onerous is the tradeoff between using deep mines that would better trap CO2 against using shallower options that are more economical to access. In confronting this issue, a group of U.S. Department of Energy researchers argue that recent advances in the understanding of materials afforded by nanoscale mechanistic models point in a promising direction to develop better sequestration technologies.

  11. A comparison of physiological strain of carriers in underground manual coal mines in India

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, R.; Dey, N.C.; Samanta, A.; Biswas, R.

    2008-07-15

    Thirty nine healthy carriers (23-57 years of age) were investigated in underground manual coal mines in West Bengal, India during two different work spells of a single work shift. We compared physiological strain of workers <40 and {ge} 40 years of age. For both groups, mean heart rate was 124-133 beats/min, with a mean corresponding relative cardiac cost of 50-66%. Maximum aerobic capacities were estimated indirectly, following a standard step test protocol. Average oxygen consumption was 1.07-1.1 l/min, with an energy expenditure of 5.35-5.5 kcal/min among both age groups. Acceptable levels of physiological strain were well encroached, and older workers faced the maximum burden. The tasks studied were heavy to very heavy in nature. The weight of load carriage at a spontaneously chosen speed and the prevailing environmental conditions merit serious attention. There is extreme need of ergonomic interventions in reducing the postural load and musculoskeletal discomforts in this population.

  12. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method. PMID:25114953

  13. Unexpected hydrologic perturbation in an abandoned underground coal mine: Response to surface reclamation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Hartke, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    A reclamation project at the abandoned Blackhawk Mine site near Terre Haute, Indiana, lasted about four months and involved the burial of coarse mine refuse in shallow (less than 9 m) pits excavated into loess and till in an area of about 16 ha. An abandoned flooded underground coal mine underlies the reclamation site at a depth of about 38 m; the total area underlain by the mine is about 10 km2. The potentiometric levels associated with the mine indicate a significant (2.7 m) and prolonged perturbation of the deeper confined groundwater system; 14 months after completing reclamation, the levels began to rise linearly (at an average rate of 0.85 cm/d) for 11 months, then fell exponentially for 25 months, and are now nearly stable. Prominent subsidence features exist near the reclamation site. Subsidence-related fractures were observed in cores from the site, and such fractures may have provided a connection between the shallower and deeper groundwater systems. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    PubMed

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  15. Review of toxicity studies performed on an underground coal gasification condensate water

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, F.P.

    1987-09-01

    Three studies related to the toxicity of underground coal gasification (UCG) waters have bee conducted: (1) toxicity study of UCG water and its fractions as determined by the Microtox test, (2) toxicity study of biotreated UCG water as determined by the Microtox test, and (3) toxicity study of UCG water to macroinvertebrates. The results of these studies are summarized herein. The gas condensate water from the UCG process is extremely toxic as determined by assays with photoluminescent bacteria (Microtox), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates (mayflies), and Daphnia magna (water flea). Microtox bioassays reveal that the toxic components of the water reside in both the organophilic and hydrophilic fractions, although the organophilic fraction is notably more toxic. A sequential treatment process reduced the toxicity of the UCG water, as measured by the Microtox test. Solvent extraction (to remove phenols) followed by ammonia stripping yielded a less toxic water. Additional treatment by activated sludge further reduced toxicity. Finally, the addition of powdered activated carbon to the activated sludge yielded the least toxic water. A bioassay technique was developed for lotic (running water) macroinvertebrates (Drunella doddsi and Iron longimanus). The toxicity results were compared with results from the traditional test animal, Daphnia magna. Short-term exposures to the UCG waters were more toxic to Daphnia magna than to Drunella doddsi or Iron longimanus, although the toxicity values begin to merge with longer test exposure. The greater toxicity seems to be related to a thinner exoskeleton. 26 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the mine void to be filled, method of constructing underground retaining walls, influence of the... water underground, treatment of water if released to surface streams, and the effect on the...

  17. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. The main activity during this granting period was a completion of a detailed comparative analysis of the suite of spectral editing techniques developed in our laboratory for this purpose. The appended report is a manuscript being submitted to the Journal of Magnetic Resonance on this subject.

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  19. A Review of Mine Rescue Ensembles for Underground Coal Mining in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, F. Selcen; Monaghan, William D.; Powell, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    The mining industry is among the top ten industries nationwide with high occupational injury and fatality rates, and mine rescue response may be considered one of the most hazardous activities in mining operations. In the aftermath of an underground mine fire, explosion or water inundation, specially equipped and trained teams have been sent underground to fight fires, rescue entrapped miners, test atmospheric conditions, investigate the causes of the disaster, or recover the dead. Special personal protective ensembles are used by the team members to improve the protection of rescuers against the hazards of mine rescue and recovery. Personal protective ensembles used by mine rescue teams consist of helmet, cap lamp, hood, gloves, protective clothing, boots, kneepads, facemask, breathing apparatus, belt, and suspenders. While improved technology such as wireless warning and communication systems, lifeline pulleys, and lighted vests have been developed for mine rescuers over the last 100 years, recent research in this area of personal protective ensembles has been minimal due to the trending of reduced exposure of rescue workers. In recent years, the exposure of mine rescue teams to hazardous situations has been changing. However, it is vital that members of the teams have the capability and proper protection to immediately respond to a wide range of hazardous situations. Currently, there are no minimum requirements, best practice documents, or nationally recognized consensus standards for protective clothing used by mine rescue teams in the United States (U.S.). The following review provides a summary of potential issues that can be addressed by rescue teams and industry to improve potential exposures to rescue team members should a disaster situation occur. However, the continued trending in the mining industry toward non-exposure to potential hazards for rescue workers should continue to be the primary goal. To assist in continuing this trend, the mining industry

  20. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T.

    1998-04-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

  1. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  2. Determining the Heat Exchange Capacity of Underground Coal Mines in Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. J.; Lopez, D. A.; Leftwich, T. E.; Wolfe, M. E.; Angle, M. P.; Fugitt, F. L.

    2013-12-01

    heat extractable per change in mine water temperature were calculated. Looking at 147 different mines located less than 1 mile from cities, this study has estimated that an average of 10^10 kJ of heat per mine is extractable. A change in mine water temperature of 1 degree Celsius was used for this calculation. The average maximum and minimum linear groundwater velocities were 0.5 and 0.3 meters/day, respectively. From the groundwater velocities, the average potential flux of heat to the mines was 10^9 kJ/year. These results show that underground coal mines in Ohio can be an important resource for GSHPs.

  3. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-07

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  4. ADVANCED SOLIDS NMR STUDIES OF COAL STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utilization of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NMR methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methane groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples. In this report period we have focused our work on 1 segment of the program. Our last report outlined progress in using our NMR editing methods with higher field operation where higher magic angle spinning rates are required. Significant difficulties were identified, and these have been the main subject of study during the most recent granting period.

  5. Materials of construction for advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nangia, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    This book describes materials of construction, and materials problems for equipment used in advanced coal conversion systems. The need for cost effective industrial operation is always a prime concern, particularly in this age of energy consciousness. Industry is continually seeking improved materials for more efficient systems. The information presented here is intended to be of use in the design and planning of these systems. Coal conversion and utilization impose severe demands on construction materials because of high temperature, high pressure, corrosive/erosive, and other hostile environmental factors. Successful economic development of these processes can be achieved only to the extent that working materials can withstand increasingly more aggressive operating conditions. The book, which reviews present and past work on the behavior of materials in the environments of advanced coal conversion systems, is divided into three parts: atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification and liquefaction, and advanced power systems.

  6. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots.

  7. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR... the source of the hydraulic transport mediums, method of dewatering the placed backfill, retainment...

  8. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  9. Development of an Advanced Fine Coal Suspension Dewatering Process

    SciTech Connect

    B. K. Parekh; D. P. Patil

    2008-04-30

    With the advancement in fine coal cleaning technology, recovery of fine coal (minus 28 mesh) has become an attractive route for the U.S. coal industry. The clean coal recovered using the advanced flotation technology i.e. column flotation, contains on average 20% solids and 80% water, with an average particle size of 35 microns. Fine coal slurry is usually dewatered using a vacuum dewatering technique, providing a material with about 25 to 30 percent moisture. The process developed in this project will improve dewatering of fine (0.6mm) coal slurry to less than 20 percent moisture. Thus, thermal drying of dewatered wet coal will be eliminated. This will provide significant energy savings for the coal industry along with some environmental benefits. A 1% increase in recovery of coal and producing a filter cake material of less than 20 % moisture will amount to energy savings of 1900 trillion Btu/yr/unit. In terms of the amount of coal it will be about 0.8% of the total coal being used in the USA for electric power generation. It is difficult to dewater the fine clean coal slurry to about 20% moisture level using the conventional dewatering techniques. The finer the particle, the larger the surface area and thus, it retains large amounts of moisture on the surface. The coal industry has shown some reluctance in using the advanced coal recovery techniques, because of unavailability of an economical dewatering technique which can provide a product containing less than 20% moisture. The U.S.DOE and Industry has identified the dewatering of coal fines as a high priority problem. The goal of the proposed program is to develop and evaluate a novel two stage dewatering process developed at the University of Kentucky, which involves utilization of two forces, namely, vacuum and pressure for dewatering of fine coal slurries. It has been observed that a fine coal filter cake formed under vacuum has a porous structure with water trapped in the capillaries. When this porous cake

  10. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  11. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1999-03-31

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size and type on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured and modeled.

  12. Coal and char studies by advanced EMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.

    1998-09-30

    Advanced magnetic resonance (EMR) methods are used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During this grant period, further progress was made on proton NMR and low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to examine the interaction between fluids such as water and the surface of suspended char particles. Effects of char particle size on water nuclear spin relaxation, T2, were measured.

  13. Geohydrology and potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the Rapid Creek Basin, Mesa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Tom

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management may lease additional coal tracts in the Rapid Creek basin, Colorado. Springs in this basin are used as a water supply for the town of Palisade. The geohydrology of the basin is described and the potential hydrologic effects of underground coal mining in the basin summarized. Geologic formations in the basin consists of Cretaceous sandstone and shale, Tertiary sandstone, shale, and basalt, and unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age. Some sandstone and coal beds are permeable, although bedrock in the basin typically is a confining bed. Unconsolidated deposits contain aquifers that are the source of spring discharge. Stream discharge was measured on Rapid and Cottonwood Creeks, and inventories were made of 7 reservoirs, 25 springs, and 12 wells. Specific conductance of streams ranged from 320 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 7.8 to 8.6. Specific conductance of springs ranged from 95 to 1,050 microsiemens/cm at 25C; pH ranged from 6.8 to 8.3. Discharge from the basin includes about 18,800 acre-ft/yr as evapotranspiration, 1,300 acre-ft/yr as springflow, 1,280 acre-ft/yr as streamflow, and negligible groundwater flow in bedrock. With appropriate mining methods, underground mining would not decrease flow in basin streams or from springs. The potential effects of mining-caused subsidence might include water-pipeline damage and temporary dewatering of bedrock adjacent to coal mining. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Oral Health Status of Underground Coal Mine Workers of Ramakrishnapur, Adilabad District, Telangana, India - A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Irram; Mohammad, Shakeel Anjum; Peddireddy, Parthasarathi Reddy; Mocherla, Monica; Koppula, Yadav Rao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Standard of living and quality of life of people has been improved by the expanding industrial activity, but at the other end it has created many occupational hazards. Coal mining is one of the major age old industries throughout the world and in India. Till date very less literature is available worldwide and in India concerning the oral health status of laborers in this field. Aim To assess the oral health status of underground coal mine workers, oral hygiene practices, alcohol and tobacco habits. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the underground coal mine workers of a coal mine located in Adilabad district, Telangana, according to the criteria described in the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Assessment form (2013). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics were done. Results A total of 356 workers participated in the study. Ninety percent of the subjects were with tobacco and/or alcohol habits. Dental caries was prevalent in more than half (55.6%) of the study subjects with a mean DMFT of 2.32±2.99. About 48.3% study subjects were with untreated dental caries and 20.3% subjects were with missing teeth. DMFT ≤=6 was seen in 45.5% of subjects and 10.1% have DMFT scores ≥=7. Periodontal disease was the most prevalent condition seen in the population with 94.4% subjects having unhealthy periodontium in terms of gingival bleeding and/or periodontal pockets. About 186 (52.25%) and 145 (40.73%) of subjects were with 0-3mm and 4-5mm loss of attachment respectively. Fourteen percent of population showed dental traumatic injuries. Conclusion The findings highlighted the high caries prevalence, higher periodontal disease, traumatic injuries which requires immediate intervention. PMID:26894171

  15. Engineering and economical aspects of selection of coal conveying system in Czech underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.; Drozdek, K.

    1995-12-31

    Coal, rock and material conveying and men-riding presently represent the critical activities of the mining process. Coal when cut out in the face is continually transported towards the expedition from a mine. The selection of coal conveying system from face to the skip complex or directly to the surface depends mainly on the quantity of coal conveyed, the hauling distance, the local and time concentration of production and the lifetime of a system. Possibilities of belt conveying and combined belt conveying and locomotive haulage, used in Czech coal mines, are analyzed from the point of view of technological advantages and disadvantages and compared according to the economic parameters.

  16. Effect of work boot type on work footwear habits, lower limb pain and perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal mining. Consequently, this study aimed to determine whether boot type (gumboot, leather lace-up boot) influenced work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb pain, lower back pain, or perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners. Chi-squared tests were applied to 358 surveys completed by underground coal miners to determine whether responses differed significantly (p < 0.05) according to boot-type. There were no significant between-boot differences in regards to the presence of foot problems, lower limb pain or lower back pain. However, the types of foot problems and locations of foot pain differed according to boot type. Gumboot wearers were also more likely to state that their work boot comfort was either 'uncomfortable' or 'indifferent', their work boot fit was 'poor' and their current boot did not provide enough support. The introduction of more structured leather lace-up boots appears to have positively influenced the support and fit provided by mining work boots, although foot problems, lower limb pain and lower back pain continue to be reported. Further investigation is recommended to identify which specific boot design features caused these observed differences in work boot fit, comfort and locations of foot pain and how these design features can be manipulated to create an underground coal mining work boot that is comfortable and reduces the high incidence of foot problems and lower limb pain suffered by underground coal miners.

