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Sample records for advanced upper limb

  1. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  2. Advances in upper limb stroke rehabilitation: a technology push.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Rui C V; Harwin, William S; Nagai, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Strokes affect thousands of people worldwide leaving sufferers with severe disabilities affecting their daily activities. In recent years, new rehabilitation techniques have emerged such as constraint-induced therapy, biofeedback therapy and robot-aided therapy. In particular, robotic techniques allow precise recording of movements and application of forces to the affected limb, making it a valuable tool for motor rehabilitation. In addition, robot-aided therapy can utilise visual cues conveyed on a computer screen to convert repetitive movement practice into an engaging task such as a game. Visual cues can also be used to control the information sent to the patient about exercise performance and to potentially address psychosomatic variables influencing therapy. This paper overviews the current state-of-the-art on upper limb robot-mediated therapy with a focal point on the technical requirements of robotic therapy devices leading to the development of upper limb rehabilitation techniques that facilitate reach-to-touch, fine motor control, whole-arm movements and promote rehabilitation beyond hospital stay. The reviewed literature suggest that while there is evidence supporting the use of this technology to reduce functional impairment, besides the technological push, the challenge ahead lies on provision of effective assessment of outcome and modalities that have a stronger impact transferring functional gains into functional independence.

  3. Cognitive predictors of skilled performance with an advanced upper limb multifunction prosthesis: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Laura; Correia, Stephen; Ahern, David; Barredo, Jennifer; Resnik, Linda

    2016-04-06

    Purpose The objectives were to 1) identify major cognitive domains involved in learning to use the DEKA Arm; 2) specify cognitive domain-specific skills associated with basic versus advanced users; and 3) examine whether baseline memory and executive function predicted learning. Method Sample included 35 persons with upper limb amputation. Subjects were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery prior to start of DEKA Arm training, as well as physical performance measures at the onset of, and following training. Multiple regression models controlling for age and including neuropsychological tests were developed to predict physical performance scores. Prosthetic performance scores were divided into quartiles and independent samples t-tests compared neuropsychological test scores of advanced scorers and basic scorers. Baseline neuropsychological test scores were used to predict change in scores on physical performance measures across time. Results Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were statistically significantly related to proficiency of DEKA Arm use and predicted level of proficiency. Conclusions Results support use of neuropsychological tests to predict learning and use of a multifunctional prosthesis. Assessment of cognitive status at the outset of training may help set expectations for the duration and outcomes of treatment. Implications for Rehabilitation Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were significantly related to level of proficiencyof an advanced multifunctional prosthesis (the DEKA Arm) after training. Results provide initial support for the use of neuropsychological tests to predict advanced learningand use of a multifunctional prosthesis in upper-limb amputees. Results suggest that assessment of patients' cognitive status at the outset of upper limb prosthetictraining may, in the future, help patients, their families and therapists set expectations for theduration and intensity of training and may help set

  4. Simulation of Upper Limb Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherčík, Filip; Hučko, Branislav

    2011-12-01

    The paper deals with controlling an upper limb prosthesis based on the measurement of myoelectric signals (MES) while drinking. MES signals have been measured on healthy limbs to obtain the same response for the prosthesis. To simulate the drinking motion of a healthy upper limb, the program ADAMS was used, with all degrees of freedom and a hand after trans-radial amputation with an existing hand prosthesis. Modification of the simulation has the exact same logic of control, where the muscle does not have to be strenuous all the time, but it is the impulse of the muscle which drives the motor even though the impulse disappears and passed away.

  5. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  6. Peripheral muscle dysfunction in COPD: lower limbs versus upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Eduardo Foschini; Malaguti, Carla; Corso, Simone Dal

    2011-01-01

    In patients with COPD, the degree of functional impairment appears to differ between the upper and lower limbs. Significant dyspnea and fatigue have been reported by these patients when performing tasks with unsupported upper limbs and two mechanisms have been proposed to explain this fact: neuromechanical dysfunction of respiratory muscles; and changes in lung volume during such activities. The neuromechanical dysfunction seen in COPD patients during this type of exercise is related to changes in the breathing pattern, as well as to the simultaneity of afferent and efferent muscle stimuli, resulting in respiratory muscle asynchrony. In addition, the increased ventilation during upper limb exercise in patients with COPD leads to dynamic hyperinflation at different workloads. During lower limb exercises, the strength and endurance of the quadriceps muscle is lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects. This could by explained by abnormal muscle metabolism (decreased aerobic capacity), dependence on glycolytic metabolism, and rapid accumulation of lactate during exercise. In comparison with lower limb exercises, upper limb exercises result in higher metabolic and ventilatory demands, as well as in a more intense sensation of dyspnea and greater fatigue. Because there are differences between the upper and lower limb muscles in terms of the morphological and functional adaptations in COPD patients, specific protocols for strength training and endurance should be developed and tested for the corresponding muscle groups.

  7. Mangling upper limb injuries in industry.

    PubMed

    Ring, D; Jupiter, J B

    1999-01-01

    The salvage of upper limbs mangled by industrial machinery became possible with the development of predictable techniques of vascular and microvascular anastamosis. Unfortunately, many of these salvaged limbs are associated with fair and poor functional outcomes. The quality of the skeletal fixation can have a substantial effect on the functional outcome and should be a major focus of the limb repair process. Internal plate fixation facilitates wound care and limb mobilization without tethering muscle-tendon units and is safe in the majority of severe upper limb injuries provided that all devitalized tissue is debrided and, if necessary, reconstructed using microvascular tissue transfers. Injury patterns, especially those which involve associated injury of the elbow or forearm ligaments, must be identified and treated appropriately. Internal fixation should restore anatomical alignment and provide sufficient stability to allow immediate active mobilization of the limb without contributing to devascularization of the soft tissues or skeleton.

  8. CONGENITAL DEFORMITIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS.

    PubMed Central

    Bisneto, Edgard Novaes França

    2015-01-01

    This article, divided into three parts, had the aims of reviewing the most common upper-limb malformations and describing their treatments. In this first part, failure of formation is discussed. The bibliography follows after the first part. PMID:27047864

  9. Neck muscle fatigue alters upper limb proprioception.

    PubMed

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Limb proprioception is an awareness by the central nervous system (CNS) of the location of a limb in three-dimensional space and is essential for movement and postural control. The CNS uses the position of the head and neck when interpreting the position of the upper limb, and altered input from neck muscles may affect the sensory inputs to the CNS and consequently may impair the awareness of upper limb joint position. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fatigue of the cervical extensors muscles (CEM) using a submaximal fatigue protocol alters the ability to recreate a previously presented elbow angle with the head in a neutral position. Twelve healthy individuals participated. CEM activity was examined bilaterally using surface electromyography, and kinematics of the elbow joint was measured. The fatigue protocol included an isometric neck extension task at 70 % of maximum until failure. Joint position error increased following fatigue, demonstrating a significant main effect of time (F 2, 18 = 19.41, p ≤ 0.0001) for absolute error. No significant differences were found for variable error (F 2, 18 = 0.27, p = 0.76) or constant error (F 2, 18 = 1.16 of time, p ≤ 0.33). This study confirms that fatigue of the CEM can reduce the accuracy of elbow joint position matching. This suggests that altered afferent input from the neck subsequent to fatigue may impair upper limb proprioception.

  10. [Risk assessment in upper limb overload].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, R; Casilli, A; Fanelli, C; Pizzuti, S; Tarquini, M; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important factors of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (WMSDs) is the biomechanical overload. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility to predict the upper limb repetitive stress, according to risk assessment procedures. In order to this aim, we gathered clinical-anamnestic data and risk assessment considerations of a cohort of workers in a car industry.

  11. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  12. Effect of Upper Limb Deformities on Gross Motor and Upper Limb Functions in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun Sook; Sim, Eun Geol; Rha, Dong-wook

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the nature and extent of upper limb deformities via the use of various classifications, and to analyze the relationship between upper limb deformities and gross motor or upper limb functionality levels. Upper extremity data were collected from 234 children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) who were…

  13. Isolated primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.

  14. The upper limb of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Feuerriegel, Elen M; Green, David J; Walker, Christopher S; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R; Churchill, Steven E

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary transition from an ape-like to human-like upper extremity occurred in the context of a behavioral shift from an upper limb predominantly involved in locomotion to one adapted for manipulation. Selection for overarm throwing and endurance running is thought to have further shaped modern human shoulder girdle morphology and its position about the thorax. Homo naledi (Dinaledi Chamber, Rising Star Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa) combines an australopith-like cranial capacity with dental characteristics akin to early Homo. Although the hand, foot, and lower limb display many derived morphologies, the upper limb retains many primitive traits. Here, we describe the H. naledi upper extremity (excluding the hand) in detail and in a comparative context to evaluate the diversity of clavicular, scapular, humeral, radial, and ulnar morphology among early hominins and later Homo. Homo naledi had a scapula with a markedly cranially-oriented glenoid, a humerus with extremely low torsion, and an australopith-like clavicle. These traits indicate that the H. naledi scapula was situated superiorly and laterally on the thorax. This shoulder girdle configuration is more similar to that of Australopithecus and distinct from that of modern humans, whose scapulae are positioned low and dorsally about the thorax. Although early Homo erectus maintains many primitive clavicular and humeral features, its derived scapular morphology suggests a loss of climbing adaptations. In contrast, the H. naledi upper limb is markedly primitive, retaining morphology conducive to climbing while lacking many of the derived features related to effective throwing or running purported to characterize other members of early Homo.

  15. SPORTS INJURIES OF THE UPPER LIMBS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rogerio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Sports injuries of the upper limbs are very common in physical activities and therefore, they need to be studied in detail, taking into consideration specific aspects of the types of sports practiced. Special attention should be paid to the dynamics of the shoulder girdle and the entire scapular belt, since the most appropriate treatment for athletes can only be provided in this manner. This can also help to prevent recurrences, which can occur in some cases because athletes always seek to return to their pre-injury level of sports activity. This article will focus primarily on the management of upper-limb tendon injuries, from the physiopathology through to the new methods of injury treatment that are more prevalent in sports practice in Brazil. PMID:27022529

  16. Rehabilitation protocol in upper limb lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Leduc, O; Leduc, A

    2002-01-01

    Edema of the upper limb is, frequently, very invalidating. The physical treatment for edema of the upper limb consists on a combination of different therapies: manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), intermittent sequential pressotherapy (IPP) with a very low intensity, multilayer bandages (MLB), and compression sleeves. Patients are not hospitalized. In the first step of physical treatment, the patients are treated daily during 2 or 3 weeks with different therapies (MLD, IPP and MLB). During the second step, bandages are no more used. The compression garments are applied after this 2 or 3 weeks period. The physical treatment consist now in: manual lynphatic drainage and intermittent sequential pressotherapy (with low intensity). The frequency of the physical treatment is progressively decreased.

  17. The upper limb of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Holliday, Trenton W; Carlson, Kristian J; Jashashvili, Tea; Macias, Marisa E; Mathews, Sandra; Sparling, Tawnee L; Schmid, Peter; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    The evolution of the human upper limb involved a change in function from its use for both locomotion and prehension (as in apes) to a predominantly prehensile and manipulative role. Well-preserved forelimb remains of 1.98-million-year-old Australopithecus sediba from Malapa, South Africa, contribute to our understanding of this evolutionary transition. Whereas other aspects of their postcranial anatomy evince mosaic combinations of primitive (australopith-like) and derived (Homo-like) features, the upper limbs (excluding the hand and wrist) of the Malapa hominins are predominantly primitive and suggest the retention of substantial climbing and suspensory ability. The use of the forelimb primarily for prehension and manipulation appears to arise later, likely with the emergence of Homo erectus.

  18. Proximal monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Amir, D; Magora, A; Vatine, J J

    1987-07-01

    A 30-year-old patient of Central European origin, suffering from monomelic amyotrophy, is presented. The disease was characterized by proximal weakness of one upper limb, mainly of the shoulder girdle, accompanied by atrophy. The electrodiagnostic examination revealed signs of partial denervation in the presence of normal motor and sensory conduction. The disease, which is probably of the anterior horn cells, had a benign course and good prognosis, as evident from repeated examinations during a follow-up of eight years.

  19. The organization of upper limb physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Benoit; Daneault, Jean-François; Duval, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to assess the relationship between tremor displacement of different segments of the upper limb, (2) to assess whether an attempt to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude affects this relationship. Twenty-five young healthy participants were tested. Tremor of the finger, hand, arm and shoulder was assessed using laser displacement sensors while the upper limb was in a postural position. Results show strong correlations (r > 0.90), high coherence (>0.9) and in-phase movement between tremor displacement oscillations of different segments. The majority of finger tremor amplitude can be predicted by angular movement generated at the shoulder joint (r(2) > 0.86). Participants were able to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude, but no change in the relationship between segments was observed. Tremor of all segments of the upper limb was mechanically driven by the angular movement generated at the shoulder joint. This study provides evidence that there is no compensatory organization of physiological tremor. This lays the groundwork to evaluate whether pathological tremors also lack this organization.

  20. Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A.

    2011-01-01

    Entrampment neuropathy or compression neuropathy is a fairly common problem in the upper limb. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the commonest, followed by Cubital tunnel compression or Ulnar Neuropathy at Elbow. There are rarer entities like supinator syndrome and pronator syndrome affecting the Radial and Median nerves respectively. This article seeks to review comprehensively the pathophysiology, Anatomy and treatment of these conditions in a way that is intended for the practicing Hand Surgeon as well as postgraduates in training. It is generally a rewarding exercise to treat these conditions because they generally do well after corrective surgery. Diagnostic guidelines, treatment protocols and surgical technique has been discussed. PMID:22022039

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  2. Chronic Pain Associated with Upper-Limb Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Marisol A.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Jensen, Mark; Czerniecki, Joseph; Smith, Douglas G.; Robinson, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence, intensity, and functional impact of the following types of pain associated with upper-limb loss: phantom limb, residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain. Design Cross-sectional survey; 104 respondents with upper-limb loss at least 6 months postamputation completed measures of pain intensity, interference, disability, and health-related quality-of-life. Results Nearly all (90%) of the respondents reported pain, with 76% reporting more than one pain type. Phantom-limb pain and residual-limb pain were the most prevalent (79% and 71%, respectively), followed by back (52%), neck (43%), and nonamputated-limb pain (33%). Although nonamputated-limb pain was least prevalent, it was reported to cause the highest levels of interference and pain-related disability days. Self-reported quality-of-life was significantly lower for individuals with each type of pain compared with those without any pain. Age, time since amputation, and cause of amputation were not associated with pain. Conclusions In addition to pain in the phantom and residual limb, back, neck, and nonamputated-limb pain are also common after upper-limb loss. All of these pain types are associated with significant disability and activity interference for some individuals, suggesting that assessment of multiple pain types in persons with upper-limb amputation may be important. PMID:19692791

  3. Primary Upper Limb Lymphedema: Case Report of a Rare Pathology

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Michael EC

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is characterized by a defect in the lymphatic system that causes limb swelling. Impaired uptake and transport of lymphatic fluid through lymphatic vessels causes accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial spaces, which leads to swelling of the limb. Primary lymphedema often presents at birth. The rare cases that arise after age 35 years are described as lymphedema tarda. The great majority of patients with lymphedema have swelling of the lower limbs—upper limb lymphedema is a rare disorder. Case Presentation An 84-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of unilateral swelling of the right upper limb. There were no constitutional symptoms and no evidence of lymphadenopathy or systemic disease. Blood tests, carcinoembryonic antigen test, computed tomography scans, and venous Doppler ultrasound were all normal. The diagnosis was primary upper limb lymphedema. Discussion The swelling that occurs in upper limb lymphedema is permanent and usually extends to the hand. About one-third of patients with this condition also present with lower limb lymphedema. Thorough investigations are warranted in cases of unilateral upper limb lymphedema to rule out occult malignancy and systemic disease. PMID:28080951

  4. Benign monomelic amyotrophy with proximal upper limb involvement: case report.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco Antonio Orsini; Freitas, Marcos R G de; Mello, Mariana Pimentel de; Dumard, Carlos Henrique; Freitas, Gabriel R de; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M

    2007-06-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MA) is a rare condition in which neurogenic amyotrophy is restricted to an upper or lower limb. Usually sporadic, it usually has an insidious onset with a mean evolution of 2 to 4 years following first clinical manifestations, which is, in turned, followed by stabilization. We report a case of 20-years-old man who presented slowly progressive amyotrophy associated with proximal paresis of the right upper limb, which was followed by clinical stabilization 4 years later. Eletroneuromyography revealed denervation along with myofasciculations in various muscle groups of the right upper limb. We call attention to this rare location of MA, as well as describe some theories concerning its pathophysiology .

  5. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb.

    PubMed

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi

    2016-09-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.

  6. The Floating Upper Limb: Multiple Injuries Involving Ipsilateral, Proximal, Humeral, Supracondylar, and Distal Radial Limb

    PubMed Central

    Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A.

    2016-01-01

    Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121

  7. [Tests of hand functionality in upper limb amputation with prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G; Orlandini, D; Moscato, T A; Nicita, D; Panigazzi, M

    2007-01-01

    The need for standardized instruments for clinical measurements has become pressing in the fields of occupational rehabilitation and ergonomics. This is particularly the case for instruments that allow a quantitative evaluation of upper limb function, and especially hand function in patients who have undergone an amputation and then application of an upper limb prosthesis. This study presents a review of the main tests used to evaluate hand function, with a critical analysis of their use in subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. The tests are divided into: tests to evaluate strength, tests to evaluate co-ordination and dexterity, tests of global or overall function, and tests proposed specifically for subjects with an upper limb prosthesis. Of the various tests presented, the authors give their preference to the Bimanual Functional Assessment, Abilhand and/or the ADL Questionnaire, because of the practical usefulness, clinimetric features, simplicity and ease of administration of these tests.

  8. Development of an Upper Limb Motorized Assistive-Rehabilitative Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Masoud; Casolo, Federico

    While the number of people requiring help for the activities of daily living are increasing, several studies have been shown the effectiveness of robot training for upper limb functionality recovery. The robotic system described in this paper is an active end-effector based robot which can be used for assisting and rehabilitating of human upper limb. The robot is able to take into account desire of the patient for the support that patient needs to complete the task.

  9. Intra-arterial Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Upper-extremity Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Madaric, Juraj; Klepanec, Andrej; Mistrik, Martin; Altaner, Cestmir; Vulev, Ivan

    2013-04-15

    Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Deirdre M; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2010-09-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence of phantom limb pain during the week preceding assessment was 42.6% (60 of 141). Prevalence of residual limb pain was 43.3% (61 of 141). More than one third of these had some pain constantly or most days. Phantom limb pain was commonly described as 'discomforting' (31 of 60) and associated with 'a little bit' of lifestyle interference (23 of 60). Residual limb pain was most often described as 'discomforting' (27 of 61) or 'distressing' (19 of 61) and was typically associated with low to moderate levels of lifestyle interference. Assessment of multiple dimensions of postamputation pain in the long term after upper limb amputation is warranted.

  11. Upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier-Daire, V.; Iserin, L.; Sidi, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on upper limb anomalies in two children with a complete DiGeorge sequence: conotruncal defects, hypocalcemia, thymic aplasia, and facial anomalies. One child had preaxial polydactyly, and the other had club hands with hypoplastic first metacarpal. In both patients, molecular analysis documented a 22q11 deletion. To our knowledge, limb anomalies have rarely been reported in DiGeorge syndrome, and they illustrate the variable clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Proposal of bioinstrumentation using flex sensor for amputated upper limb.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiko; Tanaka, Yuya; Mito, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Katane, Daisuke; Torishima, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Hara, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    We previously proposed a new bioinstrumentation using the shape deformation of the amputated upper limbs without using the myoelectricity generated on the skin of the upper limbs. However many electronic parts were required owing to a bridge circuit and multi-amplifier circuits so as to amplify a tiny voltage of strain gages. Moreover, the surplus heat might occur by the overcurrent owing to low resistance value of strain gages. Therefore, in this study, we apply a flex sensor to this system instead of strain gages to solve the above problems.

  13. Ethical considerations in providing an upper limb exoskeleton device for stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Bulboacă, Adriana E; Bolboacă, Sorana D; Bulboacă, Angelo C

    2017-04-01

    The health care system needs to face new and advanced medical technologies that can improve the patients' quality of life by replacing lost or decreased functions. In stroke patients, the disabilities that follow cerebral lesions may impair the mandatory daily activities of an independent life. These activities are dependent mostly on the patient's upper limb function so that they can carry out most of the common activities associated with a normal life. Therefore, an upper limb exoskeleton device for stroke patients can contribute a real improvement of quality of their life. The ethical problems that need to be considered are linked to the correct adjustment of the upper limb skills in order to satisfy the patient's expectations, but within physiological limits. The debate regarding the medical devices dedicated to neurorehabilitation is focused on their ability to be beneficial to the patient's life, keeping away damages, injustice, and risks.

  14. A short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macovei, S.; Doroftei, I.

    2016-08-01

    As some studies show, the number of people over 65 years old increases constantly, leading to the need of solution to provide services regarding patient mobility. Diseases, accidents and neurologic problems affect hundreds of people every day, causing pain and lost of motor functions. The ability of using the upper limb is indispensable for a human being in everyday activities, making easy tasks like drinking a glass of water a real challenge. We can agree that physiotherapy promotes recovery, but not at an optimal level, due to limited financial and human resources. Hence, the need of robot-assisted rehabilitation emerges. A robot for upper-limb exercises should have a design that can accurately control interaction forces and progressively adapt assistance to the patients’ abilities and also to record the patient's motion and evolution. In this paper a short overview of upper limb rehabilitation devices is presented. Our goal is to find the shortcomings of the current developed devices in terms of utility, ease of use and costs, for future development of a mechatronic system for upper limb rehabilitation.

  15. Technology that Touches Lives: Teleconsultation to Benefit Persons with Upper Limb Loss.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Lynsay R; Wagner, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    While over 1.5 million individuals are living with limb loss in the United States (Ziegler-Graham et al., 2008), only 10% of these individuals have a loss that affects an upper limb. Coincident with the relatively low incidence of upper limb loss, is a shortage of the community-based prosthetic rehabilitation experts that can help prosthetic users to more fully integrate their devices into their daily routines. This article describes how expert prosthetists and occupational therapists at Touch Bionics, a manufacturer of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices, employ Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software telehealth technologies to engage in remote consultation with users of prosthetic devices and/or their local practitioners. The Touch Bionics staff provide follow-up expertise to local prosthetists, occupational therapists, and other health professionals. Contrasted with prior telephone-based consultations, the video-enabled approach provides enhanced capabilities to benefit persons with upper limb loss. Currently, the opportunities for Touch Bionics occupational therapists to fully engage in patient-based services delivered through telehealth technologies are significantly reduced by their need to obtain and maintain professional licenses in multiple states.

  16. Advances in lower-limb prosthetic technology.

    PubMed

    Laferrier, Justin Z; Gailey, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The boundaries once faced by individuals with amputations are quickly being overcome through biotechnology. Although there are currently no prosthetics capable of replicating anatomic function, there have been radical advancements in prosthetic technology, medical science, and rehabilitation in the past 30 years, vastly improving functional mobility and quality of life for individuals with lower-limb amputations. What once seemed impossible is rapidly becoming reality. The future seems limitless, and the replication of anatomic function now seems possible.

  17. Upper Limb Multifactorial Movement Analysis in Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahm, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Multifactorial motion analysis was first established for gait and then developed in the upper extremity. Recordings of infrared light reflecting sensitive passive markers in space, combined with surface eletromyographic recordings and/or transmitted forces, allow eclectic study of muscular coordination in the upper limb. Brachial plexus birth injury is responsible for various patterns of muscle weakness, imbalance, and/or simultaneous activation, soft tissue contractures, and bone-joint deformities, leading to individual motion patterns and adaptations, which we studied by means of motion analysis tools. We describe the technical development and examination setup to evaluate motion impairment and present first clinical results. Motion analysis is a reliable objective assessment tool allowing precise pre- and postoperative multimodal evaluation of upper limb function. Level of evidence: II. PMID:28077954

  18. Recent advances in limb lengthening. Part I: Clinical advances.

    PubMed

    Sproul, J T; Price, C T

    1992-03-01

    The discipline of limb lengthening has undergone numerous advances in recent years. An increased understanding of the biology of distraction osteogenesis, as well as technical advances, has made lengthening more feasible. However, significant problems remain unsolved, and complications--although less severe and long standing--still remain. Little is known about the effect of distraction on soft tissues. Lengthening in skeletally mature patients remains difficult. The myriad of conditions that require lengthening often confounds comparison of techniques. Uniform indications for limb lengthening may never exist, but increasing experience helps guide patient selection.

  19. Study of the different types of actuators and mechanisms for upper limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Cura, Vanderlei O Del; Cunha, Fransérgio L; Aguiar, Manoel L; Cliquet, Alberto

    2003-06-01

    Research in the area of actuators and mechanisms has shown steadily growing technological advances in externally activated upper limb prostheses. From among the actuators, advances include the use of piezoelectric materials, special metal alloys, polymers, and new motor applications, while the advances in mechanisms include mechanical designs based on the anatomy of the human hand and improvements in the way these components are combined. These efforts are aimed at meeting the need for anthropomorphic and functional prosthetic devices that enable patients to carry out basic daily tasks more easily and reduce the rejection rate of prostheses. This article technically discusses the several types of actuators and mechanisms, listing their main characteristics, applications, and advantages and disadvantages, and the current state of research in the area of rehabilitation of upper limb functions through the use of active prostheses. Comparisons of these devices are made with regard to the main criteria of construction and operation required to achieve optimal prosthetic performance.

  20. Successful salvage of the upper limb after crush injury requiring nine operations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-03-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as "excellent" (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was "good" (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V.

  1. Successful Salvage of the Upper Limb After Crush Injury Requiring Nine Operations: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qingmin; Cai, Guoping; Liu, Dechang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Xinchao

    2015-01-01

    Emergency treatment of amputation is one of the most frequently used therapeutic methods for patients with severe upper limb crush injury with a mangled extremity severity score (MESS) of more than 7. With the development of advanced surgical repair techniques and reconstructive technology, cases that once required amputation can now be salvaged with appropriate management, and some limb functions may also be reserved. A patient with a severe upper limb crush injury with a MESS score of 10 was treated in our hospital. The limb was salvaged after 9 surgeries over 10 months. The follow-up visits over the next 18 months post-injury showed that the shoulder joint functions were rated as “excellent” (90) according to the Neer score, the Harris hip evaluation (HHS) for elbow joint functions was “good” (80), and the patient was very satisfied with the overall therapeutic outcome. We conclude from the successful outcome of this extreme injury that salvage attempts should be the first management choice for upper limbs with complex injuries to save as much function as possible. Amputation should only be adopted when the injury is life-threatening or no more function can be saved. The level of evidence was V. PMID:25785341

  2. Necrotising fasciitis of upper and lower limb: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angoules, A G; Kontakis, G; Drakoulakis, E; Vrentzos, G; Granick, M S; Giannoudis, P V

    2007-12-01

    Necrotising fasciitis is a rapidly progressive, life threatening soft tissue infection. In a significant proportion of patients, the extremities are involved as a result of trauma, needle puncture or extravasation of drugs, often leading to limb loss and devastating disability. In this systematic review of necrotising fasciitis of the upper and lower extremities, we report on the clinical characteristics, the predisposing factors, the associated diseases, the pathogenic bacteria, the surgical treatment and the final outcome in terms of limb loss and mortality. Data for a total of 451 patients were analysed for each parameter of interest. A percentage of 22.3% of the reviewed patients underwent amputation or disarticulation of a limb following failure of multiple debridements to control infection and the mortality rate was estimated as high as 21.9%.

  3. Motor Impairment Evaluation for Upper Limb in Stroke Patients on the Basis of a Microsensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shuai; Luo, Chun; Ye, Shiwei; Liu, Fei; Xie, Bin; Wang, Caifeng; Yang, Li; Huang, Zhen; Wu, Jiankang

    2012-01-01

    There has been an urgent need for an effective and efficient upper limb rehabilitation method for poststroke patients. We present a Micro-Sensor-based Upper Limb rehabilitation System for poststroke patients. The wearable motion capture units are attached to upper limb segments embedded in the fabric of garments. The body segment orientation…

  4. IncobotulinumtoxinA: A Review in Upper Limb Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Scott, Lesley J

    2016-09-01

    Intramuscular incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin(®)) is indicated for the treatment or improvement of adult patients with upper limb spasticity (featured indication), cervical dystonia, blepharospasm and glabellar lines. It is a highly purified formulation of botulinum toxin type A that inhibits acetylcholine signalling at neuromuscular junctions, reducing muscle hypertonia. This narrative review discusses the clinical use of incobotulinumtoxinA in adults with upper limb spasticity and summarizes its pharmacological properties. In single-treatment phase 3 trials, compared with placebo, incobotulinumtoxinA treatment improved muscle tone, global spasticity, functional spasticity-related disability and some aspects of carer burden in adults with upper limb spasticity. These beneficial effects of incobotulinumtoxinA on muscle tone were generally maintained in extension studies, in which up to five additional incobotulinumtoxinA treatments were administered. Functional spasticity-related disability and carer burden were also reduced during longer-term incobotulinumtoxinA treatment. IncobotulinumtoxinA was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with relatively few patients experiencing treatment-related adverse events, most of which were of mild to moderate intensity. No neutralizing antibodies that would potentially cause secondary nonresponse against incobotulinumtoxinA were detected after single and multiple treatments in these trials or in phase 3 and 4 trials of incobotulinumtoxinA in other indications, which may be an advantage of this purified formulation. Further research would help to more fully determine the impact of neurotoxin purification in terms of reducing the potential risk of immunogenic responses during long-term treatment. Hence, incobotulinumtoxinA is a useful treatment option for upper limb spasticity in adult patients.

  5. Bilateral high upper limb replantation in a child.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashok Raj; Cyriac, Asha; Khaleel, V M; Vinodan, K

    2004-05-01

    Bilateral high amputation of upper limbs in a child is a very unusual injury. In the present case, although the amputation was high and significant avulsion was present, the age of the child (6 years) made the case both challenging and encouraging--challenging because of the anticipated systemic effects of reperfusion, and encouraging because the long-term prognosis is always more encouraging in a child.

  6. Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Morouço, Pedro G; Marinho, Daniel A; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Marques, Mário C

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at quantifying upper limb kinetic asymmetries in maximal front crawl swimming and to examine if these asymmetries would affect the contribution of force exertion to swimming performance. Eighteen high level male swimmers with unilateral breathing patterns and sprint or middle distance specialists, volunteered as participants. A load-cell was used to quantify the forces exerted in water by completing a 30s maximal front crawl tethered swimming test and a maximal 50 m free swimming was considered as a performance criterion. Individual force-time curves were obtained to calculate the mean and maximum forces per cycle, for each upper limb. Following, symmetry index was estimated and breathing laterality identified by questionnaire. Lastly, the pattern of asymmetries along the test was estimated for each upper limb using linear regression of peak forces per cycle. Asymmetrical force exertion was observed in the majority of the swimmers (66.7%), with a total correspondence of breathing laterality opposite to the side of the force asymmetry. Forces exerted by the dominant upper limb presented a higher decrease than from the non-dominant. Very strong associations were found between exerted forces and swimming performance, when controlling the isolated effect of symmetry index. Results point that force asymmetries occur in the majority of the swimmers, and that these asymmetries are most evident in the first cycles of a maximum bout. Symmetry index stood up as an influencing factor on the contribution of tethered forces over swimming performance. Thus, to some extent, a certain degree of asymmetry is not critical for short swimming performance.

  7. Upper Limb Immobilisation: A Neural Plasticity Model with Relevance to Poststroke Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Leonardo; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Sterr, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of the neural plasticity that occurs after hemiparetic stroke have contributed to the formulation of theories of poststroke motor recovery. These theories, in turn, have underpinned contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies for treating motor deficits after stroke, such as upper limb hemiparesis. However, a relative drawback has been that, in general, these strategies are most compatible with the recovery profiles of relatively high-functioning stroke survivors and therefore do not easily translate into benefit to those individuals sustaining low-functioning upper limb hemiparesis, who otherwise have poorer residual function. For these individuals, alternative motor rehabilitation strategies are currently needed. In this paper, we will review upper limb immobilisation studies that have been conducted with healthy adult humans and animals. Then, we will discuss how the findings from these studies could inspire the creation of a neural plasticity model that is likely to be of particular relevance to the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. For instance, as will be elaborated, such model could contribute to the development of alternative motor rehabilitation strategies for treating poststroke upper limb hemiparesis. The implications of the findings from those immobilisation studies for contemporary motor rehabilitation strategies will also be discussed and perspectives for future research in this arena will be provided as well. PMID:26843992

  8. Balneotherapy in Treatment of Spastic Upper Limb after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. Materials and methods: A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. Inclusion criteria: ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval <6 months. Exclusion criteria: contraindications for balneotherapy and inability to follow commands. Experimental group (Ex) (n=35) was treated with sulphurous baths (31°-33°C) and controlled group (Co) with taped water baths, during 21 days. All patients were additionally treated with kinesitherapy and cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at p<0.05. Goal: To find out the effects of balneotherapy with sulphurous bath on spasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Results: Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (p<0.05). Pain decreased significantly in Ex-group (p<0.01). Conclusion: Our results show that balneotherapy with sulphurous water reduces spasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients. PMID:25870474

  9. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core group of 29 people. The draft conclusions were recirculated for review. RESULTS: Consensus case definitions were agreed for carpal tunnel syndrome, tenosynovitis of the wrist, de Quervain's disease of the wrist, epicondylitis, shoulder capsulitis (frozen shoulder), and shoulder tendonitis. The consensus group also identified a condition defined as "non-specific diffuse forearm pain" although this is essentially a diagnosis made by exclusion. The group did not have enough experience of the thoracic outlet syndrome to make recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was enough consensus between several health professionals from different disciplines to establish case definitions suitable for use in the studies of several work related upper limb pain syndromes. The use of these criteria should allow comparability between studies and centres and facilitate research in this field. The criteria may also be useful in surveillance programmes and as aids to case management.   PMID:9624281

  10. Upper limb kinematics after cervical spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Sébastien; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Reilly, Karen T; Rossetti, Yves; Collet, Christian; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-30

    Although a number of upper limb kinematic studies have been conducted, no review actually addresses the key-features of open-chain upper limb movements after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this literature review is to provide a clear understanding of motor control and kinematic changes during open-chain upper limb reaching, reach-to-grasp, overhead movements, and fast elbow flexion movements after tetraplegia. Using data from MEDLINE between 1966 and December 2014, we examined temporal and spatial kinematic measures and when available electromyographic recordings. We included fifteen control case and three series case studies with a total of 164 SCI participants and 131 healthy control participants. SCI participants efficiently performed a broad range of tasks with their upper limb and movements were planned and executed with strong kinematic invariants like movement endpoint accuracy and minimal cost. Our review revealed that elbow extension without triceps brachii relies on increased scapulothoracic and glenohumeral movements providing a dynamic coupling between shoulder and elbow. Furthermore, contrary to normal grasping patterns where grasping is prepared during the transport phase, reaching and grasping are performed successively after SCI. The prolonged transport phase ensures correct hand placement while the grasping relies on wrist extension eliciting either whole hand or lateral grip. One of the main kinematic characteristics observed after tetraplegia is motor slowing attested by increased movement time. This could be caused by (i) decreased strength, (ii) triceps brachii paralysis which disrupts normal agonist-antagonist co-contractions, (iii) accuracy preservation at movement endpoint, and/or (iv) grasping relying on tenodesis. Another feature is a reduction of maximal superior reaching during overhead movements which could be caused by i) strength deficit in agonist muscles like pectoralis major, ii) strength deficit in proximal synergic

  11. Characteristics of lower limb muscle activity during upper limb elevation in badminton players

    PubMed Central

    Masu, Yujiro; Nagai, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify the characteristics of postural control in badminton players by examining their lower-limb muscle activity during upper-limb elevation. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen badminton players and 14 non-players were studied. The subjects were instructed to perform an upper-limb elevation task in order to measure the activities of the biceps femoris and biceps brachii. [Results] When elevating the dominant hand, the mean biceps femoris integrated electromyogram showed markedly higher values in the player group, for the contralateral compared with the ipsilateral leg. Similarly, when elevating the dominant hand, the difference in the maximum integrated electromyogram response time between the ipsilateral and contralateral legs was significantly smaller in the players compared with non-players. [Conclusion] It may be possible to reduce the time needed to elevate the dominant hand by shifting lower-limb activity from the ipsilateral to the contralateral leg more quickly, while increasing the rate of rise in contralateral leg muscle activity. PMID:27799681

  12. Reliability of EMG normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Rota, Samuel; Rogowski, Isabelle; Champely, Stéphane; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated different electromyographic (EMG) normalisation methods for upper-limb muscles. This assessment aimed at comparing the EMG amplitude and the reliability of EMG values obtained with each method. Eighteen male tennis players completed isometric maximal voluntary contractions and dynamic strength exercises (push-ups and chin-ups) on three separate test sessions over at least 7 days. Surface EMG activity of nine upper body muscles was recorded. For each muscle, an analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare maximal EMG amplitudes between test conditions. The intra-class correlation coefficient, the coefficient of variation and the standard error of measurement were calculated to determine the EMG reliability of each condition. On the basis of a compromise between maximal EMG amplitude and high reliability, the chin-ups appeared to be the optimal normalisation method for M. latissimus dorsi, M. posterior deltoid, M. biceps brachii, M. flexor carpi radialis and M. extensor carpi radialis. The push-ups seemed relevant to normalise M. anterior deltoid and M. triceps brachii activity, while isometric maximal voluntary contraction remained the most appropriate method for M. pectoralis major and M. middle deltoid. Thus, original methods are proposed to normalise EMG signal of upper-limb muscles.

  13. Exploring Selective Neural Electrical Stimulation for Upper Limb Function Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Tigra, Wafa; Guiraud, David; Andreu, David; Coulet, Bertrand; Gelis, Anthony; Fattal, Charles; Maciejasz, Pawel; Picq, Chloé; Rossel, Olivier; Teissier, Jacques; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach of selective neural electrical stimulation of the upper limb nerves. Median and radial nerves of individuals with tetraplegia are stimulated via a multipolar cuff electrode to elicit movements of wrist and hand in acute conditions during a surgical intervention. Various configurations corresponding to various combinations of a 12-poles cuff electrode contacts are tested. Video recording and electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded via sterile surface electrodes are used to evaluate the selectivity of each stimulation configuration in terms of activated muscles. In this abstract we introduce the protocol and preliminary results will be presented during the conference. PMID:27478571

  14. The microwave limb sounder for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.; Peckham, G. E.; Suttie, R. A.; Curtis, P. D.; Maddison, B. J.; Harwood, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder was designed to map the concentrations of trace gases from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, to improve understanding of the photochemical reactions which take place in this part of the atmosphere. The instrument will measure the intensity of thermal radiation from molecules in the atmosphere at frequencies corresponding to rotational absorption bands of chlorine monoxide, ozone, and water vapor. Molecular concentration profiles will be determined over a height range of 15 to 80 km (20 to 45 km for C10). The 57 deg inclination orbit proposed for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite will allow global coverage.

  15. Work-related posttraumatic upper limb disorder. A case report.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, P; Nigrelli, M P; Malaguti, S; Panigazzi, M; Pierobon, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we describe a patient with mor-sensory loss in the right forearm and hand, which persisted more than 2 years after work-related crush trauma of the left hand. Radiographic and electromyographic investigations, somatosensory evoked potentials, CT scans of the encephalus as well as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Roarschach test have been performed. On the basis of these investigations, we think this represents a case of conversion disorder with somatic features. Included is a brief overview of other psychological illness with physical findings involving the upper limb.

  16. Limb salvage in musculoskeletal oncology: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of musculoskeletal sarcomas has made vast strides in the last few decades. From an era where amputation was the only option to the current day function preserving resections and complex reconstructions has been a major advance. The objectives of extremity reconstruction after oncologic resection include providing skeletal stability where necessary, adequate wound coverage to allow early subsequent adjuvant therapy, optimising the aesthetic outcome and preservation of functional capability with early return to function. This article highlights the concepts of surgical margins in oncology, discusses the principles governing safe surgical resection in these tumors and summarises the current modalities and recent developments relevant to reconstruction after limb salvage. The rationale of choice of a particular resection modality, the unique challenges of reconstruction in skeletally immature individuals and the impact of adjuvant modalities like chemotherapy and radiotherapy on surgical outcomes are also discussed. PMID:25190911

  17. A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The existing shortage of therapists and caregivers assisting physically disabled individuals at home is expected to increase and become serious problem in the near future. The patient population needing physical rehabilitation of the upper extremity is also constantly increasing. Robotic devices have the potential to address this problem as noted by the results of recent research studies. However, the availability of these devices in clinical settings is limited, leaving plenty of room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to document a review of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation including those in developing phase in order to provide a comprehensive reference about existing solutions and facilitate the development of new and improved devices. In particular the following issues are discussed: application field, target group, type of assistance, mechanical design, control strategy and clinical evaluation. This paper also includes a comprehensive, tabulated comparison of technical solutions implemented in various systems. PMID:24401110

  18. The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.; Chavez, M. C.; Cofield, R. E.; Flower, D. A.; Frerking, M. A.; Gram, M. B.; Harris, W. M.; Holden, J. R.; Jarnot, R. F.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    The microwave limb sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is the first satellite experiment using limb sounding techniques at microwave frequencies. Primary measurement objectives are stratospheric ClO, O3, H2O, temperature, and pressure. Measurements are of thermal emission: all are performed simultaneously and continuously and are not degraded by ice clouds or volcanic aerosols. The instrument has a 1.6-m mechanically scanning antenna system and contains heterodyne radiometers in spectral bands centred near 63, 183, and 205 GHz. The radiometers operate at ambient temperature and use Schottky-diode mixers with local oscillators derived from phase-locked Gunn oscillators. Frequency tripling by varactor multipliers generates the 183- and 205-GHz local oscillators, and quasi-optical techniques inject these into the mixers. Six 15-channel filter banks spectrally resolve stratospheric thermal emission lines and produce an output spectrum every 2 s. Thermal stability is sufficient for 'total power' measurements which do not require fast chopping. Radiometric calibration, consisting of measurements of cold space and an internal target, is performed every 65-s limb scan. Instrument in-orbit performance has been excellent, and all objectives are being met.

  19. Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Proença, João Pedro; Quaresma, Cláudia; Vieira, Pedro

    2017-03-30

    The aim of this research is to carry out a systematic review of the use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with neuromotor disorders. Through a systematic review, the first two authors defined the inclusion criteria and extracted the data, resulting in 38 studies collected from B-On, PubMed and Medline. Ninety-two per cent of the selected articles were published since 2010. This review documents 35 different gaming platforms types. Twenty-one of the 38 articles included in this review conducted a clinical trial and of those only eight report improvements in the target population following the use of the games and platforms. This review concludes that a new paradigm is emerging in the rehabilitation field, characterized by the systematic use of technological gaming platforms with serious games in/for rehabilitation. The use of this approach seems to be beneficial. However, to facilitate the full integration of these platforms, it is necessary to conduct more research in this area, explore new approaches and carry out in-depth clinical studies into the benefits of these platforms. Implications for rehabilitation This review states that the use serious games and gaming platforms for upper limb rehabilitation are starting a new paradigm in the rehabilitation. For a full integration of this technologies in the rehabilitation field more studies are needed.

  20. Upper-limb power test in rock-climbing.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, G; Collin, J-M; Levernier, G; Padulo, J

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to validate a new ecological power-test on athletes of different levels and to assess rock climbers' profiles (boulderers vs. route climbers). 34 athletes divided into novice, skilled and elite groups performed the arm-jump board test (AJ). Power, time, velocity, and efficiency index were recorded. Validity was assessed by comparing the distance with the value extracted from the accelerometer (500 Hz) and the reliability of intra- and inter-session scores. Moreover, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the climbers' profiles. The AJ test was quite valid, showing a low systematic bias of -0.88 cm (-1.25%) and low limits of agreement (< 6%), and reliable ( Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98 and CV < 5%), and was able to distinguish between the 3 samples (p < 0.0001). There was a good correlation between relative upper-limb power (r = 0.70; p < 0.01) and the AJ score. Moreover, the PCA revealed an explosive profile for boulderers and either a weak and quick or slow profile for route climbers, revealing a biomechanical signature of the sub-discipline. The AJ test provides excellent absolute and relative reliabilities for climbing, and can effectively distinguish between climbing athletes of different competitive levels. Thus, the AJ may be suitable for field assessment of upper limb strength in climbing practitioners.

  1. Lesion Characteristics of Individuals With Upper Limb Spasticity After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Daniel K; Climans, Seth A; Black, Sandra E; Gao, Fuqiang; Szilagyi, Gregory M; Mochizuki, George

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between lesion location and volume and upper limb spasticity after stroke. Ninety-seven stroke patients (51 with spasticity) were included in the analysis (age = 67.5 ± 13.3 years, 57 males). Lesions were traced from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images and coregistered to a symmetrical brain template. Lesion overlays from the nonspastic group were subtracted from the spastic group to determine the regions of the brain more commonly lesioned in spastic patients. Similar analysis was performed across groups of participants whose upper limb (elbow or wrist) Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score ranged from 1 (mild) to 4 (severe). Following subtraction analysis and Fisher's exact test, the putamen was identified as the area most frequently lesioned in individuals with spasticity. More severe spasticity was associated with a higher lesion volume. This study establishes the neuroanatomical correlates of poststroke spasticity and describes the relationship between lesion characteristics and the severity of spasticity using mixed brain imaging modalities, including computed tomography imaging, which is more readily available to clinicians. Understanding the association between lesion location and volume with the development and severity of spasticity is an important first step toward predicting the development of spasticity after stroke. Such information could inform the implementation of intervention strategies during the recovery process to minimize the extent of impairment.

  2. Literature Review on Needs of Upper Limb Prosthesis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cordella, Francesca; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Sacchetti, Rinaldo; Davalli, Angelo; Cutti, Andrea Giovanni; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Zollo, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    The loss of one hand can significantly affect the level of autonomy and the capability of performing daily living, working and social activities. The current prosthetic solutions contribute in a poor way to overcome these problems due to limitations in the interfaces adopted for controlling the prosthesis and to the lack of force or tactile feedback, thus limiting hand grasp capabilities. This paper presents a literature review on needs analysis of upper limb prosthesis users, and points out the main critical aspects of the current prosthetic solutions, in terms of users satisfaction and activities of daily living they would like to perform with the prosthetic device. The ultimate goal is to provide design inputs in the prosthetic field and, contemporary, increase user satisfaction rates and reduce device abandonment. A list of requirements for upper limb prostheses is proposed, grounded on the performed analysis on user needs. It wants to (i) provide guidelines for improving the level of acceptability and usefulness of the prosthesis, by accounting for hand functional and technical aspects; (ii) propose a control architecture of PNS-based prosthetic systems able to satisfy the analyzed user wishes; (iii) provide hints for improving the quality of the methods (e.g., questionnaires) adopted for understanding the user satisfaction with their prostheses. PMID:27242413

  3. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  4. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  5. The effects of prism glasses and intensive upper limb exercise on hemineglect, upper limb function, and activities of daily living in stroke patients: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se-Il; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of visual field with prism glasses, and intensive upper limb functional training on reduction of hemineglect and improvement in upper limb function and activities of daily living in three stroke patients with hemineglect. [Subjects] This study included three stroke patients hospitalized in a sanatorium. [Methods] Intervention treatment involving prism glass use for 12 hours and 30 minutes and paretic side upper limb training was conducted 5 days a week for 15 weeks. Three upper limb training tasks (hitting a balloon, passing through a ring, and reading a newspaper) were performed for 10 minutes each session, for a total of 30 minutes. Line by Section, Motor-Free Visual Perception Test-3 (MVPT-3), Manual Function Test (MFT), Box & Block Test (BBT), and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were conducted before and after intervention. [Results] Subjects’ hemineglect decreased and upper limb function on the paretic side improved after intervention, which enhanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Prism glass use and paretic upper limb functional training effectively ameliorated stroke patients’ hemineglect and improved upper limb function. Future research should focus on prism glasses that provide a wide visual field for use in patients with different conditions. PMID:26834386

  6. Upper limb stroke rehabilitation: the effectiveness of Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning (SAIL).

    PubMed

    Meadmore, Katie L; Cai, Zhonglun; Tong, Daisy; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Chris T; Rogers, Eric; Burridge, Jane H

    2011-01-01

    A novel system has been developed which combines robotic therapy with electrical stimulation (ES) for upper limb stroke rehabilitation. This technology, termed SAIL: Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning, employs advanced model-based iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms to precisely assist participant's completion of 3D tracking tasks with their impaired arm. Data is reported from a preliminary study with unimpaired participants, and also from a single hemiparetic stroke participant with reduced upper limb function who has used the system in a clinical trial. All participants completed tasks which involved moving their (impaired) arm to follow an image of a slowing moving sphere along a trajectory. The participants' arm was supported by a robot and ES was applied to the triceps brachii and anterior deltoid muscles. During each task, the same tracking trajectory was repeated 6 times and ILC was used to compute the stimulation signals to be applied on the next iteration. Unimpaired participants took part in a single, one hour training session and the stroke participant undertook 18, 1 hour treatment sessions composed of tracking tasks varying in length, orientation and speed. The results reported describe changes in tracking ability and demonstrate feasibility of the SAIL system for upper limb rehabilitation.

  7. Determining Specificity of Motor Imagery Training for Upper Limb Improvement in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Training Protocol and Pilot Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine

    2010-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) refers to the mental rehearsal of a movement without actual motor output. MI training has positive effects on upper limb recovery after stroke. However, until now it is unclear whether this effect is specific to the trained task or a more general motor skill improvement. This study was set up to advance our insights into the…

  8. Microwave limb sounder. [measuring trace gases in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustincic, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Trace gases in the upper atmosphere can be measured by comparing spectral noise content of limb soundings with the spectral noise content of cold space. An offset Cassegrain antenna system and tiltable input mirror alternately look out at the limb and up at cold space at an elevation angle of about 22. The mirror can also be tilted to look at a black body calibration target. Reflection from the mirror is directed into a radiometer whose head functions as a diplexer to combine the input radiation and a local ocillator (klystron) beam. The radiometer head is comprised of a Fabry-Perot resonator consisting of two Fabry-Perot cavities spaced a number of half wavelengths apart. Incoming radiation received on one side is reflected and rotated 90 deg in polarization by the resonator so that it will be reflected by an input grid into a mixer, while the klystron beam received on the other side is also reflected and rotated 90 deg, but not without passing some energy to be reflected by the input grid into the mixer.

  9. Resection replantation of the upper limb for aggressive malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    Stage IIB malignant tumors of the upper limb have been traditionally treated by amputation or disarticulation. There have been isolated reports on the technique of segmental resection of the tumor-bearing segment complete with the skin, and replanting the distal arm or forearm with or without neurovascular repair. The present paper describes four cases in which a wide resection margin was achieved in all by resecting the affected cylinder of the limb. Functional reconstruction was performed by appropriate tendon transfer. The main vessels and nerves were dealt with according to the findings revealed by preoperative investigations. If they had to be sacrificed, end-to-end suture was performed, but if the main nerves could be spared, it greatly enhanced the functional outcome. Local and systemic recurrences occurred in one case, and systemic recurrence occurred in another case. The other two cases remained disease-free at more than 4 years' follow-up. This operation is as radical as amputation, while the esthetic and functional results are equivalent to those of resection-arthrodesis.

  10. Assistive Control System for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Hua; Lien, Wei-Ming; Wang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Guan-De; Hsu, Li-Chun; Lee, Kai-Wen; Lin, Sheng-Yen; Lin, Chia-Hsun; Fu, Li-Chen; Lai, Jin-Shin; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an assistive control system with a special kinematic structure of an upper limb rehabilitation robot embedded with force/torque sensors. A dynamic human model integrated with sensing torque is used to simulate human interaction under three rehabilitation modes: active mode, assistive mode, and passive mode. The hereby proposed rehabilitation robot, called NTUH-ARM, provides 7 degree-of- freedom (DOF) motion and runs subject to an inherent mapping between the 7 DOFs of the robot arm and the 4 DOFs of the human arm. The Lyapunov theory is used to analyze the stability of the proposed controller design. Clinical trials have been conducted with six patients, one of which acts as a control. The results of these experiments are positive and STREAM assessment by physical therapists also reveals promising results.

  11. Monomelic amyotrophy: non progressive atrophy of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Kiernan; Lethlean; Blum

    1999-07-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy is a rare clinical entity, resulting in wasting and weakness localized to the hand and forearm unilaterally, in the absence of any sensory or long tract signs. The onset of the disease is insidious, occurring in males before the age of 30 years, with a clinical course marked by non-progression. The case of a 19-year-old Indonesian male patient is presented, with a one year history of right upper limb weakness. Nerve conduction studies were normal, without evidence of conduction block. Electromyography showed changes of chronic partial denervation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed an asymmetry of the spinal cord. Possible aetiological mechanisms for these changes are discussed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. Experimental Study and Characterization of SEMG Signals for Upper Limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veer, Karan

    2015-04-01

    Surface electromyogram (SEMG) is used to measure the activity of superficial muscles and is an essential tool to carry out biomechanical assessments required for prosthetic design. Many previous attempts suggest that, electromyogram (EMG) signals have random nature. Here, dual channel evaluation of EMG signals acquired from the amputed subjects using computational techniques for classification of arm motion are presented. After recording data from four predefined upper arm motions, interpretation of signal was done for six statistical features. The signals are classified by the neural network (NN) and then interpretation was done using statistical technique to extract the effectiveness of recorded signals. The network performances are analyzed by considering the number of input features, hidden layer, learning algorithm and mean square error. From the results, it is observed that there exists calculative difference in amplitude gain across different motions and have great potential to classify arm motions. The outcome indicates that NN algorithm performs significantly better than other algorithms with classification accuracy (CA) of 96.40%. Analysis of variance technique presents the results to validate the effectiveness of recorded data to discriminate SEMG signals. Results are of significant thrust in identifying the operations that can be implemented for classifying upper limb movements suitable for prostheses design.

