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Sample records for advanced uracil-excision dna

  1. Recent advances in DNA nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Chidchob, Pongphak; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2018-05-08

    DNA is a powerful guiding molecule to achieve the precise construction of arbitrary structures and high-resolution organization of functional materials. The combination of sequence programmability, rigidity and highly specific molecular recognition in this molecule has resulted in a wide range of exquisitely designed DNA frameworks. To date, the impressive potential of DNA nanomaterials has been demonstrated from fundamental research to technological advancements in materials science and biomedicine. This review presents a summary of some of the most recent developments in structural DNA nanotechnology regarding new assembly approaches and efforts in translating DNA nanomaterials into practical use. Recent work on incorporating blunt-end stacking and hydrophobic interactions as orthogonal instruction rules in DNA assembly, and several emerging applications of DNA nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. DNA Methyltransferase Activity Assays: Advances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Wan Jun; Wee, Cayden Pang Pee; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (MTases), a family of enzymes that catalyse the methylation of DNA, have a profound effect on gene regulation. A large body of evidence has indicated that DNA MTase is potentially a predictive biomarker closely associated with genetic disorders and genetic diseases like cancer. Given the attention bestowed onto DNA MTases in molecular biology and medicine, highly sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is essential in determining gene regulation, epigenetic modification, clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Conventional techniques such as isotope labelling are effective, but they often require laborious sample preparation, isotope labelling, sophisticated equipment and large amounts of DNA, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Simple, portable, highly sensitive and low-cost assays are urgently needed for DNA MTase activity screening. In most recent technological advances, many alternative DNA MTase activity assays such as fluorescent, electrochemical, colorimetric and chemiluminescent assays have been proposed. In addition, many of them are coupled with nanomaterials and/or enzymes to significantly enhance their sensitivity. Herein we review the progress in the development of DNA MTase activity assays with an emphasis on assay mechanism and performance with some discussion on challenges and perspectives. It is hoped that this article will provide a broad coverage of DNA MTase activity assays and their latest developments and open new perspectives toward the development of DNA MTase activity assays with much improved performance for uses in molecular biology and clinical practice. PMID:26909112

  3. DNA-Assembled Advanced Plasmonic Architectures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Liedl, Tim

    2018-03-28

    The interaction between light and matter can be controlled efficiently by structuring materials at a length scale shorter than the wavelength of interest. With the goal to build optical devices that operate at the nanoscale, plasmonics has established itself as a discipline, where near-field effects of electromagnetic waves created in the vicinity of metallic surfaces can give rise to a variety of novel phenomena and fascinating applications. As research on plasmonics has emerged from the optics and solid-state communities, most laboratories employ top-down lithography to implement their nanophotonic designs. In this review, we discuss the recent, successful efforts of employing self-assembled DNA nanostructures as scaffolds for creating advanced plasmonic architectures. DNA self-assembly exploits the base-pairing specificity of nucleic acid sequences and allows for the nanometer-precise organization of organic molecules but also for the arrangement of inorganic particles in space. Bottom-up self-assembly thus bypasses many of the limitations of conventional fabrication methods. As a consequence, powerful tools such as DNA origami have pushed the boundaries of nanophotonics and new ways of thinking about plasmonic designs are on the rise.

  4. Recent Advances in the Structural Mechanisms of DNA Glycosylases

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Sonja C.; Adhikary, Suraj; Rubinson, Emily H.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2012-01-01

    DNA glycosylases safeguard the genome by locating and excising a diverse array of aberrant nucleobases created from oxidation, alkylation, and deamination of DNA. Since the discovery 28 years ago that these enzymes employ a base flipping mechanism to trap their substrates, six different protein architectures have been identified to perform the same basic task. Work over the past several years has unraveled details for how the various DNA glycosylases survey DNA, detect damage within the duplex, select for the correct modification, and catalyze base excision. Here, we provide a broad overview of these latest advances in glycosylase mechanisms gleaned from structural enzymology, highlighting features common to all glycosylases as well as key differences that define their particular substrate specificities. PMID:23076011

  5. Advances in high throughput DNA sequence data compression.

    PubMed

    Sardaraz, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad; Ikram, Ataul Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and reduction in cost of sequencing have led to exponential growth in high throughput DNA sequence data. This growth has posed challenges such as storage, retrieval, and transmission of sequencing data. Data compression is used to cope with these challenges. Various methods have been developed to compress genomic and sequencing data. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of compression methods for genome and reads compression. Algorithms are categorized as referential or reference free. Experimental results and comparative analysis of various methods for data compression are presented. Finally, key challenges and research directions in DNA sequence data compression are highlighted.

  6. Four years of DNA barcoding: current advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Frézal, Lise; Leblois, Raphael

    2008-09-01

    Research using cytochrome c oxidase barcoding techniques on zoological specimens was initiated by Hebert et al. [Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S., deWaard, J.R., 2003. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270, S96-S99]. By March 2004, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life started to promote the use of a standardized DNA barcoding approach, consisting of identifying a specimen as belonging to a certain animal species based on a single universal marker: the DNA barcode sequence. Over the last 4 years, this approach has become increasingly popular and advances as well as limitations have clearly emerged as increasing amounts of organisms have been studied. Our purpose is to briefly expose DNA Barcode of Life principles, pros and cons, relevance and universality. The initially proposed Barcode of life framework has greatly evolved, giving rise to a flexible description of DNA barcoding and a larger range of applications.

  7. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies for high resolution HLA typing.

    PubMed

    Cereb, Nezih; Kim, Hwa Ran; Ryu, Jaejun; Yang, Soo Young

    2015-12-01

    This communication describes our experience in large-scale G group-level high resolution HLA typing using three different DNA sequencing platforms - ABI 3730 xl, Illumina MiSeq and PacBio RS II. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies, so-called next generation sequencing (NGS), have brought breakthroughs in deciphering the genetic information in all living species at a large scale and at an affordable level. The NGS DNA indexing system allows sequencing multiple genes for large number of individuals in a single run. Our laboratory has adopted and used these technologies for HLA molecular testing services. We found that each sequencing technology has its own strengths and weaknesses, and their sequencing performances complement each other. HLA genes are highly complex and genotyping them is quite challenging. Using these three sequencing platforms, we were able to meet all requirements for G group-level high resolution and high volume HLA typing. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MicroRNAs in large herpesvirus DNA genomes: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Sorel, Océane; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. They alter mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity, leading to regulation of genes during both physiological and pathological processes. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to take advantage of the host cells to multiply and/or persist over the lifetime of the host. Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with a number of important diseases, including lymphoproliferative diseases. Herpesviruses establish lifelong latent infections through modulation of the interface between the virus and its host. A number of reports have identified miRNAs in a very large number of human and animal herpesviruses suggesting that these short non-coding transcripts could play essential roles in herpesvirus biology. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances on the functions of herpesvirus miRNAs in infection and pathogenesis.

  9. Review of the clinical applications and technological advances of circulating tumor DNA in cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Tolani, Bhairavi; Nie, Xiuhong; Zhi, Xiuyi; Hu, Mu; He, Biao

    2017-01-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by tumor cells, termed ctDNA, closely reflects the heterogeneity of primary cancers and their metastases. As a noninvasive, real-time monitoring biomarker, ctDNA is a promising tool for detecting driver gene mutations, assessing tumor burden and acquired resistance, and early diagnosis. However, isolation and enrichment of cfDNA is a big challenge due to the high degree of DNA fragmentation and its relatively low abundance in the bloodstream. This review aims to provide insights into the recent technological advances in acquisition of optimal quality cfDNA, the use of preservatives, isolation methods, processing timelines, and detection techniques. It also describes clinical applications of ctDNA in cancer patient management.

  10. Recent Advancements in DNA Damage-Transcription Crosstalk and High-Resolution Mapping of DNA Breaks.

    PubMed

    Vitelli, Valerio; Galbiati, Alessandro; Iannelli, Fabio; Pessina, Fabio; Sharma, Sheetal; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2017-08-31

    Until recently, DNA damage arising from physiological DNA metabolism was considered a detrimental by-product for cells. However, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that DNA damage could have a positive role in transcription activation. In particular, DNA damage has been detected in transcriptional elements following different stimuli. These physiological DNA breaks are thought to be instrumental for the correct expression of genomic loci through different mechanisms. In this regard, although a plethora of methods are available to precisely map transcribed regions and transcription start sites, commonly used techniques for mapping DNA breaks lack sufficient resolution and sensitivity to draw a robust correlation between DNA damage generation and transcription. Recently, however, several methods have been developed to map DNA damage at single-nucleotide resolution, thus providing a new set of tools to correlate DNA damage and transcription. Here, we review how DNA damage can positively regulate transcription initiation, the current techniques for mapping DNA breaks at high resolution, and how these techniques can benefit future studies of DNA damage and transcription.

  11. Chemical Biology Probes from Advanced DNA-encoded Libraries.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Hazem; Klika Škopić, Mateja; Jung, Kathrin; Bugain, Olivia; Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2016-02-19

    The identification of bioactive compounds is a crucial step toward development of probes for chemical biology studies. Screening of DNA-encoded small molecule libraries (DELs) has emerged as a validated technology to interrogate vast chemical space. DELs consist of chimeric molecules composed of a low-molecular weight compound that is conjugated to a DNA identifier tag. They are screened as pooled libraries using selection to identify "hits." Screening of DELs has identified numerous bioactive compounds. Some of these molecules were instrumental in gaining a deeper understanding of biological systems. One of the main challenges in the field is the development of synthesis methodology for DELs.

  12. Blocking DNA Repair in Advanced BRCA-Mutated Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with relapsed or refractory advanced cancer and confirmed BRCA mutations who have not previously been treated with a PARP inhibitor will be given BMN 673 by mouth once a day in 28-day cycles.