  17. Advanced progress concepts for direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Derbyshire, F.; Givens, E.

    1995-09-01

    Given the low cost of petroleum crude, direct coal liquefaction is still not an economically viable process. The DOE objectives are to further reduce the cost of coal liquefaction to a more competitive level. In this project the primary focus is on the use of low-rank coal feedstocks. A particular strength is the use of process-derived liquids rather than model compound solvents. The original concepts are illustrated in Figure 1, where they are shown on a schematic of the Wilsonville pilot plant operation. Wilsonville operating data have been used to define a base case scenario using run {number_sign}263J, and Wilsonville process materials have been used in experimental work. The CAER has investigated: low severity CO pretreatment of coal for oxygen rejection, increasing coal reactivity and mg inhibiting the propensity for regressive reactions; the application of more active. Low-cost Fe and Mo dispersed catalysts; and the possible use of fluid coking for solids rejection and to generate an overhead product for recycle. CONSOL has investigated: oil agglomeration for coal ash rejection, for the possible rejection of ash in the recycled resid, and for catalyst addition and recovery; and distillate dewaxing to remove naphthenes and paraffins, and to generate an improved quality feed for recycle distillate hydrogenation. At Sandia, research has been concerned with the production of active hydrogen donor distillate solvent fractions produced by the hydrogenation of dewaxed distillates and by fluid coking via low severity reaction with H{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2}O mixtures using hydrous metal oxide and other catalysts.

  18. A Critical Study on the Underground Environment of Coal Mines in India-an Ergonomic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Netai Chandra; Sharma, Gourab Dhara

    2013-04-01

    Ergonomics application on underground miner's health plays a great role in controlling the efficiency of miners. The job stress in underground mine is still physically demanding and continuous stress due to certain posture or movement of miners during work leads to localized muscle fatigue creating musculo-skeletal disorders. A good working environment can change the degree of job heaviness and thermal stress (WBGT values) can directly have the effect on stretch of work of miners. Out of many unit operations in underground mine, roof bolting keeps an important contribution with regard to safety of the mine and miners. Occupational stress of roof bolters from ergonomic consideration has been discussed in the paper.

  19. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  20. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. A risk-based decision support framework for selection of appropriate safety measure system for underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Samantra, Chitrasen; Datta, Saurav; Mahapatra, Siba Sankar

    2017-03-01

    In the context of underground coal mining industry, the increased economic issues regarding implementation of additional safety measure systems, along with growing public awareness to ensure high level of workers safety, have put great pressure on the managers towards finding the best solution to ensure safe as well as economically viable alternative selection. Risk-based decision support system plays an important role in finding such solutions amongst candidate alternatives with respect to multiple decision criteria. Therefore, in this paper, a unified risk-based decision-making methodology has been proposed for selecting an appropriate safety measure system in relation to an underground coal mining industry with respect to multiple risk criteria such as financial risk, operating risk, and maintenance risk. The proposed methodology uses interval-valued fuzzy set theory for modelling vagueness and subjectivity in the estimates of fuzzy risk ratings for making appropriate decision. The methodology is based on the aggregative fuzzy risk analysis and multi-criteria decision making. The selection decisions are made within the context of understanding the total integrated risk that is likely to incur while adapting the particular safety system alternative. Effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been validated through a real-time case study. The result in the context of final priority ranking is seemed fairly consistent.

  2. Advanced froth flotation techniques for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    Advanced column flotation cells offer many potential advantages for the treatment of fine coal. The most important of these is the ability to achieve high separation efficiencies using only a single stage of processing. Unfortunately, industrial flotation columns often suffer from poor recovery, low throughput and high maintenance requirements as compared to mechanically-agitated conventional cells. These problems can usually be attributed to poorly-designed air sparging systems. This article examines the problems of air sparging in greater detail and offers useful guidelines for designing bubble generators for industrial flotation columns. The application of these principles in the design of a successful advanced fine coal flotation circuit is also presented.

  3. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  4. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  5. The influence of seam height on lost-time injury and fatality rates at small underground bituminous coal mines.

    PubMed

    Peters, R H; Fotta, B; Mallett, L G

    2001-11-01

    Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam heights have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreases, miners must stoop, duck walk, or crawl, and their vision, posture, and mobility become increasingly restricted. Low seam height also places important restrictions on the design of mobile equipment and other mining machinery. Using the employment and injury data reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) from 1990 to 1996, small underground bituminous coal mines with less than 50 employees were stratified by average coal seam height according to the following categories: low (< or =42"), medium (43"-60"), and high (> or =61"). Injury rates for both nonfatal days lost and fatality cases were examined by seam height and leading type of injury incidents. The leading types of incidents associated with fatalities were roof falls and powered haulage equipment. In comparison to high-seam mines, miners working in low or medium seams are at higher risk of being killed by powered haulage equipment, roof bolting machines, and falls of unsupported roof. The leading types of incidents associated with nonfatal injuries were handling materials and powered haulage. As mining height decreases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from incidents involving roof bolting machines, load-haul-dump equipment, personnel carriers, and powered haulage conveyors. As mining height increases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from slips and falls and incidents involving shuttle cars and roof and rib falls. Knee injuries are a particularly severe problem in low-seam mines. The rate of injuries to miners while crawling or kneeling is 10 times higher in low seams than in high seams.

  6. Remanent and rock magnetic properties at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site: Hanna II phases 2 and 3 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Geissman, J.W.; Callian, J.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-09-01

    Several underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been conducted in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam. During the fall, 1980, the Laramie Energy Technology Center performed a post-burn field study of the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 experiment at the Hanna UCG site. The field work consisted of high resolution seismic, drilling, coring, and geophysical logging. The Paleomagnetism Laboratory, Department of Geology, Colorado School of Mines, contributed to the post-burn study by doing remanent and rock magnetic measurement laboratory work on the core material. Funding was provided by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. The purpose of the study was to determine the nature of the remanent magnetism of the overburden Hanna Formation and changes in the remanence and magnetic mineralogy attending underground coal gasification experiments. With this information, further estimates of the thermal and chemical conditions reached during the conversion experiment could be made. The magnetization data, together with previous petrographic observations, suggest that magnetite is being formed in a reducing process at the expense of detrital ferromagnesian silicates and possible hematite and geothite in the overburden sediments. Thermal gradients immediately above the burn cavity are difficult to estimate; changes in magnetic properties of unaltered Hanna Formation overburden are activated at temperatures as low as 300/sup 0/C. The magnetic expression of the burn cavity should be able to be modelled as being due to a thin slab overlying the cavity. Pyrometamorphosed material that has collapsed into the cavity, should have any magnetization which is randomized due to collapse and therefore should be able to be incorporated into a magnetic anomaly model. 32 references, 27 figures.

  7. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-24

    No combustion tests for this program were conducted during this reporting period of January 1 to March 31, 1992. DOE-sponsored slogging combustor tests have been suspended since December 1991 in order to perform combustion tests on Northern States Power Company (NSP) coals. The NSP coal tests were conducted to evaluate combustor performance when burning western sub bituminous coals. The results of these tests will guide commercialization efforts, which are being promoted by NSP, Westinghouse Electric, and Textron Defense Systems. The NSP testing has been completed and preparation of the final report for that effort is underway. Although the NSP testing program has been completed, the Westinghouse/DOE program will not be resumed immediately. The reason for this is that Textron Defense Systems (TDS) has embarked on an internally funded program requiring installation of a new liquid fuel combustor system at the Haverhill site. The facility modifications for this new system are significant and it is not possible to continue the Westinghouse/DOE testing while these modifications are being made. These facility modifications are being performed during the period February 15, 1992 through May 31, 1992. The Westinghouse/DOE program can be resumed upon completion of this work.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The combustion system discussed here incorporates a modular three- stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; also in the first stage, sulfur is captured with sorbent; coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed from the combustion gases by inertial means in the second stage by the use of an impact separator and slagging cyclone separator in series. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The objective of this contract is to establish the technology required for subsequent commercial development and application by the private sector of utility-size direct coal-fueled gas turbines. Emissions from these units are to meet or be lower than the Environment Protection Agency's (EPA's) New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for a pulverized coal-=fired steam turbine generator plant.

  9. Radiological study of exposure levels in El Maghara underground coal mine.

    PubMed

    Amer, Hany A; Shawky, S; Hussein, Mohamed I; Abd el-Hady, M L

    2002-08-01

    Coal is largely composed of organic matter, but it is the inorganic matter in coal minerals and trace elements that have been cited as possible causes of health, environmental and technological problems associated with the use of coal. Some trace elements in coal are naturally radioactive. These radioactive elements include uranium (U), thorium (Th) and their numerous decay products, including radium (Ra) and radon (Rn). Although these elements are less chemically toxic than other coal constituents, such as arsenic, selenium or mercury, questions have been raised concerning the possible risk from radiation. In order to accurately address these questions and to predict the mobility of radioactive elements during the coal fuel cycle, it is important to determine the specific activity, distribution and form of radioactive elements in coal. The assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the specific activity of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash that remains after combustion. The El-Maghara coal mine is the only producing coal mine in Egypt. It is located in the middle of the Sinai desert about 250 km north-east of Cairo, where a coal-fired power plant is intended to be built. In this study, a pre-operational radiological baseline of the site and the occupational radiation exposures due to radon progeny in the mine were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil and coal dust samples collected along the main gallery ranges were found to be 6-22.9, 9.6-47.3 and 77-489 Bq kg-1, respectively. Soil samples collected around the mine showed concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the ranges 2.7-20.2, 3.2-12.6 and 14.6-201 Bq kg-1, respectively. All of the mean values of radon progeny were lower than the action levels for working places recommended in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 65.

  10. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  11. Advanced cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis--two counties, Virginia, 2006.

    PubMed

    2006-08-25

    This report describes 11 newly identified cases of advanced coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), including progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), in working coal miners from Lee and Wise counties in southwestern Virginia. PMF is a disabling and potentially fatal form of CWP, an occupational lung disease caused by the inhalation of coal mine dust. The continuing occurrence of advanced forms of CWP emphasizes the importance of comprehensive measures to control coal mine dust effectively and reduce the potential for inhalation exposures in coal mining.

  12. Performance and economics of advanced energy conversion systems for coal and coal-derived fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corman, J. C.; Fox, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The desire to establish an efficient Energy Conversion System to utilize the fossil fuel of the future - coal - has produced many candidate systems. A comparative technical/economic evaluation was performed on the seven most attractive advanced energy conversion systems. The evaluation maintains a cycle-to-cycle consistency in both performance and economic projections. The technical information base can be employed to make program decisions regarding the most attractive concept. A reference steam power plant was analyzed to the same detail and, under the same ground rules, was used as a comparison base. The power plants were all designed to utilize coal or coal-derived fuels and were targeted to meet an environmental standard. The systems evaluated were two advanced steam systems, a potassium topping cycle, a closed cycle helium system, two open cycle gas turbine combined cycles, and an open cycle MHD system.

  13. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  14. Advanced burner technology for low volatile coal and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigges, K.D.; Streffing, M.; Lisauskas, R.; Ake, T.

    1997-12-31

    Today China is one of the countries with the highest coal production. Approximately three quarters of the produced coal is high-volatile and medium-volatile hard coal and only about 20% is anthracite. However the actual portion of the anthracite used in power plants is even lower. The reason for this is not due to the low amount available, but to the difficulty of ensuring stable and reliable ignition and combustion of anthracite. Up to now, the so-called Downshot firing system has been used to fire difficult anthracite coals. The experience gained with this type of firing system is, however, far from satisfactory. The numerous difficulties in the plants of all manufactures have shown that attempts should be made to develop efficient burners to be able to use the simple, service-proved and reliable opposed-burner system. Deutsche Babcock started this work in the early 1980`s and developed a second generation low-NOx burner -- the DS burner -- which is also well suited for the combustion of anthracite. The development is based on state-of-the-art advanced computer simulation and full-scale combustion tests on a wide range of coals. Performance has been evaluated on coals with volatile matter content ranging from 50% down to as low as 5%. DS burners are characterized by extremely reliable and stable ignition which allows operation at low part loads even when firing difficult coal. The excellent flame stability of this burner is the reason why the complex Downshot firing system with its numerous disadvantages is no longer necessary and opposed burner system may be applied even for firing anthracite. The paper describes the development of the burner for difficult coals and explains the full scale combustion tests, the laboratory tests of the ignitability and compares these results with the computer simulation of the DS burner flame.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This technology is important to reduce the technical and economic risks inherent in utilizing coal, a feedstock whose variable and often unexpected behavior presents a significant challenge. This program will merge significant advances made at Advanced Fuel Research, Inc. (AFR) in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior, with technology being developed at Brigham Young University (BYU) in comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors. The foundation to describe coal-specific conversion behavior is AFR's Functional Group (FG) and Devolatilization, Vaporization, and Crosslinking (DVC) models, developed under previous and on-going METC sponsored programs. These models have demonstrated the capability to describe the time dependent evolution of individual gas species, and the amount and characteristics of tar and char. The combined FG-DVC model will be integrated with BYU's comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model, PCGC-2, which is currently the most widely used reactor simulation for combustion or gasification. Success in this program will be a major step in improving in predictive capabilities for coal conversion processes including: demonstrated accuracy and reliability and a generalized first principles'' treatment of coals based on readily obtained composition data. The progress during the fifteenth quarterly of the program is presented. 56 refs., 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... reflectance to measure the relative concentration ratio of coal dust (black) to rock dust (white/grey) in a..., Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting. Dated: June 15, 2011. Joseph A. Main, Assistant Secretary of Labor...

  18. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  19. Mortality among US underground coal miners: A 23-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, M.D.; Kuempel, E.D.

    2008-03-15

    The mortality experience over 22-24 years of 8,899 working coal miners initially medically examined in 1969-1971 at 31 U.S. coal mines was evaluated. A cohort life-table analysis was undertaken on underlying causes of death, and proportional hazards models were fitted to both underlying, and underlying and contributing causes of death. Elevated mortality from nonviolent causes, nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD), and accidents was observed, but lung cancer and stomach cancer mortality were not elevated. Smoking, pneumoconiosis, coal rank region, and cumulative coal mine dust exposure were all predictors of mortality from nonviolent causes and NMRD. Mortality from nonviolent causes and NMRD was related to dust exposure within the complete cohort and also for the never smoker subgroup. Dust exposure relative risks for mortality were similar for pneumoconiosis, NMRD, and chronic airways obstruction. The findings confirm and enlarge upon previous results showing that exposure to coal mine dust leads to increased mortality, even in the absence of smoking.

  20. CO2 Storage in Shallow Underground and Surface Coal Mines: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V.N.; Ackman, T.E.; Soong, Yee; Kleinmann, R.L.

    2009-02-01

    The looming global energy and environmental crises underscore a pressing need for the revision of current energy policies. The dominating albeit somewhat optimistic public perception is that hundreds of years worth of coal available for power generation will offset the decline of oil and gas reserves. Although use of coal accounts for half of U.S. electricity generation and for a quarter of world energy consumption, it has been perceived until recently as unwelcomed by environmentalists and legislators. For coal power generation to be properly considered, CO2 and other greenhouse gas (GHG) generation and deposition must be addressed to assuage global climate change concerns. Capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions is one of the principal modes of carbon management. Herein we will suggest a novel process that includes capturing GHG in abundant materials, which can be facilitated by controlled sequential heating and cooling of these solids. By taking advantage of the properties of waste materials generated during coal production and the exhaust heat generated by the power plants, such an approach permits the integration of the entire CO2 cycle, from generation to deposition. Coupling coal extraction/preparation with power generation facilities would improve the economics of “zero-emission” power plants due to the proximity of all the involved facilities.