  13. Characteristic MRI Findings of upper Limb Muscle Involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Kazuma; Sugie, Miho; Taoka, Toshio; Tonomura, Yasuyo; Kumazawa, Aya; Izumi, Tesseki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the relation between muscle MRI findings and upper limb weakness with grip myotonia in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Seventeen patients with DM1 were evaluated by manual muscle strength testing and muscle MRI of the upper limbs. Many DM1 patients presenting with decreased grasping power frequently showed high intensity signals in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles on T1-weighted imaging. Patients presenting with upper limb weakness frequently also showed high intensity signals in the flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis muscles. Disturbances of the distal muscles of the upper limbs were predominant in all DM1 patients. Some DM1 patients with a prolonged disease duration showed involvement of not only distal muscles but also proximal muscles in the upper limbs. Muscle involvement of the upper limbs on MRI strongly correlated positively with the disease duration or the numbers of CTG repeats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide a detailed description of the distribution and severity of affected muscles of the upper limbs on MRI in patients with DM1. We conclude that muscle MRI findings are very useful for identifying affected muscles and predicting the risk of muscle weakness in the upper limbs of DM1 patients.

  14. Amyoplasia involving only the upper limbs or only involving the lower limbs with review of the relevant differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G

    2014-04-01

    Of individuals with Amyoplasia, 16.8% (94/560) involve only the upper limbs (Upper Limb Amyoplasia-ULA) and 15.2% (85/560) involve only the lower limbs (Lower Limb Amyoplasia-LLA). The accompanying paper deals with other forms of Amyoplasia [Hall et al., 2013] and discusses etiology. An excess of one of monozygotic (MZ) twins is seen in both groups (ULA 4/94 (4.3%), LLA 5/85 (5.9%)), gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities thought to be of vascular origin (bowel atresia and gastroschisis) (ULA 16/94 (17%), LLA 4/85 (4.7%)), small or partial absence of digits (ULA 6/94 (6.2%), LLA 8/85 (9.4%)), and umbilical cord wrapping around the limbs at birth (ULA 3/94 (3.2%), LLA 7/85 (8.2%)) (severe enough to leave a permanent groove). Pregnancy complications occurred in 42/60 (70%) of ULA and 36/54 (67%) of LLA. Prenatal diagnosis, after ultrasound usage became routine, occurred in only 7/25 (28%) of ULA and 5/12 (12%) of LLA. This series may represent an over estimate of the complications and associations occurring in ULA and LLA. Differential diagnoses separating LLA from the genetic forms of "lower limb only" arthrogryposis and ULA from "upper limb only" genetic forms of arthrogryposis and Erb's palsy is provided.

  15. Movement analysis of upper limb during resistance training using general purpose robot arm "PA10"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akinori; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we perform movement analysis of an upper limb during resistance training. We selected sanding training, which is one type of resistance training for upper limbs widely performed in occupational therapy. Our final aims in the future are to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training and to develop a new rehabilitation training support system. For these purposes, first of all we perform movement analysis using a conventional training tool. By measuring upper limb motion during the sanding training we perform feature abstraction. Next we perform movement analysis using the simulated sanding training system. This system is constructed using the general purpose robot arm "PA10". This system enables us to measure the force/torque exerted by subjects and to easily change the load of resistance. The control algorithm is based on impedance control. We found these features of the upper limb motion during the sanding training.

  16. An upper limb robot model of children limb for cerebral palsy neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Yagna; Johnson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Robot therapy has emerged in the last few decades as a tool to help patients with neurological injuries relearn motor tasks and improve their quality of life. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple model of the human arm for children affected with cerebral palsy (CP). The Simulink based model presented here shows a comparison for children with and without disabilities (ages 6-15) with normal and reduced range of motion in the upper limb. The model incorporates kinematic and dynamic considerations required for activities of daily living. The simulation was conducted using Matlab/Simulink and will eventually be integrated with a robotic counterpart to develop a physical robot that will provide assistance in activities of daily life (ADLs) to children with CP while also aiming to improve motor recovery.

  17. Results of neurolysis in established upper limb Volkmann's ischemic contracture

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Dinesh K; Thalanki, Srikiran; Patni, Poornima; Meena, Ram Khiladi; Bairawa, Dinesh; Bhatia, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of established cases of Volkmann's ischemic contracture (VIC) of upper limb is very tedious. Since the period of Volkmann, various experimental works are being performed for its treatment, but none are effective. Disabilities from nerve palsy and hand muscle paralysis are more problematic than any other deformity in VIC. To solve these problems, we conducted a study to see the result of neurolysis of median and ulnar nerve and their subcutaneous placement in established cases of VIC. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of established VIC operated between July 2007 and August 2010 with complete records and followup were included in the study. VIC of lower limb and contracture of nonischemic etiology were excluded from the study. Their evaluation was done by the British Medical Research Council grading system for sensory and motor recovery. Followup was done for an average period of 24.3 months (range 15-30 months) (the average age was 8.3 years). Results: To study the results, we divided the cases into two series. One group consisted of cases which were operated within 6 months from onset of VIC. The second group consisted of cases which were operated after 6 months from onset of VIC. Our results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups operated, though both had significant improvement in motor and sensory recovery in both median and ulnar nerve distribution. Conclusions: Neurolysis of the nerves definitely improved the outcome for motor and sensory components of median and ulnar nerves but the timing of the surgery did not play a role in the outcome contrary to the clinical assumption. This study can serve as a template and further such studies could help us find the answer to a long standing issue. PMID:27904214

  18. Upper limb malformations in chromosome 22q11 deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Shalev, S.A.; Dar, H.; Barel, H.; Borochowitz, Z.

    1996-03-29

    We read with interest the report of Cormier-Daire et al. in a recent issue of the journal, describing upper limb malformations in DiGeorge syndrome. We observed a family with this group of rare clinical expression of chromosome 22q11 deletions. The proposita was examined in our clinic when she was 4 years old. She was mildly mentally retarded. Clinical evaluation showed normal growth, long thin nose with squared tip, nasal speech, and abundant scalp hair and no cardiac anomalies. The girl was accompanied by her mother. Facial similarities were noted between the two. The mother reported to be treated with oral calcium due to hypoparathyroidism, diagnosed several years ago. Clinical evaluation showed wide flat face, short stature, mild mental retardation, slight hypertelorism, peculiar nose similar to her daughter`s, and nasal speech. No cardiac anomalies were found. Recently, a brother was born. Clinical examination documented large ventriculo-septal defect, retrognathia, narrow palpebral fissures, and long thin nose with squared tip. 1 ref.

  19. Acupuncture in the Treatment of Upper-Limb Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Cassileth, Barrie R; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Yeung, K Simon; Coleton, Marci I; Cohen, Sara; Chan, Yi H; Vickers, Andrew J; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Hudis, Clifford A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current treatments for lymphedema after breast cancer treatment are expensive and require ongoing intervention. Clinical experience and our preliminary published results suggest that acupuncture is safe and potentially useful. This study evaluates the safety and potential efficacy of acupuncture on upper-limb circumference in women with lymphedema. METHODS Women with a clinical diagnosis of breast cancer−related lymphedema (BCRL) for 0.5-5 years and with affected arm circumference ≥2 cm larger than unaffected arm received acupuncture treatment twice weekly for 4 weeks. Affected and unaffected arm circumferences were measured before and after each acupuncture treatment. Response, defined as ≥30% reduction in circumference difference between affected/unaffected arms, was assessed. Monthly follow-up calls for 6 months thereafter were made to document any complications and self-reported lymphedema status. RESULTS Among 37 enrolled patients, 33 were evaluated; 4 discontinued due to time constraints. Mean reduction in arm circumference difference was 0.90 cm (95% CI, 0.72-1.07; P < .0005). Eleven patients (33%) exhibited a reduction of ≥30% after acupuncture treatment. Seventy-six percent of patients received all treatments; 21% missed 1 treatment, and another patient missed 2 treatments. During the treatment period, 14 of the 33 patients reported minor complaints, including mild local bruising or pain/tingling. There were no serious adverse events and no infections or severe exacerbations after 255 treatment sessions and 6 months of follow-up interviews. CONCLUSIONS Acupuncture for BCRL appears safe and may reduce arm circumference. Although these results await confirmation in a randomized trial, acupuncture can be considered for women with no other options for sustained arm circumference reduction. Cancer 2013;119:2455-2461. © 2013 American Cancer Society. PMID:23576267

  20. [Replantation and revascularization in acute upper limb amputation--the Sheba Medical Center experience].

    PubMed

    Oron, Amir; Yaffe, Batia

    2008-01-01

    Replantation and revascularization in acute upper-limb amputations are well-accepted surgical techniques in hand surgery. All medical staff members treating patients in emergency settings should be familiar with the indications, timetable, setup and transportation of patients rendered suitable for such surgery. While replantation surgery is not considered a simple surgical procedure by any means, viability rates approach ninety percent. The amputated part should be wrapped with gauze soaked in saline, placed in a sterile plastic bag and then put in an ice-filled container. The patient should be transferred to a medical center with a team dedicated to performing replantation procedures, following notification in advance. Time from the initial insult to the initiation of treatment should be minimized. Combined efforts employed by the primary caregivers and the microsurgical team will lead to optimization of patient treatment and improve the final outcome. During the years 1991-2007 a total of 383 upper limb replantation or revascularization procedures were performed at the Sheba Medical Center and are presented in this article.

  1. Golf and upper limb injuries: a summary and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    McHardy, Andrew J; Pollard, Henry P

    2005-01-01

    Background Golf is a popular past time that provides exercise with social interaction. However, as with all sports and activities, injury may occur. Many golf-related injuries occur in the upper limb, yet little research on the potential mechanisms of these injuries has been conducted. Objective To review the current literature on golf-related upper limb injuries and report on potential causes of injury as it relates to the golf swing. Discussion An overview of the golf swing is described in terms of its potential to cause the frequently noted injuries. Most injuries occur at impact when the golf club hits the ball. This paper concludes that more research into golf-related upper limb injuries is required to develop a thorough understanding of how injuries occur. Types of research include epidemiology studies, kinematic swing analysis and electromyographic studies of the upper limb during golf. By conducting such research, preventative measures maybe developed to reduce golf related injury. PMID:15967021

  2. Reliability of 3D upper limb motion analysis in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Judy; Malone, Ailish; Kiernan, Damien; Meldrum, Dara

    2017-03-01

    Kinematics, measured by 3D upper limb motion analysis (3D-ULMA), can potentially increase understanding of movement patterns by quantifying individual joint contributions. Reliability in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) has not been established.

  3. Assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients: development of a new module.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper limb function did not always strictly follow the overall gross motor function. These findings suggest that even some of the very weak nonambulant children possess upper limb skills that can be measured.

  4. Physical exercises for breast cancer survivors: effects of 10 weeks of training on upper limb circumferences

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; D’Arielli, Alberto; Castro, Cristina Gonzalez; Cugusi, Lucia; Cianchetti, Ettore; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were to verify the effects on upper limb circumferences and total body extracellular water of 10 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW) and Walking (W), both alone and combined with a series of exercises created for breast cancer survivors, the ISA method. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 4 different training groups and evaluated for upper limb circumferences, total body and extracellular water. [Results] The breast cancer survivors who performed NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method (but not alone) showed significantly reduced arm and forearm circumferences homolateral to the surgical intervention. [Conclusion] For breast cancer survivors, NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method should be prescribed to prevent the onset and to treat light forms of upper limb lymphedema because Walking training practiced alone had no significant effect on upper limb circumference reduction. PMID:27821934

  5. Non-Union in Upper Limb Fractures - Clinical Evaluation and Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Neumann, M V; Zwingmann, J; Jaeger, M; Hammer, T O; Südkamp, N P

    2016-01-01

    Although non-unions in the upper limb are rare different treatment options of this challenging situation are still affected with up to 20% of failure rate due to current literature. Risk factors for delayed and non-union of fractures are mainly the size of the fracture gap and bone loss of open fractures or in primary surgery followed by other relevant internal and external factors. In the upper limb non-unions of long bones are described with up to 30% after operative intervention. Especially in the upper limb range of motion is limited in non-union cases and disables adjacent joints like the shoulder, elbow and wrist hence reducing the total activity level of affected patients. Beside careful investigation of the causes leading to the non-union a comprehensive treatment plan should be defined to achieve successful results. Treatment can be non-operative in several, selected cases, but in the majority of cases revision surgery is necessary to achieve osseous healing. Our own experience showed that non-union in the upper limb are rare and account for only 1.7% of all surgical managed upper limb fractures. Non-union of upper limb fractures occur most frequently in clavicle fractures followed by humeral fractures. Atrophic non-union is the most frequent reason for osseous non-union (57%) and osseous healing after revision surgery in non-unions is completed after a mean of 6.45 months. This article will give a brief overview of the genesis, clinical evaluation, treatment options and recommendations in upper limb non-unions according to the current literature. Key words: fracture, upper-limb, non-union, osteosynthesis, cancellous bone-graft.

  6. [Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limbs diseases in the forest workers of Italia meridionale].

    PubMed

    Fenga, C; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Cacciola, A; Deboli, R; Calvo, A; Germanò, D

    2007-01-01

    Vibration exposure of the hand-arm system is associated with an increased risk of upper-limb vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal lesions, or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The prevalence of occupational HAVS and upper-limb disorders was studied among 278 Forestry Service workers in Sicily and Calabria. Subjects who used chain-saws (18 weeks/year) had a greater prevalence of peripheral sensory-neural disturbances (28%), upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (33%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (19%) compared with 260 manual workers from the same Corps not exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was comparable in exposed and control subjects (5.3% vs. 4.7%.) Upper-limb neuropathies were significantly associated with energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration; exposure duration; and cumulative vibration dose (m2/s4h). The variable "years of work with vibrating tools" was strongly associated with peripheral neuropathies; carpal tunnel syndrome; and upper-limb musculotendinous syndromes. Data suggest that in Sicily and Calabria, where the climate is milder than in other areas of Italy, forestry work with hand-held vibrating tools does not entail a greater prevalence of peripheral vascular disorders (Raynaud's phenomenon), while the prevalence of occupational upper-limb neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, in which combined ergonomic and mechanical risk factors have a large pathogenic role, is significantly increased.

  7. The determination of correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements in Iranian adults.

    PubMed

    Mahakizadeh, S; Moghani-Ghoroghi, F; Moshkdanian, Gh; Mokhtari, T; Hassanzadeh, G

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of stature is an important issue, which is significantly considered in forensic anthropology. It will be difficult to predict the identification of an individual when only some parts of dead body are discovered following disasters or criminal events. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between stature and upper limb and hand length in Iranian adults to generate regression formulae for stature estimation. Three anthropometric measurements; Stature, Upper Limb Length (ULL) and Hand Length (HL) were taken on subjects, comprising 142 male students (18-25 years) using standard measuring instruments. The data were analysed using SPSS 16. Then linear regression models were used to estimate stature. The results indicated a positive correlation between stature and upper limb and hand measurements. The correlation coefficient with upper limb length was r = 0.89 & p = 0.0001 and with hand length was r = 0.78 & p = 0.0001. In conclusion, we found a strong correlation between stature and upper limb and hand length. The regression analysis also showed that the Upper Limb Length give better prediction of stature compared to Hand length measurements.

  8. Cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb resistance exercise in healthy elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Machado-Vidotti, Heloisa G.; Mendes, Renata G.; Simões, Rodrigo P.; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Catai, Aparecida M.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cardiac autonomic responses during upper versus lower limb discontinuous resistance exercise (RE) at different loads in healthy older men. Method Ten volunteers (65±1.2 years) underwent the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test to determine the maximum load for the bench press and the leg press. Discontinuous RE was initiated at a load of 10%1RM with subsequent increases of 10% until 30%1RM, followed by increases of 5%1RM until exhaustion. Heart rate (HR) and R-R interval were recorded at rest and for 4 minutes at each load applied. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed in 5-min segments at rest and at each load in the most stable 2-min signal. Results Parasympathetic indices decreased significantly in both exercises from 30%1RM compared to rest (rMSSD: 20±2 to 11±3 and 29±5 to 12±2 ms; SD1: 15±2 to 8±1 and 23±4 to 7±1 ms, for upper and lower limb exercise respectively) and HR increased (69±4 to 90±4 bpm for upper and 66±2 to 89±1 bpm for lower). RMSM increased for upper limb exercise, but decreased for lower limb exercise (28±3 to 45±9 and 34±5 to 14±3 ms, respectively). In the frequency domain, the sympathetic (LF) and sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) indices were higher and the parasympathetic index (HF) was lower for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise from 35% of 1RM. Conclusions Cardiac autonomic change occurred from 30% of 1RM regardless of RE limb. However, there was more pronounced sympathetic increase and vagal decrease for upper limb exercise than for lower limb exercise. These results provide a basis for more effective prescription of RE to promote health in this population. PMID:24675908

  9. The validity of the mangled extremity severity score in the assessment of upper limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Togawa, S; Yamami, N; Nakayama, H; Mano, Y; Ikegami, K; Ozeki, S

    2005-11-01

    The Mangled Extremity Severity Score (MESS) may be used to decide whether to perform amputation in patients with injuries involving a limb. A score of 7 points or higher indicates the need for amputation. We have treated three patients with a MESS of 7 points or higher, in two of which the injured limb was salvaged. This scoring system was originally devised to assess injuries to the lower limb. However, a MESS of 7 points as a justification for amputation does not appear appropriate when assessing injuries to the major vessels in the upper limb.

  10. Differences in muscle power between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs of baseball players.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takanori; Demura, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kenji; Demura, Gou; Mori, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    We examined the differences in muscle power between the dominant and nondominant upper limbs of 33 healthy, right-handed, university baseball players (mean age, 20.4 ± 1.1 years) with an average baseball experience >11 years. After measuring maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of hand grip, elbow flexion, and shoulder internal rotation in both upper limbs, the muscle power of each joint was measured at 40%, 50%, and 60% MVC. No significant differences were observed in the main factors affecting MVC and elbow flexion power loads between dominant and nondominant upper limbs. For handgrip power, load factors at 40% MVC in the dominant hand were lower than those at 60% MVC in the same hand and those at 50% and 60% MVC in the nondominant hand. Significant differences were observed in shoulder internal rotation power between dominant and nondominant upper limbs, with the dominant limb having greater power at all loads. Correlations between muscle power of both upper limbs for handgrip and elbow flexion were significant and moderately high at all loads. For shoulder internal rotation power, the degree of correlation was significant and moderately high at 40% MVC but low to moderate at 50% and 60% MVC. Therefore, baseball players have marked lateral dominance in shoulder internal rotation power unlike handgrip and elbow flexion power, although the relationship between shoulder internal rotation muscle powers of both upper limbs becomes lower with increasing load. The dominance of muscle power of each joint varied even in the same upper limb. It is thus beneficial for baseball players to train with even loads on both arms or adopt simultaneous workout of both arms after adjusting for strength differences.

  11. Advances in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David G.; Banks, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly moving technological advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy have enhanced an endoscopist’s ability to diagnose and treat lesions within the gastrointestinal tract. The improvement in image quality created by the advent of high-definition and magnification endoscopy, alongside image enhancement, produces images of superb quality and detail that empower the endoscopist to identify important lesions that have previously been undetectable. Additionally, we are now seeing technologies emerge, such as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser endomicroscopy, that allow the endoscopist to visualize individual cells on a microscopic level and provide a real time, in vivo histological assessment. Within this article we discuss these technologies, as well as some of the results from their early use in clinical studies. PMID:26918137

  12. The upper-limb volumetric changes in breast cancer survivors with axillary web syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, H-C; Liu, H-H; Yin, L-Y; Yeh, C-H; Tu, C-W; Yang, C-S

    2017-03-01

    Whether upper-limb swelling is associated with axillary web syndrome (AWS) is unknown. We recruited unilateral breast cancer (BC) patients who were scheduled for surgical intervention and lymph node dissection. The pre-operative assessment and post-operative assessment 3-4 weeks after surgery evaluated the upper-limb circumferential measurements, segmental limb volume, pain scores, grasp, shoulder range of motion (ROM), shoulder muscle power and quality-of-life scores. In the control group, the peri-elbow volume and upper-arm volume were significantly higher post-operatively than pre-operatively. In the AWS group, no significant difference was found. In comparison with the control group, the AWS group had significantly more pain, less active ROM in shoulder abduction and a lower upper-limb volume at 0-10 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle. The incidence of lymphedema was 9.9% and was not associated with AWS. AWS is a common morbidity of lymph node dissection and causes significant pain and restricted shoulder abduction in the affected limb in BC survivors. This study is the first to investigate post-operative upper-limb volumetric changes in BC survivors with and without AWS. Our findings are of great value for the clinical effect of AWS in BC survivors, for patient education, and for developing diagnostic tools for detecting AWS.

  13. Rapid and flexible whole body postural responses are evoked from perturbations to the upper limb during goal-directed reaching.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Nashed, Joseph Y; Scott, Stephen H

    2017-03-01

    An important aspect of motor control is the ability to perform tasks with the upper limbs while maintaining whole body balance. However, little is known about the coordination of upper limb voluntary and whole body postural control after mechanical disturbances that require both upper limb motor corrections to attain a behavioral goal and lower limb motor responses to maintain whole body balance. The present study identified the temporal organization of muscle responses and center of pressure (COP) changes following mechanical perturbations during reaching. Our results demonstrate that muscle responses in the upper limb are evoked first (∼50 ms), with lower limb muscle activity occurring immediately after, in as little as ∼60 ms after perturbation. Hand motion was immediately altered by the load, while COP changes occurred after ∼100 ms, when lower limb muscle activity was already present. Our secondary findings showed that both muscle activity and COP changes were influenced by behavioral context (by altering target shape, circle vs. rectangle). Voluntary and postural actions initially directed the hand toward the center of both target types, but after the perturbation upper limb and postural responses redirected the hand toward different spatial locations along the rectangle. Muscle activity was increased for both upper and lower limbs when correcting to the circle vs. the rectangle, and these differences emerged as early as the long-latency epoch (∼75-120 ms). Our results demonstrate that postural responses are rapidly and flexibly altered to consider the behavioral goal of the upper limb.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work establishes that, when reaching to a target while standing, perturbations applied to the upper limb elicit a rapid response in lower limb muscles. Unlike voluntary movements, postural responses do not occur before corrections of the upper limb. We show the first evidence that corrective postural adjustments are modulated by upper limb

  14. Early delayed amputation: a paradigm shift in the limb-salvage time line for patients with major upper-limb injury.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Todd E; Long, Sarah A; Ho, Oscar; Demas, Chris; Bell, John-Erik; Rosen, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Patients with major injuries to the upper limbs sometimes fail to achieve successful limb salvage. During the attempt to fashion a functional limb, multiple painful procedures may be ventured. Despite the best efforts of surgeons and therapists, a nonfunctioning or painful upper limb may remain in place for many months or years before late delayed amputation and progression to productive rehabilitation occur. We present three patient cases that illustrate failed upper-limb salvage. In each case, patients expressed a desire for amputation at 6 months after their injury. To reduce the pain and suffering that patients with failed limb salvage endure, we propose a paradigm shift in the limb-salvage time line. We suggest that patients be evaluated for early delayed amputation 6 months after their injury.

  15. Upper limb swelling following mastectomy: lymphedema or not?

    PubMed

    Armer, Jane

    2007-04-01

    Having experienced an excisional biopsy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and mastectomy, BH is at lifetime risk of developing post-breast cancer lymphedema in the arm on the side where her breast cancer was treated. She has two additional risk factors, among those documented in the literature: history of an infection (specifically a systemic infection, significant in that it required hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics) in the postsurgery period, and a moderate increase in bilateral limb volume and weight (body mass index) over the months and years following the breast cancer diagnosis. Further, the patient-reported transient hand swelling on the affected side and gradual weight increase are cues indicating a need for patient vigilance and careful monitoring by the health-care team. Preventing future infections, managing weight at an optimal level, and preventing trauma or injury to the affected arm and chest are important self-management precautions to reduce risk of chronic lymphedema development. BH needs continued support in reviewing evidence-based risk-reduction guidelines and understanding ways to apply them to her lifestyle. In the absence of preoperative baseline or contralateral limb measurements (with circumferences or perometry or water displacement), assessment of limb change at a level identified as diagnostic of lymphedema (commonly, 200-mL volume or 2-cm girth increase from baseline or as compared to the contralateral limb) is very challenging. Without bilateral preop limb measurements for baseline and contralateral limb comparisons, BH might have been diagnosed with lymphedema at postop or at 48 months, when both limbs increased symmetrically. Symptom assessment is also crucial, as symptom report of heaviness and swelling is found to be associated with limb volume changes indicative of lymphedema. Transient hand swelling may be evidence of latent lymphedema and cause for increased risk-reduction education and vigilance in assessment for

  16. An accelerometry-based study of lower and upper limb tremor in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Blake K; Levin, Bonnie E; Nation, Daniel A; Katzen, Heather L; Guevara-Salcedo, Alexandra; Singer, Carlos; Papapetropoulos, Spiridon

    2013-06-01

    Over the past two decades, several studies have aimed to quantify the kinetic properties of tremor with primary focus on the upper limbs. However, there is a lack of investigation into the properties of tremor in the lower limbs. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the properties of oscillatory movement, at rest and in posture, in both the upper and lower limbs of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with clinically undetectable to modest rest/postural tremor and healthy controls. PD patients (N = 16) and controls (N = 8) were examined clinically by a movement disorders specialist and oscillatory movements in all four extremities were evaluated using a portable biaxial accelerometer. While tremor intensity and frequency did not differ between groups, the intraindividual variability of rest and postural tremor frequency in the dexterity-dominant lower limb was lower in people living with PD than in healthy adults. Additionally, rest tremor frequency was discrepant between upper and lower limbs in PD. Our work introduces the possibility that minute variations in lower limb movements, which are imperceptible upon expert clinical exam, can be used to differentiate a diseased sample from a healthy one. These preliminary findings suggest that additional work using objective tremor measurement may improve our understanding of lower limb motor dysfunction in PD and lead to the refinement of current, and the development of new, metrics to enhance early diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and symptom quantification.

  17. Thermographic patterns of the upper and lower limbs: baseline data.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Alfred; Formosa, Cynthia; Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Anabelle; Azzopardi, Carl; Mizzi, Stephen; Falzon, Owen; Cristina, Stefania; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency.

  18. Thermographic Patterns of the Upper and Lower Limbs: Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Kevin; Camilleri, Kenneth P.; De Raffaele, Clifford; Mizzi, Stephen; Cristina, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To collect normative baseline data and identify any significant differences between hand and foot thermographic distribution patterns in a healthy adult population. Design. A single-centre, randomized, prospective study. Methods. Thermographic data was acquired using a FLIR camera for the data acquisition of both plantar and dorsal aspects of the feet, volar aspects of the hands, and anterior aspects of the lower limbs under controlled climate conditions. Results. There is general symmetry in skin temperature between the same regions in contralateral limbs, in terms of both magnitude and pattern. There was also minimal intersubject temperature variation with a consistent temperature pattern in toes and fingers. The thumb is the warmest digit with the temperature falling gradually between the 2nd and the 5th fingers. The big toe and the 5th toe are the warmest digits with the 2nd to the 4th toes being cooler. Conclusion. Measurement of skin temperature of the limbs using a thermal camera is feasible and reproducible. Temperature patterns in fingers and toes are consistent with similar temperatures in contralateral limbs in healthy subjects. This study provides the basis for further research to assess the clinical usefulness of thermography in the diagnosis of vascular insufficiency. PMID:25648145

  19. Effects of Robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwakkel, Gert; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Krebs, Hermano I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose To present a systematic review of studies that investigates the effects of robot-assisted therapy on motor and functional recovery in patients with stroke. Summary of Review A database of articles published up to October 2006 was compiled using the following MEDLINE key words: cerebral vascular accident, cerebral vascular disorders, stroke, paresis, hemiplegia, upper extremity, arm and robot. References listed in relevant publications were also screened. Studies that satisfied the following selection criteria were included: (1) patients were diagnosed with cerebral vascular accident; (2) effects of robot-assisted therapy for the upper limb were investigated; (3) the outcome was measured in terms of motor and/or functional recovery of the upper paretic limb; (4) The study was a randomised clinical trial (RCT). For each outcome measure, the estimated effect size (ES) and the summary effect size (SES) expressed in standard deviation units (SDU) were calculated for motor recovery and functional ability (ADL) using fixed and random effect models. Ten studies, involving 218 patients, were included in the synthesis. Their methodological quality ranged from 4 to 8 on a (maximum) 10 point scale. Meta-analysis showed a non-significant heterogeneous SES in terms of upper limb motor recovery. Sensitivity analysis of studies involving only shoulder-elbow robotics subsequently demonstrated a significant homogeneous SES for motor recovery of the upper paretic limb. No significant SES was observed for functional ability (ADL). Conclusion As a result of marked heterogeneity in studies between distal and proximal arm robotics, no overall significant effect in favour of robot-assisted therapy was found in the present meta-analysis. However, subsequent sensitivity analysis showed a significant improvement in upper limb motor function after stroke for upper arm robotics. No significant improvement was found in ADL function. However, the administered ADL scales in

  20. Coupling of upper and lower limb pattern generators during human crawling at different arm/leg speed combinations.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Catavitello, G; La Scaleia, V; Lacquaniti, F

    2013-03-01

    A crawling paradigm was performed by healthy adults to examine inter-limb coupling patterns and to understand how central pattern generators (CPGs) for the upper and lower limbs are coordinated. Ten participants performed hands-and-feet crawling on two separate treadmills, one for the upper limbs and another one for the lower limbs, the speed of each of them being changed independently. A 1:1 frequency relationship was often maintained even when the treadmill speed was not matched between the upper and lower limbs. However, relative stance durations in the upper limbs were only affected by changes of the upper limb treadmill speed, suggesting that although absolute times are adjusted, the relative proportions of stances and swing do not adapt to changes in lower limb treadmill speeds. With large differences between treadmill speeds, changes in upper and lower limb coupling ratio tended to occur when the upper limbs stepped at slower speeds than the lower limbs, but more rarely the other way around. These findings are in sharp contrast with those in the cat, where forelimbs always follow the rhythm of the faster moving hindlimbs. However, the fact that an integer frequency ratio is often maintained between the upper and lower limbs supports evidence of coupled CPG control. We speculate that the preference for the upper limb to decrease step frequency at lower speeds in humans may be due to weaker ascending propriospinal connections and/or a larger influence of cortical control on the upper limbs which allows for an overriding of spinal CPG control.

  1. Upper limb muscle imbalance in tennis elbow: a functional and electromyographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Fisher, Anthony C; Kemp, Graham J; Vishwanathan, Karthik; Frostick, Simon P

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate strength, fatigability, and activity of upper limb musculature to elucidate the role of muscular imbalance in the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Sixteen patients clinically diagnosed with tennis elbow, recruited from a university hospital upper limb orthopedic clinic, were compared with 16 control subjects with no history of upper limb musculoskeletal problem, recruited from university students and staff. Muscle strength was measured for grip, metacarpophalangeal, wrist, and shoulder on both sides. Electromyographic activity (RMS amplitude) and fatigue characteristics (median frequency slope) of five forearm and two shoulder muscles were measured during isometric contraction at 50% maximum voluntary contraction. All strength measurements showed dominance difference in C, but none in TE. In tennis elbow compared to controls, hand/wrist and shoulder strength and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) activity were reduced (p < 0.05), while fatigue was normal. A global upper limb weakness exists in tennis elbow. This may be due to disuse and deconditioning syndrome caused by fear avoidance, and needs to be addressed in prevention and treatment. Activation imbalance among forearm muscles (reduced extensor carpi radialis activity) in tennis elbow, probably due to protective pain-related inhibition, could lead to a widespread upper limb muscle imbalance.

  2. A Pilot Study of Botulinum Toxin for Jerky, Position-Specific, Upper Limb Action Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Saifee, Tabish A.; Teodoro, Tiago; Erro, Roberto; Edwards, Mark J.; Cordivari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin (BT) injections for jerky action tremor of the upper limb. Methods We performed an uncontrolled, prospective study of electromyography (EMG)-guided BT injections for jerky, position-specific, upper limb action tremor. The primary outcome was clinical global impression at 3–6 weeks after baseline. Results Eight patients with jerky, position-specific action tremor involving the upper limb were consecutively recruited. After a median follow-up of 4.4 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6–6 weeks), four of them rated themselves as “improved” and two as “much improved.” Five of these six subjects reported improvements in specific activities of daily living (bringing liquids to mouth, feeding, shaving, and dressing). Upper limb subscore of the Fahn–Tolosa–Marin Tremor Rating Scale (FTM) significantly decreased from 4.5 (4–6) to 3 (2–5) (p = 0.01). Discussion This pilot, prospective cohort study suggests that EMG-guided BT injections may improve jerky, position-specific, upper limb action tremor. Placebo-controlled studies evaluating larger samples of patients are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27818844

  3. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  4. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; Peper, C. (Lieke) E.; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

  5. Upper Limb Posture Estimation in Robotic and Virtual Reality-Based Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Camilo; Ardanza, Aitor; Molina-Rueda, F.; Cuesta-Gómez, A.; Ruiz, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    New motor rehabilitation therapies include virtual reality (VR) and robotic technologies. In limb rehabilitation, limb posture is required to (1) provide a limb realistic representation in VR games and (2) assess the patient improvement. When exoskeleton devices are used in the therapy, the measurements of their joint angles cannot be directly used to represent the posture of the patient limb, since the human and exoskeleton kinematic models differ. In response to this shortcoming, we propose a method to estimate the posture of the human limb attached to the exoskeleton. We use the exoskeleton joint angles measurements and the constraints of the exoskeleton on the limb to estimate the human limb joints angles. This paper presents (a) the mathematical formulation and solution to the problem, (b) the implementation of the proposed solution on a commercial exoskeleton system for the upper limb rehabilitation, (c) its integration into a rehabilitation VR game platform, and (d) the quantitative assessment of the method during elbow and wrist analytic training. Results show that this method properly estimates the limb posture to (i) animate avatars that represent the patient in VR games and (ii) obtain kinematic data for the patient assessment during elbow and wrist analytic rehabilitation. PMID:25110698

  6. Assessment of Upper Limb Motor Dysfunction for Children with Cerebral Palsy Based on Muscle Synergy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Wu, De; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergies are considered to be building blocks underlying motor behaviors. The goal of this study is to explore an objective and effective method to assess the upper limb motor dysfunction of cerebral palsy (CP) children from the aspect of muscle synergy analysis. Fourteen CP children and 10 typically developed (TD) children were recruited to perform three similar upper limb motion tasks related to the movements of elbow and shoulder joints, and surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were recorded from 10 upper arm and shoulder muscles involved in the defined tasks. Non-negative matrix factorization algorithm was used to extract muscle synergies and the corresponding activation patterns during three similar tasks. For each subject in TD group, four muscle synergies were extracted in each task. Whereas, fewer mature synergies were recruited in CP group, and many abnormal synergy structures specific to CP group appeared. In view of neuromuscular control strategy differences, three synergy-related parameters were proposed and synergy structure similarity coefficient was found to have high ability in depicting the inter-subject similarity within task and the intra-subject similarity between tasks. Seven upper limb assessment (UPA) metrics, which were defined as the combinations of synergy structure similarity coefficients of three tasks, were proposed to assess the upper limb motor function of CP children. The experimental results demonstrated that these UPA metrics were able to assess upper limb motor function comprehensively and effectively. The proposed assessment method can serve as a promising approach to quantify the abnormality of muscle synergies, thus offering potential to derive a physiologically based quantitative index for assessing upper limb motor function in CP clinical diagnosis and rehabilitation. PMID:28386223

  7. Single centre experience of the upper limb replantation and revascularisation.

    PubMed

    Visnjic, Milan M; Kovacevic, Predrag T; Paunkovic, Ljiljana M; Milenkovic, Sasa S

    2004-01-01

    Replantation is defined as reattachment of the amputated limb using the neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain the recovery of the limb. Fortunately, injuries causing limb amputation are rare. Adequate treatment within the optimal time scale can provide successful rehabilitation of the shape and function of the replanted part. We report the experience of our Clinical Centre (regional replantation centre) in the replantation of five forearms/hands and revascularisation of six hands between 1997 and 2001. The most frequent site of injury was the distal part of the forearm, while the major cause of injuries was a wood processing machine. The surgical procedures were performed under general anaesthesia within 2-6 hours after injury. Vascular anastomoses, nerve repair and muscle repair were performed following the external bone fixation. All patients were given anticoagulation treatment postoperatively. Thrombosis in the anastomotic site developed as an early complication in two patients who underwent thrombectomy; one of these patients developed gangrene and underwent amputation. Late postoperative results were good in 10 patients. One patient developed acral epidermolysis. Postoperative results after revascularisation were good in all patients.

  8. Upper limb kinematical analysis of an elite weight lifter in the squat snatch.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gang; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Dongmei; Wei, Gaofeng; Chang, Daofang; Wang, Chengtao; Mi, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    The kinematical parameters such as translational acceleration and angular acceleration in the upper limb of a weightlifter may change regularly during different phases of squat snatch. This study aims to make this question clear. At first, the joint coordinate system (JCS) of human upper limb based on the anatomical landmarks is defined. Then a novel method for calculating the kinematical parameters was brought forward, which was based on analyzing the relative position of the JCS to world coordinate system during an instantaneous situation and the relationship among each JCS at different times during squat snatch. Motion capture system is used to gather the data of the upper limb in an elite weightlifter during squat snatch (the mass of the barbell is 20 kg) and the method mentioned before is applied to analyze the data. Finally, the law of the change of kinematical parameters in each phase of squat snatch is found.

  9. The Importance of Technical Devices in the Self-care of Upper Limbs Amputees.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Gabriella; Vén, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Medical Rehabilitation (NIMR) is engaged in the rehabilitation of posttraumatic patients, including also attending traumatic cases with amputated upper limbs. The lack of upper limbs is a great obstacle in essential functioning for the injured, and that is why we give high priority to planning, constructing and individually adopting appliances for aiding everyday life. Special literature gives distinguished attention to operative techniques and the possibilities of prosthetic devices, but no professional articles present any special devices needed for discharging everyday vital functions. The purpose of this lecture is to present the results of our follow-up examination aimed at upper limbs amputees reeducated since 1994 at the NIMR (9 patients). Case studies conclude that the prosthetic care plays a surprisingly small part in the self-sufficiency of the injured. Claims to individual appliances are already more considerable but these cannot be obtained in normal commerce because of unprofitable production in view of users so few in number.

  10. The anatomical basis of upper limb dystonia: lesson from secondary cases.

    PubMed

    Liuzzi, Daniele; Gigante, Angelo Fabio; Leo, Antonio; Defazio, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Upper limb dystonia is a focal dystonia that may affect muscles in the arm, forearm and hand. The neuroanatomical substrates involved in upper limb dystonia are not fully understood. Traditionally, dysfunction of the basal ganglia is presumed to be the main cause of dystonia but a growing body of evidence suggests that a network of additional cortical and subcortical structures may be involved. To identify the brain regions that are affected in secondary upper limb dystonia may help to better understand the neuroanatomical basis of the condition. We considered only patients with focal upper limb dystonia associated with a single localized brain lesion. To identify these patients, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature as well as the medical records of 350 patients with adult-onset dystonia seen over past 15 years at our movement disorder clinic. The literature review revealed 36 articles describing 72 cases of focal upper limb dystonia associated with focal lesions. Among patients at our clinic, four had focal lesions on imaging studies. Lesions were found in multiple regions including thalamus (n = 39), basal ganglia (n = 17), cortex (n = 4), brainstem (n = 4), cerebellum (n = 1), and cervical spine (n = 7). Dystonic tremor was not associated with any particular site of lesion, whereas there was a trend for an inverse association between task specificity and thalamic involvement. These data in combination with functional imaging studies of idiopathic upper limb dystonia support a model in which a network of different regions plays a role in pathogenesis.

  11. Determining the benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on functional upper limb movement in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jodie L; Conley, Alexander C; Karayanidis, Frini; Miller, James; Lagopoulos, Jim; Parsons, Mark W

    2017-02-13

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been proposed as a tool to enhance stroke rehabilitation; however, evidence to support its use is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of anodal and cathodal tDCS on upper limb function in chronic stroke patients. Twenty five participants were allocated to receive 20 min of 1 mA of anodal, cathodal or sham cortical stimulation in a random, counterbalanced order. Patients and assessors were blinded to the intervention at each time point. The primary outcome was upper limb performance as measured by the Jebsen Taylor Test of Hand Function (total score, fine motor subtest score and gross motor subtest score) as well as grip strength. Each outcome was assessed at baseline and at the conclusion of each intervention in both upper limbs. Neither anodal nor cathodal stimulation resulted in statistically significantly improved upper limb performance on any of the measured tasks compared with sham stimulation (P>0.05). When the data were analysed according to disability, participants with moderate/severe disability showed significantly improved gross motor function following cathodal stimulation compared with sham (P=0.014). However, this was accompanied by decreased key grip strength in the unaffected hand (P=0.003). We are unable to endorse the use of anodal and cathodal tDCS in the management of upper limb dysfunction in chronic stroke patients. Although there appears to be more potential for the use of cathodal stimulation in patients with severe disability, the effects were small and must be considered with caution as they were accompanied by unanticipated effects in the unaffected upper limb.

  12. The Effect of an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot on Hemispatial Neglect in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of an upper limb rehabilitation robot therapy on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. Methods Patients were randomly divided into an upper limb rehabilitation robot treatment group (robot group) and a control group. The patients in the robot group received left upper limb training using an upper limb rehabilitation robot. The patients sat on the right side of the robot, so that the monitor of the robot was located on the patients' left side. In this position, patients could focus continuously on the left side. The control group received conventional neglect treatment, such as visual scanning training and range of motion exercises, administered by occupational therapists. Both groups received their respective therapies for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Several tests were used to evaluate treatment effects before and after the 3-week treatment. Results In total, 38 patients (20 in the robot group and 18 in the control group) completed the study. After completion of the treatment sessions, both groups showed significant improvements in the Motor-Free Visual Perception Test 3rd edition (MVPT-3), the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, the Albert's test, the Catherine Bergego scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index. The changes in all measurements showed no significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion This present study showed that the upper limb robot treatment had benefits for hemispatial neglect in stroke patients that were similar to conventional neglect treatment. The upper limb robot treatment could be a therapeutic option in the treatment of hemispatial neglect after stroke. PMID:27606267

  13. Course review: the 4th Bob Huffstadt upper and lower limb flap dissection course.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jonathan A

    2014-12-01

    The Bob Huffstadt course is a 2-day upper and lower limb flap dissection course held in Groningen, the Netherlands. The course is in English, with an international faculty of senior consultants from the Netherlands, Belgium, and United Kingdom. Faculty to participant ratio is 2:1, with 2 participants at each dissection table. The course is aimed at trainees in plastic surgery of all levels, and a comprehensive DVD is provided before the course, which demonstrates dissection of 35 flaps, ensuring those with little experience to have an understanding before dissection.This course offered a comprehensive overview with plenty of practical application. The course can greatly develop operative and theoretical knowledge, while also demonstrating a commitment for those wishing to pursue a career in plastic surgery. Longer courses are available; however, the 2-day course can already provide an excellent introduction for junior trainees. There are few flap courses in the United Kingdom and senior trainees may have difficulty acquiring a place as they book up well in advance. With reductions in operating time, trainees may welcome further experience and development of techniques in the dissection room.Most of both days were spent in the dissection room, raising flaps and receiving teaching from the faculty. Dissections included Foucher, Moberg, Becker, radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, and fibula flaps. Dissection specimens were fresh-frozen preparation, and 9 upper limb flaps were raised on the first day and 5 lower limb flaps on the second day. The faculty provided live demonstrations of perforator dissection, use of the hand-held Doppler, and tips and tricks. The last 2 hours of each day were spent with 2 lectures, including topics from the history of flaps and developments to challenging cases and reconstructive options.The course fee was 1000 euros, including a 5-course dinner, lunch on both days, and a drinks reception on the final evening. I would recommend this

  14. Upper limb musculoskeletal complaints among technicians working in a diagnostic tuberculosis laboratory: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Wong, Joyce Y P; Chin, David; Fung, Henry; Li, Ann; Wong, Marcus M S; Kwok, Henry K H

    2014-01-01

    Upper limb musculoskeletal complaints are common among certain health professionals. We report two cases, both involving technicians working in a diagnostic tuberculosis laboratory in Hong Kong. A work process evaluation suggest that the need to repeatedly open and close small bottles, as well as to work for prolonged periods of time in confined areas, could be related to the workers' clinical presentation. The cases are also compatible with the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI) of the upper limb, but this term is not commonly used nowadays because of various definitional issues. A review of the various diagnostic issues in RSI is presented.

  15. Successful revascularisation of near total amputation of the upper limb after ten hours of warm ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Merican, A M; Kwan, M K; Cheok, C Y; Wong, E L W; Sara, T A

    2005-06-01

    Near total amputation of the upper limb if unsalvageable would cause severe disability. However, delayed revascularisation can be life threatening. We report two cases of revascularisation of the upper limb following near total amputation that was successful and functional after a warm ischaemic time of ten hours. The first was a traction avulsion injury of the arm leaving major nerves contused but in continuity. The second was a sharp injury through the mid-forearm attached by only a bridge of skin. Attempting revascularisation of a proximal injury beyond 6 hours, in selected cases is worthwhile.

  16. Recurrent upper limb ischaemia due to a crutch-induced brachial artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kouji; Hayase, Takahiro; Yano, Mitsuhiro

    2013-07-01

    An 83-year old man who had used bilateral axillary crutches for 67 years was referred to our hospital for acute left upper limb ischaemia. He underwent successful recanalization through emergent catheter thromboembolectomy. However, a crutch-induced left brachial artery aneurysm was subsequently detected by computed tomography. Therefore, we performed aneurysm exclusion and subsequent saphenous vein bypass grafting. When a crutch user presents with upper limb ischaemia, a high index of suspicion and early identification of the crutch induced vascular injury are mandatory for appropriate treatment.

  17. Advanced rehabilitation techniques for the multi-limb amputee.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Zach T; Loomis, Gregory A; Mitsch, Sarah; Murphy, Ian C; Griffin, Sarah C; Potter, Benjamin K; Pasquina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Advances in combat casualty care have contributed to unprecedented survival rates of battlefield injuries, challenging the field of rehabilitation to help injured service members achieve maximal functional recovery and independence. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in the care of the multiple-limb amputee. Specialized medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions are needed to optimize the care of this unique patient population. This article describes lessons learned at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Bethesda in providing advanced therapy and prosthetics for combat casualties, but provides guidelines for all providers involved in the care of individuals with amputation.

  18. Posture interacts with arm weight support to modulate corticomotor excitability to the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Runnalls, Keith D; Anson, Greg; Byblow, Winston D

    2017-01-01

    The use of arm weight support (WS) to optimize movement quality may be an avenue for improved upper limb stroke rehabilitation; however, the underlying neurophysiological effects of WS are not well understood. Rehabilitation exercises may be performed when sitting or standing, but the interaction of posture with WS has not been examined until now. We explored the effect of posture with WS on corticomotor excitability (CME) in healthy adults. Thirteen participants performed static shoulder abduction in two postures (sitting and standing) at three levels of WS (0, 45, and 90 % of full support). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in eight upper limb muscles. Stimulus-response (SR) curves were fitted to the MEP data using nonlinear regression. Whole-body posture interacted with WS to influence tonic activity and CME in all muscles examined. SR curve parameters revealed greater CME when standing compared to sitting for upper arm muscles, but lower CME to the shoulder, forearm, and hand. Distal to the shoulder, tonic activity and CME were modulated independent of any explicit differences in task requirements. Overall, these results support a model of integrated upper limb control influenced by whole-body posture and WS. These findings have implications for the application of WS in settings such as upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.

  19. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  20. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  1. Habitual throwing and swimming correspond with upper limb diaphyseal strength and shape in modern human athletes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Colin N; Stock, Jay T

    2009-09-01

    Variation in upper limb long bone cross-sectional properties may reflect a phenotypically plastic response to habitual loading patterns. Structural differences between limb bones have often been used to infer past behavior from hominin remains; however, few studies have examined direct relationships between behavioral differences and bone structure in humans. To help address this, cross-sectional images (50% length) of the humeri and ulnae of university varsity-level swimmers, cricketers, and controls were captured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. High levels of humeral robusticity were found in the dominant arms of cricketers, and bilaterally among swimmers, whereas the most gracile humeri were found in both arms of controls, and the nondominant arms of cricketers. In addition, the dominant humeri of cricketers were more circular than controls. The highest levels of ulnar robusticity were also found in the dominant arm of cricketers, and bilaterally amongst swimmers. Bilateral asymmetry in humeral rigidity among cricketers was greater than swimmers and controls, while asymmetry for ulnar rigidity was greater in cricketers than controls. The results suggest that more mechanically loaded upper limb elements--unilaterally or bilaterally--are strengthened relative to less mechanically loaded elements, and that differences in mechanical loading may have a more significant effect on proximal compared to distal limb segments. The more circular humerus in the dominant arm in cricketers may be an adaptation to torsional strain associated with throwing activities. The reported correspondence between habitual activity patterns and upper limb diaphyseal properties may inform future behavioral interpretations involving hominin skeletal remains.

  2. Effects of leg pedaling on early latency cutaneous reflexes in upper limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2010-07-01

    The functional coupling of neural circuits between the upper and lower limbs involving rhythmic movements is of interest to both motor control research and rehabilitation science. This coupling can be detected by examining the effect of remote rhythmic limb movement on the modulation of reflex amplitude in stationary limbs. The present study investigated the extent to which rhythmic leg pedaling modulates the amplitude of an early latency (peak 30-70 ms) cutaneous reflex (ELCR) in the upper limb muscles. Thirteen neurologically intact volunteers performed leg pedaling (60 or 90 rpm) while simultaneously contracting their arm muscles isometrically. Control experiments included isolated isometric contractions and discrete movements of the leg. ELCRs were evoked by stimulation of the superficial radial nerve with a train of rectangular pulses (three pulses at 333 Hz, intensity 2.0- to 2.5-fold perceptual threshold). Reflex amplitudes were significantly increased in the flexor carpi radialis and posterior deltoid and significantly decreased in the biceps brachii muscles during leg pedaling compared with that during stationary isometric contraction of the lower leg muscles. This effect was also sensitive to cadence. No significant modulation was seen during the isometric contractions or discrete movements of the leg. Additionally, there was no phase-dependent modulation of the ELCR. These findings suggest that activation of the rhythm generating system of the legs affects the excitability of the early latency cutaneous reflex pathways in the upper limbs.

  3. EEG-based BCI for the linear control of an upper-limb neuroprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, Carmen; Klauer, Christian; Schauer, Thomas; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-11-01

    Assistive technologies help patients to reacquire interacting capabilities with the environment and improve their quality of life. In this manuscript we present a feasibility study in which healthy users were able to use a non-invasive Motor Imagery (MI)-based brain computer interface (BCI) to achieve linear control of an upper-limb functional electrical stimulation (FES) controlled neuro-prosthesis. The linear control allowed the real-time computation of a continuous control signal that was used by the FES system to physically set the stimulation parameters to control the upper-limb position. Even if the nature of the task makes the operation very challenging, the participants achieved a mean selection accuracy of 82.5% in a target selection experiment. An analysis of limb kinematics as well as the positioning precision was performed, showing the viability of using a BCI-FES system to control upper-limb reaching movements. The results of this study constitute an accurate use of an online non-invasive BCI to operate a FES-neuroprosthesis setting a step toward the recovery of the control of an impaired limb with the sole use of brain activity.

  4. [Longitudinal study of a population exposed to risk of biomechanical overload of the upper limb].

    PubMed

    Martmelli, R; Tobia, L; Lupi, A; Monaco, M; Capitano, T; Ponzi, I; Paoletti, A

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important factors of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities (WMSDs) is the biomechanical overload. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of the worker fitting to the job, to decrease the upper limb repetitive stress. In order to this aim, we have collected and compared, in different controls at the distance of two years, the clinical-anamnestic and instrumental data of a cohort of workers in a car industry.

  5. Functional and symptomatic assessment of medico-legal claims after upper limb injuries.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Hjcr

    2016-10-04

    A consecutive group of 250 patients underwent medico-legal assessment at a mean of 24 (±13) months following upper limb injuries. Each had completed questionnaires to assess function (Quick-DASH) and cold intolerance (CIQ36) before clinical assessment following which their whole limb impairment percentage was calculated. The mean(±SD) whole limb impairment, QDASH and CIQ36 scores were 9(±14)%, 43(±24) and 17(±10), respectively. There was a significant correlation between whole limb impairment and QDASH, although some patients reported surprisingly high disability levels despite minimal or no objective functional impairment. Whilst useful qualitative information can be obtained from questionnaires, the correlation between subjective and objective scores is weak albeit statistically significant. Individual patients can show marked discrepancies between objective and subjective functional scores. The results of questionnaires in individual medico-legal patients should be treated with caution.

  6. Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.

    1996-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.

  7. Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarnot, Robert R.; Waters, Joe W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes pre-launch radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Use of in-flight data for validation or refinement of calibration is described. The estimated uncertaint in calibrated radiance from pre-launch radiometric and spectral calibration data is better than 2% in most bands.

  8. Robot-Mediated Upper Limb Physiotherapy: Review and Recommendations for Future Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Orsolya; Fazekas, Gabor; Zsiga, Katalin; Denes, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Robot-mediated physiotherapy provides a new possibility for improving the outcome of rehabilitation of patients who are recovering from stroke. This study is a review of robot-supported upper limb physiotherapy focusing on the shoulder, elbow, and wrist. A literature search was carried out in PubMed, OVID, and EBSCO for clinical trials with robots…

  9. Predictive classification of self-paced upper-limb analytical movements with EEG.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Jaime; Serrano, J I; del Castillo, M D; Minguez, J; Pons, J L

    2015-11-01

    The extent to which the electroencephalographic activity allows the characterization of movements with the upper limb is an open question. This paper describes the design and validation of a classifier of upper-limb analytical movements based on electroencephalographic activity extracted from intervals preceding self-initiated movement tasks. Features selected for the classification are subject specific and associated with the movement tasks. Further tests are performed to reject the hypothesis that other information different from the task-related cortical activity is being used by the classifiers. Six healthy subjects were measured performing self-initiated upper-limb analytical movements. A Bayesian classifier was used to classify among seven different kinds of movements. Features considered covered the alpha and beta bands. A genetic algorithm was used to optimally select a subset of features for the classification. An average accuracy of 62.9 ± 7.5% was reached, which was above the baseline level observed with the proposed methodology (30.2 ± 4.3%). The study shows how the electroencephalography carries information about the type of analytical movement performed with the upper limb and how it can be decoded before the movement begins. In neurorehabilitation environments, this information could be used for monitoring and assisting purposes.