  13. Advances in Non-Viral DNA Vectors for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka; Hornstein, Benjamin D.; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Uses of viral vectors have thus far eclipsed uses of non-viral vectors for gene therapy delivery in the clinic. Viral vectors, however, have certain issues involving genome integration, the inability to be delivered repeatedly, and possible host rejection. Fortunately, development of non-viral DNA vectors has progressed steadily, especially in plasmid vector length reduction, now allowing these tools to fill in specifically where viral or other non-viral vectors may not be the best options. In this review, we examine the improvements made to non-viral DNA gene therapy vectors, highlight opportunities for their further development, address therapeutic needs for which their use is the logical choice, and discuss their future expansion into the clinic. PMID:28208635

  14. Reproducibility of Digital PCR Assays for Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis in Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hrebien, Sarah; O’Leary, Ben; Beaney, Matthew; Schiavon, Gaia; Fribbens, Charlotte; Bhambra, Amarjit; Johnson, Richard; Turner, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has the potential to allow non-invasive analysis of tumor mutations in advanced cancer. In this study we assessed the reproducibility of digital PCR (dPCR) assays of circulating tumor DNA in a cohort of patients with advanced breast cancer and assessed delayed plasma processing using cell free DNA preservative tubes. We recruited a cohort of 96 paired samples from 71 women with advanced breast cancer who had paired blood samples processed either immediately or delayed in preservative tubes with processing 48–72 hours after collection. Plasma DNA was analysed with multiplex digital PCR (mdPCR) assays for hotspot mutations in PIK3CA, ESR1 and ERBB2, and for AKT1 E17K. There was 94.8% (91/96) agreement in mutation calling between immediate and delayed processed tubes, kappa 0.88 95% CI 0.77–0.98). Discordance in mutation calling resulted from low allele frequency and likely stochastic effects. In concordant samples there was high correlation in mutant copies per ml plasma (r2 = 0.98; p<0.0001). There was elevation of total cell free plasma DNA concentrations in 10.3% of delayed processed tubes, although overall quantification of total cell free plasma DNA had similar prognostic effects in immediate (HR 3.6) and delayed (HR 3.0) tubes. There was moderate agreement in changes in allele fraction between sequential samples in quantitative mutation tracking (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002). Delayed processing of samples using preservative tubes allows for centralized ctDNA digital PCR mutation screening in advanced breast cancer. The potential of preservative tubes in quantitative mutation tracking requires further research. PMID:27760227

  15. Reproducibility of Digital PCR Assays for Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis in Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hrebien, Sarah; O'Leary, Ben; Beaney, Matthew; Schiavon, Gaia; Fribbens, Charlotte; Bhambra, Amarjit; Johnson, Richard; Garcia-Murillas, Isaac; Turner, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis has the potential to allow non-invasive analysis of tumor mutations in advanced cancer. In this study we assessed the reproducibility of digital PCR (dPCR) assays of circulating tumor DNA in a cohort of patients with advanced breast cancer and assessed delayed plasma processing using cell free DNA preservative tubes. We recruited a cohort of 96 paired samples from 71 women with advanced breast cancer who had paired blood samples processed either immediately or delayed in preservative tubes with processing 48-72 hours after collection. Plasma DNA was analysed with multiplex digital PCR (mdPCR) assays for hotspot mutations in PIK3CA, ESR1 and ERBB2, and for AKT1 E17K. There was 94.8% (91/96) agreement in mutation calling between immediate and delayed processed tubes, kappa 0.88 95% CI 0.77-0.98). Discordance in mutation calling resulted from low allele frequency and likely stochastic effects. In concordant samples there was high correlation in mutant copies per ml plasma (r2 = 0.98; p<0.0001). There was elevation of total cell free plasma DNA concentrations in 10.3% of delayed processed tubes, although overall quantification of total cell free plasma DNA had similar prognostic effects in immediate (HR 3.6) and delayed (HR 3.0) tubes. There was moderate agreement in changes in allele fraction between sequential samples in quantitative mutation tracking (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002). Delayed processing of samples using preservative tubes allows for centralized ctDNA digital PCR mutation screening in advanced breast cancer. The potential of preservative tubes in quantitative mutation tracking requires further research.

  16. Advances in DNA metabarcoding for food and wildlife forensic species identification.

    PubMed

    Staats, Martijn; Arulandhu, Alfred J; Gravendeel, Barbara; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Scholtens, Ingrid; Peelen, Tamara; Prins, Theo W; Kok, Esther

    2016-07-01

    Species identification using DNA barcodes has been widely adopted by forensic scientists as an effective molecular tool for tracking adulterations in food and for analysing samples from alleged wildlife crime incidents. DNA barcoding is an approach that involves sequencing of short DNA sequences from standardized regions and comparison to a reference database as a molecular diagnostic tool in species identification. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards developing DNA metabarcoding strategies, which involves next-generation sequencing of DNA barcodes for the simultaneous detection of multiple species in complex samples. Metabarcoding strategies can be used in processed materials containing highly degraded DNA e.g. for the identification of endangered and hazardous species in traditional medicine. This review aims to provide insight into advances of plant and animal DNA barcoding and highlights current practices and recent developments for DNA metabarcoding of food and wildlife forensic samples from a practical point of view. Special emphasis is placed on new developments for identifying species listed in the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES) appendices for which reliable methods for species identification may signal and/or prevent illegal trade. Current technological developments and challenges of DNA metabarcoding for forensic scientists will be assessed in the light of stakeholders' needs.

  17. A DNA Sequence Element That Advances Replication Origin Activation Time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas J.; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time. PMID:24022751

  18. A DNA sequence element that advances replication origin activation time in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Thomas J; Kolor, Katherine; Fangman, Walton L; Brewer, Bonita J; Raghuraman, M K

    2013-11-06

    Eukaryotic origins of DNA replication undergo activation at various times in S-phase, allowing the genome to be duplicated in a temporally staggered fashion. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the activation times of individual origins are not intrinsic to those origins but are instead governed by surrounding sequences. Currently, there are two examples of DNA sequences that are known to advance origin activation time, centromeres and forkhead transcription factor binding sites. By combining deletion and linker scanning mutational analysis with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to measure fork direction in the context of a two-origin plasmid, we have identified and characterized a 19- to 23-bp and a larger 584-bp DNA sequence that are capable of advancing origin activation time.

  19. Uracil-DNA Glycosylase in Base Excision Repair and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Doseth, Berit; Visnes, Torkild; Wallenius, Anders; Ericsson, Ida; Sarno, Antonio; Pettersen, Henrik Sahlin; Flatberg, Arnar; Catterall, Tara; Slupphaug, Geir; Krokan, Hans E.; Kavli, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Genomic uracil is a DNA lesion but also an essential key intermediate in adaptive immunity. In B cells, activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates cytosine to uracil (U:G mispairs) in Ig genes to initiate antibody maturation. Uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDGs) such as uracil N-glycosylase (UNG), single strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1), and thymine-DNA glycosylase remove uracil from DNA. Gene-targeted mouse models are extensively used to investigate the role of these enzymes in DNA repair and Ig diversification. However, possible species differences in uracil processing in humans and mice are yet not established. To address this, we analyzed UDG activities and quantities in human and mouse cell lines and in splenic B cells from Ung+/+ and Ung−/− backcrossed mice. Interestingly, human cells displayed ∼15-fold higher total uracil excision capacity due to higher levels of UNG. In contrast, SMUG1 activity was ∼8-fold higher in mouse cells, constituting ∼50% of the total U:G excision activity compared with less than 1% in human cells. In activated B cells, both UNG and SMUG1 activities were at levels comparable with those measured for mouse cell lines. Moreover, SMUG1 activity per cell was not down-regulated after activation. We therefore suggest that SMUG1 may work as a weak backup activity for UNG2 during class switch recombination in Ung−/− mice. Our results reveal significant species differences in genomic uracil processing. These findings should be taken into account when mouse models are used in studies of uracil DNA repair and adaptive immunity. PMID:21454529

  20. Role of advanced glycation on aggregation and DNA binding properties of α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Padmaraju, Vasudevaraju; Bhaskar, Jamuna J; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S; Salimath, Paramahans V; Rao, K S

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with multiple etiologies. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in the aging brain and could be one of the reasons for age-related diseases like PD. Oxidative stress also leads to the formation of AGEs and may be involved in neurodegeneration by altering the properties of proteins. α-Synuclein is involved in pathogenesis of PD and there are limited studies on the role of AGE-α-synuclein in neurodegeneration. We studied the aggregation and DNA binding ability of AGE-α-synuclein in vitro. α-Synuclein is glycated using methylglyoxal and formation of AGE-α-synuclein is characterized using fluorescence studies, intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence, and fructosamine estimation. The results indicated that AGE-α-synuclein aggregates into smaller globular-like aggregates compared to fibrils formed with native α-synuclein. Further, it is found that AGE-α-synuclein induced conformational changes in scDNA from B-form to B-C-A mixed conformation. Additionally, AGE-α-synuclein altered DNA integrity as evidenced by the melting temperature, ethidium bromide, and DNAse I sensitivity studies. AGE-α-synuclein converted biphasic Tm to higher monophasic Tm. The Tm of AGE-α-synuclein-scDNA complex is more than that of native α-synuclein-scDNA complex, indicating that AGE-α-synuclein stabilized the uncoiled scDNA. AGE-α-synuclein could stabilize the uncoiled scDNA, as shown by the decrease in the number of ethidium bromide binding molecules per base pair of DNA. DNAse I sensitive studies indicated that both AGE-α-synuclein-scDNA and α-synuclein-scDNA are resistant to DNAse I digestion. The relevance of these findings to neuronal cell death is discussed.

  1. Recent advances on the encoding and selection methods of DNA-encoded chemical library.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingbing; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-02-01

    DNA-encoded chemical library (DEL) has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for ligand discovery in chemical biology research and in drug discovery. Encoding and selection methods are two of the most important technological aspects of DEL that can dictate the performance and utilities of DELs. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances on the encoding and selection strategies of DEL and also discussed the latest developments on DNA-encoded dynamic library, a new frontier in DEL research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing macroinvertebrate biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems: Advances and challenges in dna-based approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfrender, M.E.; Ferrington, L.C.; Hawkins, C.P.; Hartzell, P.L.; Bagley, M.; Jackson, S.; Courtney, G.W.; Larsen, D.P.; Creutzburg, B.R.; Levesque, C.A.; Epler, J.H.; Morse, J.C.; Fend, S.; Petersen, M.J.; Ruiter, D.; Schindel, D.; Whiting, M.

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the biodiversity of macroinvertebrate fauna in freshwater ecosystems is an essential component of both basic ecological inquiry and applied ecological assessments. Aspects of taxonomic diversity and composition in freshwater communities are widely used to quantify water quality and measure the efficacy of remediation and restoration efforts. The accuracy and precision of biodiversity assessments based on standard morphological identifications are often limited by taxonomic resolution and sample size. Morphologically based identifications are laborious and costly, significantly constraining the sample sizes that can be processed. We suggest that the development of an assay platform based on DNA signatures will increase the precision and ease of quantifying biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Advances in this area will be particularly relevant for benthic and planktonic invertebrates, which are often monitored by regulatory agencies. Adopting a genetic assessment platform will alleviate some of the current limitations to biodiversity assessment strategies. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with DNA-based assessments and the methods that are currently available. As recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies will facilitate a transition to DNA-based assessment approaches, future research efforts should focus on methods for data collection, assay platform development, establishing linkages between DNA signatures and well-resolved taxonomies, and bioinformatics. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago Press.