  1. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  2. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.

  3. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  4. Evaluation of ADAM/1 model for advanced coal extraction concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, G. K.; Gangal, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Several existing computer programs for estimating life cycle cost of mining systems were evaluated. A commercially available program, ADAM/1 was found to be satisfactory in relation to the needs of the advanced coal extraction project. Two test cases were run to confirm the ability of the program to handle nonconventional mining equipment and procedures. The results were satisfactory. The model, therefore, is recommended to the project team for evaluation of their conceptual designs.

  5. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  6. 77 FR 25205 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Roof Control Plans for Underground Coal Mines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... to the roof conditions and mining system of each coal mine be first approved by the Secretary of... Secretary. This information collection addresses the recordkeeping associated with: 75.215--Longwall...

  7. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting storage

  8. Flooded Underground Coal Mines: A Significant Source of Inexpensive Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

    2007-04-01

    Many mining regions in the United States contain extensive areas of flooded underground mines. The water within these mines represents a significant and widespread opportunity for extracting low-grade, geothermal energy. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce the annual costs for heating to over 70 percent compared to conventional heating methods (natural gas or heating oil). These same systems could reduce annual cooling costs by up to 50 percent over standard air conditioning in many areas of the country. (Formatted full-text version is released by permission of publisher)

  9. Forecast of long term coal supply and mining conditions: Model documentation and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A coal industry model was developed to support the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in its investigation of advanced underground coal extraction systems. The model documentation includes the programming for the coal mining cost models and an accompanying users' manual, and a guide to reading model output. The methodology used in assembling the transportation, demand, and coal reserve components of the model are also described. Results presented for 1986 and 2000, include projections of coal production patterns and marginal prices, differentiated by coal sulfur content.

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  11. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  12. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO[sub x]-NO[sub x] submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  14. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  15. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity estimates for intact coal barriers between closed underground mines

    SciTech Connect

    Mccoy, K.J.; Donovan, J.J.; Leavitt, B.R.

    2006-08-15

    Unmined blocks of coal, called barriers, separate and restrict horizontal leakage between adjacent bituminous coal mines. Understanding the leakage rate across such barriers is important in planning mine closure and strongly affects recharge calculations for postmining flooding. This study presents upper-limit estimates for hydraulic conductivity (K) of intact barriers in two closed mines at moderate depth (75-300 m) in the Pittsburgh coal basin. The estimates are based on pumping rates from these mines for the years ranging from 1992 to 2000. The two mines do not approach the outcrop and are sufficiently deep that vertical infiltration is thought to be negligible. Similarly, there are no saturated zones on the pumped mines' side of shared barriers with other mines, and therefore pumping is the only outflow. Virtually all of the pumping is attributed to leakage across or over the top of barriers shared with upgradient flooded mines. The length of shared barriers totals 24 km for the two mines, and the barriers range in thickness from 15 to 50 m. K values calculated independently for each of the 9 years of the pumping record ranged from 0.037 m/d to 0.18 m/d using an isotropic model of barrier flow. Using an anisotropic model for differential K in the face cleat (K{sub f}) and butt cleat (K{sub b}) directions, results range from 0.074 to 0.34 m/d for K{sub f} and from 0.022 to 0.099 m/d for K{sub b}.

  16. Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Linyuan; Han, Ruisong; Shao, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) technology adapted to underground channel conditions is developed, which has important theoretical and practical value for safety monitoring in underground coal mines. According to the characteristics that the space, time and frequency resources of underground tunnel are open, it is proposed to constitute wireless sensor nodes based on multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) to make full use of these resources. To improve the wireless transmission performance of source sensor nodes, it is also proposed to utilize cooperative sensors with good channel conditions from the sink node to assist source sensors with poor channel conditions. Moreover, the total power of the source sensor and its cooperative sensors is allocated on the basis of their channel conditions to increase the energy efficiency of the WSN. To solve the problem that multiple access interference (MAI) arises when multiple source sensors transmit monitoring information simultaneously, a kind of multi-sensor detection (MSD) algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely D-PSO, is proposed for the time-frequency coded cooperative MC-CDMA WSN. Simulation results show that the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed WSN in an underground coal mine is improved significantly by using wireless sensor nodes based on MC-CDMA, adopting time-frequency coded cooperative transmission and D-PSO algorithm with particle swarm optimization. PMID:26343660

  17. Multi-Sensor Detection with Particle Swarm Optimization for Time-Frequency Coded Cooperative WSNs Based on MC-CDMA for Underground Coal Mines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Linyuan; Han, Ruisong; Shao, Xiaotao

    2015-08-27

    In this paper, a wireless sensor network (WSN) technology adapted to underground channel conditions is developed, which has important theoretical and practical value for safety monitoring in underground coal mines. According to the characteristics that the space, time and frequency resources of underground tunnel are open, it is proposed to constitute wireless sensor nodes based on multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) to make full use of these resources. To improve the wireless transmission performance of source sensor nodes, it is also proposed to utilize cooperative sensors with good channel conditions from the sink node to assist source sensors with poor channel conditions. Moreover, the total power of the source sensor and its cooperative sensors is allocated on the basis of their channel conditions to increase the energy efficiency of the WSN. To solve the problem that multiple access interference (MAI) arises when multiple source sensors transmit monitoring information simultaneously, a kind of multi-sensor detection (MSD) algorithm with particle swarm optimization (PSO), namely D-PSO, is proposed for the time-frequency coded cooperative MC-CDMA WSN. Simulation results show that the average bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed WSN in an underground coal mine is improved significantly by using wireless sensor nodes based on MC-CDMA, adopting time-frequency coded cooperative transmission and D-PSO algorithm with particle swarm optimization.

  18. In vivo measurements of 210Pb in skull and knee geometries as an indicator of cumulative 222Rn exposure in a underground coal mine in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A L A; Dantas, B M; Lipsztein, J L; Spitz, H B

    2007-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to radon can be evaluated by measuring 210Pb in bone. The skull and knee are two convenient parts of the skeleton for in vivo measuring 210Pb because these regions of the body present a high concentration of bone, the detectors are easily positioned and the likelihood of cross contribution from other organs or tissues is low. A radiological survey of non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in Paraná, located in the south of Brazil, exhibited a high radon concentration. In vivo measurements of 32 underground coal miners were performed in the IRD-CNEN Whole Body Counter shielded room using an array of four high-resolution germanium detectors. Estimations of 210Pb in the total skeleton were determined from direct in vivo measurements of 210Pb in the head and knees. In vivo measurements of 210Pb in 6 out of 32 underground coal miners ranged from 80 to 164 Bq, suggesting that these workers were significantly exposed to 222Rn.

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  20. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  2. Technology and development requirements for advanced coal conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A compendium of coal conversion process descriptions is presented. The SRS and MC data bases were utilized to provide information paticularly in the areas of existing process designs and process evaluations. Additional information requirements were established and arrangements were made to visit process developers, pilot plants, and process development units to obtain information that was not otherwise available. Plant designs, process descriptions and operating conditions, and performance characteristics were analyzed and requirements for further development identified and evaluated to determine the impact of these requirements on the process commercialization potential from the standpoint of economics and technical feasibility. A preliminary methodology was established for the comparative technical and economic assessment of advanced processes.

  3. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  4. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  5. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  6. Quantifying of the Thermal Dynamic Characteristics of the Combustion System for Underground Coal Fire and its Impact on Environment in Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZENG, Qiang; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Wuttke, Manfred; NIE, Jing; PU, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal fire (UCF) is one disaster associated with coal mining activities around the world. The UCF not only burns up the coal reservoir, but also causes serious environmental problems, such as the pollution to air, the damage to soils, and the contamination to surface and underground water and consequently the health problem to human beings. In the present paper, the authors attempts to quantify the thermal dynamic characteristics of the combustion system for UCF and its impact on environment by modeling, including delineating the physical boundary of UCF zone, modeling of the capacity of the oxygen supply to UCF, modeling the intensity of heat generation from UCF and modeling the process of heat transfer within UCF and its surrounding environment. From this research, results were obtained as follows: First of all, based on the rock control theory, a model was proposed to depict the physical boundary of UCF zone which is important for coal fire research. Secondly, with analyzing the characteristics of air and smoke flow within UCF zone, an air/smoke flow model was proposed and consequently a method was put forward to calculate the capacity of oxygen supply to the UCF. Thirdly, with analyzing the characteristics of coal combustion within UCF zone, a method of calculating the intensity of heat generation from UCF, i.e., the heat source models, was established. Heat transfer with UCF zone includes the heat conductivity within UCF zone, the heat dissipation by radiation from the surface of fire zone, and the heat dissipation by convection as well as the heat loss taken away by mass transport. The authors also made an effort to depict the process of heat transfer by quantitative methods. Finally, an example of Shuixigou coal fire was given to illustrate parts of above models. Further more, UCF's impact on environment, such as the heavy metals contamination to surface soil of fire zone and the characteristics of gaseous pollutants emission from the UCF also was

  7. Statistical evaluation of hydrologic conditions in the vicinity of abandoned underground coal mines around Cannelburg, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical analysis of daily water-level changes in an abandoned coal mine indicates that precipitation affects the potentiometric level of the mine, independent of associated atmospheric pressure changes and changes in the water level of an overlying aquifer. The independent statistical effect of precipitation (0.99 cm of water-level change per centimeter of rainfall) is interpreted to reflect either lateral percolation from the coalbed's subcrop (1.2 km from the mine) or rapid recharge through mine-associated pathways, such as poorly plugged shafts, boreholes, or subsidence fractures. The relationship between water-level changes in the mine's voids and changes in the overlying aquifer is also statistically significant, but the regression coefficient (0.04) is an order of magnitude smaller than that for precipitation, indicating that vertical percolation (which is represented by covariance of the two aquifers) through undisturbed overburden may be less effective than the recharge associated with precipitation that bypasses the overburden. An equivalent analysis of water-level changes in an underlying unmined coalbed indicated that precipitation had a weaker direct effect (regression coefficient of 0.34, compared with 0.99), although it was still the dominant independent variable. In contrast, the effect of water-level changes in an overlying aquifer (the flooded mine itself) was relatively stronger (regression coefficient of 0.15, compared with 0.04), indicating that vertical percolation through interburden is more important at depth. ?? 1993.

  8. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  9. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  10. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  12. Do we have to consider temperature-dependent material properties in large-scale environmental impact assessments of underground coal gasification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) can increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce environmental impacts such as ground subsidence associated with groundwater pollution due to generation of hydraulic connectivities between the UCG reactor and adjacent aquifers. These changes overburden conductivity may introduce potential migration pathways for UCG contaminants such as organic (phenols, benzene, PAHs and heterocyclics) and inorganic (ammonia, sulphates, cyanides, and heavy metals) pollutants. Mitigation of potential environmental UCG impacts can be achieved by improving the understanding of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the rocks surrounding the UCG reactor. In the present study, a coupled thermo-mechanical model has been developed to carry out a parameter sensitivity analysis and assess permeability changes derived from volumetric strain increments in the UCG reactor overburden. Our simulation results demonstrate that thermo-mechanical rock behavior is mainly influenced by the thermal expansion coefficient, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. A comparison of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent simulation results indicates high variations in the distribution of total displacements in the UCG reactor vicinity related to thermal stress, but only negligible differences in permeability changes. Hence, temperature-dependent thermo-mechanical parameters have to be considered in the assessment of near-field UCG impacts, while far-field models can achieve a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters. Considering the findings of the present study in the large-scale assessment of

  13. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  14. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  15. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  16. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1993. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low- rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  17. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1994, through March 31, 1994. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal drying process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal processing, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership`s ACCP Demonstration Facility entered Phase III, Demonstration Operation, in April 1992 and operated in an extended startup mode through August 10, 1993, when the facility became commercial. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership instituted an aggressive program to overcome startup obstacles and now focuses on supplying product coal to customers. Significant accomplishments in the history of the SynCoal{reg_sign} process development are shown in Appendix A.

  18. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  19. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nalbandian, H.

    2009-07-01

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  1. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Work has centered upon obtaining bulk samples of feedstocks for the project, up-dating the background literature, and preparing and testing a computer program to perform material balance calculations for the continuous flow liquefaction unit.

  2. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  3. Recent advances in the perchloroethylene coal cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, K.L.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The perchloroethylene coal desulfurization process has been shown to selectively remove both inorganic and organic sulfur as well as mineral matter from high sulfur Midwestern coals. The process consists of four stages: a wet grinding of the coal to {minus}200 mesh, an extraction stage used to remove organic sulfur, a float sink stage to remove pyritic sulfur and mineral matter, and finally, a steam stripping stage to remove residual perchloroethylene from the coal. Using this process, up to 70% of the organic sulfur and over 90% of the pyritic sulfur can be removed from the coal. Recent work has studied the effects of parameters such as type of coal, particle size, moisture content, process temperatures, etc., on the sulfur removal efficiency. In addition, a kinetic relation was established for several types of Midwestern coals and minimum extraction time was established. The kinetic study was also used to conduct simulation studies of batch, plug flow reactor, and continuous stirred tank reactor.

  4. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of §...

  5. The Relationship between Elemental Carbon and Diesel Particulate Matter in Underground Metal/Nonmetal Mines in the United States and Coal Mines in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Noll, James; Gilles, Stewart; Wu, Hsin Wei; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, total carbon (TC) is used as a surrogate for determining diesel particulate matter (DPM) compliance exposures in underground metal/nonmetal mines. Since TC can be affected by interferences and elemental carbon (EC) is not, one method used to estimate the TC concentration is to multiply the EC concentration from the personal sample by a conversion factor to avoid the influence of potential interferences. Since there is no accepted single conversion factor for all metal/nonmetal mines, one is determined every time an exposure sample is taken by collecting an area sample that represents the TC/EC ratio in the miner's breathing zone and is away from potential interferences. As an alternative to this procedure, this article investigates the relationship between TC and EC from DPM samples to determine if a single conversion factor can be used for all metal/nonmetal mines. In addition, this article also investigates how well EC represents DPM concentrations in Australian coal mines since the recommended exposure limit for DPM in Australia is an EC value. When TC was predicted from EC values using a single conversion factor of 1.27 in 14 US metal/nonmetal mines, 95% of the predicted values were within 18% of the measured value, even at the permissible exposure limit (PEL) concentration of 160 μg/m3 TC. A strong correlation between TC and EC was also found in nine underground coal mines in Australia. PMID:25380085

  6. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. 76 FR 55837 - Workshops To Discuss Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Revisions to Federal and Indian Coal Valuation Regulations: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking AGENCY... existing royalty valuation regulations at 30 CFR parts 1202 and 1206 for coal produced from Federal and..., Colorado 80226, telephone number (303) 231-3585. Workshop 2--Marriott St. Louis Airport, 10700 Pear...