  10. Upper limb module in non-ambulant patients with spinal muscular atrophy: 12 month changes.

    PubMed

    Sivo, Serena; Mazzone, Elena; Antonaci, Laura; De Sanctis, Roberto; Fanelli, Lavinia; Palermo, Concetta; Montes, Jacqueline; Pane, Marika; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that in non-ambulant patients affected by spinal muscular atrophy the Upper Limb Module can increase the range of activities assessed by the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The aim of this study was to establish 12-month changes in the Upper Limb Module in a cohort of non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients and their correlation with changes on the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded. The Upper Limb Module scores ranged between 0 and 17 (mean 10.23, SD 4.81) at baseline and between 1 and 17 at 12 months (mean 10.27, SD 4.74). The Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded scores ranged between 0 and 34 (mean 12.43, SD 9.13) at baseline and between 0 and 34 at 12 months (mean 12.08, SD 9.21). The correlation betweeen the two scales was 0.65 at baseline and 0.72 on the 12 month changes. Our results confirm that the Upper Limb Module can capture functional changes in non-ambulant spinal muscular atrophy patients not otherwise captured by the other scale and that the combination of the two measures allows to capture changes in different subgroups of patients in whom baseline scores and functional changes may be influenced by several variables such as age.

  11. The biomechanical overload of the upper limb: a neglected occupational hazard in animal facility operators.

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Vincenzo; Ghersi, Rinaldo; Prandini, Lucio; Korpinen, Leena; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2017-03-01

    Data on biomechanical overload of the upper limb in animal facility operators are currently scanty. We decided to study this risk in a university animal facility. Eleven different tasks performed by operators were identified. For each of them, the biomechanical overload of the upper limb was evaluated by applying 4 different methods frequently used, hypothesising a task duration of 4 and 8 h. Then two 'typical' real working days of the examined facility were reconstructed, and the risk for operators was calculated using the OCRA Index, Checklist and Mini-Checklist. Considering the specific tasks, the results show some difference among methods, but the overall results show an acceptable/slight risk of biomechanical overload of the upper limb in animal facility operators during typical working days. Practitioner Summary: Upper limb biomechanical overload (UL-BO) is a neglected risk in animal facilities. In a university facility, 11 different tasks were identified, and 2 typical working days were analysed. Even if some task at increased risk may exist, during typical working days,  the overall results show that the risk of UL-BO in operators can be considered usually acceptable or, at worst, slight.

  12. The 6 minute walk test and performance of upper limb in ambulant duchenne muscular dystrophy boys.

    PubMed

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-10-07

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase.

  13. The 6 Minute Walk Test and Performance of Upper Limb in Ambulant Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Boys

    PubMed Central

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena Stacy; Sivo, Serena; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; D’Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Bianco, Flaviana; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gian Luca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Busato, Fabio; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Bonetti, Annamaria; Palermo, Concetta; Graziano, Alessandra; D’Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Corlatti, Alice; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Antonaci, Laura; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) test was specifically developed for the assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The first published data have shown that early signs of involvement can also be found in ambulant DMD boys. The aim of this longitudinal Italian multicentric study was to evaluate the correlation between the 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the PUL in ambulant DMD boys. Both 6MWT and PUL were administered to 164 ambulant DMD boys of age between 5.0 and 16.17 years (mean 8.82). The 6 minute walk distance (6MWD) ranged between 118 and 557 (mean: 376.38, SD: 90.59). The PUL total scores ranged between 52 and 74 (mean: 70.74, SD: 4.66). The correlation between the two measures was 0.499. The scores on the PUL largely reflect the overall impairment observed on the 6MWT but the correlation was not linear. The use of the PUL appeared to be less relevant in the very strong patients with 6MWD above 400 meters, who, with few exceptions had near full scores. In patients with lower 6MWD the severity of upper limb involvement was more variable and could not always be predicted by the 6MWD value or by the use of steroids. Our results confirm that upper limb involvement can already be found in DMD boys even in the ambulant phase. PMID:25642376

  14. The clinical evaluation of the upper limb joints' function: back to Hippocrates.

    PubMed

    Kapandji, Adalbert I

    2003-08-01

    This article provides evidence that evaluation of upper limb joint function may be performed without the use of instruments and using only clinical means to diagnose in most cases. Hippocrates would have proceeded the same way in the early ages of medicine.

  15. Prevalence of upper limb musculo skeletal disorders among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Ghosh, Tirthankar; DAS, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam; DAS, Bani Brata

    2007-04-01

    Brass metal work is one of the oldest cottage industries in West Bengal, India. Workers performing rigorous hand intensive jobs are likely to suffer from MSD affecting the upper limbs. The present investigation was intended to establish the prevalence of upper limb MSD among the brass metal workers and to identify the causative factors behind its development. In this study, 50 male brass metal workers (Experimental Group) and 50 male office workers (Comparison Group) were selected. For the symptom survey, a questionnaire on discomfort symptoms was performed. Repetitiveness of work and Hand Grip Strength of both the groups were measured. It was revealed that upper limb MSD was a major problem among brass metal workers, primarily involving the hand, wrist, fingers and shoulder. Among the workers reporting subjective discomfort, most of them felt pain, followed by tingling and numbness in their hands. Many complained of swelling, warmth and tenderness in their wrists. Their activities were highly repetitive and the handgrip strength of these workers was significantly less than that of the comparison group. Based on these findings, it appears that high repetitiveness, prolonged work activity (10.5 h of work per day with 8.4 h spent on hammering) and decreased handgrip strength may be causative factors in the occurrence of upper limb MSD among brass metal workers in West Bengal, India.

  16. The Corticospinal Tract: A Biomarker to Categorize Upper Limb Functional Potential in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Ellen; Byblow, Winston D; Feys, Hilde; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) typically present with largely divergent upper limb sensorimotor deficits and individual differences in response to upper limb rehabilitation. This review summarizes how early brain damage can cause dramatic deviations from the normal anatomy of sensory and motor tracts, resulting in unique "wiring patterns" of the sensorimotor system in CP. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and integrity constrains sensorimotor function of the upper limb and potentially also the response to treatment. However, it is not possible to infer CST (re)organization from clinical presentation alone and conventional biomarkers, such as time of insult, location, and lesion extent seem to have limited clinical utility. Here, we propose a theoretical framework based on a detailed examination of the motor system using behavioral, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance imaging measures, akin to those used to predict potential for upper limb recovery of adults after stroke. This theoretical framework might prove useful because it provides testable hypotheses for future research with the goal to develop and validate a clinical assessment flowchart to categorize children with unilateral CP.

  17. The Corticospinal Tract: A Biomarker to Categorize Upper Limb Functional Potential in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Ellen; Byblow, Winston D.; Feys, Hilde; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) typically present with largely divergent upper limb sensorimotor deficits and individual differences in response to upper limb rehabilitation. This review summarizes how early brain damage can cause dramatic deviations from the normal anatomy of sensory and motor tracts, resulting in unique “wiring patterns” of the sensorimotor system in CP. Based on the existing literature, we suggest that corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and integrity constrains sensorimotor function of the upper limb and potentially also the response to treatment. However, it is not possible to infer CST (re)organization from clinical presentation alone and conventional biomarkers, such as time of insult, location, and lesion extent seem to have limited clinical utility. Here, we propose a theoretical framework based on a detailed examination of the motor system using behavioral, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance imaging measures, akin to those used to predict potential for upper limb recovery of adults after stroke. This theoretical framework might prove useful because it provides testable hypotheses for future research with the goal to develop and validate a clinical assessment flowchart to categorize children with unilateral CP. PMID:26779464

  18. Flap Decisions and Options in Soft Tissue Coverage of the Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Hindocha, Sandip; Malahias, Marco; Saleh, Mohamed; Juma, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue deficiency in the upper limb is a common presentation following trauma, burns infection and tumour removal. Soft tissue coverage of the upper limb is a challenging problem for reconstructive surgeons to manage. The ultimate choice of soft tissue coverage will depend on the size and site of the wound, complexity of the injury, status of surrounding tissue, exposure of the vital structures and health status of the patient. There are several local cutaneous flaps that provide adequate soft tissue coverage for small sized defects of the hand, forearm and arm. When these flaps are limited in their mobility regional flaps and free flaps can be utilised. Free tissue transfer provides vascularised soft tissue coverage in addition to the transfer of bone, nerve and tendons. Careful consideration of free flap choice, meticulous intraoperative dissection and elevation accompanied by post-operative physiotherapy are required for successful outcomes for the patient. Several free flaps are available for reconstruction in the upper limb including the groin flap, anterolateral flap, radial forearm flap, lateral arm flap and scapular flap. In this review we will provide local, regional and free flap choice options for upper limb reconstruction, highlighting the benefits and challenges of different approaches. PMID:25408782

  19. Lewis-sumner syndrome of pure upper-limb onset: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic features.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Chavada, Govindsinh

    2009-02-01

    Lewis-Sumner syndrome (L-SS) represents the asymmetric variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The characteristics and specificities of L-SS of pure upper-limb onset, as initially described by Lewis et al. [Multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with persistent conduction block. Neurology 32:958-964, 1982], have not been studied. We describe 8 such patients and review 82 previously reported cases. Distal involvement predominates and is mixed, sensory and motor from onset in only 50% of patients. Pain is a feature in about 20%. Subsequent lower-limb involvement occurs in <40% of cases. Electrophysiologically, upper-limb-onset L-SS is characterized by the presence of motor conduction blocks in arm nerves in about 90% of cases, and other demyelinating motor abnormalities are significantly less frequent. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels are raised in about 40% of cases and are moderate in most. Mildly raised anti-GM1 antibody titers are rare (<5%), but very high titers (> or =1:6400) have not been reported. Over 80% of treated patients respond, and intravenous immunoglobulins may be more effective than steroids. The prognosis is favorable in 40% of patients who eventually stabilize without treatment. We also reviewed 36 cases of other forms of L-SS, and present a further 2 cases. The upper-limb-onset variant is significantly less likely to spread to other limbs and may be less likely to have raised CSF protein levels. This could reflect a more localized disease process in upper-limb-onset L-SS. This variant may represent a separate entity, to be distinguished from other asymmetric forms of CIDP.

  20. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  1. A Special Golden Curve in Human Upper Limbs' Length Proportion: A Functional Partition Which Is Different from Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Ma, Jie; Jin, Dan; Yu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between upper limbs' three functional partitions and the golden curve. Materials and Methods. We measured 30 subjects' right or left upper limb data and investigate the relationship between them and the golden curve by use of SPSS version 20.0 statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), one-sample t-test. Results. There are four points on human's upper limbs which have no difference with the four points on the golden curve. And there is one point of which the difference is obvious. But we still could draw the conclusion that human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. Conclusion. Human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve.

  2. A Special Golden Curve in Human Upper Limbs' Length Proportion: A Functional Partition Which Is Different from Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between upper limbs' three functional partitions and the golden curve. Materials and Methods. We measured 30 subjects' right or left upper limb data and investigate the relationship between them and the golden curve by use of SPSS version 20.0 statistical software (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois), one-sample t-test. Results. There are four points on human's upper limbs which have no difference with the four points on the golden curve. And there is one point of which the difference is obvious. But we still could draw the conclusion that human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. Conclusion. Human upper limbs are accordant with the golden curve. PMID:28232941

  3. Upper Limb Muscle and Brain Activity in Light Assembly Task on Different Load Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md.; Taha, Zahari

    2010-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of load on upper limb muscles and brain activities in light assembly task. The task was conducted at two levels of load (Low and high). Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to measure upper limb muscle activities of twenty subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded with EMG to record brain activities from Fz, Pz, O1 and O2 channels. The EMG Mean Power Frequency (MPF) of the right brachioradialis and the left upper trapezius activities were higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task. The EMG MPF values also decrease as time increases, that reflects muscle fatigue. Mean power of the EEG alpha bands for the Fz-Pz channels were found to be higher on the high-load task compared to low-load task, while for the O1-O2 channels, they were higher on the low-load task than on the high-load task. These results indicated that the load levels effect the upper limb muscle and brain activities. The high-load task will increase muscle activities on the right brachioradialis and the left upper tapezius muscles, and will increase the awareness and motivation of the subjects. Whilst the low-load task can generate drowsiness earlier. It signified that the longer the time and the more heavy of the task, the subjects will be more fatigue physically and mentally.

  4. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Upper Limb Spasticity: The Wrist and Hand

    PubMed Central

    Seruya, Mitchel; Dickey, Ryan M.; Fakhro, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The wrist and hand are essential in the placement of the upper extremity in a functional position for grasp, pinch, and release activities. This depends on the delicate balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the wrist and hand. Spasticity alters this equilibrium, limiting the interaction of the upper limb with the environment. Classically, pediatric patients with upper limb spasticity present with a flexed wrist, thumb-in-palm, and flexed finger posture. These contractures are typically secondary to spasticity of the extrinsic flexor muscles of the wrist and hand and intrinsic muscles of the thumb and digits. Tendon release, lengthening, or transfer procedures may help correct the resultant abnormal postures. A total wrist arthrodesis with or without proximal row carpectomy may help address the severely flexed wrist deformity. With proper diagnosis, a well-executed surgical plan, and a consistent hand rehabilitation regimen, successful surgical outcomes can be achieved. PMID:26869861

  5. Major ozonated autohemotherapy promotes the recovery of upper limb motor function in patients with acute cerebral infarction★

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaona; Li, Zhensheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Haiyan; Huang, Yongjun; Luo, Gaoquan; Peng, Kairun

    2013-01-01

    Major ozonated autohemotherapy is classically used in treating ischemic disorder of the lower limbs. In the present study, we performed major ozonated autohemotherapy treatment in patients with acute cerebral infarction, and assessed outcomes according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, Modified Rankin Scale, and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor-evoked potential. Compared with the control group, the clinical total effective rate and the cortical potential rise rate of the upper limbs were significantly higher, the central motor conduction time of upper limb was significantly shorter, and the upper limb motor-evoked potential amplitude was significantly increased, in the ozone group. In the ozone group, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Score was positively correlated with the central motor conduction time and the motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb. Central motor conduction time and motor-evoked potential amplitude of the upper limb may be effective indicators of motor-evoked potentials to assess upper limb motor function in cerebral infarct patients. Furthermore, major ozonated autohemotherapy may promote motor function recovery of the upper limb in patients with acute cerebral infarction. PMID:25206688

  6. Comparative analysis of speech impairment and upper limb motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Krupička, Radim; Zárubová, Kateřina; Novotný, Michal; Jech, Robert; Szabó, Zoltán; Růžička, Evžen

    2017-04-01

    It is currently unknown whether speech and limb motor effectors in Parkinson's disease (PD) are controlled by similar underlying brain processes. Based on computerized objective analysis, the aim of this study was to evaluate potential correlation between speech and mechanical tests of upper limb motor function. Speech and upper limb motor tests were performed in 22 PD patients and 22 healthy controls. Quantitative acoustic analyses of eight key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria, including quality of voice, sequential motion rates, consonant articulation, vowel articulation, average loudness, loudness variability, pitch variability, and number of pauses, were performed. Upper limb movements were assessed using the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, contactless three-dimensional motion capture system, blinded expert evaluation, and the Purdue Pegboard Test. Significant relationships were observed between the quality of voice assessed by jitter and amplitude decrement of finger tapping (r = 0.61, p = 0.003), consonant articulation evaluated using voice onset time and expert rating of finger tapping (r = 0.60, p = 0.003), and number of pauses and Purdue Pegboard Test score (r = 0.60, p = 0.004). The current study supports the hypothesis that speech impairment in PD shares, at least partially, similar pathophysiological processes with limb motor dysfunction. Vocal fold vibration irregularities appeared to be influenced by mechanisms similar to amplitude decrement during repetitive limb movements. Consonant articulation deficits were associated with decreased manual dexterity and movement speed, likely reflecting fine motor control involvement in PD.

  7. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age. PMID:28033339

  8. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment.

  9. Normative Data for an Instrumental Assessment of the Upper-Limb Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Caimmi, Marco; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Malosio, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Vicentini, Federico; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo; Molteni, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Upper-limb movement analysis is important to monitor objectively rehabilitation interventions, contributing to improving the overall treatments outcomes. Simple, fast, easy-to-use, and applicable methods are required to allow routinely functional evaluation of patients with different pathologies and clinical conditions. This paper describes the Reaching and Hand-to-Mouth Evaluation Method, a fast procedure to assess the upper-limb motor control and functional ability, providing a set of normative data from 42 healthy subjects of different ages, evaluated for both the dominant and the nondominant limb motor performance. Sixteen of them were reevaluated after two weeks to perform test-retest reliability analysis. Data were clustered into three subgroups of different ages to test the method sensitivity to motor control differences. Experimental data show notable test-retest reliability in all tasks. Data from older and younger subjects show significant differences in the measures related to the ability for coordination thus showing the high sensitivity of the method to motor control differences. The presented method, provided with control data from healthy subjects, appears to be a suitable and reliable tool for the upper-limb functional assessment in the clinical environment. PMID:26539500

  10. BCI-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Marquez-Chin, Cesar; Marquis, Aaron; Popovic, Milos R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the integration of brain-computer interfacing (BCI) technology with functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore voluntary function. The system was tested with a single man with chronic (6 years) severe left hemiplegia resulting from a stroke. The BCI, implemented as a simple “brain-switch” activated by power decreases in the 18 Hz – 28 Hz frequency range of the participant’s electroencephalograpic signals, triggered a neuroprosthesis designed to facilitate forward reaching, reaching to the mouth, and lateral reaching movements. After 40 90-minute sessions in which the participant attempted the reaching tasks repeatedly, with the movements assisted by the BCI-triggered neuroprosthesis, the participant’s arm function showed a clinically significant six point increase in the Fugl-Meyer Asessment Upper Extermity Sub-Score. These initial results suggest that the combined use of BCI and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary reaching function in individuals with chronic severe hemiplegia for whom the rehabilitation alternatives are very limited. PMID:27990247

  11. Limb salvage using advanced technologies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Frykberg, Robert G; O'Connor, Rachel M; Tallis, Arthur; Tierney, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Patients with severe acute and chronic lower extremity wounds often present a significant challenge in terms of limb salvage. In addition to control of infection, assuring adequate perfusion and providing standard wound care, advanced modalities are often required to facilitate final wound closure. We herein present a case study on a diabetic patient with gangrene and necrotising soft-tissue infection who underwent a forefoot pedal amputation to control the sepsis. Despite his non invasive vascular studies demonstrating poor healing potential at this level, he was not deemed suitable for revascularisation by our vascular surgeons and ankle-level amputation was recommended. Nonetheless, over a 5-month period using multiple advanced wound care therapies, wound closure was ultimately achieved.

  12. Music Upper Limb Therapy—Integrated: An Enriched Collaborative Approach for Stroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti; Geller, Daniel; Guerrero, Nina; Aluru, Viswanath; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Palumbo, Anna; Turry, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one’s physical body, and alters the stroke survivors’ sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships. In this proof-of-concept study, we designed a group music-making intervention, Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I), to address the physical, psychological and social domains of rehabilitation simultaneously, and investigated its effects on long-term post-stroke upper limb recovery. The study used a mixed-method pre-post design with 1-year follow up. Thirteen subjects completed the 45-min intervention twice a week for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was reduced upper limb motor impairment on the Fugl-Meyer Scale (FMS). Secondary outcomes included sensory impairment (two-point discrimination test), activity limitation (Modified Rankin Scale, MRS), well-being (WHO well-being index), and participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences between pre- and post-intervention, and 1-year follow up scores. Significant improvement was found in upper limb motor impairment, sensory impairment, activity limitation and well-being immediately post-intervention that persisted at 1 year. Activities of daily living and social participation improved only from post-intervention to 1-year follow up. The improvement in upper limb motor impairment was more pronounced in a subset of lower functioning individuals as determined by their pre-intervention wrist range of motion. Qualitatively, subjects reported new feelings of ownership of their impaired limb, more

  13. Disinhibition in the human motor cortex is enhanced by synchronous upper limb movements

    PubMed Central

    Stinear, James W; Byblow, Winston D

    2002-01-01

    The phasic modulation of wrist flexor corticomotor disinhibition has previously been demonstrated during the flexion phase of rhythmical passive flexion-extension of the human wrist. Here we ask if rhythmical bimanual flexion-extension movements of the wrists of neurologically intact subjects, modulate inhibitory activity in the motor cortex. In the first experiment intracortical inhibition was assessed when one wrist was passively flexed and extended on its own, with the addition of the opposite limb voluntarily moving synchronously in a mirror symmetric pattern, and also in a near-symmetric asynchronous pattern. Two subsequent experiments investigated firstly the modulation of spinal reflex pathway activity during the same three movement conditions, and secondly the effect of contralateral wrist movement alone on the excitability of corticomotoneuronal pathways to a static test limb. When the wrist flexors of both upper limbs were shortening simultaneously (i.e. synchronously), intracortical inhibition associated with flexor representations was suppressed to a greater extent than when the two muscles were shortening asynchronously. The results of the three experiments indicate that modulation of inhibitory activity was taking place at the cortical level. These findings may have further application in the study of rehabilitation procedures where the effects of simultaneous activation of affected and unaffected upper limbs in hemiparetic patients are to be investigated. PMID:12181301

  14. Tactile spatial acuity varies with site and axis in the human upper limb.

    PubMed

    Cody, Frederick W J; Garside, Rebecca A D; Lloyd, Donna; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2008-03-12

    Historically, beginning with Weber's [E.H. Weber, On the sensitivity of the tactile senses, in: H.E. Ross, D.J. Murray (Eds. and Trans.), E.H. Weber on the Tactile Senses, Erlbaum (UK) Taylor & Francis, Hove, 1996 (Original work published in 1834), pp. 21-136] classical studies, regional variations in the accuracy of localisation of tactile stimuli applied to a limb have been recognised. However, important questions remain concerning both the map of localisation resolution and its neuroscientific basis since methodological confounds have militated against an unambiguous, unified interpretation of the diverse findings. To test the hypotheses that localisation precision on the upper limb varies with site (hand, wrist, forearm) and limb axis (transverse, longitudinal), regional differences in locognosic acuity were quantified in psychophysical experiments. Participants identified the perceived direction (e.g. medial or lateral) relative to a central reference locus of brief tactile test stimuli applied to a cruciform array of loci. Acuity was greater in the transverse than longitudinal axis. This effect probably arises from the asymmetry of receptive fields of upper limb first-order sensory units and their higher-order projection neurons. Additionally, acuity was greater on the dorsal surface at the wrist than either the hand or forearm sites, in the longitudinal axis, supporting an enhancement of resolution at joints (anchor points). This effect may contribute to improved proprioceptive guidance of active wrist movements.

  15. Hybrid robotic systems for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: A review.

    PubMed

    Resquín, Francisco; Cuesta Gómez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose; Brunetti, Fernando; Torricelli, Diego; Molina Rueda, Francisco; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra, Juan Carlos; Pons, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the combined use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic devices, called hybrid robotic rehabilitation systems, has emerged as a promising approach for rehabilitation of lower and upper limb motor functions. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of current hybrid robotic solutions for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. For this aim, studies have been selected through a search using web databases: IEEE-Xplore, Scopus and PubMed. A total of 10 different hybrid robotic systems were identified, and they are presented in this paper. Selected systems are critically compared considering their technological components and aspects that form part of the hybrid robotic solution, the proposed control strategies that have been implemented, as well as the current technological challenges in this topic. Additionally, we will present and discuss the corresponding evidences on the effectiveness of these hybrid robotic therapies. The review also discusses the future trends in this field.

  16. Development of rehabilitation training support system for occupational therapy of upper limb motor function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Akinori; Uno, Takashi; Uchid, Masaki; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new rehabilitation training support system for upper limbs. The proposed system enables therapists to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training, to easily change the load of resistance of training and to easily develop a new training program suitable for the subjects. For this purpose we develop control algorithms of training programs in the 3D force display robot. The 3D force display robot has parallel link mechanism with three motors. The control algorithm simulating sanding training is developed for the 3D force display robot. Moreover the teaching/training function algorithm is developed. It enables the therapists to easily make training trajectory suitable for subject's condition. The effectiveness of the developed control algorithms is verified by experiments.

  17. [Kinematics Modeling and Analysis of Central-driven Robot for Upper Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke].

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping

    2015-12-01

    The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.

  18. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    PubMed

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  19. Proprioceptive Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Dysfunction in Movement Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Trompetto, Carlo; Mori, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders (MDs) are frequently associated with sensory abnormalities. In particular, proprioceptive deficits have been largely documented in both hypokinetic (Parkinson’s disease) and hyperkinetic conditions (dystonia), suggesting a possible role in their pathophysiology. Proprioceptive feedback is a fundamental component of sensorimotor integration allowing effective planning and execution of voluntary movements. Rehabilitation has become an essential element in the management of patients with MDs, and there is a strong rationale to include proprioceptive training in rehabilitation protocols focused on mobility problems of the upper limbs. Proprioceptive training is aimed at improving the integration of proprioceptive signals using “task-intrinsic” or “augmented feedback.” This perspective article reviews the available evidence on the effects of proprioceptive stimulation in improving upper limb mobility in patients with MDs and highlights the emerging innovative approaches targeted to maximizing the benefits of exercise by means of enhanced proprioception. PMID:25505402

  20. [Anatomo-functional aspects and diagnostic algorithm (of the upper limb pathologies secondary to repeated trauma)].

    PubMed

    Bazzini, G

    2001-01-01

    The epidemiology of work-related musculo-skeletal pathologies of the upper limbs has become significantly relevant in the last years, and a sharp increasing trend can be observed. This paper mainly focuses on the chronic inflammatory and degenerative conditions, which are more complex and difficult to accurately diagnose and treat. A synthesis of the diagnostic picture of the different types, involving the joints, muscles and tendons, and peripheral nerves is provided, with mention of the sensitivity and specificity of the main diagnostic tests. The possible entrapments of the radial, median and ulnar nerves are described in detail. Finally, a brief critical review on the principal movements of the upper limbs which are responsible of the onset of such conditions is presented.

  1. [Exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Comparative study of aerobic training of lower limbs vs. combination with upper limbs].

    PubMed

    Sívori, M; Rhodius, E; Kaplan, P; Talarico, M; Gorojod, G; Carreras, B; López, C; Shimojo, C

    1998-01-01

    A prospective, randomized and controlled study has been performed in 28 patients with severe COPD. A group of 14 has been trained with their lower limbs (LL), while another similar group of 14 patients was also trained with their upper limbs (UL). Results showed improvement in both groups in the endurance test for LL, dyspnea scale, efficiency and muscular working capacity. A considerable improvement was observed in the oxygen uptake at the anerobic threshold (VO2AT) which suggests a training effect, expressed through an improvement in exercise tolerance. Only the group who trained UL showed a remarkable improvement in the dyspnea scale, endurance test and maximal static mouth pressure, showing a better intrinsic working capacity and participation of the UL muscles producing those manoeuvres. At the end of training, quality of life was significantly increased and the hospitalization rate was lower in both groups. According to these findings, it is suggested that patients with severe COPD included in training programmes add UL exercises to the LL usually carried out.

  2. Congenital vascular malformation associated with multiple cranial, vertebral and upper limb skeletal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Marsden, N; Shokrollahi, K; Maw, K; Sierakowski, A; Bhat, F A; Mathur, B

    2010-07-01

    The association between congenital vascular malformations and altered bone growth, the so-called vascular bone syndrome, is well documented. Various eponymous syndromes each with their individual traits, such as Klippel-Trenaunay, Parkes-Weber and Servelle-Martorell syndrome have been described, along with variations. We report on a previously undescribed case of congenital vascular malformation associated with multiple skeletal abnormalities affecting the skull, vertebrae and right upper limb, and discuss the literature.

  3. Upper Limb Outcome Measures Used in Stroke Rehabilitation Studies: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Santisteban, Leire; Térémetz, Maxime; Bleton, Jean-Pierre; Baron, Jean-Claude; Maier, Marc A.; Lindberg, Påvel G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Establishing which upper limb outcome measures are most commonly used in stroke studies may help in improving consensus among scientists and clinicians. Objective In this study we aimed to identify the most commonly used upper limb outcome measures in intervention studies after stroke and to describe domains covered according to ICF, how measures are combined, and how their use varies geographically and over time. Methods Pubmed, CinHAL, and PeDRO databases were searched for upper limb intervention studies in stroke according to PRISMA guidelines and477 studies were included. Results In studies 48different outcome measures were found. Only 15 of these outcome measures were used in more than 5% of the studies. The Fugl-Meyer Test (FMT)was the most commonly used measure (in 36% of studies). Commonly used measures covered ICF domains of body function and activity to varying extents. Most studies (72%) combined multiple outcome measures: the FMT was often combined with the Motor Activity Log (MAL), the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test, but infrequently combined with the Motor Assessment Scale or the Nine Hole Peg Test. Key components of manual dexterity such as selective finger movements were rarely measured. Frequency of use increased over a twelve-year period for the FMT and for assessments of kinematics, whereas other measures, such as the MAL and the Jebsen Taylor Hand Test showed decreased use over time. Use varied largely between countries showing low international consensus. Conclusions The results showed a large diversity of outcome measures used across studies. However, a growing number of studies used the FMT, a neurological test with good psychometric properties. For thorough assessment the FMT needs to be combined with functional measures. These findings illustrate the need for strategies to build international consensus on appropriate outcome measures for upper limb function after stroke. PMID:27152853

  4. [Evaluation of risks of biomechanical overload of the upper limb in physical kinesis therapists].

    PubMed

    Lupi, A; Martinelli, R; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2005-01-01

    Physical therapists are at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Contributing risk factors are job-task, mental stress and biomechanical overload, due to fixed and incorrect postures of neck, upper limbs and back. The purpose of this study was to investigate, by questionnaire and the use of muscle superficial EMG recording and analysis, the workload in the physical therapist activity, in order to provide suitable preventive measures.

  5. Upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients in low socioeconomic strata in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal manifestations of diabetes in the upper limb are well recognized. No data has been available in this regard from Pakistan. Our aim was to find out the frequency of upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities in diabetic patients. Methods This was an observational study in which type 2 diabetes patients attending our diabetic clinic were enrolled along with age and gender matched controls. Data was analyzed on SPSS 16. Results In total, 210 Type 2 diabetics (male 34.3%, female 65.7%) and 203 controls (male 35%, female 65%) were recruited. The mean age was 50.7± 10.2 years in diabetic group as compared to 49.5±10.6 years in the control group. The frequencies of hand region abnormalities were significantly higher in the diabetic subjects as compared to the controls (20.4%, p-value <0.001). Limited joint mobility (9.5% vs 2.5%), carpal tunnel syndrome (9% vs 2%), trigger finger (3.8% vs 0.5%), and dupuytren’s contracture (1% vs 0%) were found more frequent as compared to controls (all p-values <0.05). In the shoulder region of diabetic subjects, adhesive capsulitis and tendonitis was found in 10.9% and 9.5% respectively as compared to 2.5% and 2% in control group [p- value <0.001]. A weak but positive relationship was observed between age and duration of diabetes with these upper limb abnormalities. However, no correlation was found between the frequencies of these abnormalities with control of diabetes. Conclusion A higher frequency of upper limb musculoskeletal abnormalities was observed in Type 2 diabetic patients as compared to control group. PMID:23327429

  6. A Case of Upper Limb Compartment Syndrome following Snake Envenomation Measure Twice, Cut Once

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, DK; Budhoo, EJ; Mencia, MM; Ali, TF; Santana, D

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 16-year old male patient who sustained a poisonous bite from a mapepire balsain snake on the dorsum of his left hand. The subject presented within one hour of envenomation and subsequently developed clinical features of acute compartment syndrome in the involved upper limb. Early diagnosis and emergency fasciotomy effectively treated his condition. Aggressive physiotherapy coupled with this ensured best functional outcome. PMID:25429488

  7. Development and testing of new upper-limb prosthetic devices: research designs for usability testing.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.

  8. Using data from the Microsoft Kinect 2 to quantify upper limb behavior: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dehbandi, Behdad; Barachant, Alexandre; Harary, David; Long, John; Tsagaris, K Zoe; Bumanlag, Silverio; He, Victor; Putrino, David

    2016-09-05

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the novel application of a machine learning approach to data collected from the Microsoft Kinect 2 (MK2) could be used to classify differing levels of upper limb impairment. twenty-four healthy subjects completed items of the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), which is a clinically validated metric of upper limb function for stroke survivors. Subjects completed the WMFT 3 times: 1) as a healthy individual, 2) emulating mild impairment, and 3) emulating moderate impairment. A MK2 was positioned in front of participants, and collected kinematic data as they completed the WMFT. A classification framework, based on Riemannian geometry and the use of covariance matrices as feature representation of the MK2 data, was developed for these data, and its ability to successfully classify subjects as either "healthy", "mildly impaired" or "moderately impaired" was assessed. Mean accuracy for our classifier was 91.7%, with a specific accuracy breakdown of 100%, 83.3% and 91.7% for the "healthy", "mildly impaired" and "moderately impaired" conditions, respectively. We conclude that data from the MK2 is of sufficient quality to perform objective motor behavior classification in individuals with upper limb impairment. The data collection and analysis framework that we have developed has the potential to disrupt the field of clinical assessment. Future studies will focus on validating this protocol on large populations of individuals with actual upper limb impairments in order to create a toolkit that is clinically validated and available to the clinical community.

  9. Assessment of movement quality in robot- assisted upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Nurdiana; Xie, Sheng Quan; Wünsche, Burkhard

    2014-09-12

    : Studies of stroke patients undergoing robot-assisted rehabilitation have revealed various kinematic parameters describing movement quality of the upper limb. However, due to the different level of stroke impairment and different assessment criteria and interventions, the evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation program is undermined. This paper presents a systematic review of kinematic assessments of movement quality of the upper limb and identifies the suitable parameters describing impairments in stroke patients. A total of 41 different clinical and pilot studies on different phases of stroke recovery utilizing kinematic parameters are evaluated. Kinematic parameters describing movement accuracy are mostly reported for chronic patients with statistically significant outcomes and correlate strongly with clinical assessments. Meanwhile, parameters describing feed-forward sensorimotor control are the most frequently reported in studies on sub-acute patients with significant outcomes albeit without correlation to any clinical assessments. However, lack of measures in coordinated movement and proximal component of upper limb enunciate the difficulties to distinguish the exploitation of joint redundancies exhibited by stroke patients in completing the movement. A further study on overall measures of coordinated movement is recommended.

  10. A Framework to Automate Assessment of Upper-Limb Motor Function Impairment: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Paul; Kim, Jonghyun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Standard upper-limb motor function impairment assessments, such as the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), are a critical aspect of rehabilitation after neurological disorders. These assessments typically take a long time (about 30 min for the FMA) for a clinician to perform on a patient, which is a severe burden in a clinical environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for automating upper-limb motor assessments that uses low-cost sensors to collect movement data. The sensor data is then processed through a machine learning algorithm to determine a score for a patient’s upper-limb functionality. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach, we implemented a system based on the proposed framework that can automate most of the FMA. Our experiment shows that the system provides similar FMA scores to clinician scores, and reduces the time spent evaluating each patient by 82%. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to implement customized tests or tests specified in other existing standard assessment methods. PMID:26287206

  11. Gesture recognition in upper-limb prosthetics: a viability study using dynamic time warping and gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Dermitzakis, Konstantinos; Arieta, Alejandro Hernandez; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    One of the significant challenges in the upper-limb-prosthetics research field is to identify appropriate interfaces that utilize the full potential of current state-of-the-art neuroprostheses. As the new generation of such prostheses paces towards approximating the human physiological performance in terms of movement dexterity and sensory feedback, it is clear that current non-invasive interfaces are still severely limited. Surface electromyography, the interface ubiquitously used in the field, is riddled with several shortcomings. Gesture recognition, an interface pervasively used in wearables and mobile devices, shows a strong potential as a non-invasive upper-limb prosthetic interface. This study aims at showcasing its potential in the field by using gyroscope sensors. To this end, we (1) explore the viability of Dynamic Time Warping as a classification method for upper-limb prosthetics and (2) look for appropriate sensor locations on the body. Results indicate an optimal classification rate of 97.53%, σ = 8.74 using a sensor located proximal to the endpoint performing a gesture.

  12. Assessing movement factors in upper limb kinematics decoding from EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, Andrés; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Azorín, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen the rapid development of upper limb kinematics decoding techniques by performing intracortical recordings of brain signals. However, the use of non-invasive approaches to perform similar decoding procedures is still in its early stages. Recent studies show that there is a correlation between electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and hand-reaching kinematic parameters. From these studies, it could be concluded that the accuracy of upper limb kinematics decoding depends, at least partially, on the characteristics of the performed movement. In this paper, we have studied upper limb movements with different speeds and trajectories in a controlled environment to analyze the influence of movement variability in the decoding performance. To that end, low frequency components of the EEG signals have been decoded with linear models to obtain the position of the volunteer's hand during performed trajectories grasping the end effector of a planar manipulandum. The results confirm that it is possible to obtain kinematic information from low frequency EEG signals and show that decoding performance is significantly influenced by movement variability and tracking accuracy as continuous and slower movements improve the accuracy of the decoder. This is a key factor that should be taken into account in future experimental designs.

  13. Upper limb neuropathy in computer operators? A clinical case study of 21 patients

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2004-01-01

    Background The character of upper limb disorder in computer operators remains obscure and their treatment and prevention have had limited success. Symptoms tend to be mostly perceived as relating to pathology in muscles, tendons or insertions. However, the conception of a neuropathic disorder would be supported by objective findings reflecting the common complaints of pain, subjective weakness, and numbness/tingling. By examining characteristics in terms of symptoms, signs, and course, this study aimed at forming a hypothesis concerning the nature and consequences of the disorder. Methods I have studied a consecutive series of 21 heavily exposed and severely handicapped computer-aided designers. Their history was recorded and questionnaire information was collected, encompassing their status 1/2 – 1 1/2 years after the initial clinical contact. The physical examination included an assessment of the following items: Isometric strength in ten upper limb muscles; sensibility in five homonymously innervated territories; and the presence of abnormal tenderness along nerve trunks at 14 locations. Results Rather uniform physical findings in all patients suggested a brachial plexus neuropathy combined with median and posterior interosseous neuropathy at elbow level. In spite of reduced symptoms at follow-up, the prognosis was serious in terms of work-status and persisting pain. Conclusions This small-scale study of a clinical case series suggests the association of symptoms to focal neuropathy with specific locations. The inclusion of a detailed neurological examination would appear to be advantageous with upper limb symptoms in computer operators. PMID:15310393

  14. The effects of bilateral movement training on upper limb function in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyoung Ju; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the functional and kinematic changes associated with two rehabilitation protocols: bilateral and unilateral movement training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to two training protocols for four weeks of training. Each training session consisted of three tasks. The tasks were performed with either the impaired and unimpaired arms moving synchronously (bilateral training) or with the impaired arm alone (unilateral training). To compare the changes associated with each rehabilitation protocol, functional and kinematic assessments were performed before and after the interventions. The functional state of each patient was measured by the Box and Block Test, and the kinematic variables were assessed by three-dimensional motion analysis. The Box and Block Test was used to assess the functional abilities of the affected upper limb. Kinematic measurements of upper limb movement were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] Results showed that the bilateral movement group had significantly improved motion of the shoulder compared to the unilateral movement group. [Conclusion] Bilateral movement training should be used to improve upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630418

  15. Action observation for upper limb function after stroke: evidence-based review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, KyeongMi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to suggest evidenced information about action observation to improve upper limb function after stroke. [Methods] A systematic review of randomized controlled trials involving adults aged 18 years or over and including descriptions of action observation for improving upper limb function was undertaken. Electronic databases were searched, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PEDro (the Physiotherapy Evidence Database), for articles published between 2000 to 2014. Following completion of the searches, two reviewers independently assessed the trials and extracted data using a data extraction form. The same two reviewers independently documented the methodological quality of the trials by using the PEDro scale. [Results] Five randomized controlled trials were ultimately included in this review, and four of them (80%) reported statistically significant effects for motor recovery of upper limb using action observation intervention in between groups. [Conclusion] This review of the literature presents evidence attesting to the benefits conferred on stroke patints resulting from participation in an action observation intervention. The body of literature in this field is growing steadily. Further work needs to be done to evaluate the evidence for different conditions after stroke and different duration of intervention. PMID:26644700

  16. Assessing Movement Factors in Upper Limb Kinematics Decoding from EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Úbeda, Andrés; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Azorín, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen the rapid development of upper limb kinematics decoding techniques by performing intracortical recordings of brain signals. However, the use of non-invasive approaches to perform similar decoding procedures is still in its early stages. Recent studies show that there is a correlation between electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and hand-reaching kinematic parameters. From these studies, it could be concluded that the accuracy of upper limb kinematics decoding depends, at least partially, on the characteristics of the performed movement. In this paper, we have studied upper limb movements with different speeds and trajectories in a controlled environment to analyze the influence of movement variability in the decoding performance. To that end, low frequency components of the EEG signals have been decoded with linear models to obtain the position of the volunteer’s hand during performed trajectories grasping the end effector of a planar manipulandum. The results confirm that it is possible to obtain kinematic information from low frequency EEG signals and show that decoding performance is significantly influenced by movement variability and tracking accuracy as continuous and slower movements improve the accuracy of the decoder. This is a key factor that should be taken into account in future experimental designs. PMID:26020525

  17. Choosing upper limb muscles for focal intervention after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Nathaniel H

    2004-01-01

    The upper motoneuron syndrome (UMNS) resulting from lesions of corticospinal pathways is an important source of disability after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Classic expressions of motor behavior in UMNS are of 2 kinds: (1) manifestation of muscle underactivity, termed negative signs, and (2) manifestation of a variety of forms of muscle overactivity, termed positive signs. Combinations of negative and positive signs give rise to clinical patterns of movement dysfunction such as the flexed elbow, the clenched fist, and the thumb-in-palm deformity. These clinical patterns can be viewed as reflecting a net balance of muscle forces acting across the joints of a limb. Individual muscles are amenable to a variety of focal interventions such as neurolysis, chemodenervation, or surgery. Since more than one muscle acts across most joints, choices among muscles for focal intervention are many. This article will focus on focal interventions of upper limb muscles of patients with TBI who have UMNS and will explore the theme of choosing upper limb muscles for focal interventions after TBI.

  18. Goal Attainment Scaling in Individuals with Upper Limb Spasticity Post Stroke.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Parvin; Mochizuki, George; Dutta, Tilak; Richardson, Denyse; Brooks, Dina

    2016-12-01

    Focusing on rehabilitation goals is an effective approach for improving function in individuals with spasticity after stroke. The objectives of this study were to examine and map goals of post-stroke individuals with spasticity using the Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to evaluate the impact of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) on occupational performance based on the type of rehabilitation goals. Thirty-one patients were recruited from an outpatient spasticity management clinic. Each patient set one goal, was injected with BoNTA in their spastic upper limb muscles and received standard rehabilitation services twice a week for four weeks. Twenty-seven participants achieved the expected level, and four exceeded the expected level of their rehabilitation goals. Fifty-five percent of the goals were related to Activity/Participation, and 45% of the goals were categorized in the Body Structures and Function domain of the ICF. Fifteen goals focused on positioning, while 16 goals focused on (independent) activities of daily living (ADL/IADL). Both the positioning and ADL/IADL groups experienced a reduction in MAS following the administration of BoNTA. The positioning group was older and more impaired. Mapping goals to ICF identifies specific targets for intervention, establishes a common language within the interdisciplinary team and contextualizes the ways disability impacts goals. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size and absence of a functional measure. Further studies can explore the development of goal/item banks to advance the use of GAS for spasticity management. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Multibody system of the upper limb including a reverse shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2013-11-01

    The reverse shoulder replacement, recommended for the treatment of several shoulder pathologies such as cuff tear arthropathy and fractures in elderly people, changes the biomechanics of the shoulder when compared to the normal anatomy. Although several musculoskeletal models of the upper limb have been presented to study the shoulder joint, only a few of them focus on the biomechanics of the reverse shoulder. This work presents a biomechanical model of the upper limb, including a reverse shoulder prosthesis, to evaluate the impact of the variation of the joint geometry and position on the biomechanical function of the shoulder. The biomechanical model of the reverse shoulder is based on a musculoskeletal model of the upper limb, which is modified to account for the properties of the DELTA® reverse prosthesis. Considering two biomechanical models, which simulate the anatomical and reverse shoulder joints, the changes in muscle lengths, muscle moment arms, and muscle and joint reaction forces are evaluated. The muscle force sharing problem is solved for motions of unloaded abduction in the coronal plane and unloaded anterior flexion in the sagittal plane, acquired using video-imaging, through the minimization of an objective function related to muscle metabolic energy consumption. After the replacement of the shoulder joint, significant changes in the length of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, teres major, teres minor, coracobrachialis, and biceps brachii muscles are observed for a reference position considered for the upper limb. The shortening of the teres major and teres minor is the most critical since they become unable to produce active force in this position. Substantial changes of muscle moment arms are also observed, which are consistent with the literature. As expected, there is a significant increase of the deltoid moment arms and more fibers are able to elevate the arm. The solutions to the muscle force sharing problem support the

  20. Impact of early applied upper limb stimulation: The EXPLICIT-stroke programme design

    PubMed Central

    Kwakkel, Gert; Meskers, Carel GM; van Wegen, Erwin E; Lankhorst, Guus J; Geurts, Alexander CH; van Kuijk, Annet A; Lindeman, Eline; Visser-Meily, Anne; de Vlugt, Erwin; Arendzen, J Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background Main claims of the literature are that functional recovery of the paretic upper limb is mainly defined within the first month post stroke and that rehabilitation services should preferably be applied intensively and in a task-oriented way within this particular time window. EXplaining PLastICITy after stroke (acronym EXPLICIT-stroke) aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of post stroke upper limb recovery. Two randomized single blinded trials form the core of the programme, investigating the effects of early modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (modified CIMT) and EMG-triggered Neuro-Muscular Stimulation (EMG-NMS) in patients with respectively a favourable or poor probability for recovery of dexterity. Methods/design 180 participants suffering from an acute, first-ever ischemic stroke will be recruited. Functional prognosis at the end of the first week post stroke is used to stratify patient into a poor prognosis group for upper limb recovery (N = 120, A2 project) and a group with a favourable prognosis (N = 60, A1 project). Both groups will be randomized to an experimental arm receiving respectively modified CIMT (favourable prognosis) or EMG-NMS (poor prognosis) for 3 weeks or to a control arm receiving usual care. Primary outcome variable will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), assessed at 1,2,3,4,5, 8, 12 and 26 weeks post stroke. To study the impact of modified CIMT or EMG-NMS on stroke recovery mechanisms i.e. neuroplasticity, compensatory movements and upper limb neuromechanics, 60 patients randomly selected from projects A1 and A2 will undergo TMS, kinematical and haptic robotic measurements within a repeated measurement design. Additionally, 30 patients from the A1 project will undergo fMRI at baseline, 5 and 26 weeks post stroke. Conclusion EXPLICIT stroke is a 5 year translational research programme which main aim is to investigate the effects of early applied intensive intervention for regaining dexterity and to explore the

  1. Kinematic upper limb evaluation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Almeida, Cibele Santos; Dumont, Arislander Jonatan Lopes; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Duarte, Natalia Almeida de Carvalho; Braun, Luiz Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a review of the literature on objective measures of upper limb movements in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy and describe the methods used to investigate upper limb kinematics in this population. [Materials and Methods] An extensive database search was performed using the keywords kinematics, upper limb, and cerebral palsy. A total of 146 papers were identified, but only five met the inclusion criteria. [Results] No consensus was found regarding the data collection, processing, and analysis procedures or reporting of the results. [Conclusion] Standardization of the protocol for 3D upper limb movement analysis will provide the foundation for comparable, reproducible results and eventually facilitate the planning of treatment interventions. PMID:27065566

  2. Upper-limb kinematics and coordination of short grip and classic drives in field hockey.

    PubMed

    Bretigny, Perrine; Seifert, Ludovic; Leory, David; Chollet, Didier

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the upper-limb kinematics and coordination of the short grip and classic drives in field hockey. Ten elite female players participated in the experiment. The VICON system was used to record the displacement of markers placed on the stick and the players' joints during five short grip and five classic drives. Kinematic and coordination parameters were analyzed. The ball's velocity was recorded by a radar device that also served as the drive target. Kinematic differences were noted between the two drive conditions, with shorter duration and smaller overall amplitude in the short grip drive, explained by the shorter lever arm and the specific context in which it is used. No differences were noted for upper-limb coordination. In both types of stick holding, an interlimb dissociation was noted on the left side, whereas the right interlimb coordination was in phase. Moreover, the time lag increased in the disto-proximal direction, suggesting wrist uncocking before impact and the initiation of descent motion by the left shoulder. Mediolateral analysis confirmed these results: coordination of left-right limbs converged at the wrist but dissociated with more proximal joints (elbows and shoulders).

  3. Support of the upper limbs of office workers during a daily work journey.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras, Ernesto; Rebelo, Francisco; da Silva, Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Generally, the studies assess the upper limbs postures during the work with Visual Display Terminal - VDT through the measurement of the angles formed by the segments or through the relation with the pre-defined anatomical postures (e.g., flexion, extension, abduction). However, few studies were found in the literature which had focused in the measurement of the upper limbs support during a real situation of work with VDT and in the definition of analysis categories for this kind of behavior. The main objective of this study was to measure, in a real situation and using a systematic observation method through video analysis, the main kinds of support for the upper limbs. The analysis was done considering 480 work hours of 30 office workers. Data were collected using a methodology proposed by Rebelo, Filgueiras & Soares [1] and related with the work organization and workspace conditions, the participants had: a) minimum of eight hours daily of work; b) similar activities, characterized as office work; c) same furniture and equipment; and, d) computers with the same hardware, software and peripherals. Results were analyzed 46554 dynamic events, considering only the fourteen Interaction Categories - ICs, for upper limps support. In this way, percentage was computed, considering the total number of occurrence, for the Right arm is: arm support (0.06%); forearm support (31,8%); elbow support (31,92%); hand support (7,41%); multiple supports (12,32%) and without support 16,41%- For the Left arm the results is: forearm support (0,11%); arm support (53,69%); elbow support (8,70%); hand support (7,97%); multiple supports (8,43%) e without support (21,11%). This systemic and ecological approach was obtained through a method which enables experimental Biomechanics and Physiology methods to develop more efficient functional requirements and recommendations for the work with VDTs.

  4. The assessment of grip strength after upper limb injuries in medico-legal practice.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Hjcr

    2017-03-01

    Four hundred adult claimants underwent medico-legal assessment following upper limb injuries. Dynamometry was performed on each using the Jamar five handle-position test. Injury causes loss of power and there is a significant relationship between the percentage loss of power and the measured whole limb impairment. This paper presents a new approach for the analysis of the tests. The normal physiological length-tension pattern of muscle is maintained in the majority of claimants albeit with modifications due to the specific effects of injury on hand function. This paper provides normative data for the analysis of dynamometry in this population and makes recommendations for parameters that suggest that a test is a true reflection of capacity and thus useable in court.

  5. Sirenomelia: four further cases with discussion of associated upper limb defects.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Shahida; Lambie, Lindsay Ann; Krause, Amanda

    2012-07-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as the 'mermaid malformation/syndrome', is a rare, serious congenital anomaly characterized by variable degrees of fusion of the lower limbs and associated severe malformations of the lower vertebral and genitourinary systems. In this report, we describe a series of African patients with sirenomelia. We present the clinical and radiological features of four black South African patients and illustrate some of the rarer associated abnormalities, which include asymmetrical upper limb defects, not confined to the radial ray. The clinical phenotypic overlap between caudal dysgenesis, VACTERL association and sirenomelia in our patients is highlighted, lending support to the theory that these entities may be different manifestations of a single pathogenic process.

  6. Neurological Examination of the Upper Limb: A Study of Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Jørgen R; Laursen, Lise H; Kreiner, Svend; Larsen, Anders I

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We have previously demonstrated that neurological individual findings and patterns can be reliably assessed in the examination of the upper limb and also that they are related to pain, weakness, and/or numbness/tingling. This study aimed to study further aspects of the construct validity of the neurological examination. Methods: Blinded to patient-characteristics, two examiners assessed the function of 16 muscles, the sensibility in 7 territories, and the nerve-mechanosensitivity at 20 locations in 82 upper limbs. Based on anatomical patterns and pre-designed algorithms, one or both examiners rated neuropathy as “possible” or “definite” in 40 limbs and also determined the location( s). We developed and tested hypotheses on anatomically and regionally related locations of nerve afflictions (a selective vulnerability of neurons, double and multiple crush, and a tendency to regional spread) and examined the stability of the internal structure of the constructs in different situations. The interrelations of findings were analyzed by hypothesis testing and factor analyses, and the homogeneity of location profiles was analyzed by a conditional likelihood test. Results: Out of 30 limbs with related locations of neuropathy, the findings of each examiner correlated positively (gamma > 0.35) in 22/25, respectively. The patterns of the interrelations identified by the two examiners were similar, with no evidence of any heterogeneity of location profiles for either examiner. Conclusions: This study supports the validity of the physical examination. However, feasibility of its application requires the demonstration of further aspects of construct validity and a favorable influence on patient-management and/or prevention. PMID:20148172

  7. A Robot Hand Testbed Designed for Enhancing Embodiment and Functional Neurorehabilitation of Body Schema in Subjects with Upper Limb Impairment or Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Randall B.; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I.; Santos, Veronica J.