  3. Excision Repair-Initiated Enzyme-Assisted Bicyclic Cascade Signal Amplification for Ultrasensitive Detection of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Ren, Ming; Zhang, Qianyi; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2017-04-18

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is an important base excision repair (BER) enzyme responsible for the repair of uracil-induced DNA lesion and the maintenance of genomic integrity, while the aberrant expression of UDG is associated with a variety of cancers. Thus, the accurate detection of UDG activity is essential to biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Here, we develop a fluorescent method for ultrasensitive detection of UDG activity using excision repair-initiated enzyme-assisted bicyclic cascade signal amplification. This assay involves (1) UDG-actuated uracil-excision repair, (2) excision repair-initiated nicking enzyme-mediated isothermal exponential amplification, (3) ribonuclease H (RNase H)-induced hydrolysis of signal probes for generating fluorescence signal. The presence of UDG enables the removal of uracil from U·A pairs and generates an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site. Endonuclease IV (Endo IV) subsequently cleaves the AP site, resulting in the break of DNA substrate. The cleaved DNA substrate functions as both a primer and a template to initiate isothermal exponential amplification, producing a large number of triggers. The resultant trigger may selectively hybridize with the signal probe which is modified with FAM and BHQ1, forming a RNA-DNA heterogeneous duplex. The subsequent hydrolysis of RNA-DNA duplex by RNase H leads to the generation of fluorescence signal. This assay exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.0001 U/mL, and it can even measure UDG activity at the single-cell level. Moreover, this method can be applied for the measurement of kinetic parameters and the screening of inhibitors, thereby providing a powerful tool for DNA repair enzyme-related biomedical research and clinical diagnosis.

  4. Distortion of DNA Origami on Graphene Imaged with Advanced TEM Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Yoones; Ananth, Adithya N; van der Torre, Jaco; Katan, Allard; Hong, Jin-Yong; Malladi, Sairam; Kong, Jing; Zandbergen, Henny; Dekker, Cees

    2017-08-01

    While graphene may appear to be the ultimate support membrane for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of DNA nanostructures, very little is known if it poses an advantage over conventional carbon supports in terms of resolution and contrast. Microscopic investigations are carried out on DNA origami nanoplates that are supported onto freestanding graphene, using advanced TEM techniques, including a new dark-field technique that is recently developed in our lab. TEM images of stained and unstained DNA origami are presented with high contrast on both graphene and amorphous carbon membranes. On graphene, the images of the origami plates show severe unwanted distortions, where the rectangular shape of the nanoplates is significantly distorted. From a number of comparative control experiments, it is demonstrated that neither staining agents, nor screening ions, nor the level of electron-beam irradiation cause this distortion. Instead, it is suggested that origami nanoplates are distorted due to hydrophobic interaction of the DNA bases with graphene upon adsorption of the DNA origami nanoplates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Extraction and Partial Purification of Bacterial DNA as a Practical Exercise for GCE Advanced Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, A. C.; Hayes, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a relatively simple method of extraction and purification of bacterial DNA. This technique permits advanced secondary-level science students to obtain adequate amounts of DNA from very small pellets of bacteria and to observe some of its polymer properties. (ML)

  6. Protein Science by DNA Sequencing: How Advances in Molecular Biology Are Accelerating Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Sean A; Savage, David F

    2018-01-09

    A fundamental goal of protein biochemistry is to determine the sequence-function relationship, but the vastness of sequence space makes comprehensive evaluation of this landscape difficult. However, advances in DNA synthesis and sequencing now allow researchers to assess the functional impact of every single mutation in many proteins, but challenges remain in library construction and the development of general assays applicable to a diverse range of protein functions. This Perspective briefly outlines the technical innovations in DNA manipulation that allow massively parallel protein biochemistry and then summarizes the methods currently available for library construction and the functional assays of protein variants. Areas in need of future innovation are highlighted with a particular focus on assay development and the use of computational analysis with machine learning to effectively traverse the sequence-function landscape. Finally, applications in the fundamentals of protein biochemistry, disease prediction, and protein engineering are presented.

  7. DNA-encoded chemical libraries: advancing beyond conventional small-molecule libraries.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Raphael M; Neri, Dario; Scheuermann, Jörg

    2014-04-15

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) represent a promising tool in drug discovery. DECL technology allows the synthesis and screening of chemical libraries of unprecedented size at moderate costs. In analogy to phage-display technology, where large antibody libraries are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage and are genetically encoded in the phage genome, DECLs feature the display of individual small organic chemical moieties on DNA fragments serving as amplifiable identification barcodes. The DNA-tag facilitates the synthesis and allows the simultaneous screening of very large sets of compounds (up to billions of molecules), because the hit compounds can easily be identified and quantified by PCR-amplification of the DNA-barcode followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing. Several approaches have been used to generate DECLs, differing both in the methods used for library encoding and for the combinatorial assembly of chemical moieties. For example, DECLs can be used for fragment-based drug discovery, displaying a single molecule on DNA or two chemical moieties at the extremities of complementary DNA strands. DECLs can vary substantially in the chemical structures and the library size. While ultralarge libraries containing billions of compounds have been reported containing four or more sets of building blocks, also smaller libraries have been shown to be efficient for ligand discovery. In general, it has been found that the overall library size is a poor predictor for library performance and that the number and diversity of the building blocks are rather important indicators. Smaller libraries consisting of two to three sets of building blocks better fulfill the criteria of drug-likeness and often have higher quality. In this Account, we present advances in the DECL field from proof-of-principle studies to practical applications for drug discovery, both in industry and in academia. DECL technology can yield specific binders to a variety of target

  8. The landscape of actionable genomic alterations in cell-free circulating tumor DNA from 21,807 advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zill, Oliver A; Banks, Kimberly C; Fairclough, Stephen R; Mortimer, Stefanie; Vowles, James V; Mokhtari, Reza; Gandara, David R; Mack, Philip C; Odegaard, Justin I; Nagy, Rebecca J; Baca, Arthur M; Eltoukhy, Helmy; Chudova, Darya I; Lanman, Richard B; Talasaz, AmirAli

    2018-05-18

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing provides a non-invasive method for obtaining actionable genomic information to guide personalized cancer treatment, but the presence of multiple alterations in circulation related to treatment and tumor heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of the observed variants. Experimental Design: We describe the somatic mutation landscape of 70 cancer genes from cfDNA deep-sequencing analysis of 21,807 patients with treated, late-stage cancers across >50 cancer types. To facilitate interpretation of the genomic complexity of circulating tumor DNA in advanced, treated cancer patients, we developed methods to identify cfDNA copy-number driver alterations and cfDNA clonality. Patterns and prevalence of cfDNA alterations in major driver genes for non-small cell lung, breast, and colorectal cancer largely recapitulated those from tumor tissue sequencing compendia (TCGA and COSMIC; r=0.90-0.99), with the principle differences in alteration prevalence being due to patient treatment. This highly sensitive cfDNA sequencing assay revealed numerous subclonal tumor-derived alterations, expected as a result of clonal evolution, but leading to an apparent departure from mutual exclusivity in treatment-naïve tumors. Upon applying novel cfDNA clonality and copy-number driver identification methods, robust mutual exclusivity was observed among predicted truncal driver cfDNA alterations (FDR=5x10 -7 for EGFR and ERBB2 ), in effect distinguishing tumor-initiating alterations from secondary alterations. Treatment-associated resistance, including both novel alterations and parallel evolution, was common in the cfDNA cohort and was enriched in patients with targetable driver alterations (>18.6% patients). Together these retrospective analyses of a large cfDNA sequencing data set reveal subclonal structures and emerging resistance in advanced solid tumors. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Multiple advanced logic gates made of DNA-Ag nanocluster and the application for intelligent detection of pathogenic bacterial genes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaodong; Liu, Yaqing; Deng, Jiankang; Lyu, Yanlong; Qian, Pengcheng; Li, Yunfei; Wang, Shuo

    2018-02-21

    The integration of multiple DNA logic gates on a universal platform to implement advance logic functions is a critical challenge for DNA computing. Herein, a straightforward and powerful strategy in which a guanine-rich DNA sequence lighting up a silver nanocluster and fluorophore was developed to construct a library of logic gates on a simple DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) platform. This library included basic logic gates, YES, AND, OR, INHIBIT, and XOR, which were further integrated into complex logic circuits to implement diverse advanced arithmetic/non-arithmetic functions including half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer. Under UV irradiation, all the logic functions could be instantly visualized, confirming an excellent repeatability. The logic operations were entirely based on DNA hybridization in an enzyme-free and label-free condition, avoiding waste accumulation and reducing cost consumption. Interestingly, a DNA-AgNCs-based multiplexer was, for the first time, used as an intelligent biosensor to identify pathogenic genes, E. coli and S. aureus genes, with a high sensitivity. The investigation provides a prototype for the wireless integration of multiple devices on even the simplest single-strand DNA platform to perform diverse complex functions in a straightforward and cost-effective way.

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing of Circulating Tumor DNA Reveals Frequent Alterations in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Sadakatsu; Tsigelny, Igor F; Skjevik, Åge A; Kono, Yuko; Mendler, Michel; Kuo, Alexander; Sicklick, Jason K; Heestand, Gregory; Banks, Kimberly C; Talasaz, AmirAli; Lanman, Richard B; Lippman, Scott; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2018-05-01

    Because imaging has a high sensitivity to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tissue biopsies carry risks such as bleeding, the latter are often not performed in HCC. Blood-derived circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis can identify somatic alterations, but its utility has not been characterized in HCC. We evaluated 14 patients with advanced HCC (digital ctDNA sequencing [68 genes]). Mutant relative to wild-type allele fraction was calculated. All patients (100%) had somatic alterations (median = 3 alterations/patient [range, 1-8]); median mutant allele fraction, 0.29% (range, 0.1%-37.77%). Mutations were identified in several genes: TP53 (57% of patients), CTNNB1 (29%), PTEN (7%), CDKN2A (7%), ARID1A (7%), and MET (7%); amplifications, in CDK6 (14%), EGFR (14%), MYC (14%), BRAF (7%), RAF1 (7%), FGFR1 (7%), CCNE1 (7%), PIK3CA (7%), and ERBB2/HER2 (7%). Eleven patients (79%) had ≥1 theoretically actionable alteration. No two patients had identical genomic portfolios, suggesting the need for customized treatment. A patient with a CDKN2A -inactivating and a CTNNB1 -activating mutation received matched treatment: palbociclib (CDK4/6 inhibitor) and celecoxib (COX-2/Wnt inhibitor); des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin level decreased by 84% at 2 months (1,410 to 242 ng/mL [normal: ≤7.4 ng/mL]; alpha fetoprotein [AFP] low at baseline). A patient with a PTEN -inactivating and a MET -activating mutation (an effect suggested by in silico molecular dynamic simulations) received sirolimus (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor) and cabozantinib (MET inhibitor); AFP declined by 63% (8,320 to 3,045 ng/mL [normal: 0-15 ng/mL]). ctDNA derived from noninvasive blood tests can provide exploitable genomic profiles in patients with HCC. This study reports that blood-derived circulating tumor DNA can provide therapeutically exploitable genomic profiles in hepatocellular cancer, a malignancy that is known to be difficult to biopsy. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  11. Advances in SCA and RF-DNA Fingerprinting Through Enhanced Linear Regression Attacks and Application of Random Forest Classifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    Converter AES Advance Encryption Standard ANN Artificial Neural Network APS Application Support AUC Area Under the Curve CPA Correlation Power Analysis ...Importance WGN White Gaussian Noise WPAN Wireless Personal Area Networks XEnv Cross-Environment XRx Cross-Receiver xxi ADVANCES IN SCA AND RF-DNA...based tool called KillerBee was released in 2009 that increases the exposure of ZigBee and other IEEE 802.15.4-based Wireless Personal Area Networks