  8. Design optimization in underground coal systems. Volume VIII. The roof truss: an analysis with applications to mine design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-28

    The purpose of this research effort was to optimize the application of the roof truss for use in supporting coal mine roofs. Model analysis using two-dimensinal, body-loaded, photoelastic models was supplemented with field data and testing. A detailed literature review was also undertaken. The detailed analysis of photoelastic models of roof trusses was pursued by varying a number of the truss parameters - center-span installation angles and blocking-point configuration. In obtaining reduced deflection, the best support was achieved employing an angle of installation of 90/sup 0/. However, due to roof failute considerations, the recommended angle of installation was 45/sup 0/. Blocking points were shown to have an effect on roof-support capacity as well as truss span, and field tests indicated that the installation of a roof truss actually raised the roof. Also, from field measurements, it was shown that all sections of the arch carried the same load. The use of the roof truss as a major support principle and device in underground coal mines was confined. The installation angle should be 45/sup 0/ in any specified roof span. Blocking is an essential part of the arch installation and should be carefully implemented to insure maximum efficiency of the arch. It was concluded that: the truss installation of 45/sup 0/ produces maximum benefit when the overall stability of the roof is considered; the two-dimensional, body-loaded photoelastic model may be used to analyze underground structures; in underground installations, all components of the roof truss structure sustain the same load; and uplift of the roof may be achieved during installation of the roof truss system.

  9. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  10. Pilot Plant Program for the AED Advanced Coal Cleaning System. Phase II. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc. (AED), has developed a proprietary coal cleaning process which employs a combination of ionization and electrostatic separation to remove both sulfur and ash from dry pulverized coal. The Ohio Department of Energy sponsored the first part of a program to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate the process in a continuous-flow pilot plant. Various coals used by Ohio electric utilities were characterized and classified, and sulfur reduction, ash reduction and Btu recovery were measured. Sulfur removal in various coals ranged from 33 to 68% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal ranged from 17 to 59% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal of particles greater than 53 microns ranged from 46 to 88%. Btu recovery ranged from 90 to 97%. These results, especially the large percentage removal of ash particles greater than 53 microns, suggest that the AED system can contribute materially to improved boiler performance and availability. The study indicated the following potential areas for commercial utilization of the AED process: installation between the pulverizer and boiler of conventional coal-fired power utilities; reclamation of fine coal refuse; dry coal cleaning to supplement, and, if necessary, to take the place of conventional coal cleaning; upgrading coal used in: (1) coal-oil mixtures, (2) gasification and liquefaction processes designed to handle pulverized coal; and (3) blast furnaces for making steel, as a fuel supplement to the coke. Partial cleaning of coking coal blends during preheating may also prove economically attractive. Numerous other industrial processes which use pulverized coal such as the production of activated carbon and direct reduction of iron ore may also benefit from the use of AED coal cleaning.

  11. Advanced solids NMR studies of coal structure and chemistry. Progress report, March 1 - September 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1996-12-31

    This report covers the progress made on the title project for the project period. The study of coal chemical structure is a vital component of research efforts to develop better chemical utili- zation of coals, and for furthering our basic understanding of coal geochemistry. In this grant we are addressing several structural questions pertaining to coals with advances in state of the art solids NMR methods. Our goals are twofold. First, we are interested in developing new methods that will enable us to measure important structural parameters in whole coals not directly accessible by other techniques. In parallel with these efforts we will apply these NNM methods in a study of the chemical differences between gas-sourcing and oil-sourcing coals. The NMR methods work will specifically focus on determination of the number and types of methylene groups, determination of the number and types of methine groups, identification of carbons adjacent to nitrogen and sites with exchangeable protons, and methods to more finely characterize the distribution of hydrogen in coals. We will also develop NMR methods for probing coal macropore structure using hyperpolarized {sup 29}Xe as a probe, and study the molecular dynamics of what appear to be mobile, CH{sub 2} rich, long chain hydrocarbons. The motivation for investigating these specific structural features of coals arises from their relevance to the chemical reactivity of coals, and their suitability for possible correlations with the oil sourcing potential of some types of coals. The coals to be studied and contrasted include oil-prone coals from Australia and Indonesia, those comprising the Argonne Premium Coal Sample bank, and other relevant samples.

  12. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, N.S.

    1992-07-17

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500[degrees]F (815[degrees]C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650[degrees]F (900[degrees]C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  13. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, N. S.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this task is to perform a technical assessment of turbine blading for advanced second generation PFBC conditions, identify specific problems/issues, and recommend an approach for solving any problems identified. A literature search was conducted, problems associated with hot corrosion defined and limited experiments performed. Sulfidation corrosion occurs in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines and is due to the presence of condensed alkali (sodium) sulfates. The principle source of the alkali in industrial, marine and aircraft gas turbine engines is sea salt crystals. The principle source of the sulfur is not the liquid fuels, but the same ocean born crystals. Moreover deposition of the corrosive salt occurs primarily by a non-equilibrium process. Sodium will be present in the cleaned combusted gases that enter the PFBC turbine. Although equilibrium condensation is not favored, deposition via impaction is probable. Marine gas turbines operate in sodium chloride rich environments without experiencing the accelerated attack noted in coal fired boilers where condensed chlorides contact metallic surfaces. The sulfates of calcium and magnesium are the products of the reactions used to control sulfur. Based upon industrial gas turbine experience and laboratory tests, calcium and magnesium sulfates are, at temperatures up to 1500 F (815 C), relatively innocuous salts. In this study it is found that at 1650 F (900 C) and above, calcium sulfate becomes an aggressive corrodent.

  14. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  15. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  16. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. ); Gutterman, C. ); Chander, S. )

    1992-08-26

    Research in this project centers upon developing a new approach to the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates all aspects of the coal liquefaction process including coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, coal liquefaction experimentation, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The project is being carried out under contract to the United States Department of Energy. On May 28, 1992, the Department of Energy authorized starting the experimental aspects of this projects; therefore, experimentation at Amoco started late in this quarterly report period. Research contracts with Auburn University, Pennsylvania State University, and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation were signed during June, 1992, so their work was just getting underway. Their work will be summarized in future quarterly reports. A set of coal samples were sent to Hazen Research for beneficiation. The samples were received and have been analyzed. The literature search covering coal swelling has been up-dated, and preliminary coal swelling experiments were carried out. Further swelling experimentation is underway. An up-date of the literature on the liquefaction of coal using dispersed catalysts is nearing completion; it will be included in the next quarterly report.

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  18. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  19. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  20. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  2. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  3. Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama. Technical progress report, Run 243 with Illinois 6 coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the operating results for Run 243 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R and D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run was made in an Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction (ITSL) mode using Illinois 6 coal from the Burning Star mine. The primary objective was to demonstrate the effect of a dissolver on the ITSL product slate, especially on the net C/sub 1/-C/sub 5/ gas production and hydrogen consumption. Run 243 began on 3 February 1983 and continued through 28 June 1983. During this period, 349.8 tons of coal was fed in 2947 hours of operation. Thirteen special product workup material balances were defined, and the results are presented herein. 29 figures, 19 tables.

  4. [Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project]. Technical progress report: April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from April 1, 1992, through June 30, 1992. This project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal drying process coupled with physical cleaning techniques designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals into a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After drying, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/Ib), by producing a stable, upgraded coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45-ton-per-hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train loadout facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. The demonstration drying and cooling equipment is currently near commercial size.

  5. Organic coal-water fuel: Problems and advances (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.; Chernetskii, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The study results of ignition of organic coal-water fuel (OCWF) compositions were considered. The main problems associated with investigation of these processes were identified. Historical perspectives of the development of coal-water composite fuel technologies in Russia and worldwide are presented. The advantages of the OCWF use as a power-plant fuel in comparison with the common coal-water fuels (CWF) were emphasized. The factors (component ratio, grinding degree of solid (coal) component, limiting temperature of oxidizer, properties of liquid and solid components, procedure and time of suspension preparation, etc.) affecting inertia and stability of the ignition processes of suspensions based on the products of coaland oil processing (coals of various types and metamorphism degree, filter cakes, waste motor, transformer, and turbine oils, water-oil emulsions, fuel-oil, etc.) were analyzed. The promising directions for the development of modern notions on the OCWF ignition processes were determined. The main reasons limiting active application of the OCWF in power generation were identified. Characteristics of ignition and combustion of coal-water and organic coal-water slurry fuels were compared. The effect of water in the composite coal fuels on the energy characteristics of their ignition and combustion, as well as ecological features of these processes, were elucidated. The current problems associated with pulverization of composite coal fuels in power plants, as well as the effect of characteristics of the pulverization process on the combustion parameters of fuel, were considered. The problems hindering the development of models of ignition and combustion of OCWF were analyzed. It was established that the main one was the lack of reliable experimental data on the processes of heating, evaporation, ignition, and combustion of OCWF droplets. It was concluded that the use of high-speed video recording systems and low-inertia sensors of temperature and gas

  6. Hydrology of the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah, before, during, and after underground coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slaughter, C.B.; Freethey, G.W.; Spangler, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    From 1988-92 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, studied the effects of underground coal mining and the resulting subsidence on the hydrologic system near the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek, Carbon County, Utah. The subsidence caused open fractures at land surface, debris slides, and rockfalls in the canyon above the mined area. Land surface subsided and moved several feet horizontally. The perennial stream and a tributary upstream from the mined area were diverted below the ground by surface fractures where the overburden thickness above the Wattis coal seam is 300 to 500 feet. The reach downstream was dry but flow resumed where the channel traversed the Star Point Sandstone, which forms the aquifer below the coal seams where ground-water discharge provides new base flow. Concentrations of dissolved constituents in the stream water sampled just downstream from the mined area increased from about 300 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to more than 1,500 mg/L, and the water changed from primarily a magnesium calcium bicarbonate to primarily a magnesium sulfate type. Monitored water levels in two wells completed in the perched aquifer(s) above the mine indicate that fractures from subsidence- related deformation drained the perched aquifer in the Blackhawk Formation. The deformation also could have contributed to the decrease in discharge of three springs above the mined area, but discharge from other springs in the area did not change ubstantially; thus, the relation between subsidence and spring discharge, if any, is not clear. No significant changes in the chemical character of water discharging from springs were detected, but the dissolved-solids concentration in water collected from a perched sandstone aquifer overlying the mined coal seams increased during mining activity.

  7. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-06-01

    A two dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and nonreactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. The model, referred to as 93-PCGC-2 is applicable to cylindrical, axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using a discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. A new coal-general devolatilization submodel (FG-DVC) with coal swelling and char reactivity submodels has been added.

  8. 75 FR 81165 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... required to be applied, it shall be distributed upon the top, floor, and sides of all underground areas of... with respect to transportation of men and materials shall be provided. Sec. 75.1722(a). Gears... inlets; and similar exposed moving machine parts which may be contacted by persons, and which may...

  9. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    electrolysis with power from the nuclear plant, reducing the carbon footprint even further by eliminating the requirement for a coal gasification unit to...following: • Substantially reduced carbon footprint, from elimination of fired process heaters and a coal gasification facility for hydrogen...of ash yield as possible. It was found that the vibratory screening system similar to the system that used in the past was effective in de- sliming

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  11. The influence of particle size distribution on dose conversion factors for radon progeny in the underground excavations of hard coal mine.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, Krystian; Wojtecki, Łukasz; Urban, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    In Polish underground mines, hazards caused by enhanced natural radioactivity occur. The sources of radiation exposure are short-lived radon decay products, mine waters containing radium (226)Ra and (228)Ra and the radioactive sediments that can precipitate out of these waters. For miners, the greatest exposure is usually due to short-lived radon decay products. The risk assessment is based on the measurement of the total potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) and the evaluation of the related dose by using the dose conversion factor as recommended by relevant legal requirements. This paper presents the results of measurements of particle size distributions of ambient aerosols in an underground hard coal mine, the assessment of the radioactive particle size distribution of the short-lived radon decay products and the corresponding values of dose conversion factors. The measurements of the ambient airborne particle size distribution were performed in the range from a few nanometers to about 20 μm. The study therefore included practically the whole class of respirable particles. The results showed that the high concentration of ultrafine and fine aerosols measured can significantly affect the value of the dose conversion factors, and consequently the corresponding committed effective dose, to which the miners can be exposed.

  12. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  13. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems reference system definition update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the the Direct Coal-Fueled 80 MW Combustion Turbine Program is to establish the technology required for private sector use of an advanced coal-fueled combustion turbine power system. Under this program the technology for a direct coal-fueled 80 MW combustion turbine is to be developed. This unit would be an element in a 207 MW direct coal-fueled combustion turbine combined cycle which includes two combustion turbines, two heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. Key to meeting the program objectives is the development of a successful high pressure slagging combustor that burns coal, while removing sulfur, particulates, and corrosive alkali matter from the combustion products. Westinghouse and Textron (formerly AVCO Research Laboratory/Textron) have designed and fabricated a subscale slagging combustor. This slagging combustor, under test since September 1988, has been yielding important experimental data, while having undergone several design iterations.

  14. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  15. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This detailed report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project demonstrates an advanced thermal coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the project was to expand market awareness and acceptability for the products and the technology. The use of covered hopper cars has been successful and marketing efforts have focused on this technique. Operational improvements are currently aimed at developing fines marketing systems, increasing throughput capacity, decreasing operation costs, and developing standardized continuous operator training. Testburns at industrial user sites were also conducted. A detailed process description; technical progress report including facility operations/plant production, facility testing, product testing, and testburn product; and process stability report are included. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ([sup 13]CO-123) as a [sup 13]C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, [sup 13]CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T[sub CH], and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T[sub 1p][sup H], were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T[sub 1p][sup H]) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame [sup 1]H relaxation decay and two or three components of T[sub CH] behavior were observed for each major [sup 13]C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use [sup 1]H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their [sup 1]H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  18. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  19. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  20. The Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This reports presents the operating results for Run 252 at the Advanced Coal Liquefaction R D Facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. This run operated in the Close-Coupled Integrated Two-Stage Liquefaction mode (CC-ITSL) using Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The primary run objective was demonstration of unit and system operability in the CC-ITSL mode with catalytic-catalytic reactors and with ash recycle. Run 252 began on 26 November 1986 and continued through 3 February 1987. During this period 214.4 MF tons of Illinois No. 6 coal were fed in 1250 hours of operation. 3 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  2. Overburden characterization and post-burn study at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site: stratigraphy, depositional environments and mineralogy, Hanna Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, G.N. II; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.; Laughter, T.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1982-03-01

    Several underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments have been conducted in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam. During the fall of 1980 the Laramie Energy Technology Center performed a post-burn field study of the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 experiment at the Hanna UCG site. The field work consisted of high resolution seismic, drilling, coring, and geophysical logging. The Department of Earth Resources, Colorado State University, contributed to the post-burn study by doing laboratory work on the cores and geophysical logs. The purpose of the laboratory work was to provide an estimate of the temperatures and chemical conditions reached during the conversion experiment by studying the mineralogical and textural characteristics of thermally altered and ulaltered overburden. In the vicinity of the burn cavity, overburden rocks have been subjected to high temperature pyrometamorphism during the Hanna II Phases 2 and 3 UCG experiments. Paralava rocks, buchites and paralava breccias containing glass and various high temperature minerals such as oligoclase, clinopyroxene, ferrocordierite, mullite, cristobalite, magnetite, and tridymite formed. Textures of some of these minerals suggest crystallization directly from a melt. Mineralogy and melting relations of the paralavas, ash fusion temperatures, and thermocouple measurements made during the experiment suggest that tempratures in excess of 1200/sup 0/C were attained. Rock color and the presence of reduced iron bearing minerals and blebs of native iron indicate that the experimental burn and the product gases in the area of paralava formation were reducing.