    2015-01-01

    Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation “phantom limb pain” and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech “rubber hand” illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the “BairClaw” presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger–object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

  8. Correlation between upper limb function and oral health impact in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fernanda C.; da Silva, Daniela F. T.; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A.; Fernandes, Kristianne P. S.; Bussadori, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between upper limb impairment and oral health impact in individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were conducted with a sample of 27 stroke survivors with complete or partial hemiparesis with brachial or crural predominance. The 14-item short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile was used to evaluate perceptions of oral health. The Brazilian version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale was used to evaluate perceptions regarding quality of life. [Results] A statistically significant association was found between the upper extremity function subscale of the SSQOL-Brazil and the impact of oral health evaluated using the OHIP-14, with a strong correlation found for the physical pain subscale, moderate correlations with the functional limitation, psychological discomfort, physical disability, social disability and social handicap subscales as well as a weak correlation with the psychological disability subscale. Analyzing the OHIP-14 scores with regard to the impact of oral health on quality of life, the most frequent classification was weak impact, with small rates of moderate and strong impact. [Conclusion] Compromised upper limb function and self-perceived poor oral health, whether due to cultural resignation or functional disability, exert a negative impact on the quality of life of individuals with hemiparesis stemming from a stroke. PMID:26310352

  9. Development of a 3-D Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs Using ER Actuators in a Nedo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusho, Junji; Koyanagi, Ken'ichi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiko; Ryu, Ushio; Takenaka, Shigekazu; Inoue, Akio; Domen, Kazuhisa; Miyakoshi, Koichi

    New training methods and exercises for upper limbs rehabilitation are made possible by application of robotics and virtual reality technology. The technologies can also make quantitative evaluations and enhance the qualitative effect of training. We have joined a project managed by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization as a semi-governmental organization under the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan) 5-year Project, "Rehabilitation System for the Upper Limbs and Lower Limbs", and developed a 3-DOF exercise machine for upper limbs (EMUL) using ER actuators. In this paper, we also present the development of software for motion exercise trainings and some results of clinical evaluation. Moreover, it is discussed how ER actuators ensure the mechanical safety.

  10. Effect of Kayak Ergometer Elastic Tension on Upper Limb EMG Activity and 3D Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of shoulder injury in kayakers, limited published research examining associated upper limb kinematics and recruitment patterns exists. Altered muscle recruitment patterns on-ergometer vs. on-water kayaking were recently reported, however, mechanisms underlying changes remain to be elucidated. The current study assessed the effect of ergometer recoil tension on upper limb recruitment and kinematics during the kayak stroke. Male kayakers (n = 10) performed 4 by 1 min on-ergometer exercise bouts at 85%VO2max at varying elastic recoil tension; EMG, stroke force and three-dimensional 3D kinematic data were recorded. While stationary recoil forces significantly increased across investigated tensions (125% increase, p < 0.001), no significant differences were detected in assessed force variables during the stroke cycle. In contrast, increasing tension induced significantly higher Anterior Deltoid (AD) activity in the latter stages (70 to 90%) of the cycle (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed across tension levels for Triceps Brachii or Latissimus Dorsi. Kinematic analysis revealed that overhead arm movements accounted for 39 ± 16% of the cycle. Elbow angle at stroke cycle onset was 144 ± 10°; maximal elbow angle (151 ± 7°) occurred at 78 ± 10% into the cycle. All kinematic markers moved to a more anterior position as tension increased. No significant change in wrist marker elevation was observed, while elbow and shoulder marker elevations significantly increased across tension levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data suggested that kayakers maintained normal upper limb kinematics via additional AD recruitment despite ergometer induced recoil forces. Key pointsKayak ergometer elastic tension significantly alters Anterior Deltoid recruitment patterns.Kayakers maintain optimal arm kinematics despite changing external forces via altered shoulder muscle recruitment.Overhead arm movements account for a high proportion of the kayak

  11. Effect of Kayak Ergometer Elastic Tension on Upper Limb EMG Activity and 3D Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of shoulder injury in kayakers, limited published research examining associated upper limb kinematics and recruitment patterns exists. Altered muscle recruitment patterns on-ergometer vs. on-water kayaking were recently reported, however, mechanisms underlying changes remain to be elucidated. The current study assessed the effect of ergometer recoil tension on upper limb recruitment and kinematics during the kayak stroke. Male kayakers (n = 10) performed 4 by 1 min on-ergometer exercise bouts at 85%VO2max at varying elastic recoil tension; EMG, stroke force and three-dimensional 3D kinematic data were recorded. While stationary recoil forces significantly increased across investigated tensions (125% increase, p < 0.001), no significant differences were detected in assessed force variables during the stroke cycle. In contrast, increasing tension induced significantly higher Anterior Deltoid (AD) activity in the latter stages (70 to 90%) of the cycle (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed across tension levels for Triceps Brachii or Latissimus Dorsi. Kinematic analysis revealed that overhead arm movements accounted for 39 ± 16% of the cycle. Elbow angle at stroke cycle onset was 144 ± 10°; maximal elbow angle (151 ± 7°) occurred at 78 ± 10% into the cycle. All kinematic markers moved to a more anterior position as tension increased. No significant change in wrist marker elevation was observed, while elbow and shoulder marker elevations significantly increased across tension levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data suggested that kayakers maintained normal upper limb kinematics via additional AD recruitment despite ergometer induced recoil forces. Key pointsKayak ergometer elastic tension significantly alters Anterior Deltoid recruitment patterns.Kayakers maintain optimal arm kinematics despite changing external forces via altered shoulder muscle recruitment.Overhead arm movements account for a high proportion of the kayak

  12. Robotic assessment of the influence of age on upper-limb sensorimotor function

    PubMed Central

    LLinares, Ana; Badesa, Francisco Javier; Morales, Ricardo; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas; Sabater, JM; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the influence of age on several attributes of sensorimotor performance while performing a reaching task. Our hypothesis, based on previous studies, is that aged persons will show differences in one or more of the attributes of sensorimotor performance. Patients and methods Fifty-one subjects (aged 20–80 years) with no known neuromotor disorders of the upper limbs participated in the study. Subjects were asked to grasp the end-effector of a pneumatic robotic device with two degrees of freedom in order to reach peripheral targets (1.0 cm radius), “quickly and accurately”, from a centrally located target (1.0 cm radius). Subjects began each trial by holding the hand within the central target for 2000 milliseconds. Afterwards, a peripheral target was illuminated. Then participants were given 3000 milliseconds to complete the movement. When a target was reached, the participant had to return to the central target in order to start a new trial. A total of 64 trials were completed and each peripheral target was illuminated in a random block design. Results Subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1 (age 20–40 years), group 2 (age 41–60 years), and group 3 (age 61–80 years). The Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups, except for the variables postural speed in the dominant arm, and postural speed and initial deviation in the non-dominant arm (P > 0.05). These results suggest that age introduces significant differences in upper-limb motor function. Conclusion Our findings show that there are objective differences in sensorimotor function due to age, and that these differences are greater for the dominant arm. Therefore for the assessment of upper-limb function, we should take into account the influence of age. Moreover, these results suggest that robotic systems can provide a new and effective approach in the assessment of sensorimotor function. PMID:23885170

  13. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  14. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual’s survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts—their topological patterns relative to each other—using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial

  15. Upper limb reinnervation in C6 tetraplegia using a triple nerve transfer: case report.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Natasha; Hahn, Jodie B; Cooper, Catherine A; Weymouth, Michael D; Flood, Stephen J; Galea, Mary P

    2014-09-01

    Restoration of elbow extension, grasp, key pinch, and release are major goals in low-level tetraplegia. Traditionally, these functions are achieved using tendon transfers. In this case these goals were achieved using nerve transfers. We present a 21-year-old man with a C6 level of tetraplegia. The left upper limb was treated 6 months after injury with a triple nerve transfer. A teres minor nerve branch to long head of triceps nerve branch, brachialis nerve branch to anterior interosseous nerve, and supinator nerve branch to posterior interosseous nerve transfer were used successfully to reconstruct elbow extension, key pinch, grasp, and release simultaneously.

  16. Upper limb functions regained in quadriplegia: a hybrid computerized neuromuscular stimulation system.

    PubMed

    Nathan, R H; Ohry, A

    1990-05-01

    A new, computerized neuromuscular stimulation system was applied to the upper limbs of two patients with complete quadriplegia below the C4 level. The stimulation-generated movements were integrated and augmented by residual, voluntary shoulder girdle movements and mechanical splinting. Up to 12 muscles were stimulated individually with high-resolution surface electrodes; coordination and control of the stimulation was effected by microcomputer. Simple vocal commands to the computer triggered preprogrammed hand prehensions, arm motion, and other functions, giving the patient complete control over the system. In pilot clinical trials of six weeks, writing, eating, and drinking, including picking up and replacing the pen or cup, were achieved.

  17. Preaxial polydactyly of the upper limb viewed as a spectrum of severity of embryonic events.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2013-07-01

    Preaxial polydactyly (PPD) is a common congenital abnormality and its classification varies among geneticists and hand surgeons. For example, the triphalangeal thumb, preaxial polysyndactyly, and the mirror hand deformity are considered as forms of PPD only in the genetics literature. Preaxial polydactyly is an error in the anteroposterior axis of the development of the upper limb. In this paper, the development of this axis is detailed and all molecular events that are known to lead to PPD are reviewed. Finally, based on the review, PPD is viewed as a spectrum of severity of embryonic events.

  18. The biological and behavioral basis of upper limb asymmetries in sensorimotor performance.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetries in upper limb performance are a fundamental aspect of human behavior. This phenomenon, commonly known as handedness, has inspired a great deal of research over the course of the past century garnering interest across a multitude of scientific domains. In the present paper, a thorough review of this literature is provided focusing on the current state of knowledge regarding neuro-anatomical and behavior-based arm asymmetries. It is hoped that this information will provide a basis for new insights regarding the design and implementation of future studies regarding arm laterality.

  19. Quasi-3DOF Active / Passive Hybrid Rehabilitation System for Upper Limbs: "Hybrid-PLEMO"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Jin, Ying; Fukushima, Kazuki; Akai, Hiroki

    Many kinds of actuator-based (active type) haptic device have developed and utilized as rehabilitation robots. These systems have great advantages for rehabilitative activities, for example assistive forces and so on. However, from the view point of safety, we have room to consider utilizing brake-based (passive type) haptic devices as rehabilitation-tools. The effects and roles of active / passive force feedback for rehabilitative trainings have not been clarified yet. In this study, we have developed an active / passive switchable rehabilitation system for upper limbs (Hybrid-PLEMO) to address these questions. In this paper, we describe the force-feedback mechanism of the Hybrid-PLEMO.

  20. Salvage of extensively burned upper limbs by a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap.

    PubMed

    Delay, E; Foyatier, J L; el Kollali, R; Comparin, J P; Weil, E; Latarjet, J

    1995-09-01

    Very deep burns of the arm and elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection with exposure of important structures. Aggressive debridement should be performed as early as possible to cut the vicious circle, and the defect, which may be extensive, should be covered by well-vascularized tissues. The reliability and versatility of the pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle or musculocutaneous flap make it our first choice in the management of this problem. A retrospective study of three patients for whom salvage of the upper limb has been achieved by the use of a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is presented, illustrating the advantages of this technique.

  1. Rehabilitation After Surgical Reconstruction to Restore Function to the Upper Limb in Tetraplegia: A Changing Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Johanson, M. Elise

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb reconstructive surgical procedures for individuals with tetraplegia are performed in many centers internationally. Most recipients of surgery return to local communities and nonsurgical centers for postoperative rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. This supplement focuses on the clinical significance of upper extremity reconstruction, addressing issues related to the availability and choice for surgery, preoperative assessments, postoperative training paradigms, and appropriate outcome measures. Comprehensive intervention protocols are described in terms of dose, timing, specific activities, modalities, and related outcomes. Shared knowledge of current rehabilitation practice, as it relates to reconstructive surgery, can expand treatment options communicated to patients, increase the availability of postoperative muscle reeducation programs, and motivate long-term follow-up assessments. PMID:27233593

  2. Multimodality imaging of peripheral neuropathies of the upper limb and brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Linda, Dorota Dominika; Harish, Srinivasan; Stewart, Brian G; Finlay, Karen; Parasu, Naveen; Rebello, Ryan Paul

    2010-09-01

    The peripheral nerves of the upper limb are affected by a number of entrapment and compression neuropathies. These discrete syndromes involve the brachial plexus as well as the musculocutaneous, axillary, suprascapular, ulnar, radial, and median nerves. Clinical examination and electrophysiologic studies are the traditional mainstay of diagnostic work-up; however, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide spatial information regarding the affected nerve and its surroundings, often assisting in narrowing the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Imaging is particularly valuable in complex cases with discrepant nerve function test results. Familiarity with the clinical features of various peripheral neuropathies of the upper extremity, the relevant anatomy, and the most common sites and causes of nerve entrapment assists in diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Inverse dynamics modelling of upper-limb tremor, with cross-correlation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ketteringham, Laurence P.; Neild, Simon A.; Hyde, Richard A.; Jones, Rosie J.S.; Davies-Smith, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    A method to characterise upper-limb tremor using inverse dynamics modelling in combination with cross-correlation analyses is presented. A 15 degree-of-freedom inverse dynamics model is used to estimate the joint torques required to produce the measured limb motion, given a set of estimated inertial properties for the body segments. The magnitudes of the estimated torques are useful when assessing patients or evaluating possible intervention methods. The cross-correlation of the estimated joint torques is proposed to gain insight into how tremor in one limb segment interacts with tremor in another. The method is demonstrated using data from a single patient presenting intention tremor because of multiple sclerosis. It is shown that the inertial properties of the body segments can be estimated with sufficient accuracy using only the patient's height and weight as a priori knowledge, which ensures the method's practicality and transferability to clinical use. By providing a more detailed, objective characterisation of patient-specific tremor properties, the method is expected to improve the selection, design and assessment of treatment options on an individual basis. PMID:26609379

  4. Upper limb amputees can be induced to experience a rubber hand as their own

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, Birgitta; Stockselius, Anita; Ragnö, Christina; Köhler, Peter; Lundborg, Göran

    2008-01-01

    We describe how upper limb amputees can be made to experience a rubber hand as part of their own body. This was accomplished by applying synchronous touches to the stump, which was out of view, and to the index finger of a rubber hand, placed in full view (26 cm medial to the stump). This elicited an illusion of sensing touch on the artificial hand, rather than on the stump and a feeling of ownership of the rubber hand developed. This effect was supported by quantitative subjective reports in the form of questionnaires, behavioural data in the form of misreaching in a pointing task when asked to localize the position of the touch, and physiological evidence obtained by skin conductance responses when threatening the hand prosthesis. Our findings outline a simple method for transferring tactile sensations from the stump to a prosthetic limb by tricking the brain, thereby making an important contribution to the field of neuroprosthetics where a major goal is to develop artificial limbs that feel like a real parts of the body. PMID:19074189

  5. Electromyography-based analysis of human upper limbs during 45-day head-down bed-rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Anshuang; Wang, Chunhui; Qi, Hongzhi; Li, Fan; Wang, Zheng; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Shanguang; Ming, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Muscle deconditioning occurs in response to simulated or actual microgravity. In spaceflight, astronauts become monkey-like for mainly using their upper limbs to control the operating system and to complete corresponding tasks. The changes of upper limbs' athletic ability will directly affect astronauts' working performance. This study investigated the variation trend of surface electromyography (sEMG) during prolonged simulated microgravity. Eight healthy males participating in this study performed strict 45-day head-down bed-rest (HDBR). On the 5th day of pre-HDBR, and the 15th, the 30th and the 45th days of HDBR, the subjects performed maximum pushing task and maximum pulling task, and sEMG was collected from upper limbs synchronously. Each subject's maximum volunteer contractions of both the tasks during these days were compared, showing no significant change. However, changes were detected by sEMG-based analysis. It was found that integrated EMG, root mean square, mean frequency, fuzzy entropy of deltoid, and fuzzy entropy of triceps brachii changed significantly when comparing pre-HDBR with HDBR. The variation trend showed a recovery tendency after significant decline, which is inconsistent with the monotonic variation of lower limbs that was proved by previous research. These findings suggest that EMG changes in upper limbs during prolonged simulated microgravity, but has different variation trend from lower limbs.

  6. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area's topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination. PMID:26674017

  7. Impact of Spinal Manipulation on Cortical Drive to Upper and Lower Limb Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jochumsen, Mads; Sherwin, Diane; Flavel, Stanley; Türker, Kemal S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input–output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA) pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax) for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP), late bereitschafts potential (LBP) and also for peak negativity (PN). The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input–output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence) were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle and/or are

  8. Impact of Spinal Manipulation on Cortical Drive to Upper and Lower Limb Muscles.

    PubMed

    Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran Khan; Jochumsen, Mads; Sherwin, Diane; Flavel, Stanley; Türker, Kemal S

    2016-12-23

    This study investigates whether spinal manipulation leads to changes in motor control by measuring the recruitment pattern of motor units in both an upper and lower limb muscle and to see whether such changes may at least in part occur at the cortical level by recording movement related cortical potential (MRCP) amplitudes. In experiment one, transcranial magnetic stimulation input-output (TMS I/O) curves for an upper limb muscle (abductor pollicus brevis; APB) were recorded, along with F waves before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention for the same subjects on two different days. During two separate days, lower limb TMS I/O curves and MRCPs were recorded from tibialis anterior muscle (TA) pre and post spinal manipulation. Dependent measures were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance, with p set at 0.05. Spinal manipulation resulted in a 54.5% ± 93.1% increase in maximum motor evoked potential (MEPmax) for APB and a 44.6% ± 69.6% increase in MEPmax for TA. For the MRCP data following spinal manipulation there were significant difference for amplitude of early bereitschafts-potential (EBP), late bereitschafts potential (LBP) and also for peak negativity (PN). The results of this study show that spinal manipulation leads to changes in cortical excitability, as measured by significantly larger MEPmax for TMS induced input-output curves for both an upper and lower limb muscle, and with larger amplitudes of MRCP component post manipulation. No changes in spinal measures (i.e., F wave amplitudes or persistence) were observed, and no changes were shown following the control condition. These results are consistent with previous findings that have suggested increases in strength following spinal manipulation were due to descending cortical drive and could not be explained by changes at the level of the spinal cord. Spinal manipulation may therefore be indicated for the patients who have lost tonus of their muscle and/or are

  9. Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Doo Han; Kim, Se Yun

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen stroke patients with no visual or cognitive problems were enrolled. All subjects received robot-assisted therapy and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy for 30 minutes each. The experimental group received a conventional therapy and an additional half hour per weekday of robot therapy. The patients participated in a total of 20 sessions, each lasting 60 minutes (conventional therapy 30 min, robot-assisted therapy 30 min), which were held 5 days a week for 4 weeks. [Result] The patients showed a significant difference in smoothness and reach error of the point to point test, circle size and independence of the circle in the circle test, and hold deviation of the playback static test between before and after the intervention. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in the displacement of the round dynamic test. The patients also showed significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Modified Barthel Index after the intervention. [Conclusion] These kinematic factors can provide good information when analyzing the upper limb function of stroke patients in robot-assisted therapy. Nevertheless, further research on technology-based kinematic information will be necessary.

  10. Classification of upper limb motions from around-shoulder muscle activities: hand biofeedback.

    PubMed

    González, Jose; Horiuchi, Yuse; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-05-28

    Mining information from EMG signals to detect complex motion intention has attracted growing research attention, especially for upper-limb prosthetic hand applications. In most of the studies, recordings of forearm muscle activities were used as the signal sources, from which the intention of wrist and hand motions were detected using pattern recognition technology. However, most daily-life upper limb activities need coordination of the shoulder-arm-hand complex, therefore, relying only on the local information to recognize the body coordinated motion has many disadvantages because natural continuous arm-hand motions can't be realized. Also, achieving a dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis will not be possible. This study objective was to investigate whether it is possible to associate the around-shoulder muscles' Electromyogram (EMG) activities with the different hand grips and arm directions movements. Experiments were conducted to record the EMG of different arm and hand motions and the data were analyzed to decide the contribution of each sensor, in order to distinguish the arm-hand motions as a function of the reaching time. Results showed that it is possible to differentiate hand grips and arm position while doing a reaching and grasping task. Also, these results are of great importance as one step to achieve a close loop dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis.

  11. Assessment of posture and joint movements of the upper limbs of patients after mastectomy and lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Cinira Assad Simão; Saad, Marcelo; Perez, Maria del Carmen Janeiro; Miranda, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate alterations in posture and range of motion of the upper limbs in women after mastectomy and lymphadenectomy, submitted to radiotherapy as adjuvant treatment. Methods: Two groups were evaluated: 16 post-mastectomy women with lymphedema of the upper limb and 14 post-mastectomy women without lymphedema. Patients were submitted to analysis made by software, one for posture and the other to measure ranges of movement of the shoulder, elbow, and wrists. The results obtained were compared between the right and left sides, and operated and non-operated sides, and then were submitted to statistical tests. Results: Both groups presented with anteriorization of the trunk. The women with lymphedema had head rotation to the right, protrusion of the left shoulder, and trunk inclination angle smaller on the operated side, besides bilateral elevation of the scapula when compared to the group with no lymphedema. Changes in range of motion were also smaller on the operated side in terms of flexion, abduction, and external rotation of the shoulder for all women, and for those with lymphedema, elbow extension and wrist flexion had a smaller range of motion. Conclusion: Women submitted to mastectomy presented with asymmetries and modifications in posture, and lymphedema seemed to worsen this condition. Additionally, they had deficits in range of motion in the shoulders on the operated side. Women with lymphedema also showed deficits in the elbows and wrist. PMID:24488379

  12. Longitudinal functional and NMR assessment of upper limbs in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wary, Claire; Moraux, Amélie; Azzabou, Noura; Decostre, Valérie; Ollivier, Gwenn; Canal, Aurélie; Lilien, Charlotte; Ledoux, Isabelle; Annoussamy, Mélanie; Reguiba, Nacera; Gidaro, Teresa; Le Moing, Anne Gaelle; Cardas, Ruxandra; Voit, Thomas; Carlier, Pierre G.; Servais, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and functional assessments for follow-up of ambulatory and nonambulatory patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: Twenty-five 53-skippable patients with DMD were included in this study; 15 were nonambulatory at baseline. All patients underwent clinical and functional assessments every 6 months using the Motor Function Measure (MFM), hand grip and key pinch strength, MoviPlate, and NMR spectroscopy and imaging studies. Results: Upper limb distal strength decreased in nonambulatory patients over the period of 1 year; ambulatory patients showed improvement during the same period. The same applied for several NMRS indices, such as phosphocreatine/adenosine triphosphate, which decreased in older patients but increased in younger ambulatory patients. Fat infiltration in the upper limbs increased linearly with age. Almost all NMR and functional assessment results correlated. Conclusions: Our results underscore complementarity of functional and NMR assessments in patients with DMD. Sensitivity to change of various indices may differ according to disease stage. PMID:26888987

  13. Functional taping applied to upper limb of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, S; Serafini, A; Iosa, M; Aliberti, M N; Gobbetti, T; Paolucci, S; Morelli, D

    2011-12-01

    Functional taping with elastic bandages and adhesive tapes could limit the action of upper limb spastic muscles and sustain that of weaker muscles in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). 16 young children with CP (3±2 years old) were enrolled in this pilot study including 5 months of taping in conjunction with conventional physical therapy, followed by 7 months of physical therapy alone (taping wash-out), and other 5 months of taping plus therapy. Large improvements in the Melbourne assessment score were found in the first period in which taping was used (+15.4%, p<0.001) and also in the second one despite 8 drop-outs (+8.4%, p=0.012), but not during the taping wash-out (- 4.6%; p=0.093). These results suggest that children with CP could benefit from the continuous correction provided by taping in order to limit the development of improper upper limb motor schemas and to favour that of proper ones.

  14. Bilateral robots for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Bo; Zhang, Yanxin; Meng, Wei; Deng, Chao; Xie, Shengquan

    2016-07-01

    Robot-assisted bilateral upper-limb training grows abundantly for stroke rehabilitation in recent years and an increasing number of devices and robots have been developed. This paper aims to provide a systematic overview and evaluation of existing bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation devices and robots based on their mechanisms and clinical-outcomes. Most of the articles studied here were searched from nine online databases and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from year 1993 to 2015. Devices and robots were categorized as end-effectors, exoskeletons and industrial robots. Totally ten end-effectors, one exoskeleton and one industrial robot were evaluated in terms of their mechanical characteristics, degrees of freedom (DOF), supported control modes, clinical applicability and outcomes. Preliminary clinical results of these studies showed that all participants could gain certain improvements in terms of range of motion, strength or physical function after training. Only four studies supported that bilateral training was better than unilateral training. However, most of clinical results cannot definitely verify the effectiveness of mechanisms and clinical protocols used in robotic therapies. To explore the actual value of these robots and devices, further research on ingenious mechanisms, dose-matched clinical protocols and universal evaluation criteria should be conducted in the future.

  15. Critical analysis of musculoskeletal modelling complexity in multibody biomechanical models of the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Quental, Carlos; Folgado, João; Ambrósio, Jorge; Monteiro, Jacinto

    2015-01-01

    The inverse dynamics technique applied to musculoskeletal models, and supported by optimisation techniques, is used extensively to estimate muscle and joint reaction forces. However, the solutions of the redundant muscle force sharing problem are sensitive to the detail and modelling assumptions of the models used. This study presents four alternative biomechanical models of the upper limb with different levels of discretisation of muscles by bundles and muscle paths, and their consequences on the estimation of the muscle and joint reaction forces. The muscle force sharing problem is solved for the motions of abduction and anterior flexion, acquired using video imaging, through the minimisation of an objective function describing muscle metabolic energy consumption. While looking for the optimal solution, not only the equations of motion are satisfied but also the stability of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints is preserved. The results show that a lower level of muscle discretisation provides worse estimations regarding the muscle forces. Moreover, the poor discretisation of muscles relevant to the joint in analysis limits the applicability of the biomechanical model. In this study, the biomechanical model of the upper limb describing the infraspinatus by a single bundle could not solve the complete motion of anterior flexion. Despite the small differences in the magnitude of the forces predicted by the biomechanical models with more complex muscular systems, in general, there are no significant variations in the muscular activity of equivalent muscles.

  16. Outcomes with respect to disabilities of the upper limb after hand allograft transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Landin, Luis; Bonastre, Jorge; Casado-Sanchez, Cesar; Diez, Jesus; Ninkovic, Marina; Lanzetta, Marco; del Bene, Massimo; Schneeberger, Stefan; Hautz, Theresa; Lovic, Aleksandar; Leyva, Francisco; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Casado-Perez, Cesar

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this work is to compare disabilities of the upper limb before and after hand allograft transplantation (HAT), and to describe the side effects of immunosuppressive (IS) agents given to recipients of hand allografts. Clinical cases of HAT published between 1999 and 2011 in English, French, or German were reviewed systematically, with emphasis on comparing disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores before and after transplantation. Duration of ischemia, extent of amputation, and time since amputation were evaluated for their effect on intrinsic musculature function. Infectious, metabolic, and oncological complications because of IS therapy were recorded. Twenty-eight patients were reported in 56 clinical manuscripts. Among these patients, disabilities of the upper limb dropped by a mean of 27.6 (±19.04) points on the DASH score after HAT (P = 0.005). Lower DASH scores (P = 0.036) were recorded after secondary surgery on hand allografts. The presence of intrinsic muscle function was observed in 57% of the recipients. Duration of ischemia, extent of transplantation, and time since amputation were not associated statistically with the return of intrinsic musculature function. Three grafts were lost to follow-up because of noncompliance with immunosuppression, rejection, and arterial thrombosis, respectively. Fifty-two complications caused by IS agents were reported, and they were successfully managed medically or surgically. HAT recipients showed notable functional gains, but most complications resulted from the IS protocols.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation and EEG-based motor imagery BCI for upper limb stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kai Keng; Guan, Cuntai; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Teh, Irvin; Chen, Chang Wu; Chew, Effie

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies had shown that EEG-based motor imagery Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI) combined with robotic feedback is effective in upper limb stroke rehabilitation, and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) combined with other rehabilitation techniques further enhanced the facilitating effect of tDCS. This motivated the current clinical study to investigate the effects of combining tDCS with MI-BCI and robotic feedback compared to sham-tDCS for upper limb stroke rehabilitation. The stroke patients recruited were randomized to receive 20 minutes of tDCS or sham-tDCS prior to 10 sessions of 1-hour MI-BCI with robotic feedback for 2 weeks. The online accuracies of detecting motor imagery from idle condition were assessed and offline accuracies of classifying motor imagery from background rest condition were assessed from the EEG of the evaluation and therapy parts of the 10 rehabilitation sessions respectively. The results showed no evident differences between the online accuracies on the evaluation part from both groups, but the offline analysis on the therapy part yielded higher averaged accuracies for subjects who received tDCS (n=3) compared to sham-tDCS (n=2). The results suggest towards tDCS effect in modulating motor imagery in stroke, but a more conclusive result can be drawn when more data are collected in the ongoing study.

  18. Quantitative evaluation protocol for upper limb motor coordination analysis in patients with ataxia.

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Chwastek, C; Romei, M; Cavalleri, M; Bonato, S; Reni, G

    2010-01-01

    Objective and quantitative measurement is crucial in the definition of functional impairment and in the tracking of disease progress over time of patients affected by progressive pathologies, such as ataxia. A new experimental procedure for the quantitative description of upper limb movement and coordination analysis was developed by the integration of an optoelectronic system and dedicated electronic board with four visual and pressure stimuli. 20 passive retroreflective markers were placed on the subject's body and two types pointing tests were defined: in the first one, the subjects were asked to reach with the index finger five consecutive times each of the three targets ("repetitive test"), and in the second one, the subjects were asked to randomly reach the targets with the index finger ("random test"). The preliminary results showed that patients affected by ataxia took more time with a less smooth finger tip movement to perform the reaching tests when compared to healthy subjects. The velocity was lower and its profile was more irregular in ataxic subjects. The new developed experimental procedure seems to be very promising in the quantitative description of upper limb movements of pathological and healthy subjects and it seems to be able to distinguish the impairments due to different levels of ataxia.

  19. Are determinants for new and persistent upper limb pain different? An analysis based on anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Serra, Consol; Coggon, David; Martínez, José Miguel; Ntani, Georgia; Delclos, George; Palmer, Keith T.; Benavides, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Only few longitudinal studies have explored separately predictors of pain incidence and persistence. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether biological, lifestyle, occupational and psychological risk factors for the development of new episodes of upper limb pain (ULP) differ from those for its persistence. METHODS 1105 Spanish nurses and office workers were asked at baseline about biological, lifestyle, occupational and psychological risk factors and pain in the past month at six anatomical sites in the upper limb (left and right shoulder, elbow and wrist/hand). At follow up, 12 months later, pain in the past month was again ascertained. Analysis was based on anatomical sites clustered by person. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS 971 participants (87.9%) completed follow-up. Job dissatisfaction and older age carried higher risk of new ULP. Somatising tendency (OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.6-3.1) was the strongest predictor of new ULP, with a risk estimate which differed significantly from that for the same exposure and persistence of ULP. Having adverse beliefs about the work-relatedness of ULP carried a significantly reduced risk for persistence of ULP. CONCLUSION Our study provides only limited evidence that risk factors predicting new ULP differ from those predicting its persistence. PMID:26409386

  20. [Coordination patterns assessed by a continuous measure of joints coupling during upper limb repetitive movements].

    PubMed

    Draicchio, F; Silvetti, A; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the coordination patterns between elbow, shoulder and trunk in a motor task consisting of reaching out, picking up a cylinder, and transporting it back by using the Dynamical Systems Theory and calculating the continuous relative phase (CRP), a continuous measure of the coupling between two interacting joints. We used an optoelectronic motion analysis system consisting of eight infra-red ray cameras to detect the movements of nine skin-mounted markers. We calculated the root square of the adjusted coefficient of determination, the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC), in order to investigate the repeatability of the joints coordination. The data confirm that the CNS establishes both synergic (i.e. coupling between shoulder and trunk on the frontal plane) and hierarchical (i.e. coupling between elbow-shoulder-trunk on the horizontal plane) relationships among the available degrees of freedom to overcome the complexity due to motor redundancy. The present study describes a method to investigate the organization of the kinematic degrees of freedom during upper limb multi-joint motor tasks that can be useful to assess upper limb repetitive movements.

  1. Kinematic models of the upper limb joints for multibody kinematics optimisation: An overview.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Sonia; Naaim, Alexandre; Moissenet, Florent; Begon, Mickaël; Chèze, Laurence

    2016-12-09

    Soft tissue artefact (STA), i.e. the motion of the skin, fat and muscles gliding on the underlying bone, may lead to a marker position error reaching up to 8.7cm for the particular case of the scapula. Multibody kinematics optimisation (MKO) is one of the most efficient approaches used to reduce STA. It consists in minimising the distance between the positions of experimental markers on a subject skin and the simulated positions of the same markers embedded on a kinematic model. However, the efficiency of MKO directly relies on the chosen kinematic model. This paper proposes an overview of the different upper limb models available in the literature and a discussion about their applicability to MKO. The advantages of each joint model with respect to its biofidelity to functional anatomy are detailed both for the shoulder and the forearm areas. Models capabilities of personalisation and of adaptation to pathological cases are also discussed. Concerning model efficiency in terms of STA reduction in MKO algorithms, a lack of quantitative assessment in the literature is noted. In priority, future studies should concern the evaluation and quantification of STA reduction depending on upper limb joint constraints.

  2. Impact of deep brain stimulation on upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, R G; Dowsey, P L; Brown, P; Jahanshahi, M; Pollak, P; Benabid, A L; Rodriguez-Oroz, M C; Obeso, J; Rothwell, J C

    1999-04-01

    Recent pathophysiological models of Parkinson's disease have led to new surgical approaches to treatment including deep brain stimulation (DBS) and lesioning of basal ganglia structures. Various measures of upper limb akinesia were assessed in 6 patients with bilateral DBS of the internal pallidum and 6 with DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. Stimulation improved a number of aspects of motor function, and particularly movement time, and force production. Time to initiate movements, and to perform repetitive movements also improved but less dramatically. Processes indicating preparatory motor processes showed no significant change. Few significant differences were found between the internal pallidum and subthalamic nucleus groups. In general, the effects of DBS closely parallel previous reports of the effects of dopaminergic medication. It is suggested that disrupted pallidal output in Parkinson's disease interferes with the rate, level, and coordination of force production but has little effect on preparatory processes. The similarity of the effects of subthalamic nucleus and internal pallidum stimulation suggests this disrupted outflow is the most important determinant of upper limb akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The effects of DBS were similar to the effects of unilateral pallidal lesions reported elsewhere.

  3. Reliability of the Performance of Upper Limb assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Pane, Marika; Mazzone, Elena S; Fanelli, Lavinia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Bianco, Flaviana; Sivo, Serena; D'Amico, Adele; Messina, Sonia; Battini, Roberta; Scutifero, Marianna; Petillo, Roberta; Frosini, Silvia; Scalise, Roberta; Vita, Gianluca; Bruno, Claudio; Pedemonte, Marina; Mongini, Tiziana; Pegoraro, Elena; Brustia, Francesca; Gardani, Alice; Berardinelli, Angela; Lanzillotta, Valentina; Viggiano, Emanuela; Cavallaro, Filippo; Sframeli, Maria; Bello, Luca; Barp, Andrea; Bonfiglio, Serena; Rolle, Enrica; Colia, Giulia; Catteruccia, Michela; Palermo, Concetta; D'Angelo, Grazia; Pini, Antonella; Iotti, Elena; Gorni, Ksenija; Baranello, Giovanni; Morandi, Lucia; Bertini, Enrico; Politano, Luisa; Sormani, MariaPia; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2014-03-01

    The Performance of Upper Limb was specifically designed to assess upper limb function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The aim of this study was to assess (1) a cohort of typically developing children from the age of 3years onwards in order to identify the age when the activities assessed in the individual items are consistently achieved, and (2) a cohort of 322 Duchenne children and young adults to establish the range of findings at different ages. We collected normative data for the scale validation on 277 typically developing subjects from 3 to 25years old. A full score was consistently achieved by the age of 5years. In the Duchenne cohort there was early involvement of the proximal muscles and a proximal to distal progressive involvement. The scale was capable of measuring small distal movements, related to activities of daily living, even in the oldest and weakest patients. Our data suggest that the assessment can be reliably used in both ambulant and non ambulant Duchenne patients in a multicentric setting and could therefore be considered as an outcome measure for future trials.

  4. Long-Latency Feedback Coordinates Upper-Limb and Hand Muscles during Object Manipulation Tasks123

    PubMed Central

    Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Scott, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Suppose that someone bumps into your arm at a party while you are holding a glass of wine. Motion of the disturbed arm will engage rapid and goal-directed feedback responses in the upper-limb. Although such responses can rapidly counter the perturbation, it is also clearly desirable not to destabilize your grasp and/or spill the wine. Here we investigated how healthy humans maintain a stable grasp following perturbations by using a paradigm that requires spatial tuning of the motor response dependent on the location of a virtual target. Our results highlight a synchronized expression of target-directed feedback in shoulder and hand muscles occurring at ∼60 ms. Considering that conduction delays are longer for the more distal hand muscles, these results suggest that target-directed responses in hand muscles were initiated before those for the shoulder muscles. These results show that long-latency feedback can coordinate upper limb and hand muscles during object manipulation tasks. PMID:27022624

  5. A Serious Game for Upper Limb Stroke Rehabilitation Using Biofeedback and Mirror-Neurons Based Training.

    PubMed

    Cargnin, Diego João; Cordeiro d'Ornellas, Marcos; Cervi Prado, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb stroke rehabilitation requires early, intensive and repetitive practice to be effective. Consequently, it is often difficult to keep patients committed to their rehabilitation regimen. In addition to direct measures of rehabilitation achievable through targeted assessments, other factors can indirectly lead to rehabilitation. Current levels of integration between commodity graphics software, hardware, and body-tracking devices have provided a reliable tool to build what are referred to as serious games, focusing on the rehabilitation paradigm. More specifically, serious games can captivate and engage players for a specific purpose such as developing new knowledge or skills. This paper discusses a serious game application with a focus on upper limb rehabilitation in patients with hemiplegia or hemiparesis. The game makes use of biofeedback and mirror-neurons to enhance the patient's engagement. Results from the application of a quantitative self-report instrument to assess in-game engagement suggest that the serious game is a viable instructional approach rather than an entertaining novelty and, furthermore, demonstrates the future potential for dual action therapy-focused games.

  6. Quantitative EEG for Predicting Upper-limb Motor Recovery in Chronic Stroke Robot-assisted Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Paula; Mastropietro, Alfonso; Scano, Alessandro; Chiavenna, Andrea; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Caimmi, Marco; Molteni, Franco; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2017-03-03

    Stroke is a leading cause for adult disability, which in many cases causes motor deficits. Despite the developments in motor rehabilitation techniques, recovery of upper limb functions after stroke is limited and heterogeneous in terms of outcomes, and knowledge of important factors that may affect the outcome of the therapy is necessary to make a reasonable prediction for individual patients. In this study, we assessed the relationship between quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) measures and the motor outcome in chronic stroke patients that underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation program to evaluate the utility of QEEG indices to predict motor recovery. For this purpose, we acquired resting-state electroencephalographic signals from which the Power Ratio Index (PRI), Delta/Alpha Ratio (DAR), and Brain Symmetry Index (BSI) were calculated. The outcome of the motor rehabilitation was evaluated using upper-limb section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment. We found that PRI was significantly correlated with the motor recovery, suggesting that this index may provide useful information to predict the rehabilitation outcome.

  7. Upper limb movements and outcome in intrauterine-growth-retarded infants at 2 years.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Luba; Harel, Shaul; Leitner, Yael; Jaffa, Ariel; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to examine the usefulness of spontaneous upper limb movements (ULM) as an early marker for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome in infants with intrauterine-growth retardation (IUGR). The assessment of general movements (GMs) during the first 20 weeks is an accepted method for early detection of brain dysfunction. During this period, spontaneous upper limb movements were examined in 32 infants with IUGR and 32 appropriate-for-gestational-age-matched controls. ULM (arms, forearms and hands) were scored as optimal or suboptimal by sequential videotape recordings in the writhing (term-2 weeks: score 0-5); early fidgety (9-11 weeks: score 0-6); and late fidgety (14-16 weeks: score 0-6) periods, and correlated with neurodevelopmental score at 2 years of age. The mean ULM score was lower in the IUGR infants than the controls (p<0.05) and in the IUGR group was lower in the infants with abnormal outcome (p<0.05). Significant correlations were found between ULM and 2-year neurodevelopmental scores in the IUGR group. The ULM during late-fidgety period was most predictive for 2-year neurodevelopmental score. No difference was found in the mean ULM score between the pre-term and term IUGR infants. We conclude that ULM score can serve as an early predictor for neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age in infants with IUGR.

  8. Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

  9. Biomechanical analysis of upper limb during the use of touch screen: motion strategies identification.

    PubMed

    Jacquier-Bret, Julien; Gorce, Philippe; Motti Lilian, Genaro; Vigouroux, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays touch technology is growing and developers try to make it ever more intuitive and easier to use. This present work focused on the upper limb joint coordination during the achievement of puzzles on touch screen. A 5-inch and 10-inch devices were used to perform 9 and 16 pieces puzzles dragged with digits. The conclusions showed an increase in joint solicitation with the number of piece and the touch screen size. Moreover, three interactions strategies proved to be an evidence: the 'wrist strategy' preferentially implying wrist flexion/extension, the 'elbow strategy' preferentially implying the elbow flexion/extension and the 'neutral strategy' mobilising equally the two joints. From an ergonomic point of view, the data about how the upper limb segments are mobilised while interacting with the screen could be relevant to increase the adaptability of the devices to the user, including users with motor impairments. Practitioner Summary: Information about the biomechanical organisation of movement during interaction with touch devices appears relevant in order to develop applications adapted to the motor capacities of users. From the analysis of joint angles when performing several times a puzzle with healthy subjects, three motor strategies were highlighted.

  10. Preliminary results of the induced membrane in upper limb. About 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Anoumou, N M; Traoré, M; Kouamé, M; Yepié, A; Varango, G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the preliminary results after reconstruction of segmental bone defects (SBDs) in the upper limb of six patients. This retrospective study included three men and three women with an average age of 35years (range 18-62years), who had four primary and two secondary SBDs. The average length of the SBD was 4.5 cm (2-10cm). According to the SOFCOT classification, type I (1 case), type II (4 cases) and type III (1 case) defects were identified. The reconstruction involved the humerus in two cases and the forearm bones in four cases. A posterior plaster cast was applied in all patients during the first stage of treatment. Internal fixation was used during the second phrase (five plates, one K-wire). The mean time elapsed between the first and the second stages of treatment was 3 months (2-4 months). At the final follow-up, bone union was obtained in five patients after an average of 4.6 months (4-6 months). The progression was favorable after the first stage of the induced membrane technique. However, two cases of sepsis were observed after the second stage of treatment, one evolving to osteitis that caused graft resorption. The induced membrane technique is a sequential technique used for treating SBDs. It is an alternative method of bone reconstruction in the upper limb.

  11. Aerobic exercise modulates intracortical inhibition and facilitation in a nonexercised upper limb muscle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the relationship between exercise and short-term neural plasticity, the effects of exercise on motor cortical (M1) excitability are not well studied. Acute, lower-limb aerobic exercise may potentially modulate M1 excitability in working muscles, but the effects on muscles not involved in the exercise are unknown. Here we examined the excitability changes in an upper limb muscle representation following a single session of lower body aerobic exercise. Investigating the response to exercise in a non-exercised muscle may help to determine the clinical usefulness of lower-body exercise interventions for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Methods In this study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess input–output curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the extensor carpi radialis muscle in twelve healthy individuals following a single session of moderate stationary biking. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene would affect the response of these measures to exercise. Results We observed significant increases in ICF and decreases in SICI following exercise. No changes in LICI were detected, and no differences were observed in input–output curves following exercise, or between BDNF groups. Conclusions The current results demonstrate that the modulation of intracortical excitability following aerobic exercise is not limited to those muscles involved in the exercise, and that while exercise does not directly modulate the excitability of motor neurons, it may facilitate the induction of experience-dependent plasticity via a decrease in intracortical inhibition and increase in intracortical facilitation. These findings indicate that exercise may create favourable conditions for adaptive plasticity in M1 and may be an effective adjunct to

  12. Reachable Workspace and Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jay J.; de Bie, Evan; Nicorici, Alina; Abresch, Richard T.; Anthonisen, Colleen; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Kurillo, Gregorij; McDonald, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Kinect-based reachable workspace relative surface area (RSA) is compared with the Performance of Upper Limb (PUL) assessment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods 29 individuals with DMD (ages: 7–23, Brooke: 1–5) underwent both Kinect-based reachable workspace RSA and PUL assessments. RSAs were also collected from 24 age-matched controls. Total and quadrant RSAs were compared with the PUL total, shoulder-, middle-, and distal-dimension scores. Results The total reachable workspace RSA correlated well with the total PUL score (Spearman ρ=−0.602, P<0.001), and with each of the PUL dimensional scores: shoulder (ρ=−0.624, P<0.001), middle (ρ=−0.564, P=0.001), and distal (ρ=−0.630, P<0.001). With quadrant RSA, reachability in a particular quadrant was closely associated with respective PUL dimensional-level function (lateral-upper quadrant for shoulder-, lateral-upper/lower quadrants for middle-, and lateral-lower quadrant for distal-level function). Discussion This study demonstrates concurrent validity of the reachable workspace outcome measure (RSA) with the DMD-specific upper extremity outcome measure (PUL). PMID:26342193

  13. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  14. Effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy on motor recovery of subacute stroke patients: a kinematic approach.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Sale, Patrizio; Franceschini, Marco; Posteraro, Federico; Tiboni, Micol

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of upper limb robot-assisted treatment in a group of 25 subacute post-stroke patients using clinical outcome measures and kinematic parameters. Fugl-Meyer (FM) Assessment scale and Motricity Index (MI) were used for clinical assessment, and a set of kinematic parameters was computed. A significant decrease in motor impairment after the robot-assisted treatment (FM p<0.05 and MI p<0.05) was found. Significant improvements of upper limb motor performance was found after 2 weeks (p<0.001); subsequently, no further significant improvements were observed. Our results confirm that robotic treatment is effective to reduce upper limb motor impairment in subacute stroke patients. Kinematic parameters can provide important information on mechanisms underlying motor recovery and the frequent assessment of their values can contribute to identify an appropriate number of robotic therapy sessions as to reach soon substantial improvements.

  15. Development of risk filter and risk assessment worksheets for HSE guidance--'Upper Limb Disorders in the Workplace' 2002.

    PubMed

    Graves, Rod J; Way, Kïrsten; Riley, David; Lawton, Clare; Morris, Len

    2004-09-01

    Upper limb disorders (ULDs) in the workplace represent a significant cause of ill health in Great Britain. As part of the Health and Safety Commission's strategy for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), the well known guidance document on ULDs--"Work-related Upper Limb Disorders: a Guide to Prevention" (HSG60), (HMSO, London.), has been extensively revised. This revision (Upper limb disorders in the workplace. HSG60 (rev), HSE Books, Sudbury.) includes the development of new risk assessment tools that can be used by employers to identify ULD risk factors in work activities and more importantly to take action to reduce or eliminate ULD risks. The risk assessment tools form part of a seven stage management approach that underpins the new guidance. This paper outlines the development of the risk assessment tools contained in the revised guidance.

  16. Musculoskeletal stress markers in Natufian hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers in the Levant: the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Vered; Gopher, Avi; Galili, Ehud; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2004-04-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the changes in activity patterns of early farming populations in the Levant through the musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) of the upper limb as seen in skeletal remains. The transition to an agricultural way of life resulted in higher loads on the upper limb in Neolithic populations compared to the Natufian hunter-gatherer populations that preceded them. The MSM pattern for males and females indicates a gender-based division of labor both in the Natufian and the Neolithic. It may also suggest that people in the Neolithic period were engaged in different (new) activities and occupations compared to the Natufian.

  17. Kinect One-based biomechanical assessment of upper-limb performance compared to clinical scales in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Scano, Alessandro; Caimmi, Marco; Chiavenna, Andrea; Malosio, Matteo; Tosatti, Lorenzo Molinari

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a Kinect One sensor-based protocol for the evaluation of the motor-performances of the upper limb of neurological patients during rehabilitative sessions. The assessment provides evaluations of kinematic, dynamic, motor and postural control variables. A pilot study was conducted on three post-stroke neurological patients, comparing Kinect-One biomechanical assessment with the outcomes of some of the most common clinical scales for the evaluation of the upper-limb functionality. Preliminary results indicate coherency between the clinical and instrumental evaluation. Moreover, the Kinect-One assessment seems to provide some complementary quantitative information, consistently integrating the clinical assessment.

  18. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  19. Lower limb conduit artery endothelial responses to acute upper limb exercise in spinal cord injured and able-bodied men

    PubMed Central

    Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Au, Jason S; Ditor, David S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular improvements in the nonactive regions during exercise are likely primarily mediated by increased shear rate (SR). Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience sublesional vascular deconditioning and could potentially benefit from upper body exercise-induced increases in lower body SR. The present study utilized a single bout of incremental arm-crank exercise to generate exercise-induced SR changes in the superficial femoral artery in an effort to evaluate the acute postexercise impact on superficial femoral artery endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and determine regulatory factors in the nonactive legs of individuals with and without SCI. Eight individuals with SCI and eight age, sex, and waist-circumference-matched able-bodied (AB) controls participated. Nine minutes of incremental arm-crank exercise increased superficial femoral artery anterograde SR (P = 0.02 and P < 0.01), retrograde SR (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01), and oscillatory shear index (OSI) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) in both SCI and AB, respectively. However, these SR alterations resulted in acute postexercise increases in FMD in the AB group only (SCI 6.0 ± 1.2% to 6.3 ± 2.7%, P = 0.74; AB 7.5 ± 1.4% to 11.2 ± 1.4%, P = 0.03). While arm exercise has many cardiovascular benefits and results in changes in SR patterns in the nonactive legs, these changes are not sufficient to induce acute changes in FMD among individuals with SCI, and therefore are less likely to stimulate exercise training-associated improvements in nonactive limb endothelial function. Understanding the role of SR patterns on FMD brings us closer to designing effective strategies to combat impaired vascular function in both healthy and clinical populations. PMID:25847920

  20. Upper-limb muscle responses to epidural, subdural and intraspinal stimulation of the cervical spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Abigail N.; Jackson, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Objective. Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord has potential applications following spinal cord injury for reanimating paralysed limbs and promoting neuroplastic changes that may facilitate motor rehabilitation. Here we systematically compare the efficacy, selectivity and frequency-dependence of different stimulation methods in the cervical enlargement of anaesthetized monkeys. Approach. Stimulating electrodes were positioned at multiple epidural and subdural sites on both dorsal and ventral surfaces, as well as at different depths within the spinal cord. Motor responses were recorded from arm, forearm and hand muscles. Main results. Stimulation efficacy increased from dorsal to ventral stimulation sites, with the exception of ventral epidural electrodes which had the highest recruitment thresholds. Compared to epidural and intraspinal methods, responses to subdural stimulation were more selective but also more similar between adjacent sites. Trains of stimuli delivered to ventral sites elicited consistent responses at all frequencies whereas from dorsal sites we observed a mixture of short-latency facilitation and long-latency suppression. Finally, paired stimuli delivered to dorsal surface and intraspinal sites exhibited symmetric facilitatory interactions at interstimulus intervals between 2-5 ms whereas on the ventral side interactions tended to be suppressive for near-simultaneous stimuli. Significance. We interpret these results in the context of differential activation of afferent and efferent roots and intraspinal circuit elements. In particular, we propose that distinct direct and indirect actions of spinal cord stimulation on motoneurons may be advantageous for different applications, and this should be taken into consideration when designing neuroprostheses for upper-limb function.

  1. Sensory nerve conduction in the upper limbs at various stages of diabetic neuropathy 1

    PubMed Central

    Noël, P.

    1973-01-01

    In 59 diabetic patients, sensory nerve potentials were recorded at various sites along the course of the median nerve. Pathological responses were characterized by reduced amplitude, desynchronization and decreased conduction velocity (CV). Four groups of patients with increasingly severe nerve dysfunction were distinguished. The presence and severity of clinical neuropathy in the upper limbs could be related to decreased maximal sensory nerve CV in the proximal segment of the limbs. When maximal sensory nerve CV was normal above the wrist, neuropathy usually remained latent. In severe cases where no sensory nerve potentials could be recorded, the cerebral evoked potentials nonetheless permitted a precise evaluation of the somatosensory conduction. In these cases, maximal sensory nerve CV was very low. In five patients with a so-called diabetic mononeuropathy, abnormal nerve potentials were recorded in the median nerve, although no clinical signs could be seen in the corresponding territory. It is proposed that the diabetic nature of a mononeuropathy can be assessed by the finding of latent abnormalities in seemingly normal nerve. PMID:4753874

  2. 3D Cortical Electrophysiology of Ballistic Upper Limb Movement in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Edward; Coombes, Stephen A.; Vaillancourt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Precise motor control requires the ability to scale the parameters of movement. Theta oscillations across the cortex have been associated with changes in memory, attention, and sensorimotor processing. What has proven more elusive is pinpointing the region-specific frequency band oscillations that are associated with specific parameters of movement during the acceleration and deceleration phases. We report a study using 3D analytic techniques for high density electroencephalography that examines electrocortical dynamics while participants produce upper limb movements to different distances at varying rates. During fast ballistic movements, we observed increased theta band activity in the left motor area contralateral to the moving limb during the acceleration phase of the movement, and theta power correlated with the acceleration of movement. In contrast, beta band activity scaled with the type of movement during the deceleration phase near the end of the movement and correlated with movement time. In the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory area, alpha band activity decreased with the type of movement near the end of the movement, and gamma band activity in visual cortex increased with the type of movement near the end of the movement. Our results suggest that humans use distinct lateralized cortical activity for distance and speed dependent arm movements. We provide new evidence that a temporary increase in theta band power relates to movement acceleration and is important during movement execution. Further, the theta power increase is coupled with desychronization of beta and alpha band power which are modulated by the task near the end of movement. PMID:25929620

  3. EEG controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper limb for stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hock Guan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Kong, Keng He; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Wei Tech

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) system and the experiments to allow post-acute (<3 months) stroke patients to use electroencephalogram (EEG) to trigger neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-assisted extension of the wrist/fingers, which are essential pre-requisites for useful hand function. EEG was recorded while subjects performed motor imagery of their paretic limb, and then analyzed to determine the optimal frequency range within the mu-rhythm, with the greatest attenuation. Aided by visual feedback, subjects then trained to regulate their mu-rhythm EEG to operate the BCI to trigger NMES of the wrist/finger. 6 post-acute stroke patients successfully completed the training, with 4 able to learn to control and use the BCI to initiate NMES. This result is consistent with the reported BCI literacy rate of healthy subjects. Thereafter, without the loss of generality, the controller of the NMES is developed and is based on a model of the upper limb muscle (biceps/triceps) groups to determine the intensity of NMES required to flex or extend the forearm by a specific angle. The muscle model is based on a phenomenological approach, with parameters that are easily measured and conveniently implemented.