  12. Circulating tumor DNA functions as an alternative for tissue to overcome tumor heterogeneity in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Wang, Haixing; Zang, Wanchun; Li, Beifang; Rao, Guanhua; Li, Lei; Yu, Yang; Li, Zhongwu; Dong, Bin; Lu, Zhihao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Overcoming tumor heterogeneity is a major challenge for personalized treatment of gastric cancer, especially for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 targeted therapy. Analysis of circulating tumor DNA allows a more comprehensive analysis of tumor heterogeneity than traditional biopsies in lung cancer and breast cancer, but little is known in gastric cancer. We assessed mutation profiles of ctDNA and primary tumors from 30 patients with advanced gastric cancer, then performed a comprehensive analysis of tumor mutations by multiple biopsies from five patients, and finally analyzed the concordance of HER2 amplification in ctDNA and paired tumor tissues in 70 patients. By comparing with a single tumor sample, ctDNA displayed a low concordance of mutation profile, only approximately 50% (138/275) somatic mutations were found in paired tissue samples, however, when compared with multiple biopsies, most DNA mutations in ctDNA were also shown in paired tumor tissues. ctDNA had a high concordance (91.4%, Kappa index = 0.784, P < 0.001) of HER2 amplification with tumor tissues, suggesting it might be an alternative for tissue. It implied that ctDNA-based assessment could partially overcome the tumor heterogeneity, and might serve as a potential surrogate for HER2 analysis in gastric cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  14. Cell-free DNA levels and correlation to stage and outcome following treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Wettergren, Yvonne; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Taflin, Helena; Gustavson, Bengt; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm

    2017-11-01

    Accurate staging of rectal cancer remains essential for optimal patient selection for combined modality treatment, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. We aimed at examining the correlation of cell free DNA with the pathologic stage and subsequent risk of recurrence for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiation. We examined 75 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving preoperative chemoradiation. Blood samples for translational use were drawn prior to rectal surgery. The level of cell free DNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR and expressed as copy number of beta 2 microglobulin. We found a median level of cell free DNA in the AJCC stages I-III of 3100, 8300, and 10,700 copies/mL respectively. For patients with 12 sampled lymph nodes or above, the median level of cell free DNA were 2400 copies/mL and 4400 copies/mL (p = 0.04) for node negative and node positive disease respectively. The median follow-up was 39 months and 11 recurrences were detected (15%). The median level for patients with recurrent disease was 13,000 copies/mL compared to 5200 copies/mL for non-recurrent patients (p = 0.08). We have demonstrated a correlation between the level of total cell free DNA and the pathologic stage and nodal involvement. Furthermore, we have found a trend towards a correlation with the risk of recurrence following resection of localized rectal cancer.

  15. Advances in the understanding of mitochondrial DNA as a pathogenic factor in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boyapati, Ray K.; Tamborska, Arina; Dorward, David A.; Ho, Gwo-Tzer

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has many similarities with bacterial DNA because of their shared common ancestry. Increasing evidence demonstrates mtDNA to be a potent danger signal that is recognised by the innate immune system and can directly modulate the inflammatory response. In humans, elevated circulating mtDNA is found in conditions with significant tissue injury such as trauma and sepsis and increasingly in chronic organ-specific and systemic illnesses such as steatohepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this review, we examine our current understanding of mtDNA-mediated inflammation and how the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial homeostasis and mtDNA release represent exciting and previously under-recognised important factors in many human inflammatory diseases, offering many new translational opportunities. PMID:28299196

  16. Serial circulating tumour DNA analysis during multimodality treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer: a prospective biomarker study.

    PubMed

    Tie, Jeanne; Cohen, Joshua D; Wang, Yuxuan; Li, Lu; Christie, Michael; Simons, Koen; Elsaleh, Hany; Kosmider, Suzanne; Wong, Rachel; Yip, Desmond; Lee, Margaret; Tran, Ben; Rangiah, David; Burge, Matthew; Goldstein, David; Singh, Madhu; Skinner, Iain; Faragher, Ian; Croxford, Matthew; Bampton, Carolyn; Haydon, Andrew; Jones, Ian T; S Karapetis, Christos; Price, Timothy; Schaefer, Mary J; Ptak, Jeanne; Dobbyn, Lisa; Silliman, Natallie; Kinde, Isaac; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth; Volgestein, Bert; Gibbs, Peter

    2018-02-02

    For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), adjuvant chemotherapy selection following surgery remains a major clinical dilemma. Here, we investigated the ability of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) to improve risk stratification in patients with LARC. We enrolled patients with LARC (T3/T4 and/or N+) planned for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Plasma samples were collected pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and 4-10 weeks after surgery. Somatic mutations in individual patient's tumour were identified via massively parallel sequencing of 15 genes commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. We then designed personalised assays to quantify ctDNA in plasma samples. Patients received adjuvant therapy at clinician discretion, blinded to the ctDNA results. We analysed 462 serial plasma samples from 159 patients. ctDNA was detectable in 77%, 8.3% and 12% of pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and postsurgery plasma samples. Significantly worse recurrence-free survival was seen if ctDNA was detectable after chemoradiotherapy (HR 6.6; P<0.001) or after surgery (HR 13.0; P<0.001). The estimated 3-year recurrence-free survival was 33% for the postoperative ctDNA-positive patients and 87% for the postoperative ctDNA-negative patients. Postoperative ctDNA detection was predictive of recurrence irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy use (chemotherapy: HR 10.0; P<0.001; without chemotherapy: HR 22.0; P<0.001). Postoperative ctDNA status remained an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for known clinicopathological risk factors (HR 6.0; P<0.001). Postoperative ctDNA analysis stratifies patients with LARC into subsets that are either at very high or at low risk of recurrence, independent of conventional clinicopathological risk factors. ctDNA analysis could potentially be used to guide patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved

  17. ctDNA Determination of EGFR Mutation Status in European and Japanese Patients with Advanced NSCLC: The ASSESS Study.

    PubMed

    Reck, Martin; Hagiwara, Koichi; Han, Baohui; Tjulandin, Sergei; Grohé, Christian; Yokoi, Takashi; Morabito, Alessandro; Novello, Silvia; Arriola, Edurne; Molinier, Olivier; McCormack, Rose; Ratcliffe, Marianne; Normanno, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    To offer patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC appropriate EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment, mutation testing of tumor samples is required. However, tissue/cytologic samples are not always available or evaluable. The large, noninterventional diagnostic ASSESS study (NCT01785888) evaluated the utility of circulating free tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) from plasma for EGFR mutation testing. ASSESS was conducted in 56 centers (in Europe and Japan). Eligible patients (with newly diagnosed locally advanced/metastatic treatment-naive advanced NSCLC) provided diagnostic tissue/cytologic and plasma samples. DNA extracted from tissue/cytologic samples was subjected to EGFR mutation testing using local practices; designated laboratories performed DNA extraction/mutation testing of blood samples. The primary end point was level of concordance of EGFR mutation status between matched tissue/cytologic and plasma samples. Of 1311 patients enrolled, 1288 were eligible. Concordance of mutation status in 1162 matched samples was 89% (sensitivity 46%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 78%, and negative predictive value 90%). A group of 25 patients with apparent false-positive plasma results was overrepresented for cytologic samples, use of less sensitive tissue testing methodologies, and smoking habits associated with high EGFR mutation frequency, indicative of false-negative tumor results. In cases in which plasma and tumor samples were tested with identical highly sensitive methods, positive predictive value/sensitivity were generally improved. These real-world data suggest that ctDNA is a feasible sample for EGFR mutation analysis. It is important to conduct mutation testing of both tumor and plasma samples in specialized laboratories, using robust/sensitive methods to ensure that patients receive appropriate treatments that target the molecular features of their disease. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer

  18. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  19. In vitro nonenzymatic glycation of DNA nucleobases: an evaluation of advanced glycation end products under alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Udayan; Cohenford, Menashi A; Guha, Madhumita; Dain, Joel A

    2006-11-01

    The advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of DNA nucleobases have received little attention, perhaps due to the fact that adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine do not dissolve under mild pH conditions. To maintain nucleobases in solution, alkaline pH conditions are typically required. The objectives of this investigation were twofold: to study the susceptibility of DNA nucleobases to nonenzymatic attack by different sugars, and to evaluate the factors that influence the formation of nucleobase AGEs at pH 12, i.e., in an alkaline environment that promotes the aldo-keto isomerization and epimerization of sugars. Varying concentrations of adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine were incubated over time with constant concentrations of D-glucose, D-galactose or D/L-glyceraldehyde under different conditions of temperature and ionic strength. Incubation of the nucleobases with the sugars resulted in a heterogeneous assembly of AGEs whose formation was monitored by UV/fluorescence spectroscopy. Capillary electrophoresis and HPLC were used to resolve the AGEs of the DNA adducts and provided a powerful tool for following the extent of glycation in each of the DNA nucleobases. Mass spectrometry studies of DNA adducts of guanine established that glycation at pH 12 proceeded through an Amadori intermediate.