  3. Assessment and evaluation of noise controls on roof bolting equipment and a method for predicting sound pressure levels in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matetic, Rudy J.

    Over-exposure to noise remains a widespread and serious health hazard in the U.S. mining industries despite 25 years of regulation. Every day, 80% of the nation's miners go to work in an environment where the time weighted average (TWA) noise level exceeds 85 dBA and more than 25% of the miners are exposed to a TWA noise level that exceeds 90 dBA, the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Additionally, MSHA coal noise sample data collected from 2000 to 2002 show that 65% of the equipment whose operators exceeded 100% noise dosage comprise only seven different types of machines; auger miners, bulldozers, continuous miners, front end loaders, roof bolters, shuttle cars (electric), and trucks. In addition, the MSHA data indicate that the roof bolter is third among all the equipment and second among equipment in underground coal whose operators exceed 100% dosage. A research program was implemented to: (1) determine, characterize and to measure sound power levels radiated by a roof bolting machine during differing drilling configurations (thrust, rotational speed, penetration rate, etc.) and utilizing differing types of drilling methods in high compressive strength rock media (>20,000 psi). The research approach characterized the sound power level results from laboratory testing and provided the mining industry with empirical data relative to utilizing differing noise control technologies (drilling configurations and types of drilling methods) in reducing sound power level emissions on a roof bolting machine; (2) distinguish and correlate the empirical data into one, statistically valid, equation, in which, provided the mining industry with a tool to predict overall sound power levels of a roof bolting machine given any type of drilling configuration and drilling method utilized in industry; (3) provided the mining industry with several approaches to predict or determine sound pressure levels in an underground coal mine utilizing laboratory test results from a roof bolting

  4. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  5. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1990-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. The work plan for the froth quarter called for completion of the washability interpolation routine, gravity separation models, and dewatering models. As these items were completed, work in the areas of size reduction, classification and froth flotation were scheduled to begin. As each model was completed, testing and validation procedures were scheduled to begin. Costing models were also planned to be implemented and tested as each of the gravity separation models were completed. 1 tab.

  6. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  7. Advances in Ammonia Removal from Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen occurs in coal in the form of tightly bound organic ring compounds, typically at levels of 1 to 2 wt%. During coal gasification, this fuel bound nitrogen is released principally as ammonia (NH{sub 3}). When hot coal gas is used to generate electricity in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, NH{sub 3} is converted to nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) which are difficult to remove and are highly undesirable as atmospheric pollutants. Similarly, while the efficiency of integrated gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (IGFC) power plants is not affected by NH{sub 3}, NO{sub x} is generated during combustion of the anode exhaust gas. Thus NH{sub 3} must be removed from hot coal gas before it can be burned in a turbine or fuel cell. The objective of this study is to develop a successful combination of an NH{sub 3} decomposition catalyst with a zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent so that the sorbent-catalyst activity remains stable for NH{sub 3} decomposition in addition to H{sub 2}S removal under cycle sulfidation-regeneration conditions in the temperature range of 500 to 750{degrees}C.

  8. Psychophysical investigations of discomfort and disability glare from underground coal mine illumination systems. Open File Report, May 1980-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, K.L.; Lindahl, P.; Vincent, R.; Crouch, C.

    1983-10-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify current light-control technology and hardware that may be applicable on underground lighting systems to minimize disability and discomfort glare. No research dealing specifically with mine lighting was found, but abstracts on research considered potentially applicable are included in the report. Information on several commercial light-control products for use in controlling glare are also included. Vision tests conducted on 137 mine personnel to determine their discomfort and disability glare sensitivity indicate their sensitivity to disability glare is about the same as the general population.

  9. Advanced concepts in coal liquefaction: Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-11-01

    The overall objective of this Project was to find the ways to effectively reduce the cost of coal liquids to about dollar 25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The work described herein is primarily concerned with the testing at the laboratory scale of three reactor configuration concepts, namely (1) a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor as a ``finishing reactor`` in coal liquefaction, (2) three-stage well-mixed reactors in series, and (3) interstage stream concentration/product separation. The three reactor configurations listed above were tested during this project using a 20 cc tubing microreactor, a fixed-bed plug flow reactor, and a two-stage modified Robinson-Mahoney reactor system. The reactor schemes were first evaluated based on theoretical modelling studies, then experimentally evaluated at the microautoclave level and laboratory scale continuous operations. The fixed-bed ``finishing reactor`` concept was evaluated in both the upflow and the downflow modes of operation using a partially converted coal-solvent slurry as feed. For most of the testing of concepts at the microautoclave level, simulated coal, recycle oil, and slurry feedstocks were either specially prepared (to represent a specific state of coal/resid conversion) and/or obtained from HRI`s other ongoing bench-scale and PDU scale coal liquefaction experiments. The three-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and interstage product stream separation/concentration concepts were tested using a simulated three-stage CSTR system by employing a laboratory-scale ebullated-bed system and a modified version of the HRI`s existing Robinson-Mahoney fixed catalyst basket reactor system. This testing was conducted as a fourteen day long continuous run, divided into four Conditions to allow for a comparison of the new three-stage CSTR and interstage product concentration concepts with a two-stage CSTR baseline configuration.

  10. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Shirey, G.A.; Stoessner, R.D.; Pennsylvania Electric Co., Johnstown, PA )

    1988-12-30

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) and Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF) procedures for their effectiveness in cleaning fine (minus 100 mesh) coal. The two processes will be tested in a circuit capable of processing 0.124 to 0.15 tons per hour of coal at the EPRI-CQDC. Performance of the two processes will be evaluated, and the economics of fine coal cleaning by both processes will be determined. During the past quarter, efforts were concentrated on the following tasks: installation of process equipment and characterization of the test feed coal; start-up of the ASH and AFF circuits; and initialization of the AFF Test Program. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  12. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  13. Cofiring of coal and biomass in advanced fluidized bed gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    The cofiring of coal and biomass is now being considered by the scientific community and as a viable option to the sustained year round operation of biomass based plants which are currently limited in duration due to the biomass growing season dependency. There are many industrial applications which would also accommodate the use of waste residuals including biomass resources for production of cogenerated electricity, steam and syn-gas based chemicals and fuels (methanol, ethanol, ammonia, etc.). A good example of this is the bagasse-based biomass project NREL is currently supporting using the IGT U-Gas gasifier technology which is under way in a pilot plant operation located in Maui, Hawaii in the sugar cane fields accessible to a nearby seaport which could accommodate other alternate fuel handling facilities. In addition the use of bagasse types of biomass wastes can support the environmental clean-up and disposal of these and other types of wastes such as wood wastes from pulp and paper mills, and vegetation and floral wastes in tropical regions such as South Asia. Using cofiring of coal fines and biomass can be economically attractive in areas where high and low grade coal is mined and can add to the electrification and district heating of these remotely located villages and hamlets. Large scale facilities can be envisioned, but there is a need for testing and proving these options in areas where there is no existing infrastructure for providing local electric and district heat. Industrial scale coal-based IGCC facilities are economically operated in many places in China and in urban industrial complexes such as the Shanghai Coke and Chemical Plant Group (SCCPG) in the southern region of Shanghai (SCCPG has a license for the U-Gas gasification technology in China).

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  15. Testing of advanced liquefaction concepts in HTI Run ALC-1: Coal cleaning and recycle solvent treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.; Derbyshire, F.L.; Givens, E.N.; Hu, J.; Lee, T.L.K.; Miller, J.E.; Stephens, H.P.; Peluso, M.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Liquefaction Concepts Program to promote the development of new and emerging technology that has potential to reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by direct coal liquefaction. Laboratory research performed by researchers at CAER, CONSOL, Sandia, and LDP Associates in Phase I is being developed further and tested at the bench scale at HTI. HTI Run ALC-1, conducted in the spring of 1996, was the first of four planned tests. In Run ALC-1, feed coal ash reduction (coal cleaning) by oil agglomeration, and recycle solvent quality improvement through dewaxing and hydrotreatment of the recycle distillate were evaluated. HTI`s bench liquefaction Run ALC-1 consisted of 25 days of operation. Major accomplishments were: 1) oil agglomeration reduced the ash content of Black Thunder Mine coal by 40%, from 5.5% to 3.3%; 2) excellent coal conversion of 98% was obtained with oil agglomerated coal, about 3% higher than the raw Black Thunder Mine coal, increasing the potential product yield by 2-3% on an MAF coal basis; 3) agglomerates were liquefied with no handling problems; 4) fresh catalyst make-up rate was decreased by 30%, with no apparent detrimental operating characteristics, both when agglomerates were fed and when raw coal was fed (with solvent dewaxing and hydrotreating); 5) recycle solvent treatment by dewaxing and hydrotreating was demonstrated, but steady-state operation was not achieved; and 6) there was some success in achieving extinction recycle of the heaviest liquid products. Performance data have not been finalized; they will be available for full evaluation in the new future.

  16. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  17. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  20. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  2. Underground atom gradiometer array for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, B.

    2015-12-01

    After more than 20 years of fundamental research, atom interferometers have reached sensitivity and accuracy levels competing with or beating inertial sensors based on different technologies. Atom interferometers offer interesting applications in geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry, Earth rotation rate measurements), inertial sensing (submarine or aircraft autonomous positioning), metrology (new definition of the kilogram) and fundamental physics (tests of the standard model, tests of general relativity). Atom interferometers already contributed significantly to fundamental physics by, for example, providing stringent constraints on quantum-electrodynamics through measurements of the hyperfine structure constant, testing the Equivalence Principle with cold atoms, or providing new measurements for the Newtonian gravitational constant. Cold atom sensors have moreover been established as key instruments in metrology for the new definition of the kilogram or through international comparisons of gravimeters. The field of atom interferometry (AI) is now entering a new phase where very high sensitivity levels must be demonstrated, in order to enlarge the potential applications outside atomic physics laboratories. These applications range from gravitational wave (GW) detection in the [0.1-10 Hz] frequency band to next generation ground and space-based Earth gravity field studies to precision gyroscopes and accelerometers. The Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) presented here is a large-scale matter-wave sensor which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. The MIGA consortium gathers 18 expert French laboratories and companies in atomic physics, metrology, optics, geosciences and gravitational physics, with the aim to build a large-scale underground atom-interferometer instrument by 2018 and operate it till at least 2023. In this paper, we present the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the

  3. Advances in technology for the construction of deep-underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The workshop was organized in order to address technological issues important to decisions regarding the feasibility of strategic options. The objectives of the workshop were to establish the current technological capabilities for deep-underground construction, to project those capabilities through the compressed schedule proposed for construction, and to identify promising directions for timely allocation of existing research and development resources. The earth has been used as a means of protection and safekeeping for many centuries. Recently, the thickness of the earth cover required for this purpose has been extended to the 2,000- to 3,000-ft range in structures contemplated for nuclear-waste disposal, energy storage, and strategic systems. For defensive missile basing, it is now perceived that the magnitude of the threat has increased through better delivery systems, larger payloads, and variable tactics of attack. Thus, depths of 3,000 to 8,000 ft are being considered seriously for such facilities. Moreover, it appears desirable that the facilities be operational (if not totally complete) for defensive purposes within a five-year construction schedule. Deep excavations such as mines are similar in many respects to nearsurface tunnels and caverns for transit, rail, sewer, water, hydroelectric, and highway projects. But the differences that do exist are significant. Major distinctions between shallow and deep construction derive from the stress fields and behavior of earth materials around the openings. Different methodologies are required to accommodate other variations resulting from increased depth, such as elevated temperatures, reduced capability for site exploration, and limited access during project execution. This report addresses these and other questions devoted to geotechnical characterization, design, construction, and excavation equipment.

  4. Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km

  5. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  6. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  7. 78 FR 49061 - Valuation of Federal Coal for Advance Royalty Purposes and Information Collection Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...ONRR proposes new regulations to implement the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) governing the payment of advance royalty on coal resources produced from Federal leases. The EPAct provisions amend the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (MLA). ONRR also proposes to add information collection requirements that are applicable to all solid minerals leases and also are necessary to......

  8. Relationship of roof falls in underground coal mines to fractures mapped on ERTS-1 imagery. [Indiana and Illinois

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS imagery is of unique value for mapping of certain fractures that are not identifiable on aircraft imagery. Because color infrared and ERTS imagery complement each other both sources of data were used to map fractures in western Indiana and eastern Illinois. In the Kings Station Mine, Gibson County, Indiana, most roof falls reported had occurred in areas where mapped fractures were closely spaced and intersecting. Using this information as a basis for extrapolation, roof fall hazard maps were prepared for other mine sites. Various coal resources programs related to energy and environment also were conducted.

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  10. Assessment of Metal Media Filters for Advanced Coal-Based Power Generation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    2002-09-19

    Advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation technologies (IGCC, PFBC, PCFBC, and Hipps) are currently under development and demonstration. Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on the development and demonstration of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for power generation. This paper reviews SWPC's material and component assessment efforts, identifying the performance, stability, and life of porous metal, advanced alloy, and intermetallic filters under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion conditions.