  4. "Studying the cutaneous microcirculatory response during upper-limb exercise in healthy, older, sedentary people".

    PubMed

    Klonizakis, Markos

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated changes incurred in cutaneous skin blood flux (SKBF) in the superficial veins of the lower limb by upper limb exercise training in the form of arm-cranking in 14 healthy participants over the age of 50 years. Changes in cutaneous microvascular function of the lower leg were assessed using laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) during a 30-minute exercise session undertaken over 4-exercise periods. Both SKBF and Time to reach Peak Perfusion (Tmax) were improved significantly during the 2nd (e.g. 121 (± 107.2) vs 280 (± 269.1) and 171 (± 34.4) vs. 247 (± 38.3) respectively) when compared to the first exercise period, while values approaching initial levels in the following stages. The results indicate that the thermoregulatory and vasodilation mechanisms observed during exercise in middle-aged and older healthy people are different to the one appearing in younger age groups, suggesting a more extensive effect of the age-related structural changes than it was previously thought.

  5. Technological platform for biomechanical analysis of static and dynamic tests of upper and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Rodrigo; Chairez, Isaac; Garcia, Alejandro; Luviano-Jurez, Alberto; Rivera, Adriana; Rodriguez, Alfredo; Gonzalez, Neftali

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important elements for the rehabilitation process regards to the correct evaluation of the biomechanical and the electrophysiological responses. This evaluation must be done during the therapy. In general, the improvements achieved by the treatment are slightly and difficult to be distinguished. This is a difficult task when the changes in the signals obtained by the bio-amplifiers (EMG, electro-goniometry, etc) are evaluated by a wired system because the patient cannot interact with its environment freely. The present work tackles the design, construction and implementation of a platform to carry out biomechanical analysis for upper and lower limbs. The included variables in the biomechanical system are the angular position, linear acceleration, electromyography signals and force executed by the limbs. The designed scheme considers the wireless monitoring of relevant signals; such variables allow us to analyze the effectiveness achieved by the therapy. Processing and data exhibition are carry out in a personal computer. Two application examples regarding the biomechanical wrist evaluation and the EMG correlation are presented. Nonlinear algorithms to analyze the information obtained in the system are used to evaluate the biomechanical responses produced in different patients.

  6. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  7. Tracing the pathways of the upper limb of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, Kristin C.; Lozier, M. Susan

    2014-06-01

    The warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the eastern subpolar gyre (ESG) in the North Atlantic have been widely linked to the climate and climate variability of Great Britain and northwestern Europe. The source of the ESG waters, and its heat, has long been identified as surface subtropical waters that flow into the subpolar gyre as part of the upper limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation. Recent studies, however, have cast doubt on that identification. Here we use synthetic floats launched in a high-resolution ocean general circulation model to identify the supply waters to the ESG and to determine the influence of those pathways on SSTs in that climatically important region. The synthetic floats reveal two pathways: a dominant subsurface subtropical to subpolar pathway and a less traveled surface pathway carrying recirculated waters eastward from the western subpolar gyre. The former pathway supplies anomalously warm water to the region; the latter pathway supplies anomalously cool water.

  8. Upper limb functional assessment of children with cerebral palsy using a sorting box.

    PubMed

    Quijano-Gonzalez, Y; Melendez-Calderon, A; Burdet, E; Chong-Quero, J E; Villanueva-Ayala, D; Perez-Moreno, J C

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a sorting box to obtain a quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in children with cerebral palsy. In our study, children with and without cerebral palsy placed and removed geometrical objects of a sorting-box while their wrist position was monitored by a camera-based, motion-tracking system. We analyzed three different smoothness metrics (logarithmic dimensionless jerk, spectral arc-length and number of peaks) together with time to task completion. Our results suggest that smoothness metrics are an effective tool to distinguish between impaired and non-impaired subjects, as well as to quantify differences between the affected and less-affected sides in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy.

  9. Coordinated upper limb training assisted with an electromyography (EMG)-driven hand robot after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hu, X L; Tong, K Y; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A; Ho, S K

    2013-01-01

    An electromyography (EMG)-driven hand robot had been developed for post-stroke rehabilitation training. The effectiveness of the hand robot assisted whole upper limb training on muscular coordination was investigated on persons with chronic stroke (n=10) in this work. All subjects attended a 20-session training (3-5 times/week) by using the hand robot to practice object grasp/release and arm transportation tasks. Improvements were found in the muscle co-ordination between the antagonist muscle pair (flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) as measured by muscle co-contractions in EMG signals; and also in the reduction of excessive muscle activities in the biceps brachii. Reduced spasticity in the fingers was also observed as measured by the Modified Ashworth Score.

  10. Hematuria following Botox treatment for upper limb spasticity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tony CT; Yeung, Stephen T; Lee, Sujin; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-01-01

    Hematuria is a documented side effect of botulinum toxin injection and has only been reported when it is used for overactive bladder. Here we report a rare case of hematuria following onabotulinumtoxin A (Botox) injection for upper limb spasticity in a 29-year-old male with a history of traumatic brain injury and hemophilia. Hematuria resolved without further complication after self-injection of factor VIII as recommended by his hematologist. Botulinum toxin binds peripheral cholinergic nerve endings to prevent acetylcholine and norepinephrine exocytosis. Studies have shown that both of these compounds are involved in antifibrinolytic activation, suggesting botulinum toxin may play a role in the coagulation cascade by preventing formation of fibrin. This is further supported by resolution of hematuria in our patient after self-injection of factor VIII. As such, botulinum toxin injection may result in mild spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with underlying hematological deficiencies. Further studies are needed to elucidate its effects in coagulation. PMID:26396542

  11. Modeling and design of a tendon actuated soft robotic exoskeleton for hemiparetic upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Nycz, Christopher J; Delph, Michael A; Fischer, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    Robotic technology has recently been explored as a means to rehabilitate and assist individuals suffering from hemiparesis of their upper limbs. Robotic approaches allow for targeted rehabilitation routines which are more personalized and adaptable while providing quantitative measurements of patient outcomes. Development of these technologies into inherently safe and portable devices has the potential to extend the therapy outside of the clinical setting and into the patient's home with benefits to the cost and accessibility of care. To this end, a soft, cable actuated robotic glove and sleeve was designed, modeled, and constructed to provide assistance of finger and elbow movements in a way that mimics the biological function of the tendons. The resulting design increases safety through greater compliance as well as greater tolerance for misalignment with the user's skeletal frame over traditional rigid exoskeletons. Overall this design provides a platform to expand and study the concepts around soft robotic rehabilitation.

  12. Studying Upper-Limb Amputee Prosthesis Use to Inform Device Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Accomplishments………..…………………………………………...3 4. Impact…………………………...……………………………………5 5. Changes /Problems...….………………………………………………5 6. Products...home and lab-based study on upper-limb amputees and age and gender - matched normal subjects. For the in-home study we will use an unobtrusive head...report 5. CHANGES /PROBLEMS: Changes in approach and reasons for change The original protocol was modified to include the use of an optical

  13. Neural PID Control of Robot Manipulators With Application to an Upper Limb Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-04-01

    In order to minimize steady-state error with respect to uncertainties in robot control, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control needs a big integral gain, or a neural compensator is added to the classical proportional-derivative (PD) control with a large derivative gain. Both of them deteriorate transient performances of the robot control. In this paper, we extend the popular neural PD control into neural PID control. This novel control is a natural combination of industrial linear PID control and neural compensation. The main contributions of this paper are semiglobal asymptotic stability of the neural PID control and local asymptotic stability of the neural PID control with a velocity observer which are proved with standard weight training algorithms. These conditions give explicit selection methods for the gains of the linear PID control. An experimental study on an upper limb exoskeleton with this neural PID control is addressed.

  14. Neuromuscular Activity of Upper and Lower Limbs during two Backstroke Swimming Start Variants

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Karla; De Jesus, Kelly; Medeiros, Alexandre I. A.; Gonçalves, Pedro; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    A proficient start is decisive in sprint competitive swimming events and requires swimmers’ to exert maximal forces in a short period to complete the task successfully. The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity in-between the backstroke start with feet positioned parallel and partially emerged performed with the hands on the highest horizontal and on the vertical handgrip at hands-off, take-off, flight and entry start phases. EMG comparisons between starting variants were supported by upper and lower limb joint angles at starting position and 15 m start time data. Following a four-week start training to familiarize participants with each start variant, 10 male competitive backstroke swimmers performed randomly six 15 m maximal trials, being three of each start variant. Surface EMG of Biceps Brachii, Triceps Brachii, Rectus Femoris, Biceps Femoris, Gastrocnemius Medialis and Tibialis Anterior was recorded and processed using the time integral EMG (iEMG). Eight video cameras (four surface and four underwater) were used to determine backstroke start phases and joint angles at starting position. EMG, joint angles and temporal parameters have not evidenced changes due to the different handgrips. Nevertheless, clear differences were observed in both variants for upper and lower limb muscles activity among starting phases (e.g. Biceps Brachii at take-off vs. flight phase, 15.17% ± 2.76% and 22.38% ± 4.25%; 14.24% ± 7.11% and 25.90% ± 8.65%, for variant with hands horizontal and vertically positioned, respectively). It was concluded that different handgrips did not affect EMG, kinematics and temporal profile in backstroke start. Despite coaches might plan similar strength training for both start variants, further attention should be given on the selection of proper exercises to maximize the contribution of relevant muscles at different starting phases. Key points An effective swim start component (from the starting signal until the

  15. Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper employees: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, M F; Cole, D C; Beaton, D E; Chung, J; Wells, R; Abdolell, M; Beech-Hawley, L; Ferrier, S E; Mondloch, M V; Shields, S A; Smith, J M; Shannon, H S

    1997-12-01

    At a metropolitan newspaper office in Canada with extensive video display terminal (VDT) use, researchers carried out a survey (n = 1,007, 84% response) to establish baseline prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and to identify demographic, postural, task, and psychosocial factors associated with WMSD symptoms. One-fifth of the respondents reported moderate or worse upper limb pain recurring at least monthly or lasting more than a week over the previous year. Logistic regression showed that employees who faced frequent deadlines and high psychological demands (fast work pace and conflicting demands), had low skill discretion and social support, spent more time keyboarding, or who had their screen in a non-optimal position were more likely to report moderate to severe symptoms. Women reported significantly higher levels of symptoms than men.

  16. Design and analysis of an underactuated anthropomorphic finger for upper limb prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Omarkulov, Nurdos; Telegenov, Kuat; Zeinullin, Maralbek; Begalinova, Ainur; Shintemirov, Almas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a linkage based finger mechanism ensuring extended range of anthropomorphic gripping motions. The finger design is done using a path-point generation method based on geometrical dimensions and motion of a typical index human finger. Following the design description, and its kinematics analysis, the experimental evaluation of the finger gripping performance is presented using the finger 3D printed prototype. The finger underactuation is achieved by utilizing mechanical linkage system, consisting of two crossed four-bar linkage mechanisms. It is shown that the proposed finger design can be used to design a five-fingered anthropomorphic hand and has the potential for upper limb prostheses development.

  17. Control system design of a 3-DOF upper limbs rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Denève, Alexandre; Moughamir, Saïd; Afilal, Lissan; Zaytoon, Janan

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the control system design of a rehabilitation and training robot for the upper limbs. Based on a hierarchical structure, this control system allows the execution of sequence of switching control laws (position, force, impedance and force/impedance) corresponding to the required training configuration. A model-based nonlinear controller is used to impose the desired environment to the patient's arm. The knowledge of robot kinematics and dynamics is thus necessary to ensure haptic transparency and patient safety. The identification process of robot dynamics is emphasised and experimental identification results are given for the designed robot. The paper also presents a particular rehabilitation mode named Active-Assisted. Simulation results of this rehabilitation mode illustrate the potentialities of the overall control scheme, which can also be applied to other rehabilitation robots.

  18. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Fukushima, K.; Furusho, J.; Ozawa, T.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  19. Upper limb strength estimation of physically impaired persons using a musculoskeletal model: A sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Marc G; Liu, Dikai

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of upper limb strength calculated from a musculoskeletal model was analyzed, with focus on how the sensitivity is affected when the model is adapted to represent a person with physical impairment. Sensitivity was calculated with respect to four muscle-tendon parameters: muscle peak isometric force, muscle optimal length, muscle pennation, and tendon slack length. Results obtained from a musculoskeletal model of average strength showed highest sensitivity to tendon slack length, followed by muscle optimal length and peak isometric force, which is consistent with existing studies. Muscle pennation angle was relatively insensitive. The analysis was repeated after adapting the musculoskeletal model to represent persons with varying severities of physical impairment. Results showed that utilizing the weakened model significantly increased the sensitivity of the calculated strength at the hand, with parameters previously insensitive becoming highly sensitive. This increased sensitivity presents a significant challenge in applications utilizing musculoskeletal models to represent impaired individuals.

  20. Brain motor control assessment of upper limb function in patients with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zoghi, Maryam; Galea, Mary; Morgan, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The brain motor control assessment (BMCA) for the upper limb has been developed to add resolution to the clinical evaluation in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). BMCA is a surface electromyography (sEMG)-based measure of motor output from the central nervous system during a variety of reflex and voluntary motor tasks performed under strictly controlled conditions. Method Nine participants were recruited and assessed four times over a period of 1 year in a prospective cohort study design. The sEMG of 15 muscles (7 muscles from each upper limb and rectus abdominis) were recorded throughout the following stages of the BMCA protocol: (i) relaxation, (ii) reinforcement maneuvers, (iii) voluntary tasks, (iv) tendon-tap reflex responses, (v) vibration responses. Results Similarity index (SI) values were significantly lower in the SCI group for unilateral shoulder abduction (P = 0.006) and adduction (P = 0.021), elbow extension (P = 0.038), wrist flexion/extension with palm up (P < 0.001; P < 0.001) and wrist flexion with palm down (P = 0.016). sEMG magnitudes were also significantly lower in the SCI group for wrist flexion/extension with palm up (P < 0.001; P = 0.042). SI changes over time were significant for tasks related to wrist joint (P = 0.002). Conclusion Clinicians who are involved in rehabilitation of patients with SCI can use the BMCA to assess their patients’ motor control abilities and monitor their progression throughout their rehabilitation process. The results of this type of neurophysiological assessment might be useful to tailor therapeutic strategies for each patient. PMID:25582333

  1. Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, Priscilla A M; Domellöf, Erik; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment) in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning) and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm) may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development, and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications.

  2. A novel robot training system designed to supplement upper limb physiotherapy of patients with spastic hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Gabor; Horvath, Monika; Toth, Andras

    2006-09-01

    Spasticity is velocity and acceleration dependent, and it is therefore important to execute physiotherapeutic exercises at a relatively low and constant velocity. This can be more accurately managed by a robot than by a person when such exercises are administered continuously for more than 15-20 min. The purpose of this project was to construct a robot-mediated system that could support upper limb physiotherapy of patients with spastic hemiparesis. The system, unlike any known robotic therapeutic system, uses unmodified industrial robots to carry out passive physiotherapy on the upper limb (including the movements of the shoulder and the elbow). An initial trial was executed in order to assess its safety and to gain experience of the robot-mediated therapy. Four healthy subjects and eight patients with spastic hemiparesis were included. Each subject received 30-min-long robotic physiotherapy sessions over 20 consecutive workdays. The 12 participants received, in total, 240 robot-mediated physiotherapeutic sessions. No dangerous situation or considerable technical problem occurred; the robots executed the therapy programme as intended. Investigation of the effectiveness of this kind of therapy was not an aim of this initial trial; however, the patients' clinical status was followed and some favourable changes were found regarding the spasticity of elbow flexors and shoulder abductors. According to the experiences of the first clinical investigation, the programming interface and the mechanical interface device between the patient and the robots had been improved. A controlled clinical study is under way to assess the effectiveness of the REHAROB movement therapy.

  3. Temporal-spatial parameters of the upper limb during a Reach & Grasp Cycle for children.

    PubMed

    Butler, Erin E; Ladd, Amy L; Lamont, Lauren E; Rose, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize normal temporal-spatial patterns during the Reach & Grasp Cycle and to identify upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Reach & Grasp Cycle encompasses six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to self (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. Three-dimensional motion data were recorded from 25 typically developing children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 12 children with hemiplegic CP (2 males, 10 females; ages 5-17 years). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for the control group ranged from 0 to 0.19, indicating good repeatability of all parameters. The mean duration of the Cycle for children with CP was nearly twice as long as controls, 9.5±4.3s versus 5.1±1.2s (U=37.0, P=.002), partly due to prolonged grasp and release durations. Peak hand velocity occurred at approximately 40% of each phase and was greater during the transport (T(1), T(2)) than non-transport phases (reach, return) in controls (P<.001). Index of curvature was lower during transport versus non-transport phases for all children. Children with CP demonstrated an increased index of curvature during reach (U=46.0, P=.0074) and an increased total number of movement units (U=16.5, P<.0001) compared to controls, indicating less efficient and less smooth movements. Total duration of the Reach & Grasp Cycle (rho=.957, P<.0001), index of curvature during reach and T(1) (rho=.873, P=.0002 and rho=.778, P=.0028), and total number of movement units (rho=.907, P<.0001) correlated strongly with MACS score. The consistent normative data and the substantial differences between children with CP and controls reflect utility of the Reach & Grasp Cycle for quantitative evaluation of upper limb motor deficits.

  4. Is cardiac autonomic modulation during upper limb isometric contraction and Valsalva maneuver impaired in COPD patients?

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Cássia da Luz; Cabiddu, Ramona; Schneiders, Paloma de Borba; Antunes San Martin, Elisabete; Trimer, Renata; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; da Silva, Andréa Lúcia Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the heart rate variability (HRV) indices and heart rate (HR) responses during isometric contraction (IC) and Valsalva maneuver (VM) in COPD patients. Methods Twenty-two stable moderate to severe COPD patients were evaluated. R-R intervals were recorded (monitor Polar® S810i) during dominant upper limb IC (2 minutes). Stable signals were analyzed by Kubios HRV® software. Indices of HRV were computed in the time domain (mean HR; square root of the mean squared differences of successive RR intervals [RMSSD] and HRV triangular index [RR tri index]) and in the frequency domain (high frequency [HF]; low frequency [LF] and LF/HF ratio). The HR responses were evaluated at rest, at the peak and at the nadir of the VM (15 seconds). The Valsalva index was also calculated. Results During IC: time domain indices (mean HR increased [P=0.001], RMSSD, and RR tri index decreased [P=0.005 and P=0.005, respectively]); frequency domain indices (LF increased [P=0.033] and HF decreased [P=0.002]); associations were found between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) vs RMSSD (P=0.04; r=−0.55), FEV1 vs HR (P=0.04; r=−0.48), forced vital capacity (FVC) vs RMSSD (P=0.05; r=−0.62), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) vs HF (P=0.02; r=0.68). FEV1 and FVC justified 30% of mean HR. During VM: HR increased (P=0.01); the nadir showed normal bradycardic response; the Valsalva index was =0.7. Conclusion COPD patients responded properly to the upper limb IC and to the VM; however, HR recovery during VM was impaired in these patients. The severity of the disease and MIP were associated with increased parasympathetic modulation and higher chronotropic response. PMID:28331306

  5. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients’ group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0–66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0–60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of

  6. Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke.

    PubMed

    Frisoli, Antonio; Procopio, Caterina; Chisari, Carmelo; Creatini, Ilaria; Bonfiglio, Luca; Bergamasco, Massimo; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2012-06-09

    This study, conducted in a group of nine chronic patients with right-side hemiparesis after stroke, investigated the effects of a robotic-assisted rehabilitation training with an upper limb robotic exoskeleton for the restoration of motor function in spatial reaching movements. The robotic assisted rehabilitation training was administered for a period of 6 weeks including reaching and spatial antigravity movements. To assess the carry-over of the observed improvements in movement during training into improved function, a kinesiologic assessment of the effects of the training was performed by means of motion and dynamic electromyographic analysis of reaching movements performed before and after training. The same kinesiologic measurements were performed in a healthy control group of seven volunteers, to determine a benchmark for the experimental observations in the patients' group. Moreover degree of functional impairment at the enrolment and discharge was measured by clinical evaluation with upper limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMA, 0-66 points), Modified Ashworth scale (MA, 0-60 pts) and active ranges of motion. The robot aided training induced, independently by time of stroke, statistical significant improvements of kinesiologic (movement time, smoothness of motion) and clinical (4.6 ± 4.2 increase in FMA, 3.2 ± 2.1 decrease in MA) parameters, as a result of the increased active ranges of motion and improved co-contraction index for shoulder extension/flexion. Kinesiologic parameters correlated significantly with clinical assessment values, and their changes after the training were affected by the direction of motion (inward vs. outward movement) and position of target to be reached (ipsilateral, central and contralateral peripersonal space). These changes can be explained as a result of the motor recovery induced by the robotic training, in terms of regained ability to execute single joint movements and of improved interjoint coordination of elbow

  7. EVALUATION OF UPPER-LIMB FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBSTETRIC PALSY AFTER MODIFIED SEVER-L'EPISCOPO PROCEDURE

    PubMed Central

    de Luna Cabrai, José Roberval; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Sambuy, Marina Tommasini Carrara; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Abdouni, Yussef Ali; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate upper-limb function by means of the Mallet score, in patients with medial rotation contracture of the shoulder who underwent the modified Sever-L'Episcopo procedure, and to correlate evolution with age and length of postoperative follow-up. Methods: Sixteen patients were assessed by comparing the pre and postoperative Mallet scores and correlating the differences between these scores with age at the time of surgery and length of follow-up. Results: A statistically significant improvement in the postoperative Mallet score was observed. The correlations of the differences in scores with age and length of follow-up were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The modified Sever-L'Episcopo procedure led to improved upper-limb function according to the Mallet score. Limb function did not present correlations with age or length of follow-up. PMID:27047849

  8. Advances in upper airway cough syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-05-01

    Upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), previously referred to as postnasal drip syndrome, is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. However, the pathogenesis of UACS/postnasal drip syndrome remains unclear, and physicians in countries throughout the world have different definitions and ways of treating this disease. The various proposed pathogeneses of UACS include the early postnasal drip theory, subsequent chronic airway inflammation theory, and a recent sensory neural hypersensitivity theory. Additionally, some researchers suggest that UACS is a clinical phenotype of cough hypersensitivity syndrome. While the general principles involved in treating UACS are similar throughout the world, the specific details of treatment differ. This review summarizes the various definitions, pathogenic mechanisms, treatments, and other aspects of UACS, to aid clinicians in expanding their knowledge of how to diagnose and treat this syndrome.

  9. The consummatory origins of visually guided reaching in human infants: a dynamic integration of whole-body and upper-limb movements.

    PubMed

    Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    Reaching-to-eat (skilled reaching) is a natural behaviour that involves reaching for, grasping and withdrawing a target to be placed into the mouth for eating. It is an action performed daily by adults and is among the first complex behaviours to develop in infants. During development, visually guided reaching becomes increasingly refined to the point that grasping of small objects with precision grips of the digits occurs at about one year of age. Integration of the hand, upper-limbs, and whole body are required for successful reaching, but the ontogeny of this integration has not been described. The present longitudinal study used Laban Movement Analysis, a behavioural descriptive method, to investigate the developmental progression of the use and integration of axial, proximal, and distal movements performed during visually guided reaching. Four infants (from 7 to 40 weeks age) were presented with graspable objects (toys or food items). The first prereaching stage was associated with activation of mouth, limb, and hand movements to a visually presented target. Next, reaching attempts consisted of first, the advancement of the head with an opening mouth and then with the head, trunk and opening mouth. Eventually, the axial movements gave way to the refined action of one upper-limb supported by axial adjustments. These findings are discussed in relation to the biological objective of reaching, the evolutionary origins of reaching, and the decomposition of reaching after neurological injury.

  10. Three-Dimensional Upper Limb Movement Characteristics in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Ellen; Desloovere, Kaat; Bruyninckx, Herman; Klingels, Katrijn; Molenaers, Guy; Aertbelien, Erwin; Van Gestel, Leen; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure which three-dimensional spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters differentiate upper limb movement characteristics in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) from those in typically developing children (TDC), during various clinically relevant tasks. We used a standardized protocol containing three reach…

  11. Differential diagnosis of a rare case of upper limb pain: Paget-Schroetter syndrome in a doner kebab chef.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Ebru; Dogan, Yasemin Pekin; Okur, Sibel Caglar; Burnaz, Ozer; Caglar, Nil Sayiner

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is an uncommon deep vein thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins which may occur spontaneously, but is usually caused by excessive upper limb activity. PSS is clinically similar to other upper limb musculoskeletal disorders and soft tissue infections, and this may lead to delay in correct diagnosis in its early stages. The aim of our case report is to discuss this rare condition with reference to the available literature. [Subjects and Methods] Here we report the case of a doner kebab chef who complained of swelling and pain in his right arm around the biceps muscle. The initial diagnosis was biceps tendon rupture, for which the patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right arm and shoulder. Since the MRI revealed no pathological findings, right upper limb venous Doppler ultrasound analysis was performed. Subacute thrombosis materials were detected in the subclavian, axillary, and brachial veins. [Results] With rapid anticoagulant therapy, the patient's symptoms quickly improved. [Conclusion] Early diagnosis and treatment of PSS is critical for preventing potentially fatal complications such as pulmonary embolism. Prophylaxis is important for preventing recurrent thrombosis and for avoiding the development of post-thrombotic syndrome. PSS should be considered a possible cause of painful swelling of the upper limbs, especially in young, active patients who use their arms excessively.

  12. Emergence of virtual reality as a tool for upper limb rehabilitation: incorporation of motor control and motor learning principles.

    PubMed

    Levin, Mindy F; Weiss, Patrice L; Keshner, Emily A

    2015-03-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality-based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback-based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed.

  13. Severe upper limb injuries with or without neurovascular compromise in children and adolescents--analysis of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Ignatiadis, Ioannis A; Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Nomikos, George N; Spyridonos, Sarantis G; Gerostathopoulos, Nikolaos E; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2008-01-01

    The healing and regeneration capacity of the injured tissues in childhood, adolescence, and adult life differs significantly. As a result, the prognosis of compound injuries of the upper limb in different age groups varies; therefore, the decision making and management of these cases should be age-specific. This article presents a series of 32 patients aged 1.5-14 years, with compound injuries of the upper limb that have been treated in our hospital during the period of the last 6 years. Ten of the above cases involved major vascular lesions that required revascularization or replantation. The injuries were classified according to the SATT (Severity, Anatomy, Topography, Type) classification system. This study shows that the outcome of compound upper limb injuries is age-related, while the SATT classification system is a valuable tool in the decision making process. Further research should be undertaken to determine age group-specific indications for the management of compound upper limb injuries, based on the SATT classification system.

  14. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  15. Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  16. Redundancy resolution of the human arm and an upper limb exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Byl, Nancy; Abrams, Gary M; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    The human arm has 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) while only 6 DOF are required to position the wrist and orient the palm. Thus, the inverse kinematics of an human arm has a nonunique solution. Resolving this redundancy becomes critical as the human interacts with a wearable robot and the inverse kinematics solution of these two coupled systems must be identical to guarantee an seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated by defining the swivel angle, the rotation angle of the plane defined by the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis that connects the shoulder and wrist joints. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture system indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points to the head. Based on these experimental results, a new criterion is formed to resolve the human arm redundancy. This criterion was implemented into the control algorithm of an upper limb 7-DOF wearable robot. Experimental results indicate that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criterion, the error between the predicted and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5°.

  17. Evaluation of a noninvasive expandable prosthesis in musculoskeletal oncology patients for the upper and lower limb.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kathleen; Benevenia, Joseph; Kaushal, Neil; Uglialoro, Anthony; Patel, Neeraj; Patterson, Francis

    2010-06-09

    The noninvasive expandable prosthesis is used for limb-salvage surgery following tumor resection in skeletally immature patients. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report our experience with the Repiphysis (Wright Medical Technology, Inc; Arlington, Tennessee) noninvasive expandable prosthesis for both the lower extremity and compassionate use in the upper extremity in 12 patients between 2003 and 2008. Twelve prostheses were implanted in 12 patients with an average follow-up of 38 months (range, 12-78 months). Nine patients underwent a total of 38 expansion procedures. Mean total expansion was 4.5 cm (range, 0.8-9.9 cm). No complications of lengthening occurred. Seven nononcologic complications were noted. One infection was reported in 12 patients. The mean MSTS score after rehabilitation was 24.5 (range, 13-30). The Repiphysis noninvasive prosthesis provides acceptable functional outcomes for both upper and lower extremity implantation and appears to have an advantage as compared to conventional expandable prosthetics, which require open procedures that can potentially increase the risk of infection from repeated hardware exposure.

  18. Upper limb vibration prototype with sports and rehabilitation applications: development, evaluation and preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Richard D.; Aphale, Sumeet S.; Cardinale, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Vibration stimulation as an exercise intervention has been studied increasingly for its potential benefits and applications in sports and rehabilitation. Vibratory exercise devices should be capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations and should be capable of generating a range of vibration amplitudes and frequencies in order to provide different training protocols. Many devices used to exercise the upper body provide limited variations to exercise regimes mostly due to the fact that only vibration frequency can be controlled. The authors present an upper limb vibration exercise device with a novel actuator system and design which attempts to address these limitations. Preliminary results show that this device is capable of generating highly precise and repeatable vibrations with independent control over amplitude and frequency. Furthermore, the results also show that this solution provides a higher neuromuscular stimulation (i.e. electromyography activity) when compared with a control condition. The portability of this device is an advantage, and though in its current configuration it may not be suitable for applications requiring higher amplitude levels the technology is scalable. PMID:28261493

  19. Optimising speed and energy expenditure in accurate visually directed upper limb movements.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M

    2009-04-01

    Traditional models of speed-accuracy relations and limb control are steady-state models that fail to consider the learning history and strategic approach of the performer. Work from this laboratory indicates that a performer adjusts his/her behaviour from trial-to-trial to optimise not only the speed and accuracy of performance, but also energy expenditure. Because some errors have greater temporal and energy costs than others, most performers execute movements that are prepared such that potential errors are of minimal expense. The trajectories and subsequent endpoint distributions of rapid aiming movements depend on advance knowledge about the availability of afferent information for online control, as well as the costs associated with undershooting or overshooting the target position with the initial impulse. With practice, a performer is able to reduce the trial-to-trial variability associated with goal-directed movement through more consistent movement planning processes and more rapid online control. Part of the optimisation process is related to the development of an internal model of performance against which early afferent feedback can be evaluated. This framework for examining speed, accuracy and energy expenditure in goal-directed reaching can be used to help understand the breakdown of efficient limb control due to fatigue, ageing and pathology.

  20. Protocol for site selection and movement assessment for the myoelectric control of a multi-functional upper-limb prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al-Timemy, Ali H; Escudero, Javier; Bugmann, Guido; Outram, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been many advances in electromyography (EMG) signal processing and pattern recognition (PR) for the control of multi-functional upper-limb prostheses, some the outstanding problems need to be solved before practical PR-based prostheses can be put into service. Some of these are the lack of training and deployment protocols and the provision of the tools required. Therefore, we present a preliminary procedure to personalize the prosthesis deployment. In the first step, we record the demographic information of each individual amputee person and their background. In the second step of the protocol, the EMG signals are acquired. PR algorithms and parameters will be chosen in the 3(rd) step of the protocol. In the 4(th) step, the best number of EMG sensors to achieve the maximal performance with a full set of gestures is identified. The final step involves finding the best set of movements that the amputee person can produce with an accuracy > 95% as well as identifying the movements with the worst performance, which would require further training. This proposed approach is validated with 2 transradial amputees.

  1. [The efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy in patients with upper limb spasticity due to traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Akulov, M A; Khat'kova, S E; Mokienko, O A; Orlova, O R; Usachev, D Yu; Zakharov, V O; Orlova, A S; Tomsky, A A

    Spasticity is a type of muscle hyperactivity that occurs in patients after focal lesions of the Central nervous system due to various diseases: stroke, traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury, neurosurgical intervention, as well as multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the Central nervous system and is the most disability manifestation of the syndrome of upper motor neuron (UMNS). Focal spasticity of the upper limb requires a complex treatment. Botulinum toxin therapy is an effective treatment for focal/multifocal spasticity in reducing muscle tone and improving function with the highest level of evidence according to the latest American and European guidelines for treatment of spasticity. There are many publications devoted to BTA use in post-stroke patients. This article provides a review of the BTA use in patients with the upper limb spasticity due to severe traumatic brain injury. Some local data on the BTA efficacy in the cohort of patients with traumatic brain injury are also presented.

  2. Unilateral upper-limb loss: satisfaction and prosthetic-device use in veterans and servicemembers from Vietnam and OIF/OEF conflicts.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard Winkler, Sandra L; Heinemann, Allen W; Jones, Melissa; Esquenazi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Prosthetic use and satisfaction in wounded servicemembers and veterans with unilateral upper-limb loss has not been thoroughly explored. Through a national survey, we enrolled 47 participants from the Vietnam conflict and 50 from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) with combat-associated major unilateral upper-limb loss. Upper-limb prosthetic devices were used by 70% of the Vietnam group and 76% of the OIF/OEF group. Mechanical/body-powered upper-limb devices were favored by the Vietnam group, while a combination of myoelectric/hybrid and mechanical/body-powered devices were favored by the OIF/OEF group. Upper-limb devices were completely abandoned in 30% of the Vietnam and 22% of the OIF/OEF groups. Abandonment was more frequent for transhumeral and more proximal levels (42% of Vietnam and 40% of OIF/OEF) than more distal limb-loss levels. Upper-limb prostheses were rejected because of dissatisfaction with the device by significantly fewer (23%) members of the Vietnam group than the OIF/OEF group (45%) (p < 0.001). Most common reasons for rejection included pain, poor comfort, and lack of functionality. A significant paradigm shift has been noted in the OIF/OEF group, who use a greater number and diversity of upper-limb prostheses than the Vietnam group.

  3. Quantitative analysis of upper-limb ataxia in patients with spinocerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Naohisa; Hakii, Yasuhito; Koyano, Shigeru; Higashiyama, Yuichi; Joki, Hideto; Baba, Yasuhisa; Suzuki, Yume; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Fumiaki

    2014-07-01

    Spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which cerebellar ataxia causes motor disability. There are no widely applicable methods for objective evaluation of ataxia in SCD. An objective system to evaluate ataxia is necessary for use in clinical trials of newly developed medication and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to develop a simple method to quantify the degree of upper-limb ataxia. Forty-nine patients with SCD participated in this study. Patients were instructed to trace an Archimedean spiral template, and the gap between the template spiral and the drawn spiral (gap area; GA) was measured using Image J software. Ataxia was rated using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and cerebellar volume was evaluated in 37 patients using an axial cross-section of magnetic resonance images that were obtained within 6 months of clinical evaluation. Regression analysis was performed to assess the relation between GA and patient age, disease duration, SARA score, and cerebellar volume. GA was significantly related to total SARA score (r = 0.660, p < 0.001), the posture and gait (r = 0.551, p < 0.001), speech (r = 0.527, p < 0.001), hand movements (r = 0.553, p < 0.001), and heel-shin slide (r = 0.367, p = 0.036) SARA subscores, and cerebellar volume (r = 0.577, p < 0.001) but was not related to patient age (r = 0.176, p = 0.227) or disease duration (r = 0.236, p = 0.103). GA is a simple, useful method to objectively quantify the degree of cerebellar ataxia, especially upper-limb ataxia, and can be widely adopted in various settings, including clinical trials.

  4. Effect of mental practice using inverse video of the unaffected upper limb in a subject with chronic hemiparesis after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Iso, Naoki; Ooso, Shirou; Yamamoto, Noboru; Moriuchi, Takefumi; Sagari, Akira; Iso, Fumiko; Tanaka, Koji; Tabira, Takayuki; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this case study was to investigate whether a method of mental practice (MP) using an inverse video of a subject’s unaffected limb to complement the vividness of motor imagery (MI) would be effective for improving affected upper limb function. [Subjects and Methods] The participant was 60-year-old male in the chronic stage of stroke recovery with left sided hemiparesis. The design of the study was AB method of Single-System-Design. He performed the MP as a home program with DVD. The intervention lasted 30 minutes a session, twice a day, 5 times a week, over 6 weeks. The DVD was created using inverse video of his unaffected upper limb. Primary outcome measures were used the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb (FMA) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) 3 times each baseline, intervention and follow-up. The subjective vividness of MI was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). [Results] FMA and MAL score during intervention was improved significantly comparing to baseline, and maintained in withdrawal. VAS score was improved in withdrawal comparing to baseline. [Conclusion] Results suggested that effect of mental practice for stroke patients increased by vividness of motor imagery was improved by the inverse video. PMID:27821974

  5. Modulation of cutaneous reflexes in human upper limb muscles during arm cycling is independent of activity in the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F

    2005-02-01

    The amplitudes and signs of cutaneous reflexes are modulated during rhythmic movements of the arms and legs (during walking and arm or leg cycling for instance). This reflex modulation is frequently independent of the background muscle activity and may involve central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature and degree of coupling between the upper limbs during arm cycling, with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes. Responses to electrical stimulations of the right, superficial radial nerve (five 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz) were recorded bilaterally in six arm muscles of eight participants during arm cycling involving only the limb ipsilateral to the stimulation, only the limb contralateral to the stimulation, and bilateral movement when the limbs were both in-phase and 180 degrees out of phase. The pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation throughout the arm cycle was independent of the functional state of the limb contralateral to the recording site, irrespective of whether recordings were made ipsilateral or contralateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, cutaneous reflexes were significantly (p<0.05) modulated with arm position in only 8% of cases in which the limb containing the responding muscle was either stationary or being moved passively by the experimenter. The results show that there is relatively weak coupling between the arms with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic, cyclical arm movements. This suggests a loose connection between the CPGs for each arm that regulate muscle activity and reflex amplitude during rhythmic movement.

  6. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of upper and lower limb motion during gait of post-stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, A.A.; Kleiner, A.F.R.; Lobo da Costa, P.H.; Barros, R.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the alterations of arm and leg movements of patients during stroke gait. Joint angles of upper and lower limbs and spatiotemporal variables were evaluated in two groups: hemiparetic group (HG, 14 hemiparetic men, 53 ± 10 years) and control group (CG, 7 able-bodied men, 50 ± 4 years). The statistical analysis was based on the following comparisons (P ≤ 0.05): 1) right versus left sides of CG; 2) affected (AF) versus unaffected (UF) sides of HG; 3) CG versus both the affected and unaffected sides of HG, and 4) an intracycle comparison of the kinematic continuous angular variables between HG and CG. This study showed that the affected upper limb motion in stroke gait was characterized by a decreased range of motion of the glenohumeral (HG: 6.3 ± 4.5, CG: 20.1 ± 8.2) and elbow joints (AF: 8.4 ± 4.4, UF: 15.6 ± 7.6) on the sagittal plane and elbow joint flexion throughout the cycle (AF: 68.2 ± 0.4, CG: 46.8 ± 2.7). The glenohumeral joint presented a higher abduction angle (AF: 14.2 ± 1.6, CG: 11.5 ± 4.0) and a lower external rotation throughout the cycle (AF: 4.6 ± 1.2, CG: 22.0 ± 3.0). The lower limbs showed typical alterations of the stroke gait patterns. Thus, the changes in upper and lower limb motion of stroke gait were identified. The description of upper limb motion in stroke gait is new and complements gait analysis. PMID:22473324

  7. Upper Limb Kinematics Using Inertial and Magnetic Sensors: Comparison of Sensor-to-Segment Calibrations.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Brice; Duprey, Sonia; Claudon, Laurent; Dumas, Raphaël; Savescu, Adriana

    2015-07-31

    Magneto-Inertial Measurement Unit sensors (MIMU) display high potential for the quantitative evaluation of upper limb kinematics, as they allow monitoring ambulatory measurements. The sensor-to-segment calibration step, consisting of establishing the relation between MIMU sensors and human segments, plays an important role in the global accuracy of joint angles. The aim of this study was to compare sensor-to-segment calibrations for the MIMU-based estimation of wrist, elbow, and shoulder joint angles, by examining trueness ("close to the reference") and precision (reproducibility) validity criteria. Ten subjects performed five sessions with three different operators. Three classes of calibrations were studied: segment axes equal to technical MIMU axes (TECH), segment axes generated during a static pose (STATIC), and those generated during functional movements (FUNCT). The calibrations were compared during the maximal uniaxial movements of each joint, plus an extra multi-joint movement. Generally, joint angles presented good trueness and very good precision in the range 5°-10°. Only small discrepancy between calibrations was highlighted, with the exception of a few cases. The very good overall accuracy (trueness and precision) of MIMU-based joint angle data seems to be more dependent on the level of rigor of the experimental procedure (operator training) than on the choice of calibration itself.

  8. Global optimization method for combined spherical-cylindrical wrapping in musculoskeletal upper limb modelling.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, A; Audenaert, E

    2008-10-01

    In musculoskeletal modelling, many muscles cannot be represented as straight lines from origin to insertion because the bony and musculotendinous morphology of neighboring structures causes them to wrap. The majority of these passive structures can be adequately described as simple geometric shapes such as spheres and cylinders. Techniques for describing smooth muscle paths around multiple obstacles have been developed for modelling use. Until now obstacle-set methods have combined the path of single structures. This does not analytically define the shortest smooth path around multiple objects. When a sphere is included in a multiple-object wrapping algorithm, muscle paths around that sphere are restricted to a bundle of planes containing the sphere center. This assumed restriction can compromise the iterative process for finding the true shortest muscle path that satisfies all restrictions of a smooth path. This can cause model instability. The new method involves the determination of the shortest smooth muscle path in a spherical and cylindrical wrapping algorithm. A typical example is musculoskeletal modelling of the upper limb, where the muscle fibers have to wrap over this combination of obstacles.

  9. Customized device for pediatric upper limb rehabilitation in obstetric brachial palsy.

    PubMed

    López, Natalia M; de Diego, Nicolás; Hernández, Rafael; Pérez, Elisa; Ensinck, Gustavo; Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2014-03-01

    A 12-yr-old child, with a history of gestational Erb-Duchenne palsy and, later, musculoskeletal injuries in the left arm caused by a car accident, inspired the design of a customized exoskeleton-like device. Such piece, intended for rehabilitation, has one degree of freedom because the exercise routine involves elbow flexion-extension, which was indicated for the damaged muscular group. The device has two functioning modes, passive and assisted, in which the patient can trigger the movement by a biceps contraction, thus promoting the active role of the user in the rehabilitation process. The results were evaluated in terms of qualitative measures of the biceps and the triceps performed by the medical staff and by a questionnaire related to functional activities of the upper limb. A significant improvement in the arm movement and elbow angle was observed after 3 mos of assisted therapy, complementary to conventional exercises. In conclusion, a simple and low-cost device was designed and tested to complement the rehabilitation process of a pediatric patient with physical impairment.

  10. Impact of physical exposure on neck and upper limb disorders in female workers.

    PubMed

    Hansson, G A; Balogh, I; Ohlsson, K; Pålsson, B; Rylander, L; Skerfving, S

    2000-06-01

    Physical workload [muscular load of the trapezius and infraspinatus muscles using electromyography (EMG), wrist positions and movements by electrogoniometers] and neck and upper limb disorders (from, for example, a physical examination) were studied in women with repetitive industrial work (n = 95) and referents (n = 74). The repetitive work displayed higher ratings for wrist movements, but not for EMG. The prevalences of neck, shoulder and wrist/hand disorders were elevated for women with repetitive work [age-adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) 2.0-7.5]. For the left hand, high frequency of wrist movements (mean power frequency 0.53 Hz) was associated with a high prevalence of disorders (56%), as compared to low (0.28 Hz and 26%; POR 3.5). We found no consistent and significant effect of muscular load, on either neck or shoulder disorders. However, selection and other bias may have diminished our possibility to observe such effects. Psychosocial work environment factors were not confounding the results. Measurements of wrist movements may be used for identification of high-risk work tasks.

  11. Usability testing of gaming and social media applications for stroke and cerebral palsy upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2014-01-01

    As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.

  12. An upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton using proportional myoelectric control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

    2014-04-10

    We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  13. An Upper-Limb Power-Assist Exoskeleton Using Proportional Myoelectric Control

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

    2014-01-01

    We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501

  14. Analysis of voluntary opening Ottobock Hook and Hosmer Hook for upper limb prosthetics: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Nur Afiqah; Abd Razak, Nasrul Anuar Bin; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2016-11-19

    There are a number of prosthetic terminal devices which offer functional restoration to individuals with upper limb deficiencies. Hosmer and Ottobock are major commercial hook providers for prosthetic terminal devices. The concern of this paper is to analyse the voluntary opening (VO) Ottobock model 10A18 and Hosmer model 99P hooks (one band) during opening operation and to find out favourable features in the design. Two tests were conducted to analyse the performance of both hooks. The first test used a simple bench tool to investigate cable excursion and hook opening angle and the second test used force sensor to find out the force supplied at a different hook opening angle. The study found that the average cable excursion for both hooks is approximately 30% less than the hook's opening span with the force at the hook's tip section being inversely proportional to the force at the lateral section. Ottobock 10A18 has a better control for grasping larger objects, while Hosmer 99P has the highest average force at the tip section but yet less efficient in generating adequate force for activities of daily living. Favourable features identified are low cable excursion per hook opening span and balance lateral to hook tip pinch force.

  15. Characteristics of upper limb muscular strength in male wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyo-Bin; Park, Seung-Jae; Kim, Al-Chan; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of muscular strength in upper limb and to present the preliminary information for development of sports injury prevention program and exercise rehabilitation program in wheelchair tennis players. Participants were 12 male wheelchair tennis players. Muscular strength was measured in shoulder and elbow joints with isokinetic dynamometer. Ipsilateral (IR) and bilateral (BR) balance ratio were calculated with isokinetic strength at 60°/sec. As a result, extension strength (ES) was significantly higher than flexion strength (FS) (P< 0.001), and IR in both sides and BR in ES were maintained within normal range whereas BR in FS was lower than normal range in shoulder joint. In elbow joint FS was significantly higher than ES (P< 0.05), and IR and BR were lower than normal range. Consequently, the different tendency in IR between shoulder and elbow joints and lower IR and BR in elbow joints could be the characteristics in male wheelchair tennis players. It is suggested that flexor strengthening program in nondominant shoulder joint, extensor strengthening program in both elbow joint, and flexor strengthening program in non-dominant elbow joint should be introduced for male wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24278887

  16. Upper limb neural tension testing and mobilization. Fact, fiction, and a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark T

    2005-01-01

    The use of upper limb neural tension testing (ULNTT) and neural mobilization by physical and occupational therapists has become common in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to discuss the basic science and the research that supports or refutes the efficacy of these techniques. There is sufficient biomechanical evidence that the peripheral nerve under tension undergoes strain and glides within its interfacing tissue. Evidence supports that ULNTT causes strain within the peripheral nervous system however; it is also evident that ULNTT places strain on other multisegmental tissues. Clinical investigation has examined intrarater reliability and has begun to define the parameters of a positive test but there is lack of randomized controlled studies. There is limited evidence reporting favorable outcomes when using neural mobilization to treat specific patient populations, and the appropriate parameters of dosage (i.e., duration, frequency, and amplitude) remain to be confirmed. Clinical application of these techniques must be applied in a practical manner that relies on continual clinical reasoning. The clinician should integrate basic science and experimental evidence as we work to achieve a sufficient level of confidence in the development of evidence-based practice.

  17. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply. PMID:26151204

  18. Study on development of active-passive rehabilitation system for upper limbs: Hybrid-PLEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Jin, Y.; Fukushima, K.; Akai, H.; Furusho, J.

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. Active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices can realize a lot of varieties of haptics. But they basically require high-cost safety system. On the other hand, passive-type (brake-based) haptic devices have inherent safety. However, the passive robot system has strong limitation on varieties of haptics. There are not sufficient evidences to clarify how the passive/active haptics effect to the rehabilitation of motor skills. In this paper, we developed an active-passive-switchable rehabilitation system with ER clutch/brake device named "Hybrid-PLEMO" in order to address these problems. In this paper, basic structures and haptic control methods of the Hybrid-PLEMO are described.

  19. Computationally efficient modeling of proprioceptive signals in the upper limb for prostheses: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ian; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate models of proprioceptive neural patterns could 1 day play an important role in the creation of an intuitive proprioceptive neural prosthesis for amputees. This paper looks at combining efficient implementations of biomechanical and proprioceptor models in order to generate signals that mimic human muscular proprioceptive patterns for future experimental work in prosthesis feedback. A neuro-musculoskeletal model of the upper limb with 7 degrees of freedom and 17 muscles is presented and generates real time estimates of muscle spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ neural firing patterns. Unlike previous neuro-musculoskeletal models, muscle activation and excitation levels are unknowns in this application and an inverse dynamics tool (static optimization) is integrated to estimate these variables. A proprioceptive prosthesis will need to be portable and this is incompatible with the computationally demanding nature of standard biomechanical and proprioceptor modeling. This paper uses and proposes a number of approximations and optimizations to make real time operation on portable hardware feasible. Finally technical obstacles to mimicking natural feedback for an intuitive proprioceptive prosthesis, as well as issues and limitations with existing models, are identified and discussed. PMID:25009463

  20. Robot training of upper limb in multiple sclerosis: comparing protocols with or without manipulative task components.

    PubMed

    Carpinella, Ilaria; Cattaneo, Davide; Bertoni, Rita; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2012-05-01

    In this pilot study, we compared two protocols for robot-based rehabilitation of upper limb in multiple sclerosis (MS): a protocol involving reaching tasks (RT) requiring arm transport only and a protocol requiring both objects' reaching and manipulation (RMT). Twenty-two MS subjects were assigned to RT or RMT group. Both protocols consisted of eight sessions. During RT training, subjects moved the handle of a planar robotic manipulandum toward circular targets displayed on a screen. RMT protocol required patients to reach and manipulate real objects, by moving the robotic arm equipped with a handle which left the hand free for distal tasks. In both trainings, the robot generated resistive and perturbing forces. Subjects were evaluated with clinical and instrumental tests. The results confirmed that MS patients maintained the ability to adapt to the robot-generated forces and that the rate of motor learning increased across sessions. Robot-therapy significantly reduced arm tremor and improved arm kinematics and functional ability. Compared to RT, RMT protocol induced a significantly larger improvement in movements involving grasp (improvement in Grasp ARAT sub-score: RMT 77.4%, RT 29.5%, p=0.035) but not precision grip. Future studies are needed to evaluate if longer trainings and the use of robotic handles would significantly improve also fine manipulation.

  1. Reproducibility of transcranial magnetic stimulation metrics in the study of proximal upper limb muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Roelle, Sarah; Bonnett, Corin E; Janini, Daniel; Varnerin, Nicole; Cunningham, David A; Sharma, Jennifer S; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yue, Guang H; Plow, Ela B

    2015-01-01

    Objective Reproducibility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) metrics is essential in accurately tracking recovery and disease. However, majority of evidence pertains to reproducibility of metrics for distal upper limb muscles. We investigate for the first time, reliability of corticospinal physiology for a large proximal muscle-the biceps brachii and relate how varying statistical analyses can influence interpretations. Methods 14 young right-handed healthy participants completed two sessions assessing resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), motor map and intra-cortical inhibition (ICI) from the left biceps brachii. Analyses included paired t-tests, Pearson's, intra-class (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results Unlike paired t-tests, ICC, CCC and Pearson's were >0.6 indicating good reliability for RMTs, MEP intensities and locations of map; however values were <0.3 for MEP responses and ICI. Conclusions Corticospinal physiology, defining excitability and output in terms of intensity of the TMS device, and spatial loci are the most reliable metrics for the biceps. MEPs and variables based on MEPs are less reliable since biceps receives fewer cortico-motor-neuronal projections. Statistical tests of agreement and associations are more powerful reliability indices than inferential tests. Significance Reliable metrics of proximal muscles when translated to a larger number of participants would serve to sensitively track and prognosticate function in neurological disorders such as stroke where proximal recovery precedes distal. PMID:26111434

  2. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  3. Proposal of new category for congenital unilateral upper limb muscular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Takka, Semih; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Kitajima, Izuru; Sano, Kazufumi

    2005-01-01

    According to congenital anomalies of the hand and forearm classifications, the common characteristic of overgrowth problems is the skeletal overgrowth of part or all of the hand. Congenital unilateral muscular hypertrophy of the upper extremity has been classified under the overgrowth (gigantism) problems as whole-limb hemihypertrophy. The common characteristic of overgrowth problems is the skeletal overgrowth of part or all of the hand, which is not prominent in these patients. Only 15 cases with this anomaly have been reported since 1962. These patients have abnormal muscles with hypertrophic appearance and changed tendon to muscle length ratio. This type of muscular hypertrophy shows an increase in the number of fibers in transverse section, as also seen in multiply innervated muscles like the sartorius and gracilis in humans. Although this phenomenon has a mosaic type distribution, there is no progression of the muscular hypertrophy during growth period. Hand deformities are not due to a part of progression of the disease but result of imbalance of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles. The evolutionary changes of skeletal muscles should be investigated to explain this congenital phenomenon and might be classified in a different entity from the present categories.