  20. Diagnostic value of stool DNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Xia, Bing-Qing; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Guozhen; Yang, Yi-Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Bing-Sheng; Xu, An-Gao; Huang, Yun-Bo; Wang, Xin-Ying

    2013-08-01

    The diagnostic value of stool DNA (sDNA) testing for colorectal neoplasms remains controversial. To compensate for the lack of large-scale unbiased population studies, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of sDNA testing for multiple markers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and advanced adenoma. The PubMed, Science Direct, Biosis Review, Cochrane Library and Embase databases were systematically searched in January 2012 without time restriction. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model using sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic OR (DOR), summary ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC), and 95% CIs as effect measures. Heterogeneity was measured using the χ(2) test and Q statistic; subgroup analysis was also conducted. A total of 20 studies comprising 5876 individuals were eligible. There was no heterogeneity for CRC, but adenoma and advanced adenoma harboured considerable heterogeneity influenced by risk classification and various detection markers. Stratification analysis according to risk classification showed that multiple markers had a high DOR for the high-risk subgroups of both CRC (sensitivity 0.759 [95% CI 0.711 to 0.804]; specificity 0.883 [95% CI 0.846 to 0.913]; AUC 0.906) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.683 [95% CI 0.584 to 0.771]; specificity 0.918 [95% CI 0.866 to 0.954]; AUC 0.946) but not for the average-risk subgroups of either. In the methylation subgroup, sDNA testing had significantly higher DOR for CRC (sensitivity 0.753 [95% CI 0.685 to 0.812]; specificity 0.913 [95% CI 0.860 to 0.950]; AUC 0.918) and advanced adenoma (sensitivity 0.623 [95% CI 0.527 to 0.712]; specificity 0.926 [95% CI 0.882 to 0.958]; AUC 0.910) compared with the mutation subgroup. There was no significant heterogeneity among studies for subgroup analysis. sDNA testing for multiple markers had strong diagnostic significance for CRC and advanced adenoma in high-risk subjects. Methylation makers had more diagnostic value than mutation

  1. Genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number alterations in early and advanced gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Noriyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Habano, Wataru; Eizuka, Makoto; Sugimoto, Ryo; Akasaka, Risaburo; Toya, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Koeda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2017-02-01

    To better understand progressive changes in gastric cancer (GC), early and advanced GCs (EGC and AGC, respectively) were examined for copy number alterations (CNAs). A crypt isolation method was used to isolate DNA from tumors and normal glands in 20 AGCs, and fresh tumor samples were obtained from 45 EGCs. We assessed CNAs for differentiated-type GCs using an Infinium HumanCytoSNP-12v2.1 BeadChip in EGCs and AGCs. The most frequent aberrations in EGC were gains at 8q23.3 (42.2%) and 8q23.2 (40%), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 3p14.2 (24.2%), suggesting that these CNAs were involved in the development of EGC. On the other hand, the highest frequencies of gains in AGC were found at 8q24.21 (65%) and 8q24.3 (60%). The most frequent LOHs in AGC were at 11q24.3-25, 11q23.2-24.1, 11q14.1, and 12p11.21-13.33, whereas that in EGC was at 3p14.2. In addition, regions of copy-neutral LOHs in AGC were detected at 11q21, 11q13.3-14.3, 11q11, 11p13-15.3, 12q21.1, 12q12-13.3 and 5q33.3-35.1. Comparisons of gains in EGC and AGC showed significant differences at 12q22-q23.2, 12q21.33, 11p12, 11p14.1, 12q21.31-32.32, 3p12.3, 3p14.1, 10p15.1, 1q24.2 and 2q12.1. Copy neutral LOHs were significantly higher in AGC than in EGC at 14q32.11-32.33, 14q21.3, 14q11.2, 5q11.2, 5q 13.3, 14q21.1-23.2, 14q13.2-13.3, 5q12.1-12.3, 5q11.1, and 17p13.3. The total lengths of the CNAs were significantly greater in AGC than in EGC. We found that the pattern of CNAs in AGC was quite different from that in EGC. We suggest that increasing numbers of CNAs are associated with disease progression from EGC to AGC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Epigenome-wide association studies for cancer biomarker discovery in circulating cell-free DNA: technical advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tanić, Miljana; Beck, Stephan

    2017-02-01

    Since introducing the concept of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in 2011, there has been a vast increase in the number of published EWAS studies in common diseases, including in cancer. These studies have increased our understanding of epigenetic events underlying carcinogenesis and have enabled the discovery of cancer-specific methylation biomarkers. In this mini-review, we have focused on the state of the art in EWAS applied to cell-free circulating DNA for epigenetic biomarker discovery in cancer and discussed associated technical advances and challenges, and our expectations for the future of the field. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Advancements in the Underlying Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Implications of DNA Methylation in Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Shu; Huang, Nanxin; Michael, Namaka; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic and severe mental illness for which currently there is no cure. At present, the exact molecular mechanism involved in the underlying pathogenesis of SZ is unknown. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in SZ pathology. Specifically, DNA methylation, one of the earliest found epigenetic modifications, has been extensively linked to modulation of neuronal function, leading to psychiatric disorders such as SZ. However, increasing evidence indicates that glial cells, especially dysfunctional oligodendrocytes undergo DNA methylation changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ. This review primarily focuses on DNA methylation involved in glial dysfunctions in SZ. Clarifying this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventional strategies for the treatment of SZ and other illnesses by correcting abnormal methylation in glial cells.

  4. DNA replication fading as proliferating cells advance in their commitment to terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Estefanía, Monturus Ma; Ganier, Olivier; Hernández, Pablo; Schvartzman, Jorge B; Mechali, Marcel; Krimer, Dora B

    2012-01-01

    Terminal differentiation is the process by which cycling cells stop proliferating to start new specific functions. It involves dramatic changes in chromatin organization as well as gene expression. In the present report we used cell flow cytometry and genome wide DNA combing to investigate DNA replication during murine erythroleukemia-induced terminal cell differentiation. The results obtained indicated that the rate of replication fork movement slows down and the inter-origin distance becomes shorter during the precommitment and commitment periods before cells stop proliferating and accumulate in G1. We propose this is a general feature caused by the progressive heterochromatinization that characterizes terminal cell differentiation.

  5. Recent advance in DNA-based traceability and authentication of livestock meat PDO and PGI products.

    PubMed

    Nicoloso, Letizia; Crepaldi, Paola; Mazza, Raffaele; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Negrini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    This review updates the available molecular techniques and technologies and discusses how they can be used for traceability, food control and enforcement activities. The review also provides examples on how molecular techniques succeeded to trace back unknowns to their breeds of origin, to fingerprint single individuals and to generate evidence in court cases. The examples demonstrate the potential of the DNA based traceability techniques and explore possibilities for translating the next generation genomics tools into a food and feed control and enforcement framework.

  6. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Botella, Jose R

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.

  7. Advanced DNA-Based Point-of-Care Diagnostic Methods for Plant Diseases Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Han Yih; Botella, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail. PMID:29375588

  8. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit functions in metastasis and influences survival in advanced-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Sha-Sha; Chen, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Peng; Dong, Jun; Guo, Gui-Fang; Chen, Ju-Gao; Xia, Liang-Ping; Hu, Pei-Li; Qiu, Hui-Juan; Liu, Shou-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Wei-Han; Cai, Xiu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is known to function in several types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinicopathologic significance of DNA-PKcs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 208 patients with advanced-stage LSCC treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. We assessed DNA-PKcs and p16INK4a (p16) status using immunohistochemistry. We examined the association between DNA-PKcs expression and clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes. To evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of DNA-PKcs, we used univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We estimated overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that 163/208 (78.4%) of the LSCC tissue samples exhibited high DNA-PKcs expression. High DNA-PKcs expression was significantly associated with survival outcomes ( P = 0.016) and distant metastasis ( P = 0.02; chi-squared test). High DNA-PKcs expression was associated with a significantly shorter OS and DMFS than low DNA-PKcs expression ( P = 0.029 and 0.033, respectively; log-rank test), and was associated with poor OS in the p16-positive subgroup ( P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis identified DNA-PKcs as an independent prognostic indicator of OS and DMFS in all patients ( P = 0.039 and 0.037, respectively). Conclusions : Our results suggest that patients with LSCC in whom DNA-PKcs expression is elevated have a higher incidence of distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis. DNA-PKcs may represent a marker of tumor progression in patients with p16-positive LSCC.

  9. Circulating tumor DNA evaluated by Next-Generation Sequencing is predictive of tumor response and prolonged clinical benefit with nivolumab in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Giroux Leprieur, Etienne; Herbretau, Guillaume; Dumenil, Coraline; Julie, Catherine; Giraud, Violaine; Labrune, Sylvie; Dumoulin, Jennifer; Tisserand, Julie; Emile, Jean-François; Blons, Hélène; Chinet, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Nivolumab is an anti-PD1 antibody, given in second-line or later treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to describe the predictive value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) on the efficacy of nivolumab in advanced NSCLC. We prospectively included all consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in our Department between June 2015 and October 2016. Plasma samples were obtained before the first injection of nivolumab and at the first tumor evaluation with nivolumab. ctDNA was analyzed by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), and the predominant somatic mutation was followed for each patient and correlated with tumor response, clinical benefit (administration of nivolumab for more than 6 months), and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 23 patients, 15 had evaluable NGS results at both times of analysis. ctDNA concentration at the first tumor evaluation and ctDNA change correlated with tumor response, clinical benefit and PFS. ROC curve analyses showed good diagnostic performances for tumor response and clinical benefit, both for ctDNA concentration at the first tumor evaluation (tumor response: positive predictive value (PPV) at 100.0% and negative predictive value (NPV) at 71.0%; clinical benefit: PPV at 83.3% and NPV 77.8%) and the ctDNA change (tumor response: PPV 100.0% and NPV 62.5%; clinical benefit: PPV 100.0% and NPV 80.0%). Patients without ctDNA concentration increase >9% at 2 months had a long-term benefit of nivolumab. In conclusion, NGS analysis of ctDNA allows the early detection of tumor response and long-term clinical benefit with nivolumab in NSCLC.

  10. Recent advances in therapeutic recruitment of mammalian RNAi and bacterial CRISPR-Cas DNA interference pathways as emerging antiviral strategies.