  11. Underground coal gasification with extended CO2 utilization as economic and carbon neutral approach to address energy and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Islam, Rafiqul; Kempka, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The application of underground coal gasification (UCG) with proven carbon mitigation techniques may provide a carbon neutral approach to tackle electricity and fertilizer supply shortages in Bangladesh. UCG facilitates the utilization of deep-seated coal seams, not economically exploitable by conventional coal mining. The high-calorific synthesis gas produced by UCG can be used for e.g. electricity generation or as chemical raw material for hydrogen, methanol and fertilizer production. Kempka et al. (2010) carried out an integrated assessment of UCG operation, demonstrating that about 19 % of the CO2 produced during UCG may be mitigated by CO2 utilization in fertilizer production. In the present study, we investigated an extension of the UCG system by introducing excess CO2 storage in the gas deposit of the Bahkrabad gas field (40 km east of Dhaka, Bangladesh). This gas field still holds natural gas resources of 12.8 million tons of LNG equivalent, but is close to abandonment due to a low reservoir pressure. Consequently, applying enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injection of excess carbon dioxide from the coupled UCG-urea process may mitigate carbon emissions and support natural gas production from the Bahkrabad gas field. To carry out an integrated techno-economic assessment of the coupled system, we adapted the techno-economic UCG-CCS model developed by Nakaten et al. (2014) to consider the urea and EGR processes. Reservoir simulations addressing EGR in the Bakhrabad gas field by utilization of excess carbon dioxide from the UCG process were carried out to account for the induced pressure increase in the reservoir, and thus additional gas recovery potentials. The Jamalganj coal field in Northwest Bangladesh provides favorable geological and infrastructural conditions for a UCG operation at coal seam depths of 640 m to 1,158 m. Excess CO2 can be transported via existing pipeline networks to the Bahkrabad gas field (about 300 km distance from the coal deposit) to be

  12. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The results of model studies involving numerical simulation of underground coal gasification process are presented. For the purpose of the study, the software of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was selected for simulation of underground coal gasification. Based on the review of the literature, it was decided that ANSYS-Fluent will be used as software for the performance of model studies. The ANSYS- -Fluent software was used for numerical calculations in order to identify the distribution of changes in the concentration of syngas components as a function of duration of coal gasification process. The nature of the calculations was predictive. A geometric model has been developed based on construction data of the georeactor used during the researches in Experimental Mine "Barbara" and Coal Mine "Wieczorek" and it was prepared by generating a numerical grid. Data concerning the georeactor power supply method and the parameters maintained during the process used to define the numerical model. Some part of data was supplemented based on the literature sources. The main assumption was to base the simulation of the georeactor operation on a mathematical models describing reactive fluid flow. Components of the process gas and the gasification agent move along the gasification channel and simulate physicochemical phenomena associated with the transfer of mass and energy as well as chemical reactions (together with the energy effect). Chemical reactions of the gasification process are based on a kinetic equation which determines the course of a particular type of equation of chemical coal gasification. The interaction of gas with the surrounding coal layer has also been described as a part of the model. The description concerned the transport of thermal energy. The coal seam and the mass rock are treated as a homogeneous body. Modelling studies assumed the coal gasification process is carried out with the participation of separately oxygen and air as a gasification agent

  13. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  14. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  17. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel

    1999-01-11

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eleventh quarter of this project, Task 7 (Operation and Testing) was nearly completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, and Pittston Coal Company. As a result of this work, a model-based control system has now been installed which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. The system has gone through a shake-down period, training has been carried out for plant operators, and the bulk of the control logic testing has been completed with the results of these tests awaiting analysis under Task 8 (System Evaluation). The flotation model has been shown to predict incremental ash quite successfully, implying that this approach may provide the basis for a useful ''soft sensor'' for on-line incremental ash analysis.

  18. AN ADVANCED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR FINE COAL FLOTATION

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of tailings ash content. Then, based on an on-line estimate of incremental ash, the pulp level is adjusted using a model-based control algorithm to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the tenth quarter of this project, Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was completed through the efforts of J.A. Herbst and Associates, Virginia Tech, Pittston Coal Company, and FGR Automation. As a result of this work, a model-based control system is now in place which can predict incremental ash based on tailings ash content and general plant data, and adjust pulp level accordingly to maintain a target incremental ash. Testing of this control system is expected to be carried out during the next quarter, and the results of this testing will be reported in the Eleventh Quarterly report. In addition, calibration of the video-based ash analyzer was continued and an extensive set of calibration data were obtained showing that the plant is running remarkably well under manual control. This may be a result of increased attention being paid to froth flotation as a result of this project.

  19. Theoretical analysis of the coupling effect for the seepage field, stress field, and temperature field in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2005-10-01

    In this article, the derivative control equations of the simultaneous mathematical models on the temperature field, stress field of coal and rock mass, and the seepage field of retort gases in the gasification panel were established. The finite element form of the three-fields coupling problem for gas-solid solutions by means of a six-node triangular element was deduced. The numerical analysis software for three-fields coupling was developed. Combined with the calculation example, the mechanism of the thermodynamic effect was illustrated. The impact of the heating effect on the measured value and the simulated value of the seepage field, stress field, and displacement field was discussed and analyzed at length.

  20. Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Cai; Chen, Lei; Liu, Gang; Li, Wenhua; Huang, Baoming; Zhu, Hongdong; Zhang, Bing; Zamansky, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 mum and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion (>90%) at temperatures >1000 degrees C. Gaseous species from wire mesh reactor were quantified using a high sensitivity gas chromatography. The material balance of coal pyrolysis in wire mesh reactor was demonstrated for the first time by improving the volatile's quantification techniques.

  1. Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies - article no. 084102

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, C.; Chen, L.; Liu, G.; Li, W.H.; Huang, B.M.; Zhu, H.D.; Zhang, B.; Zamansky, V.

    2008-08-15

    In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 {mu} m and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion ({gt}90%) at temperatures {gt}1000 {sup o}C. Gaseous species from wire mesh reactor were quantified using a high sensitivity gas chromatography. The material balance of coal pyrolysis in wire mesh reactor was demonstrated for the first time by improving the volatile's quantification techniques.

  2. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  3. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  4. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract entitled Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technology - Froth Flotation'', to ICF Kaiser Engineers with the following team members, Ohio Coal Development Office, Babcock and Wilcox, Consolidation Coal Company, Eimco Process Equipment Company, Illinois State Geological Survey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Process Technology, Inc. This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  7. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures...

  8. Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone/Advanced Froth Flotation fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Stoessner, R.D. ); Shirey, G.A.; Zawadzki, E.A. ); Welsh, C.F. ); Miller, J.D. ); Shell, W.P. )

    1990-05-27

    In May 1988, the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) were awarded a contract from the Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center (DOE-PETC) to evaluate the performance of a two-inch Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) for cleaning fine minus-100-mesh coal. A 24-month study was successfully completed, optimizing the performance of the ASH for cleaning raw classified, naturally-occurring minus-100-mesh Upper Freeport coal, and comparing its performance with Advanced Froth Flotation (AFF), a procedure utilizing conventional flotation equipment operated in an advanced manner (low impeller speeds, starvation float, multiple-stage cleaning, etc.) with highly selective reagents to optimize ash and pyritic sulfur rejection. The economics of cleaning fine coal by both processes at commercial scale, for retrofit and greenfield applications were found to be comparable within the accuracy of the study. Technical performance of the two processes were also found to be essentially identical. Thus, the ASH would be the best choice for a retrofit installation into an existing plant because of requiring less space. Both processes were successful in achieving excellent separations when cleaning the Upper Freeport coal. Both the ASH and AFF circuits were able to produce a clean-coal product of yield (65--80 percent weight recovery) and quality (5--6 percent ash) equivalent to that as theoretically determined by float-sink washability analyses. Combining either of the two fine coal flotation processes with a classifying cyclone circuit resulted in pyritic sulfur rejection values of about 85 percent. 47 refs., 109 figs., 75 tabs.

  9. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, M.A.

    1994-02-01

    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  11. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  12. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  13. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop additional confidence in the conceptual design of the advanced froth flotation circuit, a 2-3 TPH Proof-of-Concept (POC) facility was necessary. During operation of this facility, the ICF KE team will demonstrate the ability of the conceptual flowsheets to meet the program goals of maximum pyritic sulfur reduction coupled with maximum energy recovery on three DOE specified coals. The POC circuit was designed to be integrated into the Ohio Coal Development's facility near Beverly, Ohio. OCDO's facility will provide the precleaning unit operations and ICF KE will add the advanced froth flotation circuitry. The work in this task will include the POC conceptual design, flowsheet development, equipment list, fabrication and construction drawings, procurement specifications and bid packages and a facilities.

  15. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  16. An Advanced Control System for Fine Coal Floatation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G H; Adel, G T

    1998-06-01

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the eighth quarter of this project, the analysis of data collected during Task 2 (Sampling and Data Analysis) was completed, and significant progress was made on Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation). Previously, a plant sampling campaign had been conducted at Pittston's Moss No. 3 preparation plant to provide data for the development of a mathematical process model and a model-based control system. During this campaign, a one-half factorial design experiment, blocked into low and high feed rates, was conducted to investigate the effects of collector, frother, and pulp level on model parameters. In addition, samples were collected during the transient period following each change in the manipulated variables to provide data for confirmation of the dynamic process simulator. A residence time distribution (RTD) test was also conducted to estimate the mean residence time. This is a critical piece of information since no feed flowrate measurement is available, and the mean residence time can be used to estimate the feed flowrate. Feed samples were taken at timed intervals and floated in a laboratory flotation cell to investigate the magnitude of feed property disturbances and their duration.

  17. An Advanced Control System For Fine Coal Flotation

    SciTech Connect

    G. H. Luttrell; G. T. Adel

    1998-08-25

    A model-based flotation control scheme is being implemented to achieve optimal performance in the handling and treatment of fine coal. The control scheme monitors flotation performance through on-line analysis of ash content. Then, based on the economic and metallurgical performance of the circuit, variables such as collector dosage, frother dosage, and pulp level are adjusted using model-based control algorithms to compensate for feed variations and other process disturbances. Recent developments in sensor technology are being applied for on-line determination of slurry ash content. During the ninth quarter of this project, Task 3 (Model Building and Computer Simulation) and Task 4 (Sensor Testing) were nearly completed, and Task 6 (Equipment Procurement and Installation) was initiated. Previously, data collected from the plant sampling campaign (Task 2) were used to construct a population balance model to describe the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the flotation circuit. The details of this model were presented in the Eighth Quarterly Technical Progress Report. During the past quarter, a flotation circuit simulator was designed and used to evaluate control strategies. As a result of this work, a model-based control strategy has been conceived which will allow manipulated variables to be adjusted in response to disturbances to achieve a target incremental ash value in the last cell of the bank. This will, in effect, maximize yield at an acceptable product quality. During this same period, a video-based ash analyzer was installed on the flotation tailings stream at the Moss No. 3 preparation plant. A preliminary calibration curve was established, and data are continuing to be collected in order to improve the calibration of the analyzer.

  18. 78 FR 28242 - Proposed Information Collection; Cleanup Program for Accumulations of Coal and Float Coal Dusts...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Coal and Float Coal Dusts, Loose Coal, and Other Combustibles AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... program for accumulations of coal and float coal dusts, loose coal, and other combustibles in underground coal mines. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or received by midnight Eastern Standard Time...

  19. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center): Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987. [Advanced Coal Research and Technology Development Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1988-02-01

    Research programs on coal and coal liquefaction are presented. Topics discussed are: coal science, combustion, kinetics, surface science; advanced technology projects in liquefaction; two stage liquefaction and direct liquefaction; catalysts of liquefaction; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and thermodynamics; alternative fuels utilization; coal preparation; biodegradation; advanced combustion technology; flue gas cleanup; environmental coordination, and technology transfer. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base. (CBS)

  20. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  1. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  2. Development of advanced capitalism: a case study of retired coal miners in southern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Legeay, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation develops a critical analysis of changes in American society during the last fifty years. It is focused in particular on the southern West Virginia coal fields, and examines the changes in class structure (specifically, coal miners), the labor process, the union, class consciousness, community and leisure. The study is grounded within a theoretical perspective that is dialectical. It is concerned with the interaction between specific social categories (such as the union) and the greater whole of capitalist development. It is centrally concerned with continuing a research orientation to which the Frankfurt School gave a powerful contribution: the development of advanced capitalism in the modern epoch. The study utilizes life-history interviews with retired coal miners, almost all of whom had experience with the exploitive company towns of an earlier time. Thus, techniques for the study of oral history are instrumental in developing an analysis of social developments, inasmuch as they provide data appropriate for an analysis of the transformation from early to late capitalism. Finally, this dissertation examines a problem central to dialectical theory, that of the relation between theory and praxis, by approaching the life histories as exemplifications of collective (i.e., social) experience. It integrates the biographical experience of individual miners with the theoretical dimensions of political economy in early and late capitalism. The current crisis in the coal fields is examined, with a view to possible transformation.

  3. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  4. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  5. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1993-09-30

    This project addressed two main goals and one much smaller one. The main goals were (1) to improve the significance, reliability and information content in high-resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization of coal samples and (2) to develop chemically informative NMR imaging techniques for coal. The minor goal was to explore advanced features of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) as a technique for coal characterization; this included the development of two DNP probes and the examination of DNP characteristics of various carbonaceous samples, including coals. {sup 13}C NMR advances for coal depended on large-sample MAS devices, employing either cross-polarization (CP) or direct polarization (DP) approaches. CP and DP spin dynamics and their relationships to quantitation and spin counting were elucidated. {sup 1}H NMR studies, based on CRAMPS, dipolar dephasing and saturation with perdeuteropyridine, led to a {sup 1}H NMR-based elucidation of chemical functionality in coal. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR imaging techniques, based on magic-angle spinning and rotating magnetic field gradients, were developed for introducing chemical shift information (hence, chemical detail) into the spatial imaging of coal. The TREV multiple-pulse sequence was found to be useful in the {sup 1}H CRAMPS imaging of samples like coal.

  6. Underground Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhlrott, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of underground buildings constructed primarily during last two decades for various reasons (energy conservation, density of environment, preservation of landscape and historic buildings) notes advantages, disadvantages, and psychological and design considerations. Examples of underground libraries, built mainly in United States, are…

  7. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research & Development Center (Amax R&D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  10. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  11. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  12. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  13. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  14. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  16. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1994-12-31

    This research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Trace elements considered in this project will include mercury, selenium, cadmium, and chlorine. Work in the first quarter has focused on trace element analysis procedures and sample acquisition. Several experts in the field of trace element analysis of coal have been consulted and these procedures are presently being evaluated.

  17. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. This project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance to rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was conducted on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent. 10 figs.