  4. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-07-03

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  5. Understanding and Overcoming Barriers to Upper Limb Surgical Reconstruction After Tetraplegia: The Need for Interdisciplinary Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Punj, Vandana; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately 300,000 persons with spinal cord injury living in the United States, and nearly 60% of these persons have suffered tetraplegia with resultant alterations in body function, activity, and therefore participation. Restoring hand function can improve independence, and various studies have shown that persons with tetraplegia rate restoration of arm and hand function higher than bowel and bladder control, walking, or sexuality. There are conservative options to improve upper limb function in this population (eg, orthoses, neuroprostheses). Surgical interventions are also available, and 70% of surgical patients report satisfaction and improvement in various activities of daily living after surgery to restore arm and hand function. Despite these positive surgical outcomes, <10% of the eligible population of 60% to 70% undergo tendon transfer surgery to restore function. Underutilization of surgical interventions can be explained by population-, provider-, and health care systems-specific barriers. With further education of providers and patients and team building across disciplines these barriers can be overcome, ultimately leading to reduced disability and improved quality of life for persons with tetraplegia.

  6. Effect of the Mandibular Orthopedic Repositioning Appliance on Trunk and Upper Limb Muscle Activation during Maximum Isometric Contraction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Hong, Min-Ho; Park, Min-Chull; Choi, Sung-Min

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to measure the muscle activities of the trunk muscles and upper limb muscles during maximum isometric contraction when temporomandibular joint alignment was achieved with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance in order provide basic data on the effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on the entire body. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with healthy Korean adults in their 20s (males=10, females=10). [Methods] An 8 channel surface electromyography system was used to measure the muscle activities of the upper limb muscles and neck muscles of the subjects during maximum isometric contraction with and without use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Results] The maximum isometric contractions of the trunk and upper limb muscles when mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance were used were compared with those when no mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance was used. The results showed that the sternocleidomastoid muscle, cervical and lumbar erector spinae, upper trapezius, biceps, triceps, rectus abdominis and internal oblique and external oblique muscles all showed significant increases in maximum isometric contractions with a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance. [Conclusion] The use of a mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance is considered to be a method for normal adults to improve the stability of the entire body with the improvement of the stability of the TMJ. The proximal improvement in stability improves of the proximal thereby improving not only muscle strength with increased muscle activation but also stability during exercises.

  7. Retention of finger blood flow against postural change as an indicator of successful sympathetic block in the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Toshihiko; Hashimoto, Tatsuya; Sutou, Ichiro; Saito, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Background Sympathetic block in the upper limb has diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic utility for disorders in the upper extremity that are associated with sympathetic disturbances. Increased skin temperature and decreased sweating are used to identify the adequacy of sympathetic block in the upper limb after stellate ganglion block (SGB). Baroreflexes elicited by postural change induce a reduction in peripheral blood flow by causing sympathetic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that sympathetic block in the upper limb reduces the decrease in finger blood flow caused by baroreflexes stimulated by postural change from the supine to long sitting position. This study evaluated if sympathetic block of the upper limb affects the change in finger blood flow resulting from postural change. If change in finger blood flow would be kept against postural changes, it has a potential to be a new indicator of sympathetic blockade in the upper limb. Methods Subjects were adult patients who had a check-up at the Department of Pain Management in our university hospital over 2 years and 9 months from May 2012. We executed a total of 91 SGBs in nine patients (N=9), which included those requiring treatment for pain associated with herpes zoster in seven of the patients, tinnitus in one patient and upper limb pain in one patient. We checked for the following four signs after performing SGB: Horner’s sign, brachial nerve blockade, finger blood flow measured by a laser blood flow meter and skin temperature of the thumb measured by thermography, before and after SGB in the supine position and immediately after adopting the long sitting position. Results We executed a total of 91 SGBs in nine patients. Two SGBs were excluded from the analysis due to the absence of Horner’s sign. We divided 89 procedures into two groups according to elevation in skin temperature of the thumb: by over 1°C (sympathetic block group, n=62) and by <1°C (nonsympathetic block group, n=27). Finger blood

  8. On the use of information theory for detecting upper limb motor dysfunction: An application to Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, M. Elias; Menegaldo, L. L.; Lucarelli, P.; Andrade, B. L. B.; Büchler, P.

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions. Several potential early diagnostic markers of PD have been proposed. Since they have not been validated in presymptomatic PD, the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease is based on subjective clinical assessment of cognitive and motor symptoms. In this study, we investigated interjoint coordination synergies in the upper limb of healthy and parkinsonian subjects during the performance of unconstrained linear-periodic movements in a horizontal plane using the mutual information (MI). We found that the MI is a sensitive metric in detecting upper limb motor dysfunction, thus suggesting that this method might be applicable to quantitatively evaluating the effects of the antiparkinsonian medication and to monitor the disease progression.

  9. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:28122039

  10. Investigation of Risk Factors of Work-Related Upper-Limb Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Pharmaceutical Industry or Research Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmahabadian, Mohammad; Akhavan, Mehdi; Azam, Kamal

    This study was performed among workers of an Iranian pharmaceutical industry with the aiming to determine WRMDs prevalence and exposure assessment of WRMDs risks. In this cross-sectional study, 84 female and male workers randomly selected from five packing operations. Modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was applied to study the prevalence of WRMDs and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method was used for the evaluation of the exposure to risk factors associated with work-related upper limb disorders. Results showed a significant association exists between neck, lower arm and A scores group with those obtained by self-reported pain (p<0.01). Similar RULA grand scores of 3 and 4 and action level of 2 were found for workers in five packing operations. Also, the results of this study revealed that RULA method is a fairly suitable tool for the evaluation of WRMDs among packing workers in pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  12. The influence of a real job on upper limb performance in motor skill tests: which abilities are transferred?

    PubMed

    Giangiardi, Vivian Farahte; Alouche, Sandra Regina; de Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Pires, Raquel Simoni; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2017-03-28

    To investigate whether the specificities of real jobs create distinctions in the performance of workers in different motor tests for the upper limbs, 24 participants were divided into two groups according to their specific job: fine and repetitive tasks and general tasks. Both groups reproduced tasks related to aiming movements, handling and strength of the upper limbs. There were no significant differences between groups in the dexterity and performance of aiming movements. However, the general tasks group had higher grip strength than the repetitive tasks group, demonstrating differences according to job specificity. The results suggest that a particular motor skill in a specific job cannot improve performance in other tasks with the same motor requirements. The transfer of the fine and gross motor skills from previous experience in a job-specific task is the basis for allocating training and guidance to workers.

  13. Safety, Feasibility, and Efficacy of Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paired With Upper-Limb Rehabilitation After Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, David; Dixit, Anand; Kimberley, Teresa J.; Robertson, Michele; Tarver, Brent; Hilmi, Omar; McLean, John; Forbes, Kirsten; Kilgard, Michael P.; Rennaker, Robert L.; Cramer, Steven C.; Walters, Matthew; Engineer, Navzer

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Recent animal studies demonstrate that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with movement induces movement-specific plasticity in motor cortex and improves forelimb function after stroke. We conducted a randomized controlled clinical pilot study of VNS paired with rehabilitation on upper-limb function after ischemic stroke. Methods— Twenty-one participants with ischemic stroke >6 months before and moderate to severe upper-limb impairment were randomized to VNS plus rehabilitation or rehabilitation alone. Rehabilitation consisted of three 2-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks, each involving >400 movement trials. In the VNS group, movements were paired with 0.5-second VNS. The primary objective was to assess safety and feasibility. Secondary end points included change in upper-limb measures (including the Fugl–Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity). Results— Nine participants were randomized to VNS plus rehabilitation and 11 to rehabilitation alone. There were no serious adverse device effects. One patient had transient vocal cord palsy and dysphagia after implantation. Five had minor adverse device effects including nausea and taste disturbance on the evening of therapy. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the change in Fugl–Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity scores was not significantly different (between-group difference, 5.7 points; 95% confidence interval, −0.4 to 11.8). In the per-protocol analysis, there was a significant difference in change in Fugl–Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity score (between-group difference, 6.5 points; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 12.6). Conclusions— This study suggests that VNS paired with rehabilitation is feasible and has not raised safety concerns. Additional studies of VNS in adults with chronic stroke will now be performed. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01669161. PMID:26645257

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting as upper limb weakness in a 35 year old female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, Leif A

    2011-09-01

    Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Prediction of prognosis of ALS: Importance of active denervation findings of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakashima, Kenji; Kannagi, Mari; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by serious muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to find prognostic factors in patients with mild ALS using application forms for the Specified Disease Treatment Research Program in Japan. We classified ALS as mild, moderate and severe. The subjects consisted of 363 patients with mild ALS who underwent needle electromyography at registration and were followed for more than one year. Time to progression to severe ALS and time to deterioration of activities of daily living such as speech dysfunction, upper limb dysfunction, and walking disability were used as outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. Of the patients with initially mild ALS, 38.3% (139/363) had progressed severe ALS at the last follow-up. In multivariate analysis of time to progression to severe ALS, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.68 [1.13-2.49], p = 0.010), tongue atrophy (1.69 [1.14-2.51], p = 0.009), dyspnea (1.57 [1.02-2.41], p = 0.042) and active denervation findings (ADFs) of the cervical-upper limb area (1.81 [1.25-2.63], p = 0.002) emerged as prognostic factors. Furthermore ADFs in the trunk area were prognostic factors for upper limb dysfunction and walking disability (1.72 [1.05-2.81], p = 0.031, and 1.97 [1.09-3.59], p = 0.026). In conclusion ADFs of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area were prognostic factors in ALS patients.

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting as upper limb weakness in a 35 year old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Leif A.

    2011-01-01

    Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21886282

  17. Prediction of prognosis of ALS: Importance of active denervation findings of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakashima, Kenji; Kannagi, Mari; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by serious muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to find prognostic factors in patients with mild ALS using application forms for the Specified Disease Treatment Research Program in Japan. We classified ALS as mild, moderate and severe. The subjects consisted of 363 patients with mild ALS who underwent needle electromyography at registration and were followed for more than one year. Time to progression to severe ALS and time to deterioration of activities of daily living such as speech dysfunction, upper limb dysfunction, and walking disability were used as outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. Of the patients with initially mild ALS, 38.3% (139/363) had progressed severe ALS at the last follow-up. In multivariate analysis of time to progression to severe ALS, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.68 [1.13–2.49], p = 0.010), tongue atrophy (1.69 [1.14–2.51], p = 0.009), dyspnea (1.57 [1.02–2.41], p = 0.042) and active denervation findings (ADFs) of the cervical-upper limb area (1.81 [1.25–2.63], p = 0.002) emerged as prognostic factors. Furthermore ADFs in the trunk area were prognostic factors for upper limb dysfunction and walking disability (1.72 [1.05–2.81], p = 0.031, and 1.97 [1.09–3.59], p = 0.026). In conclusion ADFs of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area were prognostic factors in ALS patients. PMID:26668778

  18. Four-headed biceps brachii, three-headed coracobrachialis muscles associated with arterial and nervous anomalies in the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    Catli, Mehmet Mutlu; Ozsoy, Umut; Kaya, Yasemin; Hizay, Arzu; Yildirim, Fatos Belgin

    2012-01-01

    A four-headed biceps brachii muscle and three-headed coracobrachialis muscle, high-originated radial artery and communication between the median and musculocutaneous nerves have been well documented in the available literature. However co-existence of these variations is rare. In this study we aimed to describe multiple variations in the upper limb and discuss their co-existence from clinical and embryological points of view. PMID:22822469

  19. Investigating measures of intensity during a structured upper limb exercise programme in stroke rehabilitation: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Louise A.; McMahon, Naoimh E.; Simpson, Lisa A.; Watkins, Caroline L.; Eng, Janice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use three measures of intensity (i) time, (ii) observed repetitions and (iii) wrist accelerometer activity counts to describe the intensity of exercise carried out when completing a structured upper limb exercise programme. To explore if a relationship exists between wrist accelerometer activity counts and observed repetitions. Design Observational study design. Setting Rehabilitation centre research laboratory. Participants Thirteen community dwelling stroke survivors with upper limb hemiparesis. Intervention Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Time engaged in exercise, total repetitions and accelerometer activity counts for the affected upper limb. Results Mean session time was 48.5 minutes (SD 7.8 minutes). Participants were observed to be engaged in exercises for 63.8% (SD 7.5%) of the total session time. The median number of observed repetitions per session was 340 (IQR 199–407) of which 251 (IQR 80–309) were purposeful repetitions. Wrist accelerometers showed the stroke survivors’ upper limbs to be moving for 75.7% (SD 15.9%) of the total session time. Purposeful repetitions and activity counts were found to be significantly correlated (rs=0.627, p<0.05). Conclusions Stroke survivors were not actively engaged in exercises for approximately one third of each exercise session. Overall session time may not be the most accurate measure of intensity. Counting repetitions was feasible when using a structured exercise programme and provides a clinically meaningful way of monitoring intensity and progression. Wrist accelerometers provided an objective measure for how much the arm moves, which correlated with purposeful repetitions. Further research using repetitions and accelerometers as measures of intensity is warranted. PMID:24946084

  20. Upper Limb Functionality and Quality of Life in Women with Five-Year Survival after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Thaís Lunardi; Prim, Amably Cristiny; Luz, Clarissa Medeiros da

    2017-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between upper limb functionality and quality of life in women with five-year survival following breast cancer surgical treatment. The secondary objective was to evaluate the function of the ipsilateral upper limb and the quality of life in relation to the type of surgery and the presence of pain. Methods The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast plus Arm Morbidity (FACTB + 4) questionnaires were used to evaluate upper limb function and quality of life respectively. Data distribution was verified by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for the parametric variables, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the distribution of non-parametric variables. The statistical significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results The study included 30 patients, with a mean age of 51.23 (±8.72) years. The most common complications were: pain (50%), adherence (33.3%), and nerve lesion (20.0%). There was a moderate negative correlation between the instruments DASH and FACTB + 4 (total score), r = -0.634, and a strong negative correlation between the DASH and the FACTB + 4 arm subscale, r = -0.829. The scores of both questionnaires showed significant difference on the manifestation of pain. However, there was no significant difference found when comparing the scores considering the type of surgery performed. Conclusions Five years after surgery, the patients showed regular functionality levels on the ipsilateral upper limb and decreased quality of life, especially in the group manifesting pain.

  1. Modern surgical management of breast cancer therapy related upper limb and breast lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Leung, Nelson; Furniss, Dominic; Giele, Henk

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in the UK. Advances in breast cancer treatment means that the sequelae of treatment are affecting more women and for a longer duration. Lymphoedema is one such sequela, with wide-ranging implications, from serious functional and psychological effects at the individual level to wider economic burdens to society. Breast cancer-related lymphoedema is principally managed by conservative therapy comprising compression garments and manual decongestive massage. This approach is effective for early stages of lymphoedema, but it is not curative and the effectiveness depends on patient compliance. Early surgical approaches were ablative, gave significant morbidity and hence, reserved for the most severe cases of refractory lymphoedema. However, recent non-ablative reconstructive surgical approaches have seen a revival of interest in the prevention or surgical management of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. This review examines the modern surgical techniques for the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Liposuction reduces the volume and symptoms of lymphedema, but requires continual compressive therapy to avoid recurrence. Lymphatic reconstruction or bypass techniques including lymph node transfer (inguinal nodes are transferred to the affected limb), lymphatico-lymphatic bypass (lymphatics bypass the axilla using a lymph vessel graft reconstructing lymphatic flow from arm to neck) and lymphaticovenous anastomoses (lymphatics in the arm are joined to the venous system aiding lymph drainage) show promise in reducing lymphedema significantly. Further research is required, including into the role of primary lymphaticovenous anastomoses in the prevention of lymphedema at the time of axillary dissection.

  2. Review of Therapeutic Interventions for the Upper Limb Classified by Manual Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shierk, Angela; Lake, Amy; Haas, Tara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to assemble an inventory of intervention strategies utilized for children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) based on the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS). The purpose of the inventory is to guide physicians and therapists in intervention selection aimed at improving upper limb function in children with CP. The following databases were searched: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ERIC (Educational Research Information Center), Google Scholar, OTSeeker (Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence), OVID (Ovid Technologies, Inc.), and PubMed. Inclusion criteria were whether the study (1) identified MACS levels of participants, and (2) addressed the effectiveness of intervention on upper limb function. Overall, 74 articles met the inclusion criteria. The summarized data identified 10 categories of intervention. The majority of participants across studies were MACS level II. The most frequently cited interventions were constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), bimanual training, and virtual reality and computer-based training. Multiple interventions demonstrated effectiveness for upper limb improvement at each MACS level. However, there is a need for additional research for interventions appropriate for MACS levels IV and V. To fully develop an intervention inventory based on manual ability, future studies need to report MACS levels of participants, particularly for splinting and therapy interventions used in combination with surgery. PMID:26869859

  3. Single low-threshold afferents innervating the skin of the human foot modulate ongoing muscle activity in the upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Bent, Leah R; Lowrey, Catherine R

    2013-03-01

    We have shown for the first time that single cutaneous afferents in the foot dorsum have significant reflex coupling to motoneurons supplying muscles in the upper limb, particularly posterior deltoid and triceps brachii. These observations strengthen what we know from whole nerve stimulation, that skin on the foot and ankle can contribute to the modulation of interlimb muscles in distant innervation territories. The current work provides evidence of the mechanism behind the reflex, where one single skin afferent can evoke a reflex response, rather than a population. Nineteen of forty-one (46%) single cutaneous afferents isolated in the dorsum or plantar surface of the foot elicited a significant modulation of muscle activity in the upper limb. Identification of single afferents in this reflex indicates the strength of the connection and, ultimately, the importance of foot skin in interlimb coordination. The median response magnitude was 2.29% of background EMG, and the size of the evoked response did not significantly differ among the four mechanoreceptor classes (P > 0.1). Interestingly, although the distribution of afferents types did not differ across the foot dorsum, there was a significantly greater coupling response from receptors located on the medial aspect of the foot dorsum (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the most consistent coupling with upper limb muscles was demonstrated by type I afferents (fast and slowly adapting). This work contributes to the current literature on receptor specificity, supporting the view that individual classes of cutaneous afferents may subserve specific roles in kinesthesia, reflexes, and tactile perception.

  4. Comparison between Flail Arm Syndrome and Upper Limb Onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Electromyographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung-Nam; Choi, Seong Hye; Rha, Joung-Ho; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences. PMID:25258573

  5. Real-World Affected Upper Limb Activity in Chronic Stroke: An Examination of Potential Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite improvement in motor function after intervention, adults with chronic stroke experience disability in everyday activity. Factors other than motor function may influence affected upper limb (UL) activity. OBJECTIVE To characterize affected UL activity and examine potential modifying factors of affected UL activity in community-dwelling adults with chronic stroke. METHODS Forty-six adults with chronic stroke wore accelerometers on both ULs for 25 hours and provided information about potential modifying factors (time spent in sedentary activity, cognitive impairment, depressive symptomatology, number of comorbidities, motor dysfunction of the affected UL, age, activities of daily living (ADL) status, and living arrangement). Accelerometry was used to quantify duration of affected and unaffected UL activity. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was also calculated. Associations within and between accelerometry-derived variables and potential modifying factors were examined. RESULTS Mean hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were 5.0 ± 2.2 and 7.6 ± 2.1 hours, respectively. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was 0.64 ± 0.19, and hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were strongly correlated (r=0.78). Increased severity of motor dysfunction and dependence in ADLs were associated with decreased affected UL activity. No other factors were associated with affected UL activity. CONCLUSIONS Severity of motor dysfunction and ADL status should be taken into consideration when setting goals for UL activity in people with chronic stroke. Given the strong, positive correlation between affected and unaffected UL activity, encouragement to increase activity of the unaffected UL may increase affected UL activity. PMID:25776118

  6. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of p<0.05 accepted as significant. Swimmers were slower (3%) when breathing. Within the entry phase, swimmers had a slower COM horizontal velocity (3.3%), less shoulder flexion (8%), abduction (33%) and roll (4%) when breathing. The pull phase was longer in duration (14%) swimmers had a shallower hand path (11%), less shoulder abduction (11%), a slower hand vertical acceleration (30%) and slower centre of mass (COM) horizontal velocity (3%) when breathing. In the push phase, swimmers had a smaller elbow range of motion (ROM) (38%), faster backwards hand speed (25%) and faster hand vertical acceleration (33%) when breathing. Swimmers rolled their shoulders more (12%) in the recovery phase when breathing. This study confirms that swim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale.

  7. Selected questions on biomechanical exposures for surveillance of upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Descatha, Alexis; Roquelaure, Yves; Evanoff, Bradley; Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean François; Mariot, Camille; Ha, Catherine; Imbernon, Ellen; Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette

    2007-01-01

    Objective Questionnaires for assessment of biomechanical exposure are frequently used in surveillance programs, though few studies have evaluated which key questions are needed. We sought to reduce the number of variables on a surveillance questionnaire by identifying which variables best summarized biomechanical exposure in a survey of the French working population. Methods We used data from the 2002–2003 French experimental network of Upper-limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UWMSD), performed on 2685 subjects in which 37 variables assessing biomechanical exposures were available (divided into four ordinal categories, according to the task frequency or duration). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with orthogonal rotation was performed on these variables. Variables closely associated with factors issued from PCA were retained, except those highly correlated to another variable (rho>0.70). In order to study the relevance of the final list of variables, correlations between a score based on retained variables (PCA score) and the exposure score suggested by the SALTSA group were calculated. The associations between the PCA score and the prevalence of UWMSD were also studied. In a final step, we added back to the list a few variables not retained by PCA, because of their established recognition as risk factors. Results According to the results of the PCA, seven interpretable factors were identified: posture exposures, repetitiveness, handling of heavy loads, distal biomechanical exposures, computer use, forklift operator specific task, and recovery time. Twenty variables strongly correlated with the factors obtained from PCA were retained. The PCA score was strongly correlated both with the SALTSA score and with UWMSD prevalence (p<0.0001). In the final step, six variables were reintegrated. Conclusion Twenty-six variables out of 37 were efficiently selected according to their ability to summarize major biomechanical constraints in a working population

  8. Impact of Prolonged Sitting on Lower and Upper Limb Micro- and Macrovascular Dilator Function

    PubMed Central

    Restaino, Robert M.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Credeur, Daniel P.; Fadel, Paul J.; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behavior in the workplace and increased daily sitting time are on the rise; however, studies investigating the impact of sitting on vascular function remain limited. Herein we hypothesized that 6 hours of uninterrupted sitting would impair limb micro- and macrovascular dilator function and this impairment could be improved with a bout of walking. Resting blood flow, reactive hyperemia to 5 min cuff occlusion (microvascular reactivity) and associated FMD (macrovascular reactivity) were assessed in popliteal and brachial arteries of young men at baseline (Pre Sit) and after 6 hours of uninterrupted sitting (Post Sit). Measures were then repeated after a 10 min walk (~1000 steps). Sitting resulted in a marked reduction of resting popliteal artery mean blood flow and mean shear rate (6-hr mean shear rate, −52±8 s−1 vs. Pre Sit, p<0.05). Interestingly, reductions were also found in the brachial artery (6-hr mean shear rate, −169±41 s−1 vs. Pre Sit, p<0.05). Likewise, following 6 hours of sitting, cuff-induced reactive hyperemia was reduced in both the lower leg (−43±7% vs. Pre Sit, p<0.05) and forearm (−31±11% vs. Pre Sit, p<0.05). In contrast, popliteal, but not brachial, artery FMD was blunted with sitting. Notably, lower leg reactive hyperemia and FMD were restored after walking. Collectively, these data suggest that prolonged sitting markedly reduces lower leg micro- and macrovascular dilator function but these impairments can be fully normalized with a short bout of walking. In contrast, upper arm microvascular reactivity is selectively impaired with prolonged sitting and walking does not influence this effect. PMID:25929229

  9. A Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) Protocol for Upper Limb Function

    PubMed Central

    Zoghi, Maryam; Galea, Mary; Morgan, David

    2013-01-01

    The Brain Motor Control Assessment (BMCA) protocol is a surface electromyography (sEMG)-based measure of motor output from central nervous system during a variety of reflex and voluntary motor tasks performed under strictly controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BMCA protocol for upper limb with the addition of shoulder voluntary tasks. The voluntary response index (VRI) was calculated from quantitative analysis of sEMG data during defined voluntary movement in neurologically intact people for comparison with that of patients after neurological injuries. The BMCA protocol included one bilateral and 4 unilateral voluntary tasks at different joints of both arms. The VRI, measured from 19 neurologically intact participants, comprises the total muscle activity recorded for the voluntary motor task (magnitude). The calculated similarity index (SI) for each phase of each task show the similarity of “the distribution of activity across the recorded muscles” for that task in this group off participants. Results: The VRI magnitude values from right and left sides for different tasks showed no significant difference (ANOVA: FSide: 0.09, P = 0.77). Therefore these values were pooled before calculating SI. SI values were higher for tasks against gravity: elbow flexion (0.99±0.03), wrist flexion with palm up (0.98±0.03) and wrist extension with palm down (0.97±0.07). On the other hand, the SI values were the lowest for bilateral shoulder abduction (0.84±0.08) and shoulder adduction (0.84±0.08). Conclusion: To validate this index for clinical use, serial studies on patients with neurological impairments should be performed. Tasks involving movement against gravity may be more suitable in future BMCAs. PMID:24223953

  10. Therapists’ Perceptions of Social Media and Video Game Technologies in Upper Limb Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians’ perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists’ perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. Methods We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Results Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. Conclusions This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that

  11. Electroencephalographic markers of robot-aided therapy in stroke patients for the evaluation of upper limb rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Sale, Patrizio; Infarinato, Francesco; Del Percio, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Babiloni, Claudio; Foti, Calogero; Franceschini, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of permanent disability in developed countries; its effects may include sensory, motor, and cognitive impairment as well as a reduced ability to perform self-care and participate in social and community activities. A number of studies have shown that the use of robotic systems in upper limb motor rehabilitation programs provides safe and intensive treatment to patients with motor impairments because of a neurological injury. Furthermore, robot-aided therapy was shown to be well accepted and tolerated by all patients; however, it is not known whether a specific robot-aided rehabilitation can induce beneficial cortical plasticity in stroke patients. Here, we present a procedure to study neural underpinning of robot-aided upper limb rehabilitation in stroke patients. Neurophysiological recordings use the following: (a) 10-20 system electroencephalographic (EEG) electrode montage; (b) bipolar vertical and horizontal electrooculographies; and (c) bipolar electromyography from the operating upper limb. Behavior monitoring includes the following: (a) clinical data and (b) kinematic and dynamic of the operant upper limb movements. Experimental conditions include the following: (a) resting state eyes closed and eyes open, and (b) robotic rehabilitation task (maximum 80 s each block to reach 4-min EEG data; interblock pause of 1 min). The data collection is performed before and after a program of 30 daily rehabilitation sessions. EEG markers include the following: (a) EEG power density in the eyes-closed condition; (b) reactivity of EEG power density to eyes opening; and (c) reactivity of EEG power density to robotic rehabilitation task. The above procedure was tested on a subacute patient (29 poststroke days) and on a chronic patient (21 poststroke months). After the rehabilitation program, we observed (a) improved clinical condition; (b) improved performance during the robotic task; (c) reduced delta rhythms (1-4 Hz) and increased alpha

  12. Prevention of upper limb symptoms and signs of nerve afflictions in computer operators: The effect of intervention by stretching

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Jorgen R; Thomsen, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Background In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks). The identified patterns were in accordance with neural afflictions at three specific locations (brachial plexus at chord level, posterior interosseous and median nerve on elbow level). We have introduced an intervention program aiming to mobilize nerves at these locations and tested its efficacy. Methods 125 and 59, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course at least three times during workdays in a six month period. Subjects from the other division served as controls. At the end of the intervention both groups were invited to a second identical evaluation by questionnaire and physical examination. Symptoms and findings were studied in the right upper limb. Perceived changes of pain were recorded and individual and patterns of physical findings assessed for both groups at baseline and at follow-up. In subjects with no or minimal preceding pain we additionally studied the relation of incident pain to the summarized findings for parameters contained in the definition of nerve affliction at the three locations. Results Summarized pain was significantly reduced in the intervention group but unchanged in controls. After the intervention, fewer neurological abnormalities in accordance with nerve affliction were recorded for the whole material but no conclusion could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve affliction. Conclusion A six month

  13. Study of motor asymmetry in ALS indicates an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, and an important role for upper motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Devine, Matthew S; Kiernan, Matthew C; Heggie, Susan; McCombe, Pamela A; Henderson, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), onset and spread of upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction is typically asymmetric. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between limb dominance and the onset and spread of clinical UMN and LMN dysfunction in ALS. We studied 138 ALS subjects with unilateral and concordant limb dominance, from two tertiary centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the pattern of disease onset and spread. The clinical severity of UMN and LMN signs in each limb was quantified using a validated scoring system. Results showed that onset of weakness was more likely to occur in the dominant upper limb (p = 0.02). In subjects with initial weakness in a non-dominant limb, spread of weakness was more likely to be to the other limb on that side (p = 0.008). The relative distribution of upper limb UMN signs was affected by whether weakness first occurred on the dominant or non-dominant side (p = 0.03). These findings support limb dominance as a significant factor underlying onset and spread of ALS, with UMN processes playing an important role. The effect of limb dominance on the presentation of ALS may reflect underlying neuronal vulnerabilities, which become exposed by the disease.

  14. Experience of using vascularized bone grafts in reconstructive surgery of the upper limbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atamanov, E. A.; Keosyan, V. T.; Bryukhanov, A. V.; Tsaregorodtseva, E. M.; Danilov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The article describes the results of treatment patients with defects and diseases of bone tissue using bone grafting with vascularized bone grafts from different areas of the body. The results of treatment of 27 patients with bone tissue defects of the upper extremities are demonstrated. 16 of patients had scaphoid nonunion. 2 cases of nonunion were reported: one scaphoid nonunion due to unstable osteosynthesis and one lunate fragmentation nonunion in patient with late stage Kienbock`s disease. Vascularized bone graft from distal radius was used in both cases. We had two cases of delayed union at 18 months in surgical treatment of scaphoid. 2 patients had metacarpal bone defect, 1 patient with radius bone defect, 2 patients with SLAC (scapholunate advanced collapse), 2 patients with bone defect of the humerus, 1 patient with bone defect of the ulna. In all cases we used vascularized bone crafts from various anatomical areas. We achieved union in all other cases. The study shows high efficiency of upper extremity bone defect replacement methods.

  15. Proprioceptive performance of bilateral upper and lower limb joints: side-general and site-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Superiority of the left upper limb in proprioception tasks performed by right-handed individuals has been attributed to better utilization of proprioceptive information by a non-preferred arm/hemisphere system. However, it is undetermined whether this holds for multiple upper and lower limb joints. Accordingly, the present study tested active movement proprioception at four pairs of upper and lower limb joints, after selecting twelve participants with both strong right arm and right leg preference. A battery of versions of the active movement extent discrimination apparatus were employed to generate the stimuli for movements of different extents at the ankle, knee, shoulder and fingers on the right and left sides of the body, and discrimination scores were derived from participants' responses. Proprioceptive performance on the non-preferred left side was significantly better than the preferred right side at all four joints tested (overall F 1, 11 = 36.36, p < 0.001, partial η (2) = 0.77). In the 8 × 8 matrix formed by all joints, only correlations between the proprioceptive accuracy scores for the right and left sides at the same joint were significant (ankles 0.93, knees 0.89, shoulders 0.87, fingers 0.91, p ≤ 0.001; all others r ≤ 0.40, p ≥ 0.20). The results point to both a side-general effect and a site-specific effect in the integration of proprioceptive information during active movement tasks, whereby the non-preferred limb/hemisphere system is specialized in the utilization of the best proprioceptive sources available at each specific joint, but the combination of sources employed differs between body sites.

  16. Eccentric exercise affects the upper limbs more than the lower limbs in position sense and reaction angle.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Giakas, Giannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of eccentric exercise on position sense and reaction angle of the elbow and knee flexors. Twelve males underwent two eccentric exercise sessions involving a randomized crossover design. In the first session participants used their elbow flexors and in the other session their knee flexors. Muscle damage indices, position sense, and joint reaction angle to release of the elbow and knee flexors were measured before, immediately after, and up to 7 days after exercise. Exercise induced greater muscle damage in the elbow flexors than knee flexors. Exercise disturbed position sense of the elbow and knee joint. For both limbs, the participants adopted a more extended position than the reference angle. The elbow and knee joint reaction angles to release increased after exercise for both the elbow and knee flexors. The disturbances in position sense and reaction angle after exercise were greater in the elbow flexors than knee flexors. The elbow flexors remained more accurate and faster than the knee flexors at all time points. These results may be explained by the higher density of muscle spindles and the lower innervation ratio of the elbow flexors compared with the knee flexors, as well as the fact that the arms are more accustomed than the legs to perform fast and accurate movements.

  17. Benign monomelic amyotrophy in a 7-year-old girl with proximal upper limb involvement: case report.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Oznur; Alemdaroğlu, Ipek; Karaduman, Ayşe; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy (MMA) is a benign motor neuron disease characterized by neurogenic amyotrophy, which usually affects one of the upper or lower extremities. Progression is slow and symptoms are clinically stable. Symptoms are seen in the second or third decades of life. In this study, we present a seven-year-old girl who was diagnosed and directed to the Physiotherapy Department at the age of 5 years and had unilateral proximal upper limb involvement. Family history of the case was recorded. Neurologic evaluation was performed. Range of joint motion, muscle shortness and strength, posture, extremity lengths, gait, timed performance, arm function, and motor and mental maturation were assessed. The physiotherapy program was designed progressively as strengthening and resistive exercises. Motor and mental developmental milestones were normal. There was no limitation in active or passive motion of all joints. She had more flexible joints, scapula alata, asymmetry between shoulder levels, and weakness on proximal muscles of the right upper extremity. In the follow-up assessment at eight months, there was no asymmetry between shoulder levels and scapular symmetry began to improve. Female gender and involvement restricted to one proximal upper limb are rare in the literature. This patient demonstrates the positive effects of physical therapy with early diagnosis of MMA. The rapid recovery of muscle weakness shows the importance of strengthening and resistive exercises applied to specific muscles in the treatment.

  18. Effect of joystick stiffness, movement speed and movement direction on joystick and upper limb kinematics when using hydraulic-actuation joystick controls in heavy vehicles.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M; Tingley, M; Rogers, R; Rickards, J; Biden, E

    2007-06-01

    Despite the widespread use of hydraulic-actuation joysticks in mobile North American construction, mining and forestry vehicles, the biomechanical effects that joysticks have on their human operators has not been studied extensively. Using nine unskilled joystick operators and a laboratory mock-up with a commonly used North American heavy off-road equipment hydraulic-actuation joystick and operator seat, the purpose of this work was to quantify and compare the effects of three hydraulic-actuation joystick stiffnesses and two movement speeds on upper limb and joystick kinematics as one of the initial steps towards the development of a hydraulic-actuation joystick design protocol. In addition to providing a detailed description of the kinematics of a constrained occupational task, coupled with the corresponding effects of the task on operator upper limb kinematics, results from principal component analysis and ANOVA procedures revealed a number of differences in joystick and upper limb angle ranges and movement curve shapes resulting from the various joystick stiffness-speed combinations tested. For the most part, these joystick motion alterations were caused by small, insignificant changes in one or more upper limb joint angles. The two exceptions occurred for forward movements of the joystick; the fast speed - light stiffness condition movement pattern shape change was caused primarily by an alteration of the elbow flexion-extension movement pattern. Similarly, the fast speed - normal stiffness condition movement curve shape perturbation - was caused principally by a combination of significant movement curve shape alterations to elbow flexion-extension, external-internal shoulder rotation and flexion-extension of the shoulder. The finding that joystick stiffness and speed alterations affect joystick and upper limb kinematics minimally indicates that the joystick design approach of modelling the joystick and operator upper limb as a closed linkage system should be

  19. Upper limb performance and the structuring of joint movement in teenagers with cerebral palsy: the reciprocal role of task demands and action capabilities.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Priscilla Rezende Pereira; Silva, Paula Lanna; Avelar, Bruna Silva; da Fonseca, Sérgio Teixeira; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) demonstrate reduced performance in upper limb tasks compared to typically developing (TD) peers. We examined whether task conditions modify differences between teenagers with and without CP during a reciprocal aiming task. Twenty teenagers (nine CP and 11 TD) moved a pointer between two targets as fast as possible without missing a target. Task conditions were manipulated by changing the targets' size, by modifying the inertial properties of the pointer and by varying the upper limb used to perform the task (preferred/non-affected and non-preferred/affected upper limbs). While compared to TD peers, CP teenagers exhibited lower performance (longer movement times). Such differences were attenuated when the task was performed with the preferred upper limb and when accuracy requirements were less stringent. CP teenagers were not differentially affected by the pointer inertia manipulation. Task conditions not only affected performance but also joint kinematics. CP teenagers revealed less movement at the elbow and more movement at the shoulder when performing the task with their less skilled upper limb. However, both CP and TD teenagers demonstrated a larger contribution of trunk movement when facing more challenging task conditions. The overall pattern of results indicated that the joint kinematics employed by individuals with unilateral CP constituted adaptive responses to task requirements. Thus, the explanation of the effects of unilateral CP on upper limb behavior needs to go beyond a context-indifferent manifestation of the brain injury to include the interaction between task demands and action capabilities.

  20. Mechanism of Kinect-based virtual reality training for motor functional recovery of upper limbs after subacute stroke.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao; Mao, Yurong; Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Yunhai; Chen, Shaozhen; Li, Le; Cates, Ryan S; Zhou, Shufeng; Huang, Dongfeng

    2013-11-05

    The Kinect-based virtual reality system for the Xbox 360 enables users to control and interact with the game console without the need to touch a game controller, and provides rehabilitation training for stroke patients with lower limb dysfunctions. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 18 healthy subjects and five patients after subacute stroke were included. The five patients were scanned using functional MRI prior to training, 3 weeks after training and at a 12-week follow-up, and then compared with healthy subjects. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function Test scores of the hemiplegic upper limbs of stroke patients were significantly increased 3 weeks after training and at the 12-week follow-up. Functional MRI results showed that contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was activated after Kinect-based virtual reality training in the stroke patients compared with the healthy subjects. Contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, the bilateral supplementary motor area and the ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during hand-clenching in all 18 healthy subjects. Our findings indicate that Kinect-based virtual reality training could promote the recovery of upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients, and brain reorganization by Kinect-based virtual reality training may be linked to the contralateral sensorimotor cortex.

  1. The development of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robotic system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Stroke is the primary cause of adult disability. To support this large population in recovery, robotic technologies are being developed to assist in the delivery of rehabilitation. This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a decision theoretic model (a partially observable Markov decision process, or POMDP) as its primary engine for decision making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. Methods The performance of the system was evaluated by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist. A single patient participant was paired up with a therapist participant for the duration of the study, for a total of six sessions. Each session was an hour long and occurred three times a week for two weeks. During each session, three steps were followed: (A) after the system made a decision, the therapist either agreed or disagreed with the decision made; (B) the researcher had the device execute the decision made by the therapist; (C) the patient then performed the reaching exercise. These parts were repeated in the order of A-B-C until the end of the session. Qualitative and quantitative question were asked at the end of each session and at the completion of the study for both participants. Results Overall, the therapist agreed with the system decisions approximately 65% of the time. In general, the therapist thought the system decisions were believable and could envision this system being used in both a clinical and home setting. The patient was satisfied with the system and would use this system as his/her primary method of rehabilitation. Conclusions The data collected in this study can only be used to provide insight into

  2. Change in skin perfusion pressure after the creation of upper limb arteriovenous fistula for maintenance hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Sueki, Shina; Sakurada, Tsutomu; Miyamoto, Masahito; Tsuruoka, Kayori; Matsui, Katsuomi; Sato, Yuichi; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2014-10-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the most important vascular access method for hemodialysis (HD). However, ischemic steal syndrome occasionally develops. This study evaluated the change in skin perfusion pressure (SPP) after the creation of upper limb AVF and analyzed the relationship between blood flow measurements and the change in SPP. The subjects included 21 patients who underwent radiocephalic AVF creation for the first time between November 2012 and September 2013. We measured SPP on the palm side of the third finger of both hands and assessed blood flow measurements using ultrasound examination before and after the creation of AVF. The subjects consisted of 15 men and 6 women (average age: 65.3 ± 12.7 years, including 12 diabetic patients). Observational period between before and after surgery was 4.9 ± 5.2 days. None of the patients had ischemic steal syndrome after the creation of AVF. Skin perfusion pressure tended to decrease after creation of AVF on the finger of AVF side (100.0 ± 20.9 vs. 87.9 ± 26.5 mmHg, P = 0.063). In contrast, SPP did not change in the limb without AVF (97.9 ± 20.7 vs. 101.0 ± 19.4 mmHg, P = 0.615). The rate of change in SPP was significantly decreased on the finger of AVF side compared with that of limb without AVF (0.055% vs. -0.112%, P = 0.014). There was no correlation between the change in SPP and blood flow measurements. Skin perfusion pressure is possible to detect ischemic steal syndrome after the creation of upper limb AVF.

  3. A novel mission concept for upper air water vapour observations: active limb sounding with a constellation of retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Weitnauer, C.; Topham, R.; Romano, P.; Lohrey, S.; Kox, S.; Krings, T.; Krejci, D.; Kern, K.; Huesing, J.; Esen, B.; Deconinck, F.; Carton, J. G.; Aulinas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The topic for the Alpbach summer school 2010 was "Missions for Understanding Climate Change''. Early career scientists and engineers from many countries formed working groups to devise new space missions to tackle this challenging subject. Following the summer school, one mission concept was chosen for further development at a subsequent workshop in Obergurgl, which is described in this paper. At the core of the mission chosen for further study was a novel active limb-sounding instrument, used as part of a multi-instrument measurement approach to observing upper air water vapour. The concept combines a LiDAR in nadir-viewing mode with a LiDAR in limb sounding by occultation geometry, designed to operate as a multiple discrete wavelength, very long path system for intergrated path differential absorption measurements. This is achieved using a monostatic transmitter-receiver spacecraft flown in formation with multiple spaceborne retroreflectors. Looking through the limb of the atmosphere, this system will sample the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere and above at high vertical resolution, with a long integration path allowing detection of the low concentrations of water vapour at this height. A secondary payload of a medium resolution multispectral radiometer allows wide-swath cloud and aerosol imaging. Active limb sounding has not yet been attempted in space, and this novel concept presents significant challenges, including the performance of the lasers in space, the tracking and locking procedure between the main spacecraft and the retroreflectors, and the design of the telescopes to achieve a high enough signal-to-noise ratio for the high precision measurements. These issues are addressed in this preliminary feasibility study, which shows promising results.

  4. Ultrasound assessment on selected peripheral nerve pathologies. Part I: Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb - excluding carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) is one of the methods for imaging entrapment neuropathies, post-traumatic changes to nerves, nerve tumors and postoperative complications to nerves. This type of examination is becoming more and more popular, not only for economic reasons, but also due to its value in making accurate diagnosis. It provides a very precise assessment of peripheral nerve trunk pathology - both in terms of morphology and localization. During examination there are several options available to the specialist: the making of a dynamic assessment, observation of pain radiation through the application of precise palpation and the comparison of resultant images with the contra lateral limb. Entrapment neuropathies of the upper limb are discussed in this study, with the omission of median nerve neuropathy at the level of the carpal canal, as extensive literature on this subject exists. The following pathologies are presented: pronator teres muscle syndrome, anterior interosseus nerve neuropathy, ulnar nerve groove syndrome and cubital tunnel syndrome, Guyon's canal syndrome, radial nerve neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve neuropathy, Wartenberg's disease, suprascapular nerve neuropathy and thoracic outlet syndrome. Peripheral nerve examination technique has been presented in previous articles presenting information about peripheral nerve anatomy [Journal of Ultrasonography 2012; 12 (49): 120-163 - Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part I: Sonohistology and general principles of examination, following the example of the median nerve; Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb; Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb]. In this article potential compression sites of particular nerves are discussed, taking into account pathomechanisms of damage, including predisposing anatomical variants (accessory muscles). The parameters of ultrasound assessment have been established - echogenicity and echostructure, thickness (edema and related increase

  5. Effects of the Racket Polar Moment of Inertia on Dominant Upper Limb Joint Moments during Tennis Serve

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players. PMID:25117871

  6. EEG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Restoring Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke with Severe Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Aaron; Popovic, Milos R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly. Stimulation for each of the movement phases (e.g., extending and retrieving the arm) was triggered when the power in the 18 Hz–28 Hz range (beta frequency range) of the participant's EEG activity, recorded with a single electrode, decreased below a predefined threshold. The function of the participant's arm showed a clinically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) subscore (6 points) as well as moderate improvement in Functional Independence Measure Self-Care subscore (7 points). The changes in arm's function suggest that the combination of BCI technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary motor function in individuals with chronic hemiplegia which results in severe upper limb deficit (FMA-UE ≤ 15), a population that does not benefit from current best-practice rehabilitation interventions. PMID:27882256

  7. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  8. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers. PMID:24527440

  9. Effects of the racket polar moment of inertia on dominant upper limb joint moments during tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.

  10. The effect of exercise types for rotator cuff repair patients on activities of shoulder muscles and upper limb disability

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Moon, Young-Jun; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Park, Jun-Su

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect on activities, shoulder muscle fatigue, upper limb disability of two exercise types performed by patients in the post- immobilization period of rotator cuff repair. [Subjects and Methods] The intervention program was performed by 20 patients from 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair. Ten subjects each were randomly allocated to a group performing open kinetic chain exercise and a group preforming closed kinetic chain exercise. Muscle activity and median frequency were measured by using sEMG and the Upper Extremity Function Assessment before and after conducting the intervention and changes in the results were compared. [Results] There was a significant within group increases in the activities of the shoulder muscles, except for the posterior deltoid. The median power frequencies (MFD) of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and anterior deltoid significantly increased in the open kinetic chain exercise group, but that of the posterior deltoid decreased. There were significant differences in the changes in the upper limb disability scores of the two groups, in the shoulder muscle activities, except for that of the posterior deltoid, in the comparison of the change in the muscle activities of the two groups, and in the MDFs of all shoulder muscles. [Conclusion] The Median power frequencies of all these muscles after closed kinetic chain exercise increased indicating that muscle fatigue decreased. Therefore, research into exercise programs using closed kinetic chain exercises will be needed to establish exercise methods for reducing muscle fatigue. PMID:27821933

  11. Imaging receptor for advanced glycation end product expression in mouse model of hind limb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to image the effect of diabetes on expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) in limb ischemia in live animals. Methods Male wild-type C57BL/6 mice were either made diabetic or left as control. Two months later, diabetic and non-diabetic mice underwent left femoral artery ligation. The right leg served as lesion control. Five days later, mice were injected with 15.1 ± 4.4 MBq 99mTc-anti-RAGE F(ab’)2 and 4 to 5 h later (blood pool clearance) underwent SPECT/CT imaging. At the completion of imaging, mice were euthanized, hind limbs counted and sectioned, and scans reconstructed. Regions of interest were drawn on serial transverse sections comprising the hind limbs and activity in millicuries summed and divided by the injected dose (ID). Quantitative histology was performed for RAGE staining and angiogenesis. Results Uptake of 99mTc-anti-RAGE F(ab')2 as %ID × 10−3 was higher in the left (ischemic) limbs for the diabetic mice (n = 8) compared to non-diabetic mice (n = 8) (1.20 ± 0.44% vs. 0.49 ± 0.40%; P = 0.0007) and corresponded to less angiogenesis in the diabetic mice. Uptake was also higher in the right limbs of diabetic compared to non-diabetic animals (0.82 ± 0.33% vs. 0.40 ± 0.14%; P = 0.0004). Conclusions These data show the feasibility of imaging and quantifying the effect of diabetes on RAGE expression in limb ischemia. PMID:23663412

  12. Stiffness-based tuning of an adaptive impedance controller for robot-assisted rehabilitation of upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Berenice; Mendoza, Marco; Bonilla, Isela; Reyna-Gutiérrez, Iván

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the tuning procedure of an adaptive impedance control approach, for upper limb rehabilitation therapies assisted by robots, is presented. The main feature of the proposed approach is a custom tuning of the impedance parameters for the controller, based on the stiffness estimation of users (patients), thus achieving a suitable robot-assisted rehabilitation system according with the different conditions of user's mobility. A set of simulation results are presented, in order to verify the suitable performance of the proposed approach in human-robot interaction tasks.

  13. Filtering of intended motion for real-time tremor compensation in human upper limb using surface electromyography.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Ferdinan; Shee, Cheng Yap; Poignet, Philippe; Ang, Wei Tech

    2009-01-01

    The recorded motion from (pathological) tremor patient may consist of the involuntary tremulous component and the intended motion. These two components have to be separated so that the actuation part will be able to suppress only the tremor. This paper proposes an algorithm to remove the intended motion by using an extended Kalman filter with the help of adaptive high-pass filter. The effectiveness of the algorithm is also shown in the presence of stimulation artifacts. It is part of the active pathological tremor compensation project for human upper limb.

  14. [160 activities analyzed by the risk of biomechanical overload on the upper limbs in small industry, handicrafts, services and agriculture].

    PubMed

    Caselli, Ugo; Breschi, Chiara; Compagnonil, Raffaella; De Filippo, Laura; Gogliettino, Maria Angela; Guerrera, Elena; Mameli, Marina; Mastrominico, Eleonora; Mochi, Silvia; Sarto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed 160 work activities in the sectors of small industries, handicrafts, services and agriculture to evaluate the risk of biomnechanical overload of the upper limbs with the OCRA Checklist. The aim was to provide a tool available for the risk assessment in activities generally underestimnated for this risk and typical of the Italian production. The information was provided in the form of cards containing easily accessible data, risk scenarios in different timing, along with some of the key prevention interventions that can be realized.

  15. Development and evaluation of hardware for Point-of-Care assessment of upper-limb motor performance.

    PubMed

    Subbian, Vignesh; Wilsey, Philip A; Beyette, Fred R

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents prototypes of a hardware interface that is directed towards possible integration with a Point-of-Care Testing Environment for Neurological Assessment (POCTENA). While the complete system is intended to assist with diagnosis of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), the focus of this paper is to present designs of necessary hardware that can be used to assess upper-limb motor performance in a point-of-care setting. The hardware interface is expected to facilitate execution of several visuomotor tasks in an attempt to reliably quantify motor deficits. System usability results are shown to corroborate future directions of the POCTENA system.

  16. Assessing the impact of upper limb disability following stroke: a qualitative enquiry using internet-based personal accounts of stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Poltawski, Leon; Allison, Rhoda; Briscoe, Simon; Freeman, Jennifer; Kilbride, Cherry; Neal, Debbie; Turton, Ailie J.; Dean, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Upper limb disability following stroke may have multiple effects on the individual. Existing assessment instruments tend to focus on impairment and function and may miss other changes that are personally important. This study aimed to identify personally significant impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Methods: Accounts by stroke survivors, in the form of web-based diaries (blogs) and stories, were sought using a blog search engine and in stroke-related web-sites. Thematic analysis using the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used to identify personal impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Results: Ninety-nine sources from at least four countries were analysed. Many impacts were classifiable using the ICF, but a number of additional themes emerged, including emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Blogs and other web-based accounts were easily accessible and rich sources of data, although using them raised several methodological issues, including potential sample bias. Conclusions: A range of impacts was identified, some of which (such as use of information technology and alienation from the upper limb) are not addressed in current assessment instruments. They should be considered in post-stroke assessments. Blogs may help in the development of more comprehensive assessments.Implications for RehabilitationA comprehensive assessment of the upper limb following stroke should include the impact of upper limb problems on social participation, as well as associated emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes.Using personalised assessment instruments alongside standardised measures may help ensure that these broader domains are considered in discussions between clinicians and patients.Rehabilitation researchers should investigate whether and how these domains could be addressed and operationalised in standard upper limb assessment instruments. PMID

  17. Hand-to-Face Remapping But No Differences in Temporal Discrimination Observed on the Intact Hand Following Unilateral Upper Limb Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kassondra L.; McKean, Danielle L.; Huff, Katherine; Tommerdahl, Mark; Favorov, Oleg Vyacheslavovich; Waters, Robert S.; Tsao, Jack W.

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral major limb amputation causes changes in sensory perception. Changes may occur within not only the residual limb but also the intact limb as well as the brain. We tested the hypothesis that limb amputation may result in the detection of hand sensation during stimulation of a non-limb-related body region. We further investigated the responses of unilateral upper limb amputees and individuals with all limbs intact to temporally based sensory tactile testing of the fingertips to test the hypothesis that changes in sensory perception also have an effect on the intact limb. Upper extremity amputees were assessed for the presence of referred sensations (RSs)—experiencing feelings in the missing limb when a different body region is stimulated, to determine changes within the brain that occur due to an amputation. Eight of 19 amputees (42.1%) experienced RS in the phantom limb with manual tactile mapping on various regions of the face. There was no correlation between whether someone had phantom sensations or phantom limb pain and where RS was found. Six of the amputees had either phantom sensation or pain in addition to RS induced by facial stimulation. Results from the tactile testing showed that there were no significant differences in the accuracy of participants in the temporal order judgment tasks (p = 0.702), whereby participants selected the digit that was tapped first by a tracking paradigm that resulted in correct answers leading to shorter interstimulus intervals (ISIs) and incorrect answers increasing the ISI. There were also no significant differences in timing perception, i.e., the threshold accuracy of the duration discrimination task (p = 0.727), in which participants tracked which of the two digits received a longer stimulus. We conclude that many, but not all, unilateral upper limb amputees experience phantom hand sensation and/or pain with stimulation of the face, suggesting that there could be postamputation changes in neuronal

  18. The 4-Day Wave as Obvserved from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4-day wave is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height and ozone data from the late Southern winters of 1992 and 1993.

  19. Dissociating effect of upper limb non-use and overuse on space and body representations.

    PubMed

    Bassolino, Michela; Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and updated representations of the space where the body acts, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS), and the location and dimension of body parts (body representation, BR) are essential to perform actions. Because both PPS and BR are involved in motor execution and display the same plastic proprieties after the use of a tool to reach far objects, it has been suggested that they overlap in a unique representation of the body in a space devoted to action. Here we determined whether manipulating actions in space, without modifying body metrics, i.e. through immobilization, induces a dissociation of the plastic properties of PPS and BR. In 39 healthy subjects we evaluated PPS and BR for the non-used right limb and the overused left limb before and after 10 h of right arm immobilization. We observed that non-use reduces PPS representation around the immobilized arm, without affecting the metric representation (i.e. perceived length) of that limb. In contrast, overuse modulates the metric representation of the free arm, leaving PPS unchanged around that limb. These results suggest that the plasticity in PPS and BR depends on different mechanisms; while PPS representation is shaped as a function of the dimension of the acting space, metric characteristics of BR are forged on a complex interplay between visual and sensorimotor information related to the body. This behavioral dissociation between PPS and BR defines a new scenario for the role of action in shaping space and body representations.