    PubMed

    Chin, Wei-Xin; Ang, Swee Kim; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2017-01-01

    In invertebrate eukaryotes and prokaryotes, respectively, the RNAi and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) pathways are highly specific and efficient RNA and DNA interference systems, and are well characterised as potent antiviral systems. It has become possible to recruit or reconstitute these pathways in mammalian cells, where they can be directed against desired host or viral targets. The RNAi and CRISPR-Cas systems can therefore yield ideal antiviral therapeutics, capable of specific and efficient viral inhibition with minimal off-target effects, but development of such therapeutics can be slow. This review covers recent advances made towards developing RNAi or CRISPR-Cas strategies for clinical use. These studies address the delivery, toxicity or target design issues that typically plague the in vivo or clinical use of these technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Usefulness of circulating free DNA for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Ramirez, Santiago Viteri; Ariza, Nuria Jordana; Balada, Ariadna; Garzón, Mónica; Teixidó, Cristina; Karachaliou, Niki; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina-Vila, Miguel Ángel; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Genomic analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) released from cancer cells into the bloodstream has been proposed as a useful method to capture dynamic changes during the course of the disease. In particular, the ability to monitor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) isolated from advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients EGFR can help to the correct management of the disease and overcome the challenges associated with tumor heterogeneity and insufficient biopsied material to perform key molecular diagnosis. Here, we report a case of long term monitorization of EGFR mutation status in cfDNA from peripheral blood in an NSCLC patient in, with excellent correlation with clinical evolution. PMID:27826535

  12. Epigenetic modifications in multiple myeloma: recent advances on the role of DNA and histone methylation.

    PubMed

    Amodio, Nicola; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Passarino, Giuseppe; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Bellizzi, Dina

    2017-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a clonal late B-cell disorder accounting for about 13% of hematological cancers and 1% of all neoplastic diseases. Recent studies on the molecular pathogenesis and biology of MM have highlighted a complex epigenomic landscape contributing to MM onset, prognosis and high individual variability. Areas covered: We describe here the current knowledge on epigenetic events characterizing MM initiation and progression, focusing on the role of DNA and histone methylation and on the most promising epi-therapeutic approaches targeting the methylation pathway. Expert opinion: Data published so far indicate that alterations of the epigenetic framework, which include aberrant global or gene/non-coding RNA specific methylation profiles, feature prominently in the pathobiology of MM. Indeed, the aberrant expression of components of the epigenetic machinery as well as the reversibility of the epigenetic marks make this pathway druggable, providing the basis for the design of epigenetic therapies against this still fatal malignancy.

  13. Multi-tissue DNA methylation age: Molecular relationships and perspectives for advancing biomarker utility.

    PubMed

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-04-23

    The multi-tissue DNA methylation estimator of chronological age (DNAm-age) has been associated with a wide range of exposures and health outcomes. Still, it is unclear how DNAm-age can have such broad relationships and how it can be best utilized as a biomarker. Understanding DNAm-age's molecular relationships is a promising approach to address this critical knowledge gap. In this review, we discuss the existing literature regarding DNAm-age's molecular relationships in six major categories: animal model systems, cancer processes, cellular aging processes, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and nucleic acid processes. We also present perspectives regarding the future of DNAm-age research, including the need to translate a greater number of ongoing research efforts to experimental and animal model systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Advanced Urothelial Cancer With DNA-Repair Defects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-14

    Abnormal DNA Repair; ATM Gene Mutation; ATR Gene Mutation; BAP1 Gene Mutation; BARD1 Gene Mutation; BLM Gene Mutation; BRCA1 Gene Mutation; BRCA2 Gene Mutation; BRIP1 Gene Mutation; CHEK1 Gene Mutation; CHEK2 Gene Mutation; FANCC Gene Mutation; FANCD2 Gene Mutation; FANCE Gene Mutation; FANCF Gene Mutation; MEN1 Gene Mutation; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma; MLH1 Gene Mutation; MSH2 Gene Mutation; MSH6 Gene Mutation; MUTYH Gene Mutation; NPM1 Gene Mutation; PALB2 Gene Mutation; PMS2 Gene Mutation; POLD1 Gene Mutation; POLE Gene Mutation; PRKDC Gene Mutation; RAD50 Gene Mutation; RAD51 Gene Mutation; SMARCB1 Gene Mutation; Stage III Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v7; STK11 Gene Mutation; Urothelial Carcinoma

  15. Circulating Tumor DNA Measurement by Picoliter Droplet-Based Digital PCR and Vemurafenib Plasma Concentrations in Patients with Advanced BRAF-Mutated Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Garlan, Fanny; Blanchet, Benoit; Kramkimel, Nora; Puszkiel, Alicja; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Noe, Gaelle; Dupin, Nicolas; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Vidal, Michel; Taly, Valerie; Thomas-Schoemann, Audrey

    2017-06-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has been reported as a prognostic marker in melanoma. In BRAF V600-mutant melanoma, a plasma under-exposure to vemurafenib could favor emerging resistance but no biological data are available to support this hypothesis. We aimed to investigate the relationship between vemurafenib plasma concentrations and the ctDNA plasma concentration during follow-up of BRAF-mutated melanoma patients. Eleven patients treated with single-agent vemurafenib for advanced BRAF V600-mutant melanoma were analyzed in an exploratory monocentric study. The vemurafenib plasma concentration was measured by liquid chromatography. ctDNA was extracted from plasma samples and the ctDNA concentration was evaluated using picoliter droplet-based digital PCR with Taqman ® detection probes targeting the BRAF p.V600E/K mutation and wild-type BRAF sequences. At baseline, plasma ctDNA was detectable in 72% (n = 8/11) of patients and the ctDNA concentration decreased in 88% of these patients (n = 7/8) from day (D) 0 to D15 after vemurafenib initiation. During follow-up, an increased ctDNA concentration was detected in nine patients: in five patients, the first increase in ctDNA concentrations followed a decrease in vemurafenib concentrations. More interestingly, an inverse correlation between vemurafenib concentration and ctDNA concentrations was demonstrated (p = 0.026). The ctDNA concentration at baseline was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.61, 95% CI 1.04-6.56; p = 0.04). This study demonstrates the relevance of vemurafenib plasma monitoring during the follow-up of metastatic melanoma patients. Plasma drug monitoring and ctDNA concentrations could be combined to monitor tumor evolution in melanoma patients treated with anti-BRAF therapies.

  16. Cell-Free Plasma DNA-Guided Treatment With Osimertinib in Patients With Advanced EGFR-Mutated NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Buder, Anna; Hochmair, Maximilian J; Schwab, Sophia; Bundalo, Tatjana; Schenk, Peter; Errhalt, Peter; Mikes, Romana E; Absenger, Gudrun; Patocka, Kurt; Baumgartner, Bernhard; Setinek, Ulrike; Burghuber, Otto C; Prosch, Helmut; Pirker, Robert; Filipits, Martin

    2018-03-02

    Osimertinib is standard treatment for patients with advanced EGFR T790M-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer who have been pre-treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We studied whether cell-free plasma DNA for T790M detection can be used to select patients for osimertinib treatment in the clinical routine. From April 2015 to November 2016, we included 119 patients with advanced EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer who had progressed under treatment with an EGFR-TKI. The T790M mutation status was assessed in cell-free plasma DNA by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in all patients and by tissue analyses in selected patients. T790M mutations were detected in 85 (93%) patients by analyses of cell-free plasma DNA and in 6 (7%) plasma-negative patients by tumor re-biopsy. Eighty-nine of 91 T790M-positive patients received osimertinib. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.1-12.1). Median survival was not reached and the 1-year survival was 64%. The response rate was 70% in T790M-positive patients (n = 91) in the intention-to-treat population. PFS trended to be shorter in patients with high T790M copy number (≥10 copies/mL) compared to those with low T790M copy number (<10 copies/mL) (hazard ratio for PFS = 1.72, 95% CI: 0.92-3.2, p = 0.09). A comparable trend was observed for overall survival (hazard ratio for overall survival = 2.16, 95% CI: 0.89-5.25, p = 0.09). No difference in response rate was observed based on T790M copy numbers. Plasma genotyping using digital polymerase chain reaction is clinically useful for the selection of patients who had progressed during first-line EGFR-TKI therapy for treatment with osimertinib. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced DNA- and Protein-based Methods for the Detection and Investigation of Food Allergens.

    PubMed

    Prado, M; Ortea, I; Vial, S; Rivas, J; Calo-Mata, P; Barros-Velázquez, J

    2016-11-17

    Currently, food allergies are an important health concern worldwide. The presence of undeclared allergenic ingredients or the presence of traces of allergens due to contamination during food processing poses a great health risk to sensitized individuals. Therefore, reliable analytical methods are required to detect and identify allergenic ingredients in food products. The present review addresses the recent developments regarding the application of DNA- and protein-based methods for the detection of allergenic ingredients in foods. The fitness-for-purpose of reviewed methodology will be discussed, and future trends will be highlighted. Special attention will be given to the evaluation of the potential of newly developed and promising technologies that can improve the detection and identification of allergenic ingredients in foods, such as the use of biosensors and/or nanomaterials to improve detection limits, specificity, ease of use, or to reduce the time of analysis. Such rapid food allergen test methods are required to facilitate the reliable detection of allergenic ingredients by control laboratories, to give the food industry the means to easily determine whether its product has been subjected to cross-contamination and, simultaneously, to identify how and when this cross-contamination occurred.

  18. Frequent germline deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes in familial prostate cancer cases are associated with advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Leongamornlert, D; Saunders, E; Dadaev, T; Tymrakiewicz, M; Goh, C; Jugurnauth-Little, S; Kozarewa, I; Fenwick, K; Assiotis, I; Barrowdale, D; Govindasami, K; Guy, M; Sawyer, E; Wilkinson, R; Antoniou, A C; Eeles, R; Kote-Jarai, Z

    2014-03-18

    Prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common diseases to affect men worldwide and among the leading causes of cancer-related death. The purpose of this study was to use second-generation sequencing technology to assess the frequency of deleterious mutations in 22 tumour suppressor genes in familial PrCa and estimate the relative risk of PrCa if these genes are mutated. Germline DNA samples from 191 men with 3 or more cases of PrCa in their family were sequenced for 22 tumour suppressor genes using Agilent target enrichment and Illumina technology. Analysis for genetic variation was carried out by using a pipeline consisting of BWA, Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and ANNOVAR. Clinical features were correlated with mutation status using standard statistical tests. Modified segregation analysis was used to determine the relative risk of PrCa conferred by the putative loss-of-function (LoF) mutations identified. We discovered 14 putative LoF mutations in 191 samples (7.3%) and these mutations were more frequently associated with nodal involvement, metastasis or T4 tumour stage (P=0.00164). Segregation analysis of probands with European ancestry estimated that LoF mutations in any of the studied genes confer a relative risk of PrCa of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.56-2.42). These findings show that LoF mutations in DNA repair pathway genes predispose to familial PrCa and advanced disease and therefore warrants further investigation. The clinical utility of these findings will become increasingly important as targeted screening and therapies become more widespread.