  18. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is the 9th quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies'', DE-FG22-90PC90295. The work presented in this report was performed from September 1, 1992 to November 31, 1992. The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface chemistry of pyrite oxidation and flotation and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the surface oxidation of pyrite in various electrolytes was investigated. It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that borate, a pH buffer and electrolyte used by many previous investigators in studying sulfide mineral oxidation, actively participates in the surface oxidation of pyrite. In borate solutions, the surface oxidation of pyrite is tronly enhanced. The anodic oxidation potential of pyrite is lowered by more than 0.4 volts. The initial reaction of the borate enhanced pyrite oxidation can be described by:FeS[sub 2] + B(OH)[sub 4][sup =] ------> [S[sub 2]Fe-B(OH)[sub 4

  19. Task 4 -- Conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system (CFATS)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-15

    Solar is developing the technologies for a highly efficient, recuperated, Advanced Turbine System (ATS) that is aimed at the dispersed power generation market. With ultra-low-emissions in mind the primary fuel selected for this engine system is natural gas. Although this gas fired ATS (GFATS) will primarily employ natural gas the use of other fuels particular those derived from coal and renewable resources cannot be overlooked. The enabling technologies necessary to direct fire coal in gas turbines were developed during the 1980`s. This Solar development co-sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) resulted in the testing of a full size coal-water-slurry fired combustion system. In parallel with this program the DOE funded the development of integrated gasification combined cycle systems (IGCC). This report describes the limitations of the Solar ATs (recuperated engine) and how these lead to a recommended series of modifications that will allow the use of these alternate fuels. Three approaches have been considered: direct-fired combustion using either a slagging combustor, or a pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC), externally or indirectly fired approaches using pulverized fuel, and external gasification of the fuel with subsequent direct combustion of the secondary fuel. Each of these approaches requires substantial hardware and system modifications for efficient fuel utilization. The integration issues are discussed in the sections below and a recommended approach for gasification is presented.

  20. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Annual report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Westinghouse`s Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program (DE-AC2l-86MC23167) was originally split into two major phases - a Basic Program and an Option. The Basic Program also contained two phases. The development of a 6 atm, 7 lb/s, 12 MMBtu/hr slagging combustor with an extended period of testing of the subscale combustor, was the first part of the Basic Program. In the second phase of the Basic Program, the combustor was to be operated over a 3-month period with a stationary cascade to study the effect of deposition, erosion and corrosion on combustion turbine components. The testing of the concept, in subscale, has demonstrated its ability to handle high- and low-sulfur bituminous coals, and low-sulfur subbituminous coal. Feeding the fuel in the form of PC has proven to be superior to CWM type feed. The program objectives relative to combustion efficiency, combustor exit temperature, NO{sub x} emissions, carbon burnout, and slag rejection have been met. Objectives for alkali, particulate, and SO{sub x} levels leaving the combustor were not met by the conclusion of testing at Textron. It is planned to continue this testing, to achieve all desired emission levels, as part of the W/NSP program to commercialize the slagging combustor technology.

  1. Recent advances in large-eddy simulation of spray and coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. X.

    2013-07-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is under its rapid development and is recognized as a possible second generation of CFD methods used in engineering. Spray and coal combustion is widely used in power, transportation, chemical and metallurgical, iron and steel making, aeronautical and astronautical engineering, hence LES of spray and coal two-phase combustion is particularly important for engineering application. LES of two-phase combustion attracts more and more attention; since it can give the detailed instantaneous flow and flame structures and more exact statistical results than those given by the Reynolds averaged modeling (RANS modeling). One of the key problems in LES is to develop sub-grid scale (SGS) models, including SGS stress models and combustion models. Different investigators proposed or adopted various SGS models. In this paper the present author attempts to review the advances in studies on LES of spray and coal combustion, including the studies done by the present author and his colleagues. Different SGS models adopted by different investigators are described, some of their main results are summarized, and finally some research needs are discussed.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The design criteria for each unit operation have been developed based upon a number of variables. These variables, at this time, are based upon the best engineering design information available to industry. A number of assumptions utilized in the design criteria are uncertain. The uncertainties of inert atmospheres for grinding and flotation as well as pyrite depressants were answered by the Surface Control Project. It was determined that inerting was not required and no new'' reagents were presented that improved the flotation results. In addition, Tasks 5 and 6 results indicated the required reagent dosage for conventional flotation and advanced flotation. Task 5 results also indicated the need for a clean coal,thickener, the flocculent dosages for both the clean coal and refuse thickeners, and final dewatering requirements. The results from Tasks 5 and 6 and summarized in Task 7 indicate several uncertainties that require continuous long duration testing. The first is the possibility of producing a grab product for both the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals in conventional flotation. Second what does long-term recirculation of clarified water do to the product quality The verification process and real data obtained from Tasks 5 and 6 greatly reduced the capital and operating costs for the process. This was anticipated and the test work indeed provided confirming data.

  3. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  4. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  5. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  6. 43 CFR 3461.1 - Underground mining exemption from criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Underground mining exemption from criteria...: Unsuitability for Mining § 3461.1 Underground mining exemption from criteria. (a) Federal lands with coal deposits that would be mined by underground mining methods shall not be assessed as unsuitable where...

  7. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  8. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  9. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal process. Quarterly technical progress report, May 1986--July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Mining and Minerals Resources Research Institute (MMRRI) to monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with select advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period to collect data on the field disposal behavior of these wastes. There has been considerable research on the characteristics and laboratory leaching behavior of coal wastes -- a lesser amount on wastes from advanced coal processes. However, very little information exists on the field disposal behavior of these wastes. Information on field disposal behavior is needed (1) as input to predictive models being developed, (2) as input to the development of rule of thumb design guidelines for the disposal of these wastes, and (3) as evidence of the behavior of these wastes in the natural environment.

  10. Stabilization of Heavy Metal Containing Hazardous Wastes with Byproducts from Advanced Clean Coal Technology Systems.

    PubMed

    Pritts, Jesse W; Neufeld, Ronald D; Cobb, James T

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the success of residues from advanced Clean Coal Technology (CCT) systems as stabilization agents for heavy metal containing hazardous wastes. In the context examined here, stabilization refers to techniques that reduce the toxicity of a waste by converting the hazardous constituents to a less soluble, mobile, or toxic form.(1) Three advanced CCT byproducts were used: coal waste-fired circulating fluidized bed combustor residue, pressurized fluidized bed combustor residue, and spray drier residue. Seven metal-laden hazardous wastes were treated: three contaminated soils, two air pollution control dusts, wastewater treatment plant sludge, and sandblast waste. Each of the seven hazardous wastes was treated with each of the three CCT byproducts at dosages of 10, 30, and 50% by weight (byproduct:waste). The treatment effectiveness of each mixture was evaluated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Of the 63 mixtures evaluated, 21 produced non-hazardous residues. Treatment effectiveness can likely be attributed to mechanisms such as precipitation and encapsulation due to the formation of hydrated calcium silicates and calcium sulfo-alu-minates. Results indicate that these residues have potential beneficial uses to the hazardous waste treatment community, possibly substituting for costly treatment chemicals.

  11. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits extending... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except...

  12. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  13. Geologic mapping can boost productivity, safety underground

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, C.T.

    1986-04-01

    Geologic mapping in hardrock mines is old hat, but in the coal industry it's a relatively new management tool, Only during the past eight to 10 years have some of the larger coal operators been convinced that mapping of macro- and micro-structures in their mines may help to make the mines more productive, more profitable and more safe. In most underground coal mines, roof conditions-indeed, mining conditions in general-are dependent upon geologic factors. Of special significance are the roof falls, almost always a function of roof geology. Unfortunately, many important geologic factors that may provide clues to areas prone to roof falls are frequently too small or too local to be detected by drilling programs and go undected until mining reveals them. By applying basic techniques of geologic mapping, using simple tools and little time, many important relationships between geologic factors and actual roof and mining conditions can be more easily understood. And by understanding these relationships, mining and roof control plans can be adjusted to accommodate or avoid poor conditions, often in advance of mining. Mapping thus benefits not only operating mines but supplements exploration or pre-mining investigation.

  14. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  15. Ethylene/propylene oxide block copolymer interfacial phenomena in relation to coal cleaning by advanced flotation methods

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, J.L.; Chander, S.

    1995-12-01

    Surface tension of aqueous ethylene/propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer reagents were measured to understand their role in advanced coal flotation. Coal flotation is one of the most promising methods for separating the combustible matter in coal from ash forming minerals. The use of EO/PO block copolymer reagents enhances the rejection of ash minerals during coal flotation procedures. Since the mechanism whereby this enhancement is achieved is not known very well, an investigation of the surface tension characteristics of EO/PO block copolymer reagents was performed at various concentrations. Data obtained were used to compute adsorption densities at the liquid/gas interface. The adsorption characteristics of nine different EO/PO block copolymers were determined to examine the effect of percent ethylene oxide and formula weight. These studies predict that flotation experiments are most efficient when surfactants with low ethylene oxide percentages are utilized.

  16. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Engineereing development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-02-18

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. The project has three major objectives: The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1712-6 - Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES... in § 75.1712-7, each operator of an underground coal mine shall provide and maintain one sanitary... toilets meet the requirements of this section. Privies and combustion or incinerating toilets...

  19. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Casing and sealing of underground openings...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.14 Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary. (a) Each mine... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease..., lubricating oil and grease kept in all underground areas in a coal mine shall be in fireproof, closed...

  5. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  6. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote column flotation to maximize BTU recovery with minimum product sulfur and ash content from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyrite. During this contract period, samples were obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant and characterized. Analysis of the flotation feed slurry indicate that a significant amount of pyrite is present in the 5 microns size range as free particles. The coal is hydrophobic in nature and optimum reagent addition is 0.75 lb/ton frother and 1.5 lb/ton fuel oil. The best flotation results were obtained near pH 6 for all frothers tested. Two ash depressants tested showed no significant improvement in ash rejection. A pyrite depressant was also tested which indicated improved pyrite rejection from 28 to 37 percent at a dosage of 5 lb/ton. Efforts are in progress to design a test matrix to determine optimum operating conditions for column flotation testing with this substrate. The test matrixes will be designed to investigate three different bubble generating mechanisms. The objective is to identify column operating variables that will provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  8. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  9. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Chen

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  10. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  11. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  12. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  13. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  14. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  15. 30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section... TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each underground coal mine shall make available two certified mine...

  16. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1996-12-31

    Research conducted at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale over the past two years has identified highly efficient methods for treating fine coal (i.e., -28 mesh). In this study, a circuit comprised of the three advanced fine coal cleaning technologies is being tested in an operating preparation plant to evaluate circuit performance and to compare the performance with the current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon concentrator and a Jameson froth flotation cell. The Floatex hydrosizer is being used as a primary cleaner for the nominally -16 mesh Illinois No. 5 fine coal circuit feed. The overflow of the Floatex is screened at 48 mesh using a Sizetec vibratory screen to produce a clean coal product from the screen overflow. The screen overflow is further treated by the Falcon and Jameson Cell. During this reporting period, tests were initiated on the fine coal circuit installed at the Kerr-McGee Galatia preparation plant. The circuit was found to reduce both the ash content and the pyritic sulfur content. Additional in-plant circuitry tests are ongoing.

  17. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  18. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1993-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies: The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc.,(ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the period of October through December 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks 1-5.

  19. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Jiang, Chengliang; Raichur, A.M.

    1992-07-14

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The flotation characteristics of coal-pyrites under various conditions was studied and compared with ore-pyrite and coal to determine the causes of pyrite rejection difficulties in coal flotation. Both the native and induced floatabilities of pyrites were investigated. It was found that both coal- and ore-pyrites, ff prepared by dry-grinding, show little or no floatability in the absence of any chemical reagents. After ultrasonic pretreatment, ore-pyrite floats effectively in the acidic to neutral pH range. Kentucky No. 9 coal-pyrite (KYPY) shows significant flotation in the pH range 7--10. With ethyl xanthate as collector, ore-pyrite floats well up to pH = 10; while coal-pyrite reveals no flotation above pH = 6. For the first time, the effect of coal collector on the floatability of coal-pyrite has been studied. It was shown that in the presence of fuel oil--a widely used collector for promoting coal flotation, coal-pyrite, particularly for the fine sizes, shows good flotation below pH = 11, whereas ore-pyrite has no or little floatability. These studies demonstrate that one of the main causes of the coal-pyrite flotation in coal separation is the oil-induced floatability due to adsorption/attachment of oil droplets on the coal-pyrite surfaces, the native'' or self-induced'' floatability of pyrite is no as profound as the oil-induced flotation.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 23, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  1. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  2. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 24, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  3. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  4. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFC's for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-sq cm per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  6. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.H.; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the project is to conduct extensive fundamental studies on the surface reactivity and surface hydrophobicity of coal-pyrites using various surface characterization techniques and to understand how the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface affects the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. During this reporting period, the influence of the impurity content, particularly coal/carbon content, on the electrochemical oxidation of pyrite surfaces was investigated. The studies demonstrate that the coal/carbon content in coal-pyrite has a determining effect on the surface reactivity of pyrite. The oxidation behavior of high carbon-content coal-pyrite is completely different from that of purer coal-pyrite and ore-pyrite. The effects of flotation gases on the flotation behavior of coal and the surface hydrophobicity of various coal-pyrite were investigated. It was found from the lab-scale column flotation studies that among the various gases studied (air, oxygen, argon, nitrogen and carbon dioxide), carbon dioxide produced the best results with a combustible recovery of 90% and ash-content of less than 9 percent. Finally, the surface energetic studies revealed that the surfaces of pyrites and coals produced by wet grinding is more heterogenous than that prepared by dry grinding.

  7. In-Situ Treatment of Groundwater Contaminated with Underground Coal Gasification Products / Oczyszczanie In-Situ WÓD Podziemnych Zanieczyszczonych Przez Produkty Podziemnego Zgazowania WĘGLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suponik, Tomasz; Lutyński, Marcin

    2013-12-01

    In the paper the contaminants that may be generated in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) process were listed and include mainly mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, heavy metals, cyanides, ammonium, chloride and sulphate. As a method of UCG contaminated groundwater treatment a Permeable Reactive Barrier technology was proposed. To assess the effectiveness of this technology two tests were carried out. Granulated activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite, and granulated activated carbon and scrap iron were applied in the first and second test respectively. For these materials the hydro geological parameters called reactive material parameters were determined and discussed. The results of the experiments showed that GAC seems to be the most effective material for phenols, BTX, PAH, cyanides and slightly lowers ammonia removal, while zeolites and scrap iron removed free cyanide, ammonia and heavy metals respectively. Podziemne Zgazowanie Węgla (PZW) jest alternatywną metodą pozyskiwania energii z węgla. Jest to zespół przemian termicznych i chemicznych przebiegających bezpośrednio w złożu węgla, zachodzących pomiędzy substancją organiczną a czynnikiem zgazowującym, jakim może być powietrze, tlen, para wodna, dwutlenek węgla. Poza wieloma zaletami metoda ta niesie za sobą także wiele zagrożeń, które były rozważane w ramach projektu HUGE 2 (nr RFCR-CT-2011-00002). Jednym z nich jest zagrożenie środowiska wód podziemnych produktami PZW, do których należą wielopierścieniowe węglowodory aromatyczne, BTX, fenole, metale ciężkie, cyjanki, jony amonowe, chlorki i siarczany. W celu zminimalizowania tego zagrożenia w pracy rozważono zastosowanie w obszarze reaktora PZW technologii Przepuszczalnej Bariery Reaktywnej (PRB). W technologii tej zanieczyszczenia usuwane są in-situ poprzez przepływ wód przez odpowiednio dobrany materiał reaktywny. W tablicy 1 przedstawiono podstawowe parametry bariery, które należy określić, aby

  8. Recent advances in the use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Manowitz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Two major coal combustion problems are the formation and build-up of slag deposits on heat transfer surfaces and the production and control of toxic species in coal combustion emissions. The use of synchrotron radiation for the analysis of coal combustion products can play a role in the better understanding of both these phenomena. An understanding of the chemical composition of such slags under boiler operating conditions and as a function of the mineral composition of various coals is one ultimate goal of this program. The principal constituents in the ash of many coals are the oxides of Si, Al, Fe, Ca, K, S, and Na. The analytical method required must be able to determine the functional forms of all these elements both in coal and in coal ash at elevated temperatures. One unique way of conducting these analyses is by x-ray spectroscopy.