  20. A Multi-Class Proportional Myocontrol Algorithm for Upper Limb Prosthesis Control: Validation in Real-Life Scenarios on Amputees.

    PubMed

    Amsuess, Sebastian; Goebel, Peter; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-09-01

    Functional replacement of upper limbs by means of dexterous prosthetic devices remains a technological challenge. While the mechanical design of prosthetic hands has advanced rapidly, the human-machine interfacing and the control strategies needed for the activation of multiple degrees of freedom are not reliable enough for restoring hand function successfully. Machine learning methods capable of inferring the user intent from EMG signals generated by the activation of the remnant muscles are regarded as a promising solution to this problem. However, the lack of robustness of the current methods impedes their routine clinical application. In this study, we propose a novel algorithm for controlling multiple degrees of freedom sequentially, inherently proportionally and with high robustness, allowing a good level of prosthetic hand function. The control algorithm is based on the spatial linear combinations of amplitude-related EMG signal features. The weighting coefficients in this combination are derived from the optimization criterion of the common spatial patterns filters which allow for maximal discriminability between movements. An important component of the study is the validation of the method which was performed on both able-bodied and amputee subjects who used physical prostheses with customized sockets and performed three standardized functional tests mimicking daily-life activities of varying difficulty. Moreover, the new method was compared in the same conditions with one clinical/industrial and one academic state-of-the-art method. The novel algorithm outperformed significantly the state-of-the-art techniques in both subject groups for tests that required the activation of more than one degree of freedom. Because of the evaluation in real time control on both able-bodied subjects and final users (amputees) wearing physical prostheses, the results obtained allow for the direct extrapolation of the benefits of the proposed method for the end users. In

  1. Brachial Artery Reconstruction in Trauma Using Reversed Arm Vein from the Injured Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Harnarayan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brachial artery repair may be technically challenging with a paucity of guidelines. The use arm vein (AV) from the traumatized limb is herein described. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from 2002 to 2016 on brachial artery injury including age, sex, mechanism/site of injury, and repair technique. Categories included AV and non-arm vein (NAV) groups. One-year outcomes were noted. Results: All 31 cases studied were of men with an age range of 16 to 73 years (mean = 28). Injuries included 13 gunshots, 7 stabbings, 6 glass injuries, 2 dislocated elbows, 1 crush, 1 impalement, and 1 avulsion. Site of injuries included the antecubital region in 25, midbrachial in 5, and proximal brachial in 1, with 4 associated fractures. Repair was done using reversed AV from the traumatized limb in 15 cases and NAV in 16. In the AV group, the adjacent basilic vein was used in 9 cases, the adjacent cephalic vein in 3, and the distal (or wrist area) cephalic vein in 3. The limb salvage rates in the AV versus NAV groups were 100% and 94%, respectively (Fisher’s exact t test, P = 1.00), with no major technique-related complications. Conclusions: The outcomes of using reversed AV from the traumatized limb are equivalent to those of other standard techniques such as primary repair, polytetrafluoroethylene, or reversed great saphenous vein, with a 1-year limb salvage rate of 100%. Additionally, advantages include decreased wound complications, better vein graft--artery caliber match, and shorter operating times while maintaining acceptable patency rates. PMID:27826464

  2. Effectiveness of the Virtual Reality System Toyra on Upper Limb Function in People with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I; Gil-Agudo, A; Segura-Fragoso, A; de los Reyes-Guzmán, A; Trincado-Alonso, F; Piazza, S; Polonio-López, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients' satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra(®) virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η (2) = 0,22) in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35.

  3. Biomedical research on the International Space Station postural and manipulation problems of the human upper limb in weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .

  4. Exploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in communitydwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daiki; Matsuoka, Hiroka; Iwai, Midori; Nakamura, Shugo; Kubo, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exercise, such as cardiovascular fitness training, has been shown to have utility in improving executive function but is difficult for older adults with low mobility to perform. Accordingly, there is interest in the development of regimens other than high mobility exercises for older adults with low mobility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sensory motor function of the upper limb and executive function in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 right-handed, independent, community-dwelling older adults. Sensory motor function of upper limb, including range of motion, strength, sensation, finger dexterity, and comprehensive hand function was measured in both hands. Executive function was assessed using the Delta Trail Making Test. Multiple regression analysis indicated the finger dexterity of the non-dominant hand as independently associated with executive function (β = –0.414, P < 0.001). The findings of the present study may facilitate the development of exercise regimens for improving executive function that are more suitable for older adults with limited physical fitness levels. As this was a cross-sectional study, further studies are required to validate the efficacy of non-dominant finger dexterity training for improving executive function in older adults. PMID:27578912

  5. The effects of neck and trunk stabilization exercises on upper limb and visuoperceptual function in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Won; Song, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to investigate the effects of neck and trunk stabilization exercises on upper limb and visuoperceptual function in children with cerebral palsy. The Jebson-Taylor hand function test and the Korean Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) test were utilised. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 11 schoolchildren who had paraplegia caused by premature birth, and who had been diagnosed with periventricular leukomalacia. Kinesitherapy was implemented in individual children for eight weeks, twice a week, for 45 minutes at a time. After a preliminary evaluation, kinesitherapy, including neck and trunk stabilization exercises common to all the children, was implemented for eight weeks according to the functioning and level of each child. A post evaluation was performed after the eight weeks of kinesitherapy. [Results] The intervention showed a significant effect in five subcategories of the Jebson-Taylor hand function test, as well as according to the K-DTVP-2 test. [Conclusion] Because neck and trunk stabilization exercises requiring positive participation by the children included fundamental elements of daily living motion, the exercises might have had a positive effect on upper limb and visuoperceptual function. PMID:27942155

  6. Correlations in between EAWS and OCRA Index concerning the repetitive loads of the upper limbs in automobile manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Lavatelli, Ivan; Schaub, Karlheinz; Caragnano, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Upper limbs repetitive tasks are one of the main sources of risk for the workers of the manufacturing industries and the standards ISO 11228-3 and EN 1005-5 addressed this issue since 2007. EAWS (European Assembly Worksheet) is a 1st level ergonomic risk assessment method and it provides in its 4th section a score to measure the load level for the upper limbs based on a traffic light scheme. According to the relevant ISO/CEN standards, the OCRA Index is the preferred system to refer to in the evaluation of the biomechanical stress of hand-harm-shoulder system. This correlation study is based on a 45 workstations sample coming from the automobile manufacturing industry. According to the results, EAWS4 shows an excellent correlation with OCRA index (Spearman's rho correlation index 0.95). Being EAWS based on biometric statistical data distribution, its typical application is the process design phase, but adopting a conservative approach in the interpretation of EAWS4 score for risk mapping purposes, it provides an equivalent "reaction" pattern (countermeasures to be taken in the production phase) with respect of OCRA Index with an Odds Ratio ranging from 0.89 (OR-matched) to 1.00 (OR-conservative).

  7. The effects of post-stroke upper-limb training with an electromyography (EMG)-driven hand robot.

    PubMed

    Hu, X L; Tong, K Y; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A; Ho, S K

    2013-10-01

    Loss of hand function and finger dexterity are main disabilities in the upper limb after stroke. An electromyography (EMG)-driven hand robot had been developed for post-stroke rehabilitation training. The effectiveness of the hand robot assisted whole upper limb training was investigated on persons with chronic stroke (n=10) in this work. All subjects attended a 20-session training (3-5times/week) by using the hand robot to practice object grasp/release and arm transportation tasks. Significant motor improvements were observed in the Fugl-Meyer hand/wrist and shoulder/elbow scores (p<0.05), and also in the Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test (p<0.05). Significant reduction in spasticity of the fingers as was measured by the Modified Ashworth Score (p<0.05). The training improved the muscle co-ordination between the antagonist muscle pair (flexor digitorum (FD) and extensor digitorum (ED)), associated with a significant reduction in the ED EMG level (p<0.05) and a significant decrease of ED and FD co-contraction during the training (p<0.05); the excessive muscle activities in the biceps brachii were also reduced significantly after the training (p<0.05).

  8. Human upper-limb force capacities evaluation with robotic models for ergonomic applications: effect of elbow flexion.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Vincent; Rezzoug, Nasser; Jacquier-Bret, Julien; Gorce, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply models derived from the robotics field to evaluate the human upper-limb force generation capacity. Four models were compared: the force ellipsoid (FE) and force polytope (FP) based on unit joint torques and the scaled FE (SFE) and scaled FP (SFP) based on maximum isometric joint torques. The four models were assessed from four upper-limb postures with varying elbow flexion (40°, 60°, 80° and 100°) measured by an optoelectronic system and their corresponding isometric joint torques. Ten subjects were recruited. Three specific ellipsoids and polytopes parameters were compared: isotropy, principal force orientation and volume. Isotropy showed that the ellipsoids and polytopes were elongated. The angle between the two ellipsoids main axis and the two polytopes remained low but increased with the elbow flexion. The FE and FP volumes increased and those of SFE and SFP decreased with the elbow flexion. The interest and limits of such models are discussed in the framework of ergonomics and rehabilitation.

  9. A Brain-Machine Interface Based on ERD/ERS for an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhichuan; Sun, Shouqian; Zhang, Sanyuan; Chen, Yumiao; Li, Chao; Chen, Shi

    2016-12-02

    To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI). The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton). The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications.

  10. The neural correlates of upper limb motor blocks in Parkinson's disease and their relation to freezing of gait.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, S; Spildooren, J; Heremans, E; Wenderoth, N; Swinnen, S P; Vandenberghe, W; Nieuwboer, A

    2014-12-01

    Due to basal ganglia dysfunction, bimanual motor performance in Parkinson patients reportedly relies on compensatory brain activation in premotor-parietal-cerebellar circuitries. A subgroup of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with freezing of gait (FOG) may exhibit greater bimanual impairments up to the point that motor blocks occur. This study investigated the neural mechanisms of upper limb motor blocks and explored their relation with FOG. Brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during bilateral finger movements in 16 PD with FOG, 16 without FOG (PD + FOG and PD - FOG), and 16 controls. During successful movement, PD + FOG showed decreased activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), as well as left M1 and bilaterally increased activation in dorsal putamen, pallidum, as well as subthalamic nucleus compared with PD - FOG and controls. On the contrary, upper limb motor blocks were associated with increased activation in right M1, PMd, supplementary motor area, and left PFC compared with successful movement, whereas bilateral pallidum and putamen activity was decreased. Complex striatofrontal activation changes may be involved in the difficulties of PD + FOG to perform bimanual movements, or sequential movements in general. These novel results suggest that, whatever the exact underlying cause, PD + FOG seem to have reached a saturation point of normal neural compensation and respond belatedly to actual movement breakdown.

  11. Upper limb prosthetic outcome measures: review and content comparison based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Helen Y N; Nätterlund, Birgitta Sjöqvist; Hermansson, Liselotte M Norling

    2010-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has been recommended as a framework for evaluation of aspects of health. The aim of this study was to compare the contents of outcome measures for upper limb prosthesis users by using the ICF. Measurement focus and psychometric properties of these measures were also investigated. Outcome measures that used upper limb prosthesis users as subjects in their development and psychometric evaluations were selected. The psychometric studies (n = 14) were reviewed and scored and the items in the measures were linked to the ICF. One measure for all ages (ACMC), five paediatric measures (CAPP-FSI, CAPP-PSI, PUFI, UBET and UNB) and two adult measures (OPUS and TAPES) were selected. The concepts extracted (n = 393) were linked to 54 categories in the ICF. The ACMC, CAPP-FSI, UBET, UNB and PUFI measure categories mostly under the ICF component 'Activity and participation'. The TAPES and OPUS also measure ICF categories that describe the emotional and social status of a person. The main conclusion is that the use of a mixture of outcome measures would give a better picture on the aspects of our clients. Measures that focus on the social interaction in paediatric users are required.

  12. Exploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in communitydwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Daiki; Matsuoka, Hiroka; Iwai, Midori; Nakamura, Shugo; Kubo, Ayumi; Tomiyama, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Exercise, such as cardiovascular fitness training, has been shown to have utility in improving executive function but is difficult for older adults with low mobility to perform. Accordingly, there is interest in the development of regimens other than high mobility exercises for older adults with low mobility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sensory motor function of the upper limb and executive function in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 right-handed, independent, community-dwelling older adults. Sensory motor function of upper limb, including range of motion, strength, sensation, finger dexterity, and comprehensive hand function was measured in both hands. Executive function was assessed using the Delta Trail Making Test. Multiple regression analysis indicated the finger dexterity of the non-dominant hand as independently associated with executive function (β = -0.414, P < 0.001). The findings of the present study may facilitate the development of exercise regimens for improving executive function that are more suitable for older adults with limited physical fitness levels. As this was a cross-sectional study, further studies are required to validate the efficacy of non-dominant finger dexterity training for improving executive function in older adults.

  13. Effectiveness of the Virtual Reality System Toyra on Upper Limb Function in People with Tetraplegia: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dimbwadyo-Terrer, I.; Gil-Agudo, A.; Segura-Fragoso, A.; de los Reyes-Guzmán, A.; Trincado-Alonso, F.; Piazza, S.; Polonio-López, B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a virtual reality program combined with conventional therapy in upper limb function in people with tetraplegia and to provide data about patients' satisfaction with the virtual reality system. Thirty-one people with subacute complete cervical tetraplegia participated in the study. Experimental group received 15 sessions with Toyra® virtual reality system for 5 weeks, 30 minutes/day, 3 days/week in addition to conventional therapy, while control group only received conventional therapy. All patients were assessed at baseline, after intervention, and at three-month follow-up with a battery of clinical, functional, and satisfaction scales. Control group showed significant improvements in the manual muscle test (p = 0,043, partial η2 = 0,22) in the follow-up evaluation. Both groups demonstrated clinical, but nonsignificant, changes to their arm function in 4 of the 5 scales used. All patients showed a high level of satisfaction with the virtual reality system. This study showed that virtual reality added to conventional therapy produces similar results in upper limb function compared to only conventional therapy. Moreover, the gaming aspects incorporated in conventional rehabilitation appear to produce high motivation during execution of the assigned tasks. This trial is registered with EudraCT number 2015-002157-35. PMID:26885511

  14. A Brain-Machine Interface Based on ERD/ERS for an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton Control

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhichuan; Sun, Shouqian; Zhang, Sanyuan; Chen, Yumiao; Li, Chao; Chen, Shi

    2016-01-01

    To recognize the user’s motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI). The results indicate that the accuracies of ME sessions are higher than those of MI sessions, and left hand versus both feet paradigm achieves a better classification performance, which would be used in the online-control phase. In the online-control phase, the trained decoder is tested in two scenarios (wearing or without wearing the exoskeleton). The MI and ME sessions wearing the exoskeleton achieve mean classification accuracy of 84.29% ± 2.11% and 87.37% ± 3.06%, respectively. The present study demonstrates that the proposed BMI is effective to control the upper-limb exoskeleton, and provides a practical method by non-invasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior for clinical applications. PMID:27918413

  15. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1) before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2) 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR.

  16. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Carmona, Carolina; Dewald, Julius

    2015-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1) before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2) 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR. PMID:26106558

  17. Water polo is associated with an apparent redistribution of bone mass and density from the lower to the upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Yannakoulia, Mary; Perraki, Maria; Karipidou, Melina; Sidossis, Labros S

    2006-06-01

    The bone response to exercise is site-specific and load-dependent. Recent evidence suggests that an inverse relationship may exist between loaded and unloaded sites, such that the former may benefit at the expense of the latter. The present study examined this possibility in 48 males (21 water polo players, 12 handball players, and 15 sedentary controls). Water polo and handball are alike with respect to the active loading of the upper limbs during overhead throwing; however, the weight-supporting environment of water polo removes the weight-bearing effect from the lower limbs. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone projected area (Ap), and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the total body and of various subregions were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After adjusting for age, height, and weight, water polo players had higher arms BMC, Ap, and aBMD (by 22.2, 11.1, and 10.5%, respectively; P<0.05), but lower legs aBMD (-6.3%; P<0.05) relative to controls. On the contrary, compared to controls, handball players had higher BMC (from 11.8 to 24.3%), Ap (from 5.2 to 11.7%), and aBMD (from 6.4 to 11.9%) for the total body at all sites. Water polo athletes had increased arms and decreased legs aBMD ratios (regional-to-total) than either handball players or sedentary subjects (P<0.001). Water polo is associated with an apparent redistribution of bone mass and density from the lower to the upper limbs, with no major effects on the rest of the body.

  18. Development of the arterial pattern in the upper limb of staged human embryos: normal development and anatomic variations

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; BURTON, G. J.; DEU, J.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 112 human embryos (224 upper limbs) between stages 12 and 23 of development were examined. It was observed that formation of the arterial system in the upper limb takes place as a dual process. An initial capillary plexus appears from the dorsal aorta during stage 12 and develops at the same rate as the limb. At stage 13, the capillary plexus begins a maturation process involving the enlargement and differentiation of selected parts. This remodelling process starts in the aorta and continues in a proximal to distal sequence. By stage 15 the differentiation has reached the subclavian and axillary arteries, by stage 17 it has reached the brachial artery as far as the elbow, by stage 18 it has reached the forearm arteries except for the distal part of the radial, and finally by stage 21 the whole arterial pattern is present in its definitive morphology. This differentiation process parallels the development of the skeletal system chronologically. A number of arterial variations were observed, and classified as follows: superficial brachial (7.7%), accessory brachial (0.6%), brachioradial (14%), superficial brachioulnar (4.7%), superficial brachioulnoradial (0.7%), palmar pattern of the median (18.7%) and superficial brachiomedian (0.7%) arteries. They were observed in embryos belonging to stages 17–23 and were not related to a specific stage of development. Statistical comparison with the rates of variations reported in adults did not show significant differences. It is suggested that the variations arise through the persistence, enlargement and differentiation of parts of the initial network which would normally remain as capillaries or even regress. PMID:11693301

  19. Sensory capacity of reinnervated skin after redirection of amputated upper limb nerves to the chest.

    PubMed

    Marasco, Paul D; Schultz, Aimee E; Kuiken, Todd A

    2009-06-01

    Targeted reinnervation is a new neural-machine interface that has been developed to help improve the function of new-generation prosthetic limbs. Targeted reinnervation is a surgical procedure that takes the nerves that once innervated a severed limb and redirects them to proximal muscle and skin sites. The sensory afferents of the redirected nerves reinnervate the skin overlying the transfer site. This creates a sensory expression of the missing limb in the amputee's reinnervated skin. When these individuals are touched on this reinnervated skin they feel as though they are being touched on their missing limb. Targeted reinnervation takes nerves that once served the hand, a skin region of high functional importance, and redirects them to less functionally relevant skin areas adjacent to the amputation site. In an effort to better understand the sensory capacity of the reinnervated target skin following this procedure, we examined grating orientation thresholds and point localization thresholds on two amputees who had undergone the targeted reinnervation surgery. Grating orientation thresholds and point localization thresholds were also measured on the contralateral normal skin of the targeted reinnervation amputees and on analogous sites in able-bodied controls. Grating orientation thresholds for the reinnervated skin of the targeted reinnervation amputees were found to be similar to normal ranges for both the amputees' contralateral skin and also for the control population. Point localization thresholds for these amputees were found to be lower for their reinnervated skin than for their contralateral skin. Reinnervated point localization thresholds values were also lower in comparison to homologous chest sites on the control population. Mechanisms appear to be in place to maximize re-established touch input in targeted reinnervation amputees. It seems that sound sensory function is provided to the denervated skin of the residual limb when connected to afferent

  20. Body Structures and Physical Complaints in Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency: A 24-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Sietke G.; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Waldenlöv, Kristina; Norling Hermansson, Liselotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe upper body structures associated with upper limb reduction deficiency and the development of these structures over time, to examine the presence of physical complaints in this population, and to compare body structures and complaints between groups based on prosthesis use. Design Prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 24 years, with matched able-bodied controls. Subjects Twenty-eight patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency fitted with myoelectric prostheses, aged 8–18 years at inclusion. Method Measurements of upper arm, trunk and spine were performed and study-specific questionnaires were answered at baseline and follow-up; the Brief Pain Inventory and the Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaires were answered at follow-up. Results Both at baseline and follow-up, within-subjects differences in structures of the arm and trunk were shown in patients but not in controls. Spinal deviations, although small, were greater in patients compared to controls. Self-reported disability was higher in patients compared to controls. Differences in back pain and effect of prostheses use could not be shown. Conclusions Patients with unilateral below-elbow reduction deficiency have consistent differences in upper body structures. Deviations of the spine, probably of functional origin, do not progress to clinically relevant scoliosis. PMID:23226218

  1. Incidence of Upper Extremity Nerve Entrapments In Veterans With Major Limb Amputations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    epicondyle and above- elbow stimulation was performed with the elbow flexed to 90 degrees at a distance of 4cm proximal to medial epicondyle (6, 8, 11...deep tendon reflexes, strength testing, sensory testing with pinprick and light touch, Tinel’s test at the elbow and wrist, and Phalen’s test. All...subjects had ulnar entrapment neuropathy across the elbow (22/38 affected limbs, 6 subjects with unilateral and 8 subjects with bilateral findings

  2. Influence of visual and proprioceptive afferences on upper limb ataxia in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quintern, J; Immisch, I; Albrecht, H; Pöllmann, W; Glasauer, S; Straube, A

    1999-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate how cooling of the arm and vision influence pointing movements in healthy subjects and patients with cerebellar limb ataxia due to clinically proven multiple sclerosis. An infrared video motion analysis system was used to record the unrestricted, horizontal pointing movements toward a target under three different conditions involving a moving, stationary, or imaginary target; a visual, or acoustic trigger; and vision or memory guidance. All three tasks were performed before and after cooling the arm in ice water. Patients had more hypermetric and slower pointing movements than controls under all tested conditions. Patients also had significantly larger three-dimensional finger sway paths during the postural phase and larger movement angles of the wrist joint. Memory-guided movements were the most hypermetric recorded in both groups. Cooling of the limb had no effect on amplitude or peak velocity of the pointing movement in either group under all tested conditions, but significantly reduced the three-dimensional finger sway path during the postural phase in patients with limb ataxia. Cooling-induced reduction of the finger sway was largest in those patients with the largest finger sway before cooling. In conclusion, the cooling-induced reduction of the proprioceptive afferent inflow, most probably of group I spindle afferents, reduces postural tremor of patients with cerebellar dysfunction.

  3. Inverse Kinematics for Upper Limb Compound Movement Estimation in Exoskeleton-Assisted Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Camilo; de Los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types.

  4. Inverse Kinematics for Upper Limb Compound Movement Estimation in Exoskeleton-Assisted Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Camilo; de los Reyes-Guzmán, Ana; Scorza, Davide; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Carrasco, Eduardo; Gil-Agudo, Ángel; Ruiz-Salguero, Oscar; Flórez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation (RAR) is relevant for treating patients affected by nervous system injuries (e.g., stroke and spinal cord injury). The accurate estimation of the joint angles of the patient limbs in RAR is critical to assess the patient improvement. The economical prevalent method to estimate the patient posture in Exoskeleton-based RAR is to approximate the limb joint angles with the ones of the Exoskeleton. This approximation is rough since their kinematic structures differ. Motion capture systems (MOCAPs) can improve the estimations, at the expenses of a considerable overload of the therapy setup. Alternatively, the Extended Inverse Kinematics Posture Estimation (EIKPE) computational method models the limb and Exoskeleton as differing parallel kinematic chains. EIKPE has been tested with single DOF movements of the wrist and elbow joints. This paper presents the assessment of EIKPE with elbow-shoulder compound movements (i.e., object prehension). Ground-truth for estimation assessment is obtained from an optical MOCAP (not intended for the treatment stage). The assessment shows EIKPE rendering a good numerical approximation of the actual posture during the compound movement execution, especially for the shoulder joint angles. This work opens the horizon for clinical studies with patient groups, Exoskeleton models, and movements types. PMID:27403420

  5. ArmAssist Robotic System versus Matched Conventional Therapy for Poststroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomić, Tijana J. Dimkić; Savić, Andrej M.; Vidaković, Aleksandra S.; Rodić, Sindi Z.; Isaković, Milica S.; Rodríguez-de-Pablo, Cristina; Keller, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649. PMID:28251157

  6. Effect of functional electrical stimulation on the proprioception, motor function of the paretic upper limb, and patient quality of life: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Brevis, Francisco; Canales, Sebastián; Millón, Sebastián; Pascual, Rodrigo

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown to improve motor function of the affected side in stroke patients; however, the effects of FES on proprioception, the functional recovery of the paretic upper limb, and the patient quality of life (QoL) are not clear. The aim of the current case report was to determine whether FES can improve joint position sense and the scores on measurements of upper limb function and a QoL survey. The participant was assessed before and after 10 consecutive intervention sessions; in addition, the patient performed the training tasks in the workstation assisted by the FES device. Improvements in angles and time only in the affected wrist and enhancement in the Action Research Arm Test scores for both upper limbs were found after FES intervention. In addition, the patient's health-related QoL measurements improved. FES could ameliorate the proprioceptive deficit and the activity limitations of a stroke survivor.

  7. Study about upper limb on highly repetitive work in maquila operations.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Lopez-Millan; De la Vega, Enrique; Rodriguez, Manuel; Ayala, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Industrial work is a very active sector in the economy of countries; an important part of people's work is done using the upper extremities. The purpose of this project is to characterize the effect of upper extremity work, analyze its relationship with the hand strength and the presence of fatigue and develop a model with the ability to estimate recovery times for the shoulder using variables different from the biomechanical variables.

  8. [The application of the concise exposure index to repetitive movement tasks of the upper limbs in various production settings: preliminary experience and validation].

    PubMed

    Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E

    1996-01-01

    A summary of eight investigations is presented, which were carried out using standardised methods, for the purpose of quantifying exposure to tasks involving repetitive movements of the upper limbs, as well as quantifying the prevalence of Work Related Musculo Skeletal Disorders of the upper limbs in groups of exposed workers. A total of 462 exposed workers were examined, and the study also took into account the data pertaining to a matched control group comprising 749 workers not exposed to any specific occupational risk. Regarding the quantification of exposure to increased risk, use was made of a Concise Index (OCRA), proposed by the Authors in a previous publication. The data resulting from the eight investigations were used for the study of measurements and models of association among the exposure variables (mainly represented by the OCRA index), as well as the effect variables represented by the prevalence of the various WMSDs of the upper limbs taken both individually and jointly. Significant associations were reported between the OCRA index and an effect indicator represented by the prevalence of all the WSMDs of the upper limbs, calculated on the number of upper limbs at risk. When a logarithmic conversion of the relative exposure (OCRA) and injury indices was carried out, a simple linear regression model resulted which seems to provide a satisfactory predictive performance of the risk of WMSDs of the upper limbs, based on the exposure index. The study confirmed the efficacy of various other models designed to predict effects based on multiple linear regression functions, in which the independent variables are represented by both the OCRA exposure index and by parameters relative to the breakdown by sex and age of the groups of exposed workers.

  9. Comparison between upper and lower limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Agashe, M V; Song, S-H; Choi, H-J; Lee, H; Song, H-R

    2012-01-01

    Lengthening of the humerus is now an established technique. We compared the complications of humeral lengthening with those of femoral lengthening and investigated whether or not the callus formation in the humerus proceeds at a higher rate than that in the femur. A total of 24 humeral and 24 femoral lengthenings were performed on 12 patients with achondroplasia. We measured the pixel value ratio (PVR) of the lengthened area on radiographs and each radiograph was analysed for the shape, type and density of the callus. The quality of life (QOL) of the patients after humeral lengthening was compared with that prior to surgery. The complication rate per segment of humerus and femur was 0.87% and 1.37%, respectively. In the humerus the PVR was significantly higher than that of the femur. Lower limbs were associated with an increased incidence of concave, lateral and central callus shapes. Humeral lengthening had a lower complication rate than lower-limb lengthening, and QOL increased significantly after humeral lengthening. Callus formation in the humerus during the distraction period proceeded at a significantly higher rate than that in the femur. These findings indicate that humeral lengthening has an important role in the management of patients with achondroplasia.

  10. Locomotion in Parkinson's disease: neuronal coupling of upper and lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Michel, J

    2008-12-01

    Quadrupedal limb coordination during human walking was recently shown to be upregulated during obstacle stepping. An anticipatory activity of coupled cervico-thoraco-lumbar interneuronal circuits is followed by an appropriate executory activation of leg and arm muscles during task performance. This mechanism was studied in subjects with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls walking on a treadmill with a randomly approaching obstacle. Spinal reflex (SR) responses, evoked by tibial nerve stimulation during mid-stance, were present in all arm and leg muscles investigated. They were larger before execution of obstacle avoidance compared with normal steps in both subject groups. The performance of obstacle stepping was slightly worse in Parkinson's disease than in control subjects. The anticipatory SR in the arm muscles prior to normal and obstacle steps was larger in Parkinson's disease compared with age-matched subjects, but smaller in the tibialis anterior. The arm and leg muscle activation was stronger during obstacle compared with normal swing but did not differ between Parkinson's disease and age-matched subjects. These observations indicate that quadrupedal limb coordination is basically preserved in Parkinson's disease subjects. Our data are consistent with the proposal that in Parkinson's disease subjects the enhanced anticipatory spinal neuronal activity (reflected in the SR) in the arm muscles is required to achieve an appropriate muscle activation for the automatic control of body equilibrium during the performance of the task. In the tibialis anterior the SR is attenuated presumably because of a stronger voluntary (i.e. cortical) control of leg movements.

  11. Lateral asymmetry as a function of motor practice type of complex upper- and lower-limb movement in young children.

    PubMed

    Marinsek, Miha

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different motor practice types on lateral asymmetry of performance was investigated in 40 preschool children. Lateral preference was measured prior the experiment. For the purpose of present study dribbling a ball with a hand and foot was used to assess lateral asymmetry of performance before and after three different motor practice types. Motor practice with the non-dominant, dominant, and both (contralateral) limbs took place in the indoor facility 4 times/week for 6 weeks. Each session lasted 30-40 min. Our results showed that unilateral practice of dribbling is more beneficial for diminishing lateral asymmetry of performance in comparison to bilateral practice. Moreover, participants who practiced with their dominant limb diminished lateral asymmetry of performance the most and made the largest overall improvement. We did not find important differences between acquisitions of dribbling with upper- and lower-extremity. In this sense, the results support the notion of lateral asymmetry of performance to be task-specific.

  12. Potential of robots as next-generation technology for clinical assessment of neurological disorders and upper-limb therapy.

    PubMed

    Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2011-01-01

    Robotic technologies have profoundly affected the identification of fundamental properties of brain function. This success is attributable to robots being able to control the position of or forces applied to limbs, and their inherent ability to easily, objectively, and reliably quantify sensorimotor behavior. Our general hypothesis is that these same attributes make robotic technologies ideal for clinically assessing sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments in stroke and other neurological disorders. Further, they provide opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. The present opinionated review describes how robotic technologies combined with virtual/augmented reality systems can support a broad range of behavioral tasks to objectively quantify brain function. This information could potentially be used to provide more accurate diagnostic and prognostic information than is available from current clinical assessment techniques. The review also highlights the potential benefits of robots to provide upper-limb therapy. Although the capital cost of these technologies is substantial, it pales in comparison with the potential cost reductions to the overall healthcare system that improved assessment and therapeutic interventions offer.

  13. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  14. Current evaluation of hydraulics to replace the cable force transmission system for body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M

    1990-01-01

    Present body-powered upper-limb prostheses use a cable control system employing World War II aircraft technology to transmit force from the body to the prosthesis for operation. The cable and associated hardware are located outside the prosthesis. Because individuals with arm amputations want prostheses that are natural looking with a smooth, soft outer surface, a design and development project was undertaken to replace the cable system with hydraulics located inside the prosthesis. Three different hydraulic transmission systems were built for evaluation, and other possibilities were explored. Results indicate that a hydraulic force transmission system remains an unmet challenge as a practical replacement for the cable system. The author was unable to develop a hydraulic system that meets the necessary dynamic requirements and is acceptable in size and appearance.

  15. First study towards linear control of an upper-limb neuroprosthesis with an EEG-based Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Javier; Velasco-Alvarez, Francisco; Muller, Klaus-Robert; Vidaurre, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In this study we show how healthy subjects are able to use a non-invasive Motor Imagery (MI)-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) to achieve linear control of an upper-limb neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) controlled neuroprosthesis in a simple binary target selection task. Linear BCI control can be achieved if two motor imagery classes can be discriminated with a reliability over 80% in single trial. The results presented in this work show that there was no significant loss of performance using the neuroprosthesis in comparison to MI where no stimulation was present. However, it is remarkable how different the experience of the users was in the same experiment. The stimulation either provoked a positive reinforcement feedback, or prevented the user from concentrating in the task.

  16. Robot-aided therapy on the upper limb of subacute and chronic stroke patients: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Mazzoleni, S; Filippi, M; Carrozza, M C; Posteraro, F; Puzzolante, L; Falchi, E

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to propose a methodology for evaluating recovery mechanisms in subacute and chronic post-stroke patients after a robot-aided upper-limb therapy, using a set of biomechanical parameters. Fifty-six post-stroke subjects, thirteen subacute and forty-three chronic patients participated in the study. A 2 dof robotic system, implementing an "assist-as-needed" control strategy, was used. Biomechanical parameters related (i) to the speed measured at the robot's end-effector and (ii) to the movement's smoothness were computed. Outcome clinical measures show a decrease in motor impairment after the treatment both in chronic and subacute patients. All the biomechanical parameters show an improvement between admission and discharge. Our results show that the robot-aided training can contribute to reduce the motor impairment in both subacute and chronic patients and identify neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the different stages of motor recovery.

  17. An investigation of the reliability of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) as a method of assessment of children's computing posture.

    PubMed

    Dockrell, Sara; O'Grady, Eleanor; Bennett, Kathleen; Mullarkey, Clare; Mc Connell, Rachel; Ruddy, Rachel; Twomey, Seamus; Flannery, Colleen

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a quick observation method of posture analysis. RULA has been used to assess children's computer-related posture, but the reliability of RULA on a paediatric population has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the use of RULA with children. Video recordings of 24 school children were independently viewed by six trained raters who assessed their postures using RULA, on two separate occasions. RULA demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability than inter-rater reliability although both were moderate to good. RULA was more reliable when used for assessing the older children (8-12 years) than with the younger children (4-7 years). RULA may prove useful as part of an ergonomic assessment, but its level of reliability warrants caution for its sole use when assessing children, and in particular, younger children.

  18. A case of monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb: MRI findings and the implication on its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuebing; Remmel, Krista

    2012-06-01

    Monomelic amyotrophy of the upper limb or Hirayama disease is mostly considered as an anterior horn disorder resulting from local ischemia, triggered by arterial compression from an anterior shifting of the posterior cervical dura upon neck flexion. However, such a dural shifting is not universally seen. We report on a Caucasian male patient who developed a slowly progressive unilateral distal hand weakness in his teens. His clinical and electromyographic findings were consistent with Hirayama disease. Local anterior cervical cord atrophy was observed without dural shifting on the dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Axial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated signal changes of "snake-eye" appearance in the cervical anterior horn region, similar to ischemic myelopathies caused by various etiologies. This case illustrated that even without dural shifting, a mechanism of anterior spinal cord ischemia could still be responsible for the pathogenesis of Hirayama disease.

  19. A decision-theoretic approach in the design of an adaptive upper-limb stroke rehabilitation robot.

    PubMed

    Huq, Rajibul; Kan, Patricia; Goetschalckx, Robby; Hébert, Debbie; Hoey, Jesse; Mihailidis, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an automated system for a rehabilitation robotic device that guides stroke patients through an upper-limb reaching task. The system uses a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) as its primary engine for decision-making. The POMDP allows the system to automatically modify exercise parameters to account for the specific needs and abilities of different individuals, and to use these parameters to take appropriate decisions about stroke rehabilitation exercises. The performance of the system was evaluated through various simulations and by comparing the decisions made by the system with those of a human therapist for a single patient. In general, the simulations showed promising results and the therapist thought the system decisions were believable.

  20. Stress-Shielding Effect of Nitinol Swan-Like Memory Compressive Connector on Fracture Healing of Upper Limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q. G.; Liu, X. W.; Xu, S. G.; Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the stress-shielding effect of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) is evaluated. Patients with fracture healing of an upper limb after SMC internal fixation or stainless steel plate fixation were randomly selected and observed comparatively. With the informed consent of the SMC group, minimal cortical bone under the swan-body and swan-neck was harvested; and in the steel plate fixation group, minimal cortical bone under the steel plate and opposite side to the steel plate was also harvested for observation. Main outcome measurements were taken such as osteocyte morphology, Harversian canal histological observation under light microscope; radiographic observation of fracture healing, and computed tomography quantitative scanning of cortical bone. As a conclusion, SMC has a lesser stress-shielding effect to fixed bone than steel plate. Finally, the mechanism of the lesser stress-shielding effect of SMC is discussed.

  1. Diagnosing soft tissue rheumatic disorders of the upper limb in epidemiological studies of vibration-exposed populations

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate approaches adopted to diagnose soft tissue rheumatic disorders of the upper limb (ULDs) in vibration-exposed populations and in other settings, and to compare their methodological qualities. Methods Systematic searches were made of the Medline, Embase, and CINAHL electronic bibliographic databases, and of various supplementary sources (textbooks, reviews, conference and workshop proceedings, personal files). For vibration-exposed populations, qualifying papers were scored in terms of the provenance of their measuring instruments (adequacy of documentation, standardisation, reliability, criterion-related and content validity). Similar criteria were applied to general proposals for whole diagnostic schemes, and evidence was collated on the test-retest reliability of symptom histories and clinical signs. Results In total, 23 relevant reports were identified concerning vibration-exposed populations - 21 involving symptoms and 9 involving examination/diagnosis. Most of the instruments employed scored poorly in terms of methodological quality. The search also identified, from the wider literature, more than a dozen schemes directed at classifying ULDs, and 18 studies of test-retest reliability of symptoms and physical signs in the upper limb. Findings support the use of the standardised Nordic questionnaire for symptom inquiry and suggest that a range of physical signs can be elicited with reasonable between-observer agreement. Four classification schemes rated well in terms of content validity. One of these had excellent documentation, and one had been tested for repeatability, agreement with an external reference standard, and utility in distinguishing groups that differed in disability, prognosis and associated risk factors. Conclusions Hitherto, most studies of ULDs in vibration-exposed populations have used custom-specified diagnostic methods, poorly documented, and non-stringent in terms of standardisation and supporting evidence of

  2. Comparison of sEMG-Based Feature Extraction and Motion Classification Methods for Upper-Limb Movement

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuxiang; Pang, Muye; Gao, Baofeng; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    The surface electromyography (sEMG) technique is proposed for muscle activation detection and intuitive control of prostheses or robot arms. Motion recognition is widely used to map sEMG signals to the target motions. One of the main factors preventing the implementation of this kind of method for real-time applications is the unsatisfactory motion recognition rate and time consumption. The purpose of this paper is to compare eight combinations of four feature extraction methods (Root Mean Square (RMS), Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Weight Peaks (WP), and Muscular Model (MM)) and two classifiers (Neural Networks (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM)), for the task of mapping sEMG signals to eight upper-limb motions, to find out the relation between these methods and propose a proper combination to solve this issue. Seven subjects participated in the experiment and six muscles of the upper-limb were selected to record sEMG signals. The experimental results showed that NN classifier obtained the highest recognition accuracy rate (88.7%) during the training process while SVM performed better in real-time experiments (85.9%). For time consumption, SVM took less time than NN during the training process but needed more time for real-time computation. Among the four feature extraction methods, WP had the highest recognition rate for the training process (97.7%) while MM performed the best during real-time tests (94.3%). The combination of MM and NN is recommended for strict real-time applications while a combination of MM and SVM will be more suitable when time consumption is not a key requirement. PMID:25894941

  3. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part II: Design of Interactive Feedback for upper limb rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few existing interactive rehabilitation systems can effectively communicate multiple aspects of movement performance simultaneously, in a manner that appropriately adapts across various training scenarios. In order to address the need for such systems within stroke rehabilitation training, a unified approach for designing interactive systems for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors has been developed and applied for the implementation of an Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) System. Results The AMRR system provides computational evaluation and multimedia feedback for the upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors. A participant's movements are tracked by motion capture technology and evaluated by computational means. The resulting data are used to generate interactive media-based feedback that communicates to the participant detailed, intuitive evaluations of his performance. This article describes how the AMRR system's interactive feedback is designed to address specific movement challenges faced by stroke survivors. Multimedia examples are provided to illustrate each feedback component. Supportive data are provided for three participants of varying impairment levels to demonstrate the system's ability to train both targeted and integrated aspects of movement. Conclusions The AMRR system supports training of multiple movement aspects together or in isolation, within adaptable sequences, through cohesive feedback that is based on formalized compositional design principles. From preliminary analysis of the data, we infer that the system's ability to train multiple foci together or in isolation in adaptable sequences, utilizing appropriately designed feedback, can lead to functional improvement. The evaluation and feedback frameworks established within the AMRR system will be applied to the development of a novel home-based system to provide an engaging yet low-cost extension of training for longer periods of time. PMID:21899779

  4. The effects of cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb in humans

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Jessica M.; Butler, Jane E.; Taylor, Janet L.

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive, weak direct current stimulation can induce changes in excitability of underlying neural tissue. Many studies have used transcranial direct current stimulation to induce changes in the brain, however more recently a number of studies have used transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation to induce changes in the spinal cord. This study further characterises the effects following cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb. In Study 1, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 5 F) received 20 minutes of either real or sham direct current stimulation at 3 mA through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck (anode anterior). Biceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis and first dorsal interosseous responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (motor evoked potentials) and cervicomedullary stimulation (cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials) were measured before and after real or sham stimulation. In Study 2, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 7 F) received either real or sham direct current stimulation in the same way as for Study 1. Before and after real or sham stimulation, median nerve stimulation elicited M waves and H reflexes in the flexor carpi radialis. H-reflex recruitment curves and homosynaptic depression of the H reflex were assessed. Results show that the effects of real and sham direct current stimulation did not differ for motor evoked potentials or cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials for any muscle, nor for H-reflex recruitment curve parameters or homosynaptic depression. Cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation with the parameters described here does not modify motor responses to corticospinal stimulation nor does it modify H reflexes of the upper limb. These results are important for the emerging field of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. PMID:28225813

  5. The effects of cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb in humans.

    PubMed

    Dongés, Siobhan C; D'Amico, Jessica M; Butler, Jane E; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive, weak direct current stimulation can induce changes in excitability of underlying neural tissue. Many studies have used transcranial direct current stimulation to induce changes in the brain, however more recently a number of studies have used transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation to induce changes in the spinal cord. This study further characterises the effects following cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on motor pathways supplying the upper limb. In Study 1, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 5 F) received 20 minutes of either real or sham direct current stimulation at 3 mA through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck (anode anterior). Biceps brachii, flexor carpi radialis and first dorsal interosseous responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (motor evoked potentials) and cervicomedullary stimulation (cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials) were measured before and after real or sham stimulation. In Study 2, on two separate days, participants (n = 12, 7 F) received either real or sham direct current stimulation in the same way as for Study 1. Before and after real or sham stimulation, median nerve stimulation elicited M waves and H reflexes in the flexor carpi radialis. H-reflex recruitment curves and homosynaptic depression of the H reflex were assessed. Results show that the effects of real and sham direct current stimulation did not differ for motor evoked potentials or cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials for any muscle, nor for H-reflex recruitment curve parameters or homosynaptic depression. Cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation with the parameters described here does not modify motor responses to corticospinal stimulation nor does it modify H reflexes of the upper limb. These results are important for the emerging field of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation.

  6. Kinematic data analysis for post-stroke patients following bilateral versus unilateral rehabilitation with an upper limb wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Fedulow, Irina; Simkins, Matt; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation has become popular as one approach to helping patients recover function post-stroke. Robotic rehabilitation requires four important elements to match the robot to the patient: realistic biomechanical robotic elements, an assistive control scheme enabled through the human-robot interface, a task oriented rehabilitation program based on the principles of plasticity, and objective assessment tools to monitor change. This paper reports on a randomized clinical trial utilizing a complete robot-assisted rehabilitation system for the recovery of upper limb function in patients post-stroke. In this study, a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot (UL-EXO7) is applied in a rehabilitation clinical trial for patients stable post-stroke (greater than six months). Patients had a Fugl-Meyer Score between 16-39, were mentally alert (> 19 on the VA Mini Mental Status Exam) and were between 27 and 70 years of age. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: bilateral robotic training, unilateral robotic training, and usual care. This study is concerned with the changes in kinematics in the two robotic groups. Both patient groups played eight therapeutic video games over 12 sessions (90 min, two times a week). In each session, patients intensively played the different combination of video games that directly interacted with UL-EXO7 under the supervision of research assistant. At each session, all of the joint angle data was recorded for the evaluation of therapeutic effects. A new assessment metric is reported along with conventional metrics. The experimental result shows that both groups of patients showed consistent improvement with respect to the proposed and conventional metrics.

  7. Study on the description method of upper limb's muscle force levels during simulated in-orbit operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Li, DongXu; Liu, ZhiZhen; Liu, Liang

    2013-03-01

    The dexterous upper limb serves as the most important tool for astronauts to implement in-orbit experiments and operations. This study developed a simulated weightlessness experiment and invented new measuring equipment to quantitatively evaluate the muscle ability of the upper limb. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of right-handed pushing at the three positions were measured for eleven subjects. In order to enhance the comprehensiveness and accuracy of muscle force assessment, the study focused on signal processing techniques. We applied a combination method, which consists of time-, frequency-, and bi-frequency-domain analyses. Time- and frequency-domain analyses estimated the root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of sEMG signals, respectively. Higher order spectra (HOS) of bi-frequency domain evaluated the maximum bispectrum amplitude ( B max), Gaussianity level (Sg) and linearity level (S l ) of sEMG signals. Results showed that B max, S l , and RMS values all increased as force increased. MDF and Sg values both declined as force increased. The research demonstrated that the combination method is superior to the conventional time- and frequency-domain analyses. The method not only described sEMG signal amplitude and power spectrum, but also deeper characterized phase coupling information and non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of sEMG, compared to two conventional analyses. The finding from the study can aid ergonomist to estimate astronaut muscle performance, so as to optimize in-orbit operation efficacy and minimize musculoskeletal injuries.

  8. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Basteris, Angelo; Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Stienen, Arno H A; Buurke, Jaap H; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid

    2014-07-10

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial.Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits.

  9. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial. Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits. PMID:25012864

  10. A randomized trial of upper limb botulimun toxin versus placebo injection, combined with physiotherapy, in children with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Adriano; Maoret, Anna Rosa; Muzzini, Simonetta; Alboresi, Silvia; Lombardi, Francesco; Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Paolicelli, Paola Bruna; Sicola, Elisa; Cioni, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A), combined with an individualized intensive physiotherapy/orthoses treatment, in improving upper limb activity and competence in daily activity in children with hemiplegia, and to compare its effectiveness with that of non-pharmacological instruments. It was a Randomized Clinical Trial of 27 children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy, outpatients of two high speciality Centres for child rehabilitation. Each child was assigned by simple randomization to experimental group (BoNT-A) or control group (placebo). Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was chosen as primary outcome measure; other measures were selected according to ICF dimensions. Participants were assessed at baseline (T0), at T1, T2, T3 (1-3-6 months after injection, respectively). Every patient was given a specific physiotherapeutic treatment, consisting of individualized goal directed exercises, task oriented activities, daily stretching manoeuvres, functional and/or static orthoses. BoNT-A group showed a significant increase of AHA raw scores at T2, compared to control group (T2-T0: p=.025) and functional goals achievement (GAS) was also slightly better in the same group (p=.033). Other measures indicated some improvement in both groups, without significant intergroup differences. Children with intermediate severity of hand function at House scale for upper limb impairment seem to have a better benefit from BoNT-A protocol. BoNT-A was effective in improving manipulation in the activity domain, in association with individualized goal-directed physiotherapy and orthoses; the combined treatment is recommended. The study brings more evidence for the efficacy of a combined treatment botulinum toxin injection-physiotherapy-orthoses, and it gives some suggestions for candidate selection and individualized treatment.

  11. Effects of 8-week in-season upper and lower limb heavy resistance training on the peak power, throwing velocity, and sprint performance of elite male handball players.

    PubMed

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement.

  12. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm.

    PubMed

    Rayidi, V Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome.

  13. Upper Extremity Artificial Limb Control as an Issue Related to Movement and Mobility in Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Steve; Anderson, David I.; Trujillo, Michael; Weeks, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    The 1992 NIH Research Planning Conference on Prosthetic and Orthotic Research for the 21st Century (Childress, 1992) recognized that the field of prosthetics lacks theoretical understanding and empirical studies on learning to control an upper-extremity prosthesis. We have addressed this problem using a novel approach in which persons without…

  14. Temporal disruption of upper-limb anticipatory postural adjustments in cerebellar ataxic patients.

    PubMed

    Bruttini, Carlo; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Vanotti, Alessandra; Mariotti, Caterina; Cavallari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary movements induce postural perturbations, which are counteracted by anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that preserve body equilibrium. Little is known about the neural structures generating APAs, but several studies suggested a role of sensory-motor areas, basal ganglia, supplementary motor area and thalamus. However, the role of the cerebellum still remains an open question. The aim of this present paper is to shed further light on the role of cerebellum in APAs organization. Thus, APAs that stabilize the arm when the index finger is briskly flexed were recorded in 13 ataxic subjects (seven sporadic cases, four dominant ataxia type III and two autosomal recessive), presenting a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome with four-limb dysmetria, and compared with those obtained in 13 healthy subjects. The pattern of postural activity was similar in the two groups [excitation in triceps and inhibition in biceps and anterior deltoid (AD)], but apparent modifications in timing were observed in all ataxic subjects in which, on average, triceps brachii excitation lagged the onset of the prime mover flexor digitorum superficialis by about 27 ms and biceps and AD inhibition were almost synchronous to it. Instead, in normal subjects, triceps onset was synchronous to the prime mover and biceps and AD anticipated it by about 40 ms. The observed disruption of the intra-limb APA organization confirms that the cerebellum is involved in APA control and, considering cerebellar subjects as a model of dysmetria, also supports the view that a proper APA chain may play a crucial role in refining movement metria.

  15. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm

    PubMed Central

    Rayidi, V. Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome. PMID:28216826

  16. Comparison of Upper Limb Joint Forces During Straight Line and Turning Wheelchair Maneuvers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    maneuvers. A high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries has been reported due to the overuse and high repetitive motion of wrist, elbow and shoulder...propulsion, upper extremities are the major source of power. Owing to the overuse and high repetitive motion of the wrist, elbow and shoulder, high...environment, turning motion is frequently performed. This repetitive movement could generate unwanted stresses at the wrist, elbow and shoulder

  17. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  18. The effects of upper limb posture and a sub-maximal gripping task on corticospinal excitability to muscles of the forearm.

    PubMed

    Forman, Davis A; Baarbé, Julianne; Daligadu, Julian; Murphy, Bernadette; Holmes, Michael W R

    2016-04-01

    Variations in handgrip force influences shoulder muscle activity, and this effect is dependent upon upper limb position. Previous work suggests that neural coupling between proximal and distal muscles with changes in joint position is a possible mechanism but these studies tend to use artificially constrained postures that do not reflect activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of upper limb posture on corticospinal excitability to the forearm muscles during workplace relevant arm positions. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited in four forearm muscles via transcranial magnetic stimulation at six arm positions (45°, 90° and 120° of humeral elevation in both the flexion and abduction planes). MEPs were delivered as stimulus-response curves (SRCs) at rest and at constant intensity during two gripping tasks. Boltzmann plateau levels were smaller for the flexor carpi radialis in flexion at 45° versus 90° (p=0.0008). Extensor carpi radialis had a greater plateau during flexion than abduction (p=0.0042). Corticospinal excitability to the forearm muscles were influenced by upper limb posture during both the resting and gripping conditions. This provides further evidence that upper limb movements are controlled as a whole rather than segmentally and is relevant for workplace design considerations.

  19. The Profile of Patients and Current Practice of Treatment of Upper Limb Muscle Spasticity with Botulinum Toxin Type A: An International Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid

    2010-01-01

    To document the current practice in relation with the treatment of patients with upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A to inform future research in this area. We designed an international, cross-sectional, noninterventional survey of current practice. Nine hundred and seventy-four patients from 122 investigational centres in 31…

  20. Enhancements in lower stratospheric CH3CN observed by the upper atmosphere research Sattellite Microwave Limb Sounder following boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Fromm, M. D.; Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    On 25 August 1992, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observed a significant enhancement in the abundance of lower stratospheric methyl cyanide (CH3CN) at 100??hPa (16??km altitude) in a small region off the east coast of Florida.