  19. Guide to detecting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in ctDNA of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Normanno, Nicola; Denis, Marc G.; Thress, Kenneth S.; Ratcliffe, Marianne; Reck, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cancer treatment is evolving towards therapies targeted at specific molecular abnormalities that drive tumor growth. Consequently, to determine which patients are eligible, accurate assessment of molecular aberrations within tumors is required. Obtaining sufficient tumor tissue for molecular testing can present challenges; therefore, circulating free tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) found in blood plasma has been proposed as an alternative source of tumor DNA. The diagnostic utility of ctDNA for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations harbored in tumors of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is supported by the results of several large studies/meta-analyses. However, recent real-world studies suggest that the performance of ctDNA testing varies between geographic regions/laboratories, demonstrating the need for standardized guidance. In this review, we outline recommendations for obtaining an accurate result using ctDNA, relating to pre-analytical plasma processing, ctDNA extraction, and appropriate EGFR mutation detection methods, based on clinical trial results. We conclude that there are several advantages associated with ctDNA, including the potential for repeated sampling particularly following progression after first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, as TKIs targeting resistance mutations (eg T790M) are now approved for use in the USA/EU/Japan (at time of writing). However, evidence suggests that ctDNA does not allow detection of EGFR mutations in all patients with known mutation-positive NSCLC. Therefore, although tumor tissue should be the first sample choice for EGFR testing at diagnosis, ctDNA is a promising alternative diagnostic approach. PMID:27980215

  20. Development and Validation of an Ultradeep Next-Generation Sequencing Assay for Testing of Plasma Cell-Free DNA from Patients with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Janku, Filip; Zhang, Shile; Waters, Jill; Liu, Li; Huang, Helen J; Subbiah, Vivek; Hong, David S; Karp, Daniel D; Fu, Siqing; Cai, Xuyu; Ramzanali, Nishma M; Madwani, Kiran; Cabrilo, Goran; Andrews, Debra L; Zhao, Yue; Javle, Milind; Kopetz, E Scott; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kim, Hyunsung J; Gnerre, Sante; Satya, Ravi Vijaya; Chuang, Han-Yu; Kruglyak, Kristina M; Toung, Jonathan; Zhao, Chen; Shen, Richard; Heymach, John V; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Mills, Gordon B; Fan, Jian-Bing; Salathia, Neeraj S

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: Tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma can be used for molecular testing and provide an attractive alternative to tumor tissue. Commonly used PCR-based technologies can test for limited number of alterations at the time. Therefore, novel ultrasensitive technologies capable of testing for a broad spectrum of molecular alterations are needed to further personalized cancer therapy. Experimental Design: We developed a highly sensitive ultradeep next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay using reagents from TruSeqNano library preparation and NexteraRapid Capture target enrichment kits to generate plasma cfDNA sequencing libraries for mutational analysis in 61 cancer-related genes using common bioinformatics tools. The results were retrospectively compared with molecular testing of archival primary or metastatic tumor tissue obtained at different points of clinical care. Results: In a study of 55 patients with advanced cancer, the ultradeep NGS assay detected 82% (complete detection) to 87% (complete and partial detection) of the aberrations identified in discordantly collected corresponding archival tumor tissue. Patients with a low variant allele frequency (VAF) of mutant cfDNA survived longer than those with a high VAF did ( P = 0.018). In patients undergoing systemic therapy, radiological response was positively associated with changes in cfDNA VAF ( P = 0.02), and compared with unchanged/increased mutant cfDNA VAF, decreased cfDNA VAF was associated with longer time to treatment failure (TTF; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Ultradeep NGS assay has good sensitivity compared with conventional clinical mutation testing of archival specimens. A high VAF in mutant cfDNA corresponded with shorter survival. Changes in VAF of mutated cfDNA were associated with TTF. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5648-56. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Multiplex picoliter-droplet digital PCR for quantitative assessment of EGFR mutations in circulating cell-free DNA derived from advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Huang, Fei; Zhang, Meilin; Ji, Haiying; Wu, Shenchao; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiong; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baisheng; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Wei

    2017-08-01

    To explore the possible diagnostic value of liquid biopsy, two multiplex panels using picoliter-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) were established to quantitatively assess the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in cell‑free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of advanced non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Plasma samples derived from 22 patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations in matched tumor tissues confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis were subjected to two multiplex ddPCR panels to assess the abundance of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ‑sensitive (19DEL, L858R) and TKI‑resistant (T790 M) mutations. Fluctuations in EGFR mutant abundance were monitored by either of the multiplex ddPCR panels for three patients undergoing EGFR‑TKI treatment, with serial plasma sample collections over 2 months. The multiplex ddPCR panels applied to plasma cfDNA from advanced NSCLC patients achieved a total concordance rate of 80% with the EGFR mutation profiles obtained by ARMS from matched biopsy tumor specimens (90% for 19DEL, 95% for L858R, 95% for T790M, respectively) and revealed additional mutant alleles in two subjects. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 90.9 and 88.9% for 19DEL, 87.5 and 100% for L858R, 100 and 93.8% for T790M. The fluctuations of EGFR mutant abundance in serial plasma cfDNA were in accordance with the changes in tumor size as assessed by imaging scans. The authors demonstrated the utility of multiplex ddPCR panels with ultra‑sensitivity for quantitative analysis of EGFR mutations in plasma cfDNA and obtained promising usefulness in EGFR‑TKI decision‑making for advanced NSCLC patients.

  2. Multiplex picoliter-droplet digital PCR for quantitative assessment of EGFR mutations in circulating cell-free DNA derived from advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Huang, Fei; Zhang, Meilin; Ji, Haiying; Wu, Shenchao; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Chunyan; Wu, Jiong; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baisheng; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Wei

    2017-01-01

    To explore the possible diagnostic value of liquid biopsy, two multiplex panels using picoliter-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) were established to quantitatively assess the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from the plasma of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Plasma samples derived from 22 patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations in matched tumor tissues confirmed by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis were subjected to two multiplex ddPCR panels to assess the abundance of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) -sensitive (19DEL, L858R) and TKI-resistant (T790 M) mutations. Fluctuations in EGFR mutant abundance were monitored by either of the multiplex ddPCR panels for three patients undergoing EGFR-TKI treatment, with serial plasma sample collections over 2 months. The multiplex ddPCR panels applied to plasma cfDNA from advanced NSCLC patients achieved a total concordance rate of 80% with the EGFR mutation profiles obtained by ARMS from matched biopsy tumor specimens (90% for 19DEL, 95% for L858R, 95% for T790M, respectively) and revealed additional mutant alleles in two subjects. The respective sensitivity and specificity were 90.9 and 88.9% for 19DEL, 87.5 and 100% for L858R, 100 and 93.8% for T790M. The fluctuations of EGFR mutant abundance in serial plasma cfDNA were in accordance with the changes in tumor size as assessed by imaging scans. The authors demonstrated the utility of multiplex ddPCR panels with ultra-sensitivity for quantitative analysis of EGFR mutations in plasma cfDNA and obtained promising usefulness in EGFR-TKI decision-making for advanced NSCLC patients. PMID:29067441

  3. Evaluation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride and DNA interactions for the design of an advanced drug delivery system in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Jayme, Cristiano Ceron; Calori, Italo Rodrigo; Cunha, Elise Marques Freire; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio

    2018-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) with double-stranded DNA. Absorption and fluorescence spectra, resonance light scattering, and circular dichroism were evaluated in water and water/ethanol mixtures with different concentrations of DNA or AlClPc. AlClPc showed a high ability to bind to DNA in both water and 4/6 water/ethanol mixture (v/v), with a majority of monomeric and aggregated initial forms of AlClPc, respectively. In this interaction, AlClPc bound preferentially to the grooves of DNA. The monomeric/aggregate state of AlClPc in DNA was dependent on the AlClPc/DNA ratio. At low concentrations of AlClPc, the interaction of AlClPc with few DNA sites caused a curvature in the DNA structure that provided a favorable environment for the intercalation of AlClPc aggregates. Increase in AlClPc concentration induced interactions with a high number of binding sites on DNA, which prevented bending and therefore aggregation of AlClPc molecules throughout the double-stranded DNA. These results are relevant to the understanding of the behavior and interaction of AlClPc with double-stranded DNA in the design of novel drug delivery systems for clinical application in photodynamic therapy as a new approach to treat skin or oral cancer, scars, or wound healing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutational Landscape of cfDNA Identifies Distinct Molecular Features Associated With Therapeutic Response to First-Line Platinum-Based Doublet Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Xuefei; Wang, Jianfei; Su, Chunxia; Han, Wenbo; Zhao, Chao; Wu, Fengying; Gao, Guanghui; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiaoxia; Li, Jiayu; Zhou, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Cai, Weijing; Zhang, Henghui; Du, Bo; Zhang, Jun; Ren, Shengxiang; Zhou, Caicun; Yu, Hui; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale To investigate whether the mutational landscape of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) could predict and dynamically monitor the response to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Eligible patients were included and blood samples were collected from a phase III trial. Both cfDNA fragments and fragmented genomic DNA were extracted for enrichment in a 1.15M size panel covering exon regions of 1,086 genes. Molecular mutational burden (MMB) was calculated to investigate the relationship between molecular features of cfDNA and response to chemotherapy. Results In total, 52 eligible cases were enrolled and their blood samples were prospectively collected at baseline, every cycle of chemotherapy and time of disease progression. At baseline, alterations of 17 genes were found. Patients with partial response (PR) had significantly lower baseline MMB of these genes than those patients with either stable disease (SD) (P = 0.0006) or progression disease (PD) (P = 0.0074). Further analysis revealed that the mutational landscape of cfDNA from pretreatment blood samples were distinctly different among patients with PR vs. SD/PD. For patients with baseline TP53 mutation, those with PR experienced a significant reduction in MMB whereas patients with SD or PD experienced an increase after two, three or four cycles of chemotherapy. Furthermore, patients with low MMB had superior response rate and significantly longer progression-free survival than those with high MMB. Conclusion This study indicated that the mutational landscape of cfDNA has potential clinical value to predict the therapeutic response to first-line platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in NSCLC patients. At the single gene level, dynamic change of molecular mutational burden of TP53 is valuable to monitor efficacy (and, therefore, might aid in early recognition of resistance and relapse) in patients harboring this mutation at baseline. PMID

  5. The impact of sperm DNA damage in assisted conception and beyond: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheena E M; John Aitken, R; Conner, Sarah J; Iuliis, Geoffry De; Evenson, Donald P; Henkel, Ralph; Giwercman, Aleksander; Gharagozloo, Parviz

    2013-10-01

    Sperm DNA damage is a useful biomarker for male infertility diagnosis and prediction of assisted reproduction outcomes. It is associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates, and higher rates of spontaneous miscarriage and childhood diseases. This review provides a synopsis of the most recent studies from each of the authors, all of whom have major track records in the field of sperm DNA damage in the clinical setting. It explores current laboratory tests and the accumulating body of knowledge concerning the relationship between sperm DNA damage and clinical outcomes. The paper proceeds to discuss the strengths, weaknesses and clinical applicability of current sperm DNA tests. Next, the biological significance of DNA damage in the male germ line is considered. Finally, as sperm DNA damage is often the result of oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract, the potential contribution of antioxidant therapy in the clinical management of this condition is discussed. DNA damage in human spermatozoa is an important attribute of semen quality. It should be part of the clinical work up and properly controlled trials addressing the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy should be undertaken as a matter of urgency. Sperm DNA damage is a useful biomarker for male infertility diagnosis and prediction of assisted reproduction outcomes. It is associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates, and higher rates of spontaneous miscarriage and childhood diseases. With all of these fertility check points, it shows more promise than conventional semen parameters from a diagnostic perspective. Despite this, few infertility clinics use it routinely. This review provides a synopsis of the most recent studies from each of the authors, all of whom have major track records in the field of sperm DNA damage in the clinical setting. It explores current laboratory tests and the accumulating body of knowledge concerning the

  6. Multiplex KRASG12/G13 mutation testing of unamplified cell-free DNA from the plasma of patients with advanced cancers using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Janku, F; Huang, H J; Fujii, T; Shelton, D N; Madwani, K; Fu, S; Tsimberidou, A M; Piha-Paul, S A; Wheler, J J; Zinner, R G; Naing, A; Hong, D S; Karp, D D; Cabrilo, G; Kopetz, E S; Subbiah, V; Luthra, R; Kee, B K; Eng, C; Morris, V K; Karlin-Neumann, G A; Meric-Bernstam, F

    2017-03-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from plasma offers easily obtainable material for KRAS mutation analysis. Novel, multiplex, and accurate diagnostic systems using small amounts of DNA are needed to further the use of plasma cfDNA testing in personalized therapy. Samples of 16 ng of unamplified plasma cfDNA from 121 patients with diverse progressing advanced cancers were tested with a KRASG12/G13 multiplex assay to detect the seven most common mutations in the hotspot of exon 2 using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). The results were retrospectively compared to mutation analysis of archival primary or metastatic tumor tissue obtained at different points of clinical care. Eighty-eight patients (73%) had KRASG12/G13 mutations in archival tumor specimens collected on average 18.5 months before plasma analysis, and 78 patients (64%) had KRASG12/G13 mutations in plasma cfDNA samples. The two methods had initial overall agreement in 103 (85%) patients (kappa, 0.66; ddPCR sensitivity, 84%; ddPCR specificity, 88%). Of the 18 discordant cases, 12 (67%) were resolved by increasing the amount of cfDNA, using mutation-specific probes, or re-testing the tumor tissue, yielding overall agreement in 115 patients (95%; kappa 0.87; ddPCR sensitivity, 96%; ddPCR specificity, 94%). The presence of ≥ 6.2% of KRASG12/G13 cfDNA in the wild-type background was associated with shorter survival (P = 0.001). Multiplex detection of KRASG12/G13 mutations in a small amount of unamplified plasma cfDNA using ddPCR has good sensitivity and specificity and good concordance with conventional clinical mutation testing of archival specimens. A higher percentage of mutant KRASG12/G13 in cfDNA corresponded with shorter survival. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Clinical Application of Genomic Profiling With Circulating Tumor DNA for Management of Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Loong, Herbert H; Raymond, Victoria M; Shiotsu, Yukimasa; Chua, Daniel T T; Teo, Peter M L; Yung, Tony; Skrzypczak, Stan; Lanman, Richard B; Mok, Tony S K

    2018-05-07

    Genomic profiling of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a potential alternative to repeat invasive biopsy in patients with advanced cancer. We report the first real-world cohort of comprehensive genomic assessments of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese population. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC whose physician requested ctDNA-based genomic profiling using the Guardant360 platform from January 2016 to June 2017. Guardant360 includes all 4 major types of genomic alterations (point mutations, insertion-deletion alterations, fusions, and amplifications) in 73 genes. Genomic profiling was performed in 76 patients from Hong Kong during the 18-month study period (median age, 59.5 years; 41 men and 35 women). The histologic types included adenocarcinoma (n = 10), NSCLC, not otherwise specified (n = 58), and squamous cell carcinoma (n = 8). In the adenocarcinoma and NSCLC, not otherwise specified, combined group, 62 of the 68 patients (91%) had variants identified (range, 1-12; median, 3), of whom, 26 (42%) had ≥ 1 of the 7 National Comprehensive Cancer Network-recommended lung adenocarcinoma genomic targets. Concurrent detection of driver and resistance mutations were identified in 6 of 13 patients with EGFR driver mutations and in 3 of 5 patients with EML4-ALK fusions. All 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma had multiple variants identified (range, 1-20; median, 6), including FGFR1 amplification and ERBB2 (HER2) amplification. PIK3CA amplification occurred in combination with either FGFR1 or ERBB2 (HER2) amplification or alone. Genomic profiling using ctDNA analysis detected alterations in most patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, with targetable aberrations and resistance mechanisms identified. This approach has demonstrated its feasibility in Asia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytometry of DNA Replication and RNA Synthesis: Historical Perspective and Recent Advances Based on “Click Chemistry”

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Traganos, Frank; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H. Dorota; Li, Jiangwei

    2011-01-01

    This review covers progress in the development of cytometric methodologies designed to assess DNA replication and RNA synthesis. The early approaches utilizing autoradiography to detect incorporation of 3H- or 14C-labeled thymidine were able to identify the four fundamental phases of the cell cycle G1, S, G2, and M, and by analysis of the fraction of labeled mitosis (FLM), to precisely define the kinetics of cell progression through these phases. Analysis of 3H-uridine incorporation and RNA content provided the means to distinguish quiescent G0 from cycling G1 cells. Subsequent progress in analysis of DNA replication was based on the use of BrdU as a DNA precursor and its detection by the quenching of the fluorescence intensity of DNA-bound fluorochromes such as Hoechst 33358 or acridine orange as measured by flow cytometry. Several variants of this methodology have been designed and used in studies to detect anticancer drug-induced perturbations of cell cycle kinetics. The next phase of method development, which was particularly useful in studies of the cell cycle in vivo, including clinical applications, relied on immunocytochemical detection of incorporated halogenated DNA or RNA precursors. This approach however was hampered by the need for DNA denaturation, which made it difficult to concurrently detect other cell constituents for multiparametric analysis. The recently introduced “click chemistry” approach has no such limitation and is the method of choice for analysis of DNA replication and RNA synthesis. This method is based on the use of 5-ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine (EdU) as a DNA precursor or 5-ethynyluridine (EU) as an RNA precursor and their detection with fluorochrome-tagged azides utilizing a copper (I) catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition. Several examples are presented that illustrate incorporation of EdU or EU in cells subjected to DNA damage detected as histone H2AX phosphorylation that have been analyzed by flow or laser scanning cytometry. PMID

  9. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    2014-05-05

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33±0.2×10(4) L mol(-1)and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH=34.4 kJ mol(-1); ΔS=184.32 J mol(-1) K(-1)). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol(-1). This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental and molecular docking studies on DNA binding interaction of adefovir dipivoxil: Advances toward treatment of hepatitis B virus infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Falsafi, Monireh

    The toxic interaction of adefovir dipivoxil with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove binding mode. The binding constant of UV-visible and the number of binding sites were 3.33 ± 0.2 × 104 L mol-1and 0.99, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drug and CT-DNA is exothermic (ΔH = 34.4 kJ mol-1; ΔS = 184.32 J mol-1 K-1). Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was employed to measure the conformational change of CT-DNA in the presence of adefovir dipivoxil, which verified the groove binding mode. Furthermore, the drug induces detectable changes in its viscosity. The molecular modeling results illustrated that adefovir strongly binds to groove of DNA by relative binding energy of docked structure -16.83 kJ mol-1. This combination of multiple spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling methods can be widely used in the investigation on the toxic interaction of small molecular pollutants and drugs with bio macromolecules, which contributes to clarify the molecular mechanism of toxicity or side effect in vivo.

  11. Recent advances in circulating tumor cells and cell-free DNA in metastatic prostate cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Parimi, Sunil; Ko, Jenny J

    2017-10-01

    The treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has changed dramatically over the past five years. As new discoveries are made and further novel therapies become available, there is a heightened urgency to develop biomarkers that can guide prognoses and predict therapy responses. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in the blood have emerged as potential promising tumor avatars. Areas covered: In this review, we describe technological breakthroughs and clinical implementation of the CTCs and ctDNA. We also discuss the key challenges that must be overcome before circulating blood-based biomarkers can be universally adopted into the management of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Expert commentary: Both CTCs and ctDNA have the potential to be incorporated into routine patient care, with increasing numbers of prospective trials incorporating them into clinical designs. CTCs and ctDNA will thus have an increasingly valuable role in augmenting our understanding of prostate cancer at a molecular level, aiding in prognostication of prostate cancer patients, acting as a surrogate for OS in clinical trials, and helping us prioritize our treatment selections by elucidating resistance mechanisms.

  12. Clinical response to chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer was not associated with several polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes and DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Mostafa; Khalili, Maryam; Nasiri, Meysam; Rajaei, Mehrdad; Omidvari, Shahpour; Saadat, Iraj

    2012-03-02

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the association between several genetic polymorphisms (in glutathione S-transferase members and DNA repair genes) and clinical response to chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer. A sequential series of 101 patients were prospectively included in this study. Clinical assessment of treatment was accomplished by comparing initial tumor size with preoperative tumor size using revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Clinical response was regarded as a response or no response. There was no difference between non-responders and responders for the prevalence of genotypes of the study polymorphisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Viral DNA and Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li-Ting; Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of the plasma load of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: In all, 185 consecutive patients with stage III to IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) were prospectively enrolled. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints included locoregional relapse–free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Results: EBV DNA was detected in 165 (89%) patients before treatment but was undetectable in 127 (69%) patients after NACT. Detectable EBV DNA levels aftermore » NACT were correlated with poor prognosis (3-year PFS 71.8% vs 85.2%, P=.008 and 3-year DMFS 82.5% vs 92.3%, P=.013). An unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT was also correlated with poor clinical outcome (3-year PFS 71.1% vs 85.9%, P=.005 and 3-year LRFS 82.7% vs 93.5%, P=.012). Multivariate analysis showed that the EBV DNA level after NACT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.54, P=.015) and the tumor response to NACT (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.42-5.67, P=.003) were both significant prognostic factors for PFS. Multivariate analysis also showed that EBV DNA after NACT was the only significant predictor of DMFS (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.15, P=.014) and that tumor response to NACT was the only significant predictor of LRFS (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.21-9.07, P=.020). Conclusion: Detectable EBV