  9. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  10. Advanced direct coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, December 1983-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Paranjape, A.S.

    1984-04-30

    Five Bench-Scale coal liquefaction runs were completed with Wyoming subbituminous coal in a two-stage process scheme. In this process scheme, LDAR, the lighter fraction of ash-free resid, was fed to the catalytic stage prior to its recycle to the thermal stage, whereas DAR, the heavy fraction of the deashed resid, was directly recycled to the thermal stage without any intermediate processing step. The results indicate that increasing coal space rate in the dissolver resulted in lower coal conversion and reduced distillate yield in this process configuration. The coal conversions decreased from 92 wt% to 89 wt% (MAF coal) and the distillate yield was reduced from 50 wt% to less than 40 wt% (MAF coal), as the coal space velocity increased. Attempts to duplicate the yields of Run 32, at comparable process conditions in Runs 37 and 38, were unsuccessful. Several process parameters were investigated but failed to show why the yields of Run 32 could not be duplicated. Valuable process related information was gained as a result of process parameter studies completed during these runs. At comparable process conditions, coal conversions were lower by about 3 to 4 relative percent and were only in the 87 wt% (MAF coal) range. Similarly, the distillate yield was about 40 wt% (MAF coal) which is about 10 wt% lower than observed in Run 32. Although no exact cause for these results could be determined, it appeared that the H/C atomic ratio of the solvent and possibly the flow pattern (plug-flow versus back-mixed) could have affected the coal conversion and quantity of distillate product produced. A significant decrease in coal conversion of 4 to 5 wt% was observed when the disposable catalyst (iron oxide) was removed from the reaction mixture and therefore substantiates the need for a disposable catalyst in the liquefaction of Wyoming subbituminous coal.

  11. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation. Annual report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, `Ken-Flote` column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  12. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

  13. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Rowe, R.M.; Anast, K.R.; Jha, M.C.

    1994-05-06

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effectve replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States as well as for advanced combustars currently under development. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals fbr clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 51-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress, made during the 6th quarter of the project from January 1 to March 31, 1994. The project has three major objectives: (1) The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics. (3) A third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  15. Gob spontaneous combustion in a fully mechanized long-wall top-coal caving face

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Deng, J.; Zhang, X.; Guo, X.; Wen, F.

    1999-07-01

    As geological conditions allow, underground coal mines in China tend to use comprehensively mechanized roof-coal caving technique in an effort to gain a higher degree of mechanization at coal faces as well as higher coal production rates. As a face advances, a large amount of coal will be left behind in its gob area which may experience a self-enhancing process of coal oxidation and heat accumulation, ultimately leading to open fire. Such a self-enhancing coal spontaneous combustion process is a significantly impediment to mine safety and productivity. A sound mathematical model is an important step to predict the probability of spontaneous combustion so that measures against coal-heating can be adopted in time and at comparatively low cost. This paper analyzes main factors in coal spontaneous combustion process and proposes a mathematical model to describe the dynamic process of coal self-heating in the gob. This model has been applied to a coal production face in Datong Coal Region in Shangdong Province to satisfactorily predict the spontaneous combustion probability.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  17. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  18. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  19. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Mineral Research Center (EMRC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. The specific objectives for the reporting period were as follows: review fourth site candidates; obtain site access for the Freeman United site; select an ash supplier for the Illinois site and initiate subcontracts for on-site work; commence construction of the Freeman United test cell; and obtain waste for the Colorado Ute test site. Accomplishments under each task are discussed.

  20. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  1. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  2. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  3. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

  4. Coal mining with a liquid solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Miller, C. G.

    1979-01-01

    Study suggests carbonated water can dissolve or suspend coal and carry it to surface. Mixture of carbon dioxide and water may be coal solvent that will make unmanned mining reality. When used with proposed process monitoring coal solubility with conventional strain gage, solvent is basis for rapid cost effective extraction of coal from underground seams.

  5. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

  6. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report 6, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-05-03

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1- March 31, 1996.

  7. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-07-28

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1993. The project has three major objectives: (1) the primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel for premium fuel applications. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. (2) a secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term application of these advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines and converting this to marketable products in current market economics; and (3) a third objective is to determine the removal of toxic trace elements from coal by advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies.

  9. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    SciTech Connect

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  10. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  12. Advanced technology applications for second and third generation coal gasification systems. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen coal conversion processes are described and their projected goals listed. Tables show the reactants used, products derived, typical operating data, and properties of the feed coal. A history of the development of each process is included along with a drawing of the chemical reactor used.

  13. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. Twenty-second quarterly report, January 2, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this proposed study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. This report describes progress during twenty second quarter of the program. Specifically, the paper discusses progress in three task areas: (1) Submodel development and evaluation: coal to char chemistry submodel; fundamental high-pressure reaction rate data; secondary reaction of pyrolysis product and burnout submodels; ash physics and chemistry submodel; large particle submodels; large char particle oxidation at high pressures; and SO{sub x}-NO{sub x} submodel development and evaluation; (2) Comprehensive model development and evaluation: integration of advanced submodels into entrained-flow code, with evaluation and documentation; comprehensive fixed-bed modeling review, development evaluation and implementation; and generalized fuels feedstock submodel; and (3) Application of integrated codes: application of generalized pulverized coal comprehensive code and application of fixed-bed code.

  14. 30 CFR 947.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application to conduct underground coal mining operations. (b) Any application for an underground mining... local Air Pollution Control Authorities and the Washington Clean Air Act, RCW 70.94. (c) Any...

  15. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surfaces reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of the pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The product as well as their structure, the mechanism and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc., are directed at identifying the cause and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  16. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof, are directed at identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  17. Pyrite surface characterization and control for advanced fine coal desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang-Huai; Leonard, J.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Raichur, A.M.; Jiang, Chengliang.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct extensive studies on the surface reactivity of pyrite by using electrochemical, surface analysis, potentiometric and calorimetric titration, and surface hydrophobicity characterization techniques and to correlate the alteration of the coal-pyrite surface with the efficiency of pyrite rejection in coal flotation. The products as well as their structure, the mechanisms and the kinetics of the oxidation of coal-pyrite surfaces and their interaction with various chemical reagents will be systematically studied and compared with that of mineral-pyrite and synthetic pyrite to determine the correlation between the surface reactivity of pyrite and the bulk chemical properties of pyrite and impurities. The surface chemical studies and the studies of floatability of coal-pyrite and the effect of various parameters such as grinding media and environment, aging under different atmospheres, etc. on thereof will lead to identifying the causes and possible solutions of the pyrite rejection problems in coal cleaning.

  18. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  19. Advanced pulverized coal combustor for control of NO/sub x/ emissions. First quarterly report, September 24-December 24, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pam, R.; Chu, E. K.; Kelly, J. T.

    1981-01-30

    The first quarter results under the Advanced Pulverized Coal Combustor for Control of NO/sub x/ Emissions Program (DOE Contract DE-AC22-80PC30296) are reported. A preliminary gas phase reaction model for predicting fuel NO/sub x/ formation during combustion of methane fuel has been constructed. Predictions of NO/sub x/ formation under stirred reactor conditions agree with existing experimental data. Thermal NO/sub x/ and coal reaction data will be developed and verified during the next reporting period. Progress has been made in formulating the changes necessary to upgrade the Acurex PROF code for use as the comprehensive data analysis tool in this program. The radiation modeling and the incorporation of the needed modifications into the PROF code will occur during the next reporting period. The idealized combustor was designed, and requests for bids to fabricate the combustor were submitted. Combustor fabrication will be completed during the next reporting period.

  20. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conducts the underground mining activities. (b) Each exploration hole, other drill hole or borehole, shaft... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to underground workings, or to be used to monitor ground water conditions, shall be temporarily sealed until actual use....

  1. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conducts the underground mining activities. (b) Each exploration hole, other drill hole or borehole, shaft... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to underground workings, or to be used to monitor ground water conditions, shall be temporarily sealed until actual use....

  2. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conducts the underground mining activities. (b) Each exploration hole, other drill hole or borehole, shaft... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to underground workings, or to be used to monitor ground water conditions, shall be temporarily sealed until actual use....

  3. 30 CFR 817.14 - Casing and sealing of underground openings: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conducts the underground mining activities. (b) Each exploration hole, other drill hole or borehole, shaft... application for use to return underground development waste, coal processing waste or water to underground workings, or to be used to monitor ground water conditions, shall be temporarily sealed until actual use....

  4. 30 CFR 75.1903 - Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and areas; construction and safety precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... storage; and (4) Maintained to prevent the accumulation of water. (c) Welding or cutting other than that... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1903 Underground diesel fuel storage facilities and...

  5. 43 CFR 3592.2 - Maps of underground workings and surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maps of underground workings and surface... THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Plans and Maps § 3592.2 Maps of underground workings and surface operations. Maps of underground workings and surface operations shall be drawn to a...

  6. 43 CFR 3592.2 - Maps of underground workings and surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maps of underground workings and surface... THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Plans and Maps § 3592.2 Maps of underground workings and surface operations. Maps of underground workings and surface operations shall be drawn to a...

  7. 43 CFR 3592.2 - Maps of underground workings and surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maps of underground workings and surface... THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Plans and Maps § 3592.2 Maps of underground workings and surface operations. Maps of underground workings and surface operations shall be drawn to a...

  8. 43 CFR 3592.2 - Maps of underground workings and surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maps of underground workings and surface... THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Plans and Maps § 3592.2 Maps of underground workings and surface operations. Maps of underground workings and surface operations shall be drawn to a...

  9. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., rectifiers, and water pumps shall be housed in noncombustible structures or areas or be equipped with a fire... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340...

  10. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., rectifiers, and water pumps shall be housed in noncombustible structures or areas or be equipped with a fire... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340...

  11. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., rectifiers, and water pumps shall be housed in noncombustible structures or areas or be equipped with a fire... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340...

  12. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., rectifiers, and water pumps shall be housed in noncombustible structures or areas or be equipped with a fire... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340...

  13. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., rectifiers, and water pumps shall be housed in noncombustible structures or areas or be equipped with a fire... Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.340...

  14. Production of High Energy Aviation Fuels from Advanced Coal Liquids. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    flushing. In addition, there are two common commercial dewaxing catalysts, one licensed by British Petroleum which selectively breaks the long chains...coal liquids used in this program were pruduced from the Close Coupled Integrated Two Stage Liquifactior System (ISTL) plant at Wilsonville Alabama...effort would address two issues; first, it would assess aspects of a domestic resource, coal liquids, that have heretofore been considered to be of

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  16. Hydrologic conditions and water-quality conditions following underground coal mining in the North Fork of the Right Fork of Miller Creek drainage basin, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, 2004-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkowske, C.D.; Cillessen, J.L.; Brinton, P.N.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, reassessed the hydrologic system in and around the drainage basin of the North Fork of the Right Fork (NFRF) of Miller Creek, in Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah. The reassessment occurred 13 years after cessation of underground coal mining that was performed beneath private land at shallow depths (30 to 880 feet) beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study is a follow-up to a previous USGS study of the effects of underground coal mining on the hydrologic system in the area from 1988 to 1992. The previous study concluded that mining related subsidence had impacted the hydrologic system through the loss of streamflow over reaches of the perennial portion of the stream, and through a significant increase in dissolved solids in the stream. The previous study also reported that no substantial differences in spring-water quality resulted from longwall mining, and that no clear relationship between mining subsidence and spring discharge existed.During the summers of 2004 and 2005, the USGS measured discharge and collected water-quality samples from springs and surface water at various locations in the NFRF of Miller Creek drainage basin, and maintained a streamflow-gaging station in the NFRF of Miller Creek. This study also utilized data collected by Cyprus–Plateau Mining Corporation from 1992 through 2001.Of thirteen monitored springs, five have discharge levels that have not returned to those observed prior to August 1988, which is when longwall coal mining began beneath the NFRF of Miller Creek. Discharge at two of these five springs appears to fluctuate with wet and dry cycles and is currently low due to a drought that occurred from 1999–2004. Discharge at two other of the five springs did not increase with increased precipitation during the mid-1990s, as was observed at other monitored springs. This suggests that flowpaths to these springs may have been altered by

  17. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  18. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. [Quarterly] report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1992-12-31

    The paper submitted earlier on the use of (bicyclo[3.2.1]4pyrrolidino-N-methyl-octan-8-one triflate) ({sup 13}CO-123) as a {sup 13}C intensity standard was accepted for publication. Subsequently, {sup 13}CO-321 was used in this manner for quantitative {sup 13}C CP-MAS NMR analysis (including spin counting) of Argonne Premium coals. The cross-polarization time constants, T{sub CH}, and the rotating-frame proton spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1p}{sup H}, were determined for each major peak of each coal via a combination of variable contact-time and variable spin-lock (T{sub 1p}{sup H}) experiments. Two or three components of rotating-frame {sup 1}H relaxation decay and two or three components of T{sub CH} behavior were observed for each major {sup 13}C peak of each coal. These data were used to determine the number of carbon atoms detected in each coal; these values are in the range between 77% and 87% of the amount of carbon known to be in each coal from elemental analysis data, except for Pocahontas No. 3, for which only 50% of the carbon was detected. In an attempt to use {sup 1}H CRAMPS to elucidate chemical functionality in coal, pyridine-saturated samples of the Argonne Premium coals were examined in detail in terms of their {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR spectra. These spectra were deconvoluted to yield relative concentrations for individual peaks.

  19. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The program is being conducted by a team consisting of AlliedSignal Aerospace Systems & Equipment (ASE) (formerly AiResearch Los Angeles Division) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objective of the program is to advance materials and fabrication methodologies to develop a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) system capable of meeting performance, life, and cost goals for coal-based power generation. The program focuses on materials research and development, fabrication process development, cell/stack performance testing and characterization, cost and system analysis, and quality development.

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 16, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Moro, N.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-10-30

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. 28 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.