  1. Variations of the arterial pattern in the upper limb revisited: a morphological and statistical study, with a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ-NIEDENFÜHR, M.; VÁZQUEZ, T.; NEARN, L.; FERREIRA, B.; PARKIN, I.; SAÑUDO, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 192 embalmed cadavers were examined in order to present a detailed study of arterial variations in the upper limb and a meta-analysis of them. The variable terminology previously used was unified into a homogenous and complete classification, with 12 categories covering all the previously reported variant patterns of the arm and forearm. PMID:11760886

  2. Does kinematics add meaningful information to clinical assessment in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Matteo; Baudo, Silvia; Cimolin, Veronica; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pianta, Lucia; Tacchini, Elena; Capodaglio, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this case study were to: (a) quantify the impairment and activity restriction of the upper limb in a hemiparetic patient; (b) quantitatively evaluate rehabilitation program effectiveness; and (c) discuss whether more clinically meaningful information can be gained with the use of kinematic analysis in addition to clinical assessment. The rehabilitation program consisted of the combined use of different traditional physiotherapy techniques, occupational therapy sessions, and the so-called task-oriented approach. [Subject and Methods] Subject was a one hemiplegic patient. The patient was assessed at the beginning and after 1 month of daily rehabilitation using the Medical Research Council scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, and Hand Grip Dynamometer test as well as a kinematic analysis using an optoelectronic system. [Results] After treatment, significant improvements were evident in terms of total movement duration, movement completion velocity, and some smoothness parameters. [Conclusion] Our case report showed that the integration of clinical assessment with kinematic evaluation appears to be useful for quantitatively assessing performance changes. PMID:27630445

  3. Bilateral transit time assessment of upper and lower limbs as a surrogate ankle brachial index marker.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2008-01-01

    Ankle brachial index is useful in monitoring the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. Sphygmomanometer is the standard instrument widely used but frequent prolonged monitoring can be less comfortable for patients. Pulse transit time is known to be inversely correlated with blood pressure and a ratio-based pulse transit time measurement has been proposed as a surrogate ankle brachial index marker. In this study, 17 normotensive adults (9 men; aged 25.4 +/- 3.9 years) were recruited. Two postural change test activities were performed to induce changes in the stiffness of the arterial wall of the moved periphery. Results showed that only readings from the limbs that adopted a new posture registered significant blood pressure and pulse transit time changes (P < .05). Furthermore, there was significant correlation between the ankle brachial index and pulse transit time ratio measure for both test activities (R(2) > or = 0.704). The findings herein suggest that pulse transit time ratio is a surrogate and accommodating ankle brachial index marker.

  4. The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The "4-day wave" is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height, and ozone data from the late southern winters of 1992 and 1993. Space-time spectral analyses reveal a double-peaked temperature structure consisting of one peak near the stratopause and another in the lower mesosphere, with an out-of-phase relationship between the two peaks. This double- peaked structure is reminiscent of recent three-dimensional barotropic/baroclinic instability model predictions and is observed here for the first time. The height variation of the 4-day ozone signal is shown to compare well with a linear advective-photochemical tracer model. Negative regions of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradient and positive Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown to occur, consistent with instability dynamics playing a role in wave forcing. Spectral analyses of PV derived from MLS geopotential height fields reveal a 4-day signal peaking near the polar stratopause. The three-dimensional structure of the 4-day wave resembles the potential vorticity "charge" concept, wherein a PV anomaly in the atmosphere (analogous to an electrical charge in a dielectric material) induces a geopotential field, a vertically oriented temperature dipole, and circulation about the vertical axis.

  5. Neural interfaces for upper-limb prosthesis control: opportunities to improve long-term reliability.

    PubMed

    Judy, Jack W

    2012-03-01

    Building on a long history of innovation in neural-recording interfaces, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched a program to address the key challenges related to transitioning advanced neuroprosthesis technology to clinical use for amputated service members. The goal of the Reliable Neural Technology (RE-NET) Program is to develop new technology to extract information from the nervous system at a scale and rate needed to reliably control modern robotic prostheses over the lifetime of the amputee. The RE-NET program currently encompasses three separate efforts: histology for interface stability over time (HIST), reliable peripheral interfaces (RPIs), and reliable central nervous system (CNS) interfaces (RCIs).

  6. [Upper limb functional assessment scale for children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Spinal muscular atrophy].

    PubMed

    Escobar, Raúl G; Lucero, Nayadet; Solares, Carmen; Espinoza, Victoria; Moscoso, Odalie; Olguín, Polín; Muñoz, Karin T; Rosas, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes significant disability and progressive functional impairment. Readily available instruments that assess functionality, especially in advanced stages of the disease, are required to monitor the progress of the disease and the impact of therapeutic interventions.

  7. Clinical applications of musculoskeletal modelling for the shoulder and upper limb.

    PubMed

    Bolsterlee, Bart; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Chadwick, Edward K

    2013-09-01

    Musculoskeletal models have been developed to estimate internal loading on the human skeleton, which cannot directly be measured in vivo, from external measurements like kinematics and external forces. Such models of the shoulder and upper extremity have been used for a variety of purposes, ranging from understanding basic shoulder biomechanics to assisting in preoperative planning. In this review, we provide an overview of the most commonly used large-scale shoulder and upper extremity models and categorise the applications of these models according to the type of questions their users aimed to answer. We found that the most explored feature of a model is the possibility to predict the effect of a structural adaptation on functional outcome, for instance, to simulate a tendon transfer preoperatively. Recent studies have focused on minimising the mismatch in morphology between the model, often derived from cadaver studies, and the subject that is analysed. However, only a subset of the parameters that describe the model's geometry and, perhaps most importantly, the musculotendon properties can be obtained in vivo. Because most parameters are somehow interrelated, the others should be scaled to prevent inconsistencies in the model's structure, but it is not known exactly how. Although considerable effort is put into adding complexity to models, for example, by making them subject-specific, we have found little evidence of their superiority over current models. The current trend in development towards individualised, more complex models needs to be justified by demonstrating their ability to answer questions that cannot already be answered by existing models.

  8. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Carmona, Carolina; Chen, Albert; Kuiken, Todd; Dewald, Julius

    2011-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the ability of sensory cortical representations to remap following arm amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). Previous human studies have demonstrated functional plasticity in the primary sensory cortex months or years after amputation of the upper arm, forearm, the hand or a single finger, or after subsequent replantation. Targeted reinnervation, a surgical procedure that re-routes inactive, residual sensorimotor nerves previously responsible for innervating the missing limb to alternative muscle groups and skin areas [1-3], has shown the ability to restore a subject's sensation in the reinnervated skin areas. Whether this new technique causes analogous cortical remapping in a similar timeframe as following hand replantation is still unknown. In order to answer this question, high-density electroencephalography was used to study whether the original sensory cortical territory was regained after TR. Before TR, we found that the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain, Two years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve shifted back to a close-to-normal, predominantly contralateral pattern. The overall trend of TR-induced sensory remapping is similar to previous reports related to hand replantation but occurs over a slower timeframe. This relatively slower progress after TR as compared to after hand replantation could be because TR is performed months or even years after amputation, while hand replantation was performed immediately after the injury. This work provides new evidence for long term plasticity in the human brain.

  9. Organization of the upper limb movement for piano key-depression differs between expert pianists and novice players.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    The present study investigated the expert-novice difference in the organization of upper-limb movement for the key-depression on the piano. Kinematic and electromyographic recordings were made while experts (N = 7) and novices (N = 7) of classical-piano players performed a right hand octave keystroke to produce four different sound dynamics. The joint torque generated at the key-bottom moment (key-force torque) was also estimated. At all sound dynamics, the experts showed a larger finger attack angle, more flexed shoulder, wrist, and MP joints, more extended elbow joint, and smaller key-force torque at the MP joint than the novices. The level of co-activation in the finger flexor-extensor muscles during the period prior to the key-bottom moment was also lower for the experts. To attain the large attack angle by the experts, as the fingertip depressed the key to the bottom, their shoulder was actively flexed, the forearm was thrust forward, and the hand was rotated forward. The novices, on the other hand, actively extended their shoulder to move the forearm and hand downward to depress the key. These results confirmed a substantial difference in the key-depression movement organization between the experts and novices. These findings also suggest that experts use a synergistically organized multi-joint limb motion that allows them to minimize the biomechanical load and muscular effort to the distal muscles. The novices, on the other hand, tend to rely on a rudimentary synergy of joint motion developed through daily experience.

  10. Three-dimensional kinematics of upper limb anatomical movements in asymptomatic adults: Dominant vs. non-dominant.

    PubMed

    Assi, Ayman; Bakouny, Ziad; Karam, Mohammad; Massaad, Abir; Skalli, Wafa; Ghanem, Ismat

    2016-12-01

    The effect of dominance on upper limb (UL) kinematics has only been studied on scapular movements. Moreover, when an anatomical UL movement is performed in a specific plane, secondary movements in the remaining planes involuntarily occur. These secondary movements have not been previously evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics of primary and secondary angles of dominant and non-dominant UL during anatomical movements in asymptomatic adults. 25 asymptomatic adults performed 6 anatomical movements bilaterally: shoulder flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, horizontal abduction-adduction, internal-external rotation, elbow flexion-extension and wrist pronation-supination. Kinematics of the dominant and non-dominant UL were compared by their ranges of motion (ROM) and their angular waveforms (Coefficient of Multiple Correlations, CMC). The comparison between dominant and non-dominant UL kinematics showed different strategies of movement, most notably during elbow flexion-extension (CMC=0.29): the dominant UL exhibited more pronation at maximal elbow flexion. Significant secondary angles were found on most of the UL anatomical movements; e.g. a secondary ROM of shoulder (humero-thoracic) external-internal rotation (69°±16°) was found when the subject intended to perform maximal shoulder abduction-adduction (119°±21°). Bias of dominance should be considered when comparing pathological limb to the controlateral one. Normative values of primary and secondary angles during anatomical movements could be used as a reference for future studies on UL of subjects with neurological or orthopedic pathologies.

  11. Acute forearm compressive myopathy syndrome secondary to upper limb entrapment: an unusual cause of renal failure.

    PubMed

    Tachtsi, Maria D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Atmatzidis, Stefanos K; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios K; Atmatzidis, Konstantinos S

    2011-05-01

    Compressive myopathy syndrome (SCM) is a syndrome characterized by the lesion of skeletal muscle resulting in subsequent release of intracellular contents (myoglobin, creatine phosphokinase, potassium, etc.) into the circulatory system, which can cause potentially lethal complications. There are numerous causes that can lead to SCM resulting to acute rhabdomyolysis, and many patients present with multiple causes. The most common potentially lethal complication is acute renal failure. The occurrence of acute rhabdomyolysis should be considered as a possibility in any patient who can remain stationary for long periods, or is in a coma, or is intoxicated in any form. We report the rare case of a 26-year-old patient who developed SCM caused by ischemia reperfusion, with subsequent acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after prolonged compression of the right upper extremity.

  12. Upper limb function and activity in people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: a web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Bergsma, Arjen; Cup, Edith H C; Janssen, Mariska M H P; Geurts, Alexander C H; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To investigate the upper extremity (UE) at the level of impairments and related activity limitations and participation restrictions in people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Methods The study was conducted using web-based questionnaires that were distributed amongst people with FSHD in the Netherlands. Eighty-eight respondents started the survey, and 71 completed it. The questionnaires covered the following dimensions: Function, Activity and Participation of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health. Results More than 40% of the respondents experienced pain in one arm or both the arms. Increased pain and stiffness scores and longer disease duration were associated with increased limitation scores. For basic activities, lifting the arm above shoulder-level was most frequently reported as most limited, coherent with the clinical picture of FSHD. Among the respondents, 50% indicated restrictions at school, 78% indicated restrictions at work and more than 80% indicated restrictions whilst participating in sports, hobbies, household activities and romantic relationships. Conclusions This study has shown that alongside the well-known problem of lifting the arms above shoulder-level, UE activities below shoulder height during vocational and occupational activities are also problematic in patients with FSHD. Alongside disease duration, pain and stiffness are associated with UE activity limitations. Implications for Rehabilitation Attention is needed for pain and experienced stiffness in the upper extremity as it is frequently present in patients with FSHD. Rehabilitation professionals need to be aware that patients with FSHD not only experience problems with activities above shoulder height, but also with activities below shoulder height. At least 50% of the patients with FSHD experience restrictions in participation as a result of limitations in their UE.

  13. Early experiences of intraoperative ultrasound guided angioplasty of the arterial stenosis during upper limb arteriovenous fistula creation.

    PubMed

    Napoli, M; Montinaro, A; Russo, F; De Pascalis, A; Patruno, P; Proia, S; Valletta, A; Vitale, O; Buongiorno, E

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the high prevalence of diabetes and atherosclerosis in elderly uremic patients starting hemodialysis (HD) has led to the increase in the risk of vascular access (VA) failure caused by pre-existing arterial diseases, including both VA slow maturation and early failure, and upper limb ischemic symptoms. Recently, in performing radial (R), brachial (B) and ulnar (U) artery (A) percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in HD patients affected by access thrombosis, with insufficient blood flow and severe upper limb ischemia, good outcomes have been reported. Nevertheless, these procedures were performed after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation. About 2 years ago, we approached an intra-operative ultrasound-guided transluminal angioplasty (IUTA) performed during AVF creation, using the arterial incision, necessary because of the anastomosis, to introduce the necessary devices for the IUTA. The arterial stenosis having undergone IUTA was diagnosed by a preliminary ultrasound examination. Ultrasound guidance during the procedure is necessary for correct balloon location in the stenosis site. We treated seven patients (four diabetics), mean age 76 + 5 yrs. In all cases, the radial arteries because of hyposphygmia, were unfit for AVF creation. Four distal radio-cephalic AVFs at the wrist were created in patients 1, 3, 4 and 5; in the other three patients (2, 6 and 7), with failure or thrombosis of previous distal AVFs, an immediately upstream anastomosis was performed. In all cases, first, the area selected to perform the AV anastomosis was exposed, then the AR was incised, and the introductory metallic guide wire and the angioplasty catheter (with dimensions decided after PUS), were introduced. The balloon was inflated to 8-13 atm for 30-35 sec. In two patients a stent was also positioned. Later, a side-to-side AVF was created, closing the distal venous vessel. Patient follow-up ranged from 6-22 months. The ultrasound evaluation after IUTA showed the

  14. Upper limb artery segmental occlusions due to chronic use of ergotamine combined with itraconazole, treated by thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ergotamine tartrate associated with certain categories of drugs can lead to critical ischemia of the extremities. Discontinuation of taking ergotamine is usually sufficient for the total regression of ischemia, but in some cases it could be necessary thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy to avoid amputation. Case report A woman of 62 years presented with a severe pain left forearm appeared 10 days ago, with a worsening trend. The same symptoms appeared after 5 days also in the right forearm. Physical examination showed the right arm slightly hypothermic, with radial reduced pulse in presence of reduced sensitivity. The left arm was frankly hypothermic, pulse less on radial and with an ulnar humeral reduced pulse, associated to a decreased sensitivity and motility. Clinical history shows a chronic headache for which the patient took a daily basis for years Cafergot suppository (equivalent to 3.2 mg of ergotamine). From about ten days had begun therapy with itraconazole for vaginal candidiasis. The Color-Doppler ultrasound shown arterial thrombosis of the upper limbs (humeral and radial bilateral), with minimal residual flow to the right and no signal on the humeral and radial left artery. Results Angiography revealed progressive reduction in size of the axillary artery and right humeral artery stenosis with right segmental occlusions and multiple hypertrophic collateral circulations at the elbow joint. At the level of the right forearm was recognizable only the radial artery, decreased in size. Does not recognize the ulnar, interosseous artery was thin. To the left showed progressive reduction in size of the distal subclavian and humeral artery, determined by multiple segmental steno-occlusion with collateral vessels serving only a thin hypotrophic interosseous artery. Arteriographic findings were compatible with systemic drug-induced disease. The immediate implementation of thrombolysis, continued for 26 hours, with heparin in continuous intravenous

  15. Event-related Potentials During Target-response Tasks to Study Cognitive Processes of Upper Limb Use in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Steenbergen, Bert; Baas, C. Marjolein; Aarts, Pauline; Jongsma, Marijtje L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a very common cause of disability in childhood. It is characterized by unilateral motor impairments that are frequently dominated in the upper limb. In addition to a reduced movement capacity of the affected upper limb, several children with unilateral CP show a reduced awareness of the remaining movement capacity of that limb. This phenomenon of disregarding the preserved capacity of the affected upper limb is regularly referred to as Developmental Disregard (DD). Different theories have been postulated to explain DD, each suggesting slightly different guidelines for therapy. Still, cognitive processes that might additionally contribute to DD in children with unilateral CP have never been directly studied. The current protocol was developed to study cognitive aspects involved in upper limb control in children with unilateral CP with and without DD. This was done by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG during target-response tasks asking for a hand-movement response. ERPs consist of several components, each of them associated with a well-defined cognitive process (e.g., the N1 with early attention processes, the N2 with cognitive control and the P3 with cognitive load and mental effort). Due to its excellent temporal resolution, the ERP technique enables to study several covert cognitive processes preceding overt motor responses and thus allows insight into the cognitive processes that might contribute to the phenomenon of DD. Using this protocol adds a new level of explanation to existing behavioral studies and opens new avenues to the broader implementation of research on cognitive aspects of developmental movement restrictions in children. PMID:26780483

  16. Event-related Potentials During Target-response Tasks to Study Cognitive Processes of Upper Limb Use in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Ingar Marie; Steenbergen, Bert; Baas, C Marjolein; Aarts, Pauline; Jongsma, Marijtje L A

    2016-01-11

    Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is a very common cause of disability in childhood. It is characterized by unilateral motor impairments that are frequently dominated in the upper limb. In addition to a reduced movement capacity of the affected upper limb, several children with unilateral CP show a reduced awareness of the remaining movement capacity of that limb. This phenomenon of disregarding the preserved capacity of the affected upper limb is regularly referred to as Developmental Disregard (DD). Different theories have been postulated to explain DD, each suggesting slightly different guidelines for therapy. Still, cognitive processes that might additionally contribute to DD in children with unilateral CP have never been directly studied. The current protocol was developed to study cognitive aspects involved in upper limb control in children with unilateral CP with and without DD. This was done by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) extracted from the ongoing EEG during target-response tasks asking for a hand-movement response. ERPs consist of several components, each of them associated with a well-defined cognitive process (e.g., the N1 with early attention processes, the N2 with cognitive control and the P3 with cognitive load and mental effort). Due to its excellent temporal resolution, the ERP technique enables to study several covert cognitive processes preceding overt motor responses and thus allows insight into the cognitive processes that might contribute to the phenomenon of DD. Using this protocol adds a new level of explanation to existing behavioral studies and opens new avenues to the broader implementation of research on cognitive aspects of developmental movement restrictions in children.

  17. Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Beneficial Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Upper Limb Hemiparesis after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Wataru; Miyano, Satoshi; Momosaki, Ryo; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve upper limb hemiparesis after stroke but the mechanism underlying its efficacy remains elusive. rTMS seems to alter brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and such effect is influenced by BDNF gene polymorphism. Objectives To investigate the molecular effects of rTMS on serum levels of BDNF, its precursor proBDNF and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Methods Poststroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis were studied. Sixty-two patients underwent rehabilitation plus rTMS combination therapy and 33 patients underwent rehabilitation monotherapy without rTMS for 14 days at our hospital. One Hz rTMS was applied over the motor representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle on the non-lesional hemisphere. Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function (WMFT) were used to evaluate motor function on the affected upper limb before and after intervention. Blood samples were collected for analysis of BDNF polymorphism and measurement of BDNF, proBDNF and MMP-9 levels. Results Two-week combination therapy increased BDNF and MMP-9 serum levels, but not serum proBDNF. Serum BDNF and MMP-9 levels did not correlate with motor function improvement, though baseline serum proBDNF levels correlated negatively and significantly with improvement in WMFT (ρ = -0.422, p = 0.002). The outcome of rTMS therapy was not altered by BDNF gene polymorphism. Conclusions The combination therapy of rehabilitation plus low-frequency rTMS seems to improve motor function in the affected limb, by activating BDNF processing. BDNF and its precursor proBDNF could be potentially suitable biomarkers for poststroke motor recovery. PMID:27007747

  18. Home-based neurologic music therapy for upper limb rehabilitation with stroke patients at community rehabilitation stage—a feasibility study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Street, Alexander J.; Magee, Wendy L.; Odell-Miller, Helen; Bateman, Andrew; Fachner, Jorg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impairment of upper limb function following stroke is more common than lower limb impairment and is also more resistant to treatment. Several lab-based studies with stroke patients have produced statistically significant gains in upper limb function when using musical instrument playing and techniques where rhythm acts as an external time-keeper for the priming and timing of upper limb movements. Methods: For this feasibility study a small sample size of 14 participants (3–60 months post stroke) has been determined through clinical discussion between the researcher and study host in order to test for management, feasibility and effects, before planning a larger trial determined through power analysis. A cross-over design with five repeated measures will be used, whereby participants will be randomized into either a treatment (n = 7) or wait list control (n = 7) group. Intervention will take place twice weekly over 6 weeks. The ARAT and 9HPT will be used to measure for quantitative gains in arm function and finger dexterity, pre/post treatment interviews will serve to investigate treatment compliance and tolerance. A lab based EEG case comparison study will be undertaken to explore audio-motor coupling, brain connectivity and neural reorganization with this intervention, as evidenced in similar studies. Discussion: Before evaluating the effectiveness of a home-based intervention in a larger scale study, it is important to assess whether implementation of the trial methodology is feasible. This study investigates the feasibility, efficacy and patient experience of a music therapy treatment protocol comprising a chart of 12 different instrumental exercises and variations, which aims at promoting measurable changes in upper limb function in hemiparetic stroke patients. The study proposes to examine several new aspects including home-based treatment and dosage, and will provide data on recruitment, adherence and variability of outcomes. PMID:26441586

  19. Combining Dopaminergic Facilitation with Robot-Assisted Upper Limb Therapy in Stroke Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duc A.; Pajaro-Blazquez, Marta; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Gallegos, Jaime G.; Pons, Jose; Fregni, Felipe; Bonato, Paolo; Zafonte, Ross

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite aggressive conventional therapy, lasting hemiplegia persists in a large percentage of stroke survivors. The aim of this article is to critically review the rationale behind targeting multiple sites along the motor learning network by combining robotic therapy with pharmacotherapy and virtual reality–based reward learning to alleviate upper extremity impairment in stroke survivors. Methods for personalizing pharmacologic facilitation to each individual’s unique biology are also reviewed. At the molecular level, treatment with levodopa was shown to induce long-term potentiation-like and practice-dependent plasticity. Clinically, trials combining conventional therapy with levodopa in stroke survivors yielded statistically significant but clinically unconvincing outcomes because of limited personalization, standardization, and reproducibility. Robotic therapy can induce neuroplasticity by delivering intensive, reproducible, and functionally meaningful interventions that are objective enough for the rigors of research. Robotic therapy also provides an apt platform for virtual reality, which boosts learning by engaging reward circuits. The future of stroke rehabilitation should target distinct molecular, synaptic, and cortical sites through personalized multimodal treatments to maximize motor recovery. PMID:26829074

  20. Report of an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations in a cadaveric upper limb

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study an unusual combination of arterial, venous and neural variations discovered during dissection of cervical, axillary and brachial area of a cadaver is described. Variations are thoroughly described and literature is briefly reviewed. Lateral cord of brachial plexus was not formed; Eight Cervical root divided into anterior and posterior division before uniting with First Thoracic root and Upper Trunk was unusually short. Axillary artery gave origin to a superficial brachial artery and then continued as deep brachial artery. Multiple variations in typical axillary artery branches were present including existence of inferior pectoral artery. Cephalic vein was absent. A variety of interventions, from relative simple as central venous catheter placement to most complicated as brachial plexus injury repair demand thorough knowledge of area’s regional anatomy. Familiarity with anatomic variations allows more precise and careful interventions. Research on these variations is valuable for anatomists and embryologists but also for clinicians because it may provide useful information for non - typical cases but also helps in raising a high level of suspicion. PMID:24495850

  1. Integrated vision-based robotic arm interface for operators with upper limb mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An integrated, computer vision-based system was developed to operate a commercial wheelchair-mounted robotic manipulator (WMRM). In this paper, a gesture recognition interface system developed specifically for individuals with upper-level spinal cord injuries (SCIs) was combined with object tracking and face recognition systems to be an efficient, hands-free WMRM controller. In this test system, two Kinect cameras were used synergistically to perform a variety of simple object retrieval tasks. One camera was used to interpret the hand gestures to send as commands to control the WMRM and locate the operator's face for object positioning. The other sensor was used to automatically recognize different daily living objects for test subjects to select. The gesture recognition interface incorporated hand detection, tracking and recognition algorithms to obtain a high recognition accuracy of 97.5% for an eight-gesture lexicon. An object recognition module employing Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm was performed and recognition results were sent as a command for "coarse positioning" of the robotic arm near the selected daily living object. Automatic face detection was also provided as a shortcut for the subjects to position the objects to the face by using a WMRM. Completion time tasks were conducted to compare manual (gestures only) and semi-manual (gestures, automatic face detection and object recognition) WMRM control modes. The use of automatic face and object detection significantly increased the completion times for retrieving a variety of daily living objects.

  2. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    PubMed Central

    Kachlik, David; Konarik, Marek; Baca, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis), which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part) terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries) passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment. PMID:21342134

  3. Motor Planning in Chronic Upper-Limb Hemiparesis: Evidence from Movement-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Philip John Ainsley; Seiss, Ellen; Sterr, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic hemiplegia is a common long-term consequence of stroke, and subsequent motor recovery is often incomplete. Neurophysiological studies have focused on motor execution deficits in relatively high functioning patients. Much less is known about the influence exerted by processes related to motor preparation, particularly in patients with poor motor recovery. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study investigates motor preparation using a modified response-priming experiment in a large sample of patients (n = 50) with moderate-to-severe chronic hemiparesis. The behavioural results revealed that hemiparetic patients had an increased response-priming effect compared to controls, but that their response times were markedly slower for both hands. Patients also demonstrated significantly enhanced midline late contingent negative variation (CNV) during paretic hand preparation, despite the absence of overall group differences when compared to controls. Furthermore, increased amplitude of the midline CNV correlated with a greater response-priming effect. We propose that these changes might reflect greater anticipated effort to respond in patients, and consequently that advance cueing of motor responses may be of benefit in these individuals. We further observed significantly reduced CNV amplitudes over the lesioned hemisphere in hemiparetic patients compared to controls during non-paretic hand preparation, preparation of both hands and no hand preparation. Two potential explanations for these CNV reductions are discussed: alterations in anticipatory attention or state changes in motor processing, for example an imbalance in inter-hemispheric inhibition. Conclusions/Significance Overall, this study provides evidence that movement preparation could play a crucial role in hemiparetic motor deficits, and that advance motor cueing may be of benefit in future therapeutic interventions. In addition, it demonstrates the importance of monitoring both the

  4. Admittance control of an upper limb exoskeleton--reduction of energy exchange.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Li, Zhi; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The synergy of human arms and wearable robot systems (e.g. exoskeletons) is enabled by a control algorithm that maximizes the transparency between the two subsystems. The transparency can be improved by integrating the admittance control along with an arm redundancy resolution algorithm. Recent research effort resulted in a new criterion for the human arm redundancy resolution for unconstrained arm motions estimating the swivel angle with prediction errors of less than 5°. The proposed criterion for the arm redundancy resolution defines the mouth as the primary target of the the human hand during unconstrained arm motions in free space. It was postulated based on experimental data analysis that this criterion is based on a neural mechanism directing the hand towards the head for self-feeding. In conjunction with the proposed redundancy resolution criteria a task space admittance control algorithm is introduced based on multiple force sensor inputs obtained at the interface between the human arm and the exoskeleton system. The system performance was evaluated by five healthy subjects performing a peg-in-hole task for three different target locations. The velocities and interaction forces at the upper arm, lower arm, handle and tip were recorded and further used to power exchange between the subject and the device. Results indicated that the proposed control scheme outperforms the purely reactive task space admittance control with energy exchange reduced to 11.22%. Improving the quality of the human control of a wearable robot system may allow the robot to be a natural and transparent extension of the operator's body.

  5. Comparing brain activation associated with isolated upper and lower limb movement across corresponding joints.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Smith, Gerald V; Forrester, Larry; Whitall, Jill; Macko, Richard F; Hauser, Till-Karsten; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hanley, Daniel F

    2002-10-01

    It was shown recently that functional activation across brain motor areas during locomotion and foot movements are similar but differ substantially from activation related to upper extremity movement (Miyai [2001]: Neuroimage 14:1186-1192). The activation pattern may be a function of the behavioral context of the movement rather than of its mechanical properties. We compare motor system activation patterns associated with isolated single-joint movement of corresponding joints in arm and leg carried out in equal frequency and range. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent BOLD-weighted fMRI while performing repetitive elbow or knee extension/flexion. To relate elbow and knee activation to the well-described patterns of finger movement, serial finger-to-thumb opposition was assessed in addition. After identifying task-related voxels using statistical parametric mapping, activation was measured in five regions of interest (ROI; primary motor [M1] and somatosensory cortex [S1], premotor cortex, supplementary motor area [SMA] divided into preSMA and SMA-proper, and cerebellum). Differences in the degree of activation across ROIs were found between elbow and knee movement. SMA-proper activation was prominent for knee, but almost absent for elbow movement (P < 0.05); finger movement produced small but constant SMA-proper activation. Ipsilateral M1 activation was detected during knee and finger movement, but was absent for the elbow task (P < 0.05). Knee movement showed less lateralization in M1 and S1 than other tasks (P < 0.05). The data demonstrate that central motor structures contribute differently to isolated elbow and knee movement. Activation during knee movement shows similarities to gait-related activation patterns.

  6. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO Observations in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Santee, J. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Li, Q. B.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, M. J.; Snyder, W. V.; Stek, P. C.; Thurstans, R. P.; Wagner, P. A.; Avery, M.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 2 15 - 100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS "version 2.2" processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is estimated at approx.40 ppbv +5% (approx.20 ppbv +20% at 215 hPa) while the CO accuracy is estimated at approx.30 ppbv +30% for pressures of 147 hPa and less. Comparisons with expectations and other observations show good agreements for the O3 product, generally consistent with the systematic errors quoted above. In the case of COY a persistent factor of approx.2 high bias is seen at 215 hPa. However, the morphology is shown to be realistic, consistent with raw MLS radiance data, and useful for scientific study. The MLS CO data at higher altitudes are shown to be consistent with other observations.

  7. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Stango, Antonietta; Yazdandoost, Kamya Yekeh; Negro, Francesco; Farina, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG) signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS) frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR). The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed. PMID:27764182

  8. Viscoelastic model for redundancy resolution of the human arm via the swivel angle: applications for upper limb exoskeleton control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Li, Zhi; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    One of the key research efforts associated with a redundant seven degree of freedom (7-DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot that is mechanically coupled to the human body is to develop high and low level control algorithms that enable the system to become a natural extension of the human body. Improving the synergistic relationship between the exoskeleton and the operator is manifested in part by decreasing the force exchange between the two entities. Such a reduction is accomplished in part by developing criteria for resolving the human arm redundancy. The redundancy may be represented by a swivel angle which is defined as the angular rotation of the elbow around an axis that passes through the shoulder and wrist joints. The proposed criteria for defining the swivel angle takes into account the dynamics of the human arm along with a viscoelastic muscle-like model with variable damping. The swivel angle is estimated using the pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian with a secondary objective function that estimates the desired joint angles during human arm movement. The result is then fed to the muscle model to create a more realistic human motion. The estimated swivel angle is then compared with the actual swivel angle measured experimentally by a motion capture system. Results indicate that the average error between the estimated and measured swivel joint angle is 4.4 degrees (in the range [3.7-6] degrees), which are lower than the kinematically based redundant resolution criterion.

  9. Use of Fourier transforms for asynoptic mapping: Applications to the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite microwave limb sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elson, Lee S.; Froidevaux, Lucien

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis has been applied to data obtained from limb viewing instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. A coordinate system rotation facilitates the efficient computation of Fourier transforms in the temporal and longitudinal domains. Fields such as ozone (O3), chlorine monoxide (ClO), temperature, and water vapor have been transformed by this process. The transforms have been inverted to provide maps of these quantities at selected times, providing a method of accurate time interpolation. Maps obtained by this process show evidence of both horizontal and vertical transport of important trace species such as O3 and ClO. An examination of the polar regions indicates that large-scale planetary variations are likely to play a significant role in transporting midstratospheric O3 into the polar regions. There is also evidence that downward transport occurs, providing a means of moving O3 into the polar vortex at lower altitudes. The transforms themselves show the structure and propagation characteristics of wave variations.

  10. Is motor knowledge part and parcel of the concepts of manipulable artifacts? Clues from a case of upper limb aplasia.

    PubMed

    Vannuscorps, Gilles; Andres, Michael; Pillon, Agnesa

    2014-02-01

    The sensory-motor theory of conceptual representations assumes that motor knowledge of how an artifact is manipulated is constitutive of its conceptual representation. Accordingly, if we assume that the richer the conceptual representation of an object is, the easier that object is identified, manipulable artifacts that are associated with motor knowledge should be identified more accurately and/or faster than manipulable artifacts that are not (everything else being equal). In this study, we tested this prediction by investigating the identification of manipulable artifacts in an individual, DC, who was totally deprived of hand motor experience due to upper limb aplasia. This condition prevents him from interacting with most manipulable artifacts, for which he thus has no motor knowledge at all. However, he had motor knowledge for some of them, which he routinely uses with his feet. We contrasted DC's performance in a timed picture naming task for manipulable artifacts for which he had motor knowledge versus those for which he had no motor knowledge. No detectable advantage on DC's naming performance was found for artifacts for which he had motor knowledge compared to those for which he did not. This finding suggests that motor knowledge is not part of the concepts of manipulable artifacts.

  11. Development of a model osseo-magnetic link for intuitive rotational control of upper-limb prostheses.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Elliott J; Nahlik, David C; Peshkin, Michael A; Kuiken, Todd A

    2011-04-01

    The lack of proprioceptive feedback is a serious deficiency of current prosthetic control systems. The Osseo-Magnetic Link (OML) is a novel humeral or wrist rotation control system that could preserve proprioception. It utilizes a magnet implanted within the residual bone and sensors mounted in the prosthetic socket to detect magnetic field vectors and determine the bone's orientation. This allows the use of volitional bone rotation to control a prosthetic rotator. We evaluated the performance of the OML using a physical model of a transhumeral residual limb. A small Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnet was placed in a model humerus, inside a model upper arm. Four three-axis Hall-effect sensors were mounted on a ring 3 cm distal to the magnet. An optimization algorithm based on Newton's method determined the position and orientation of the magnet within the model humerus under various conditions, including bone translations, interference, and magnet misalignment. The orientation of the model humerus was determined within 3° for rotations centered in the arm; an additional 6° error was found for translations 20 mm from center. Adjustments in sensor placement may reduce these errors. The results demonstrate that the OML is a feasible solution for providing prosthesis rotation control while preserving rotational proprioception.

  12. Feature extraction using extrema sampling of discrete derivatives for spike sorting in implantable upper-limb neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Majid; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Next generation neural interfaces for upper-limb (and other) prostheses aim to develop implantable interfaces for one or more nerves, each interface having many neural signal channels that work reliably in the stump without harming the nerves. To achieve real-time multi-channel processing it is important to integrate spike sorting on-chip to overcome limitations in transmission bandwidth. This requires computationally efficient algorithms for feature extraction and clustering suitable for low-power hardware implementation. This paper describes a new feature extraction method for real-time spike sorting based on extrema analysis (namely positive peaks and negative peaks) of spike shapes and their discrete derivatives at different frequency bands. Employing simulation across different datasets, the accuracy and computational complexity of the proposed method are assessed and compared with other methods. The average classification accuracy of the proposed method in conjunction with online sorting (O-Sort) is 91.6%, outperforming all the other methods tested with the O-Sort clustering algorithm. The proposed method offers a better tradeoff between classification error and computational complexity, making it a particularly strong choice for on-chip spike sorting.

  13. Motor imagery BCI for upper limb stroke rehabilitation: An evaluation of the EEG recordings using coherence analysis.

    PubMed

    Tung, Sau Wai; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Kai Keng; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu; Zhao, Ling; Teo, Wei Peng; Chew, Effie

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has the potential as a post-stroke rehabilitation tool, and the efficacy of the technology is most often demonstrated through output peripherals such as robots, orthosis and computers. In this study, the EEG signals recorded during the course of upper limb stroke rehabilitaion using motor imagery BCI were analyzed to better understand the effect of BCI therapy for post-stroke rehabilitation. The stroke patients recruited underwent 10 sessions of 1-hour BCI with robotic feedback for 2 weeks, 5 times a week. The analysis was performed by computing the coherences of the EEG in the lesion and contralesion side of the hemisphere from each session, and the coherence index of the lesion hemisphere (0 ≤ CI ≤ 1) was computed. The coherence index represents the rate of activation of the lesion hemisphere, and the correlation with the Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) before and after the BCI therapy was investigated. Significant improvement in the FMA scores was reported for five of the six patients (p = 0.01). The analysis showed that the number of sessions with CI ≥ 0.5 correlated with the change in the FMA scores. This suggests that post-stroke motor recovery best results from the activation in the lesion hemisphere, which is in agreement with previous studies performed using multimodal imaging technologies.

  14. COMBIT: protocol of a randomised comparison trial of COMbined modified constraint induced movement therapy and bimanual intensive training with distributed model of standard upper limb rehabilitation in children with congenital hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children with congenital hemiplegia often present with limitations in using their impaired upper limb which impacts on independence in activities of daily living, societal participation and quality of life. Traditional therapy has adopted a bimanual training approach (BIM) and more recently, modified constraint induced movement therapy (mCIMT) has emerged as a promising unimanual approach. Evidence of enhanced neuroplasticity following mCIMT suggests that the sequential application of mCIMT followed by bimanual training may optimise outcomes (Hybrid CIMT). It remains unclear whether more intensely delivered group based interventions (hCIMT) are superior to distributed models of individualised therapy. This study aims to determine the optimal density of upper limb training for children with congenital hemiplegia. Methods and analyses A total of 50 children (25 in each group) with congenital hemiplegia will be recruited to participate in this randomized comparison trial. Children will be matched in pairs at baseline and randomly allocated to receive an intensive block group hybrid model of combined mCIMT followed by intensive bimanual training delivered in a day camp model (COMBiT; total dose 45 hours direct, 10 hours of indirect therapy), or a distributed model of standard occupational therapy and physiotherapy care (SC) over 12 weeks (total 45 hours direct and indirect therapy). Outcomes will be assessed at 13 weeks after commencement, and retention of effects tested at 26 weeks. The primary outcomes will be bimanual coordination and unimanual upper-limb capacity. Secondary outcomes will be participation and quality of life. Advanced brain imaging will assess neurovascular changes in response to treatment. Analysis will follow standard principles for RCTs, using two-group comparisons on all participants on an intention-to-treat basis. Comparisons will be between treatment groups using generalized linear models. Trial registration ACTRN12613000181707

  15. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Josária F.; Alvim, Felipe C.; Castro, Eliane A.; Doimo, Leonice A.; Silva, Marcus V.; Novo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and p<0.000, respectively) compared to group YO. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that changes in isometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. PMID:24676705

  16. Improving the radial nerve neurodynamic test: An observation of tension of the radial, median and ulnar nerves during upper limb positioning.

    PubMed

    Manvell, Joshua J; Manvell, Nicole; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Reid, Susan A

    2015-12-01

    The radial nerve neurodynamic test (ULNT2b), used to implicate symptoms arising from the radial nerve, is proposed to selectively increase strain of the nerve without increasing strain of adjacent tissue, though this has not been established. This study aimed to determine the upper limb position that results in: (1) the greatest tension of the radial nerve and (2) the greatest difference in tension between the radial nerve and the other two major nerves of the upper limb: median and ulnar. Tension (N) of the radial, median and ulnar nerves was measured simultaneously using three buckle force transducers during seven upper limb positions in the axilla of ten embalmed whole body human cadavers (n = 20 limbs). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc tests determined differences in tension between nerves and between limb positions. A Composite position consisting of ULNT2b (scapular depression, shoulder internal rotation, elbow extension, forearm pronation, wrist flexion) with the addition of shoulder abduction 40° and extension 25°, wrist ulnar deviation and thumb flexion demonstrated significantly greater tension of the radial nerve than any other tested position (mean tension 11.32N; 95% CI 10.25, 12.29, p < 0.01), including ULNT2b (2.20N; 1.84, 2.57; p < 0.01). Additionally, the Composite position demonstrated the greatest difference in tension between the radial and median (mean difference 4.88N; 95% CI 3.16, 6.61; p < 0.01) and radial and ulnar nerves (9.26N, 7.54, 10.99; p < 0.01). This position constitutes a biomechanically plausible test to detect neuropathic pain related to the radial nerve.

  17. Factors Influencing Goal Attainment in Patients with Post-Stroke Upper Limb Spasticity Following Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A in Real-Life Clinical Practice: Sub-Analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Fheodoroff, Klemens; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS). Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001), contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS]) (p = 0.006) and spasticity (p = 0.02) than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001), contracture (p < 0.0001), spasticity (p < 0.001) and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001). Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01) with more contractures (p = 0.008). The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year) vs. longer-term (>1 year)) post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2%) or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%), although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment. PMID:25856546

  18. Factors influencing goal attainment in patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity following treatment with botulinum toxin A in real-life clinical practice: sub-analyses from the Upper Limb International Spasticity (ULIS)-II Study.

    PubMed

    Fheodoroff, Klemens; Ashford, Stephen; Jacinto, Jorge; Maisonobe, Pascal; Balcaitiene, Jovita; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2015-04-08

    In this post-hoc analysis of the ULIS-II study, we investigated factors influencing person-centred goal setting and achievement following botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) treatment in 456 adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity (ULS). Patients with primary goals categorised as passive function had greater motor impairment (p < 0.001), contractures (soft tissue shortening [STS]) (p = 0.006) and spasticity (p = 0.02) than those setting other goal types. Patients with goals categorised as active function had less motor impairment (0.0001), contracture (p < 0.0001), spasticity (p < 0.001) and shorter time since stroke (p = 0.001). Patients setting goals for pain were older (p = 0.01) with more contractures (p = 0.008). The proportion of patients achieving their primary goal was not impacted by timing of first-ever BoNT-A injection (medium-term (≤1 year) vs. longer-term (>1 year)) post-stroke (80.0% vs. 79.2%) or presence or absence of severe contractures (76.7% vs. 80.6%), although goal types differed. Earlier BoNT-A intervention was associated with greater achievement of active function goals. Severe contractures impacted negatively on goal achievement except in pain and passive function. Goal setting by patients with ULS is influenced by impairment severity, age and time since stroke. Our findings resonate with clinical experience and may assist patients and clinicians in selecting realistic, achievable goals for treatment.

  19. The profile of patients and current practice of treatment of upper limb muscle spasticity with botulinum toxin type A: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid; Zakine, Benjamin; Maisonobe, Pascal; Aymard, Claire; Fhedoroff, Klemens; Hefter, Harold; Jacinto, Jorge; Jost, Wolfgang H; Molteni, Franco; Stam, Henk; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Wissel, Jorg

    2010-09-01

    To document the current practice in relation with the treatment of patients with upper limb spasticity with botulinum toxin type A to inform future research in this area. We designed an international, cross-sectional, noninterventional survey of current practice. Nine hundred and seventy-four patients from 122 investigational centres in 31 countries were studied. Most patients were over 40 years old and had a stroke. Improvement of active function was the most frequent treatment goal in the first 3 months after the onset of upper limb spasticity, but was less common than passive function in the chronic stage. Pain relief was a common goal in both the stages. As a rule, clinicians intended to assess the effectiveness of treatment with impairment level scales. Functional outcome measures seem to be rarely used in clinical practice. The use of these measures should be encouraged to assess whether the reduction in muscle tone translates into functional benefit to patients and their caregivers.

  20. Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs in professional drivers of terrain vehicles--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aström, Charlotte; Rehn, Börje; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr; Burström, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2006-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of symptoms of Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs, between professional drivers of terrain vehicles and a referent group. 769 male professional drivers of forest machines, snowmobiles, snowgroomers and reindeer herders and 296 randomly selected male referents completed a questionnaire about symptoms of HAVS and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs. They also gave information about their lifetime exposure duration driving terrain vehicles and their nicotine use. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were determined and adjusted for age and nicotine use. Results show that there is a relation between exposure to driving terrain vehicles and some of the symptoms of HAVS (POR: 1.2-6.1). Increased odds of musculoskeletal symptoms in neck, shoulders and wrists were also found (POR 1.2-6.4), and it seemed to be related to the cumulative exposure time.

  1. Comparison of neck and upper-limb muscle activities between able-bodied and paraplegic individuals during wheelchair propulsion on the ground.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Jin; Park, So Hyun; Lee, Chang-Ryeol

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the muscle activities of the neck and upper-limb muscles between able-bodied individuals and persons with paraplegia during wheelchair propulsion on the ground. [Subjects and Methods] The muscle activities of the neck and upper-limb muscles of 8 normal individuals and 8 individuals with paraplegia were analyzed during wheelchair propulsion. The activities of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, anterior/posterior deltoids, triceps brachii, extensor carpi radialis, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were assessed. [Results] The paraplegic group showed significantly higher sternocleidomastoid activity than the normal group. Latissimus dorsi activity was also higher in the paraplegia group than in the normal group, but the difference was not significant. There were no significant differences in the other muscle activities between groups. [Conclusion] Paraplegic patients tend to use the sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi muscles with greater degrees of activity. Therefore, physiotherapists should not overlook the treatment of these muscles for paraplegic patients who are long-term wheelchair users.

  2. Visual appearance of a virtual upper limb modulates the temperature of the real hand: a thermal imaging study in Immersive Virtual Reality.

    PubMed

    Tieri, Gaetano; Gioia, Annamaria; Scandola, Michele; Pavone, Enea F; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2017-02-21

    To explore the link between Sense of Embodiment (SoE) over a virtual hand and physiological regulation of skin temperature, 24 healthy participants were immersed in virtual reality through a Head Mounted Display and had their real limb temperature recorded by means of a high-sensitivity infrared camera. Participants observed a virtual right upper limb (appearing either normally, or with the hand detached from the forearm) or limb-shaped non-corporeal control objects (continuous or discontinuous wooden blocks) from a first-person perspective. Subjective ratings of SoE were collected in each observation condition, as well as temperatures of the right and left hand, wrist and forearm. The observation of these complex, body and body-related virtual scenes resulted in increased real hand temperature when compared to a baseline condition in which a 3d virtual ball was presented. Crucially, observation of non-natural appearances of the virtual limb (discontinuous limb) and limb-shaped non-corporeal objects elicited high increase in real hand temperature and low SoE. In contrast, observation of the full virtual limb caused high SoE and low temperature changes in the real hand with respect to the other conditions. Interestingly, the temperature difference across the different conditions occurred according to a topographic rule that included both hands. Our study sheds new light on the role of an external hand's visual appearance and suggests a tight link between higher-order bodily self-representations and topographic regulation of skin temperature.

  3. Changes in unilateral upper limb muscular strength and EMG activity following a 16 week strength training intervention survivors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, Amanda D; Shorter, Kathleen A; Marshall, Paul W M

    2017-03-08

    Upper limb strength deficits are frequently observed following breast cancer and its treatments. It is currently unknown whether these unilateral deficits can be corrected by a standard bilateral strength training intervention. Twenty three survivors of breast cancer were included in this analysis. Fourteen performed a 16 week resistance training (RT) intervention, 9 were assigned to a usual care waitlist control group. Electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the pectoralis major and triceps brachii were monitored during three maximal isometric contractions and a fatiguing endurance task. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs at the start of the intervention (p = 0.02). EMG amplitude and median frequency did not differ between limbs at the start of the intervention. Muscular strength was significantly different between limbs in the RT group at the end of the intervention (p = 0.01). EMG amplitude did not differ between limbs or groups at the end of the intervention. Bilateral strength training did not correct the unilateral strength deficit observed in this group of survivors of breast cancer. Periods of unilateral strength training should be implemented into periodised RT programs in this cohort.

  4. Effects of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor dysfunction in patients with subacute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Meng, Xiang-Min; Li, Ru-Yi; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Zheng; Du, Yi-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function. This study enrolled 127 patients with upper-limb dysfunction during the subacute phase of cerebral infarction. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups. The low-frequency group comprised 42 patients who were treated with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the contralateral hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). The high-frequency group comprised 43 patients who were treated with 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on ipsilateral M1. Finally, the sham group comprised 42 patients who were treated with 10 Hz of false stimulation on ipsilateral M1. A total of 135 seconds of stimulation was applied in the sham group and high-frequency group. At 2 weeks after treatment, cortical latency of motor-evoked potentials and central motor conduction time were significantly lower compared with before treatment. Moreover, motor function scores were significantly improved. The above indices for the low- and high-frequency groups were significantly different compared with the sham group. However, there was no significant difference between the low- and high-frequency groups. The results show that low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can similarly improve upper-limb motor function in patients with cerebral infarction.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb.

  6. Efficacy and safety of NABOTA in post-stroke upper limb spasticity: a phase 3 multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyung Seok; Park, Yoon Ghil; Paik, Nam-Jong; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chun, Min Ho; Yang, Hea-Eun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Yi, Youbin; Seo, Han Gil; Kim, Kwang Dong; Chang, Min Cheol; Ryu, Jae Hak; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2015-10-15

    Botulinum toxin A is widely used in the clinics to reduce spasticity and improve upper limb function for post-stroke patients. Efficacy and safety of a new botulinum toxin type A, NABOTA (DWP450) in post-stroke upper limb spasticity was evaluated in comparison with Botox (onabotulinum toxin A). A total of 197 patients with post-stroke upper limb spasticity were included in this study and randomly assigned to NABOTA group (n=99) or Botox group (n=98). Wrist flexors with modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) grade 2 or greater, and elbow flexors, thumb flexors and finger flexors with MAS 1 or greater were injected with either drug. The primary outcome was the change of wrist flexor MAS between baseline and 4weeks post-injection. MAS of each injected muscle, Disability Assessment Scale (DAS), and Caregiver Burden Scale were also assessed at baseline and 4, 8, and 12weeks after the injection. Global Assessment Scale (GAS) was evaluated on the last visit at 12weeks. The change of MAS for wrist flexor between baseline and 4weeks post-injection was -1.44±0.72 in the NABOTA group and -1.46±0.77 in the Botox group. The difference of change between both groups was 0.0129 (95% confidence interval -0.2062-0.2319), within the non-inferiority margin of 0.45. Both groups showed significant improvements regarding MAS of all injected muscles, DAS, and Caregiver Burden Scale at all follow-up periods. There were no significant differences in all secondary outcome measures between the two groups. NABOTA demonstrated non-inferior efficacy and safety for improving upper limb spasticity in stroke patients compared to Botox.

  7. Effects of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper limb motor dysfunction in patients with subacute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiang; Meng, Xiang-min; Li, Ru-yi; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Zheng; Du, Yi-feng

    2016-01-01

    Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function. This study enrolled 127 patients with upper-limb dysfunction during the subacute phase of cerebral infarction. These patients were randomly assigned to three groups. The low-frequency group comprised 42 patients who were treated with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the contralateral hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). The high-frequency group comprised 43 patients who were treated with 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on ipsilateral M1. Finally, the sham group comprised 42 patients who were treated with 10 Hz of false stimulation on ipsilateral M1. A total of 135 seconds of stimulation was applied in the sham group and high-frequency group. At 2 weeks after treatment, cortical latency of motor-evoked potentials and central motor conduction time were significantly lower compared with before treatment. Moreover, motor function scores were significantly improved. The above indices for the low- and high-frequency groups were significantly different compared with the sham group. However, there was no significant difference between the low- and high-frequency groups. The results show that low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can similarly improve upper-limb motor function in patients with cerebral infarction. PMID:27904488

  8. Canoe game-based virtual reality training to improve trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in subacute stroke patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung-Mo; Shin, Doo-Chul; Song, Chang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was aimed at investigating the preliminary therapeutic efficacy and usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Ten stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n=5) or a control group (CG; n=5). Patients in both groups participated in a conventional rehabilitation program, but those in the EG additionally participated in a 30-min canoe game-based virtual reality training program 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function. In addition, the usefulness of canoe game-based virtual reality training was assessed in the EG and therapist group (TG; n=20), which consisted of physical and occupational therapists, by using the System Usability Scale (SUS). [Results] Improvements in trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function were observed in the EG and CG, but were greater in the EG. The mean SUS scores in the EG and TG were 71 ± 5.2 and 74.2 ± 4.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Canoe game-based virtual reality training is an acceptable and effective intervention for improving trunk postural stability, balance, and upper limb motor function in stroke patients.

  9. Upper-limb robot-assisted therapy in rehabilitation of acute stroke patients: focused review and results of new randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Masiero, Stefano; Armani, Mario; Rosati, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    The successful motor rehabilitation of stroke patients requires early intensive and task-specific therapy. A recent Cochrane Review, although based on a limited number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), showed that early robotic training of the upper limb (i.e., during acute or subacute phase) can enhance motor learning and improve functional abilities more than chronic-phase training. In this article, a new subacute-phase RCT with the Neuro-Rehabilitation-roBot (NeReBot) is presented. While in our first study we used the NeReBot in addition to conventional therapy, in this new trial we used the same device in substitution of standard proximal upper-limb rehabilitation. With this protocol, robot patients achieved similar reductions in motor impairment and enhancements in paretic upper-limb function to those gained by patients in a control group. By analyzing these results and those of previous studies, we hypothesize a new robotic protocol for acute and subacute stroke patients based on both treatment modalities (in addition and in substitution).

  10. Therapeutic administration of atomoxetine combined with rTMS and occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a case series study of three patients.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  11. EMG activation of trunk and upper limb muscles following experimentally-induced overpronation and oversupination of the feet in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Ntousis, Theodoros; Mandalidis, Dimitris; Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Athanasopoulos, Spyros

    2013-02-01

    Kinematic studies have shown that experimentally-induced overpronation or oversupination of the subtalar joint may alter the position of the legs, hips and pelvis and consequently the trunk and upper limb. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such foot deformity affects the activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb. Twenty-eight healthy individuals (11 males and 17 females) 21.4±1.9 years of age without skeletal deformity, leg length discrepancy (LLD), overpronated or oversupinated feet or excessive lateral pelvic inclination volunteered for the study. Bilateral EMG recordings of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis were undertaken for 30-s with each subject in the relaxed standing position and at 5° and 10° bilateral or unilateral overpronation or oversupination of the foot on the dominant side using wooden wedge-shape blocks. The recorded EMG activity was normalised based on the EMG activity produced by the muscles under investigation during maximum isometric voluntary contraction. The findings of the present study revealed that neither bilateral nor unilateral overpronation/oversupination of the feet induced a significant alteration of the EMG activity of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and rectus abdominis on either the dominant or non-dominant side. These findings suggest that in the absence of other major structural deformity bilateral or unilateral foot overpronation or oversupination does not affect the EMG activity of muscles that act on the trunk and upper limb in quiet standing.

  12. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlate with pulmonary function test measures and Egen Klassifikation scores in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In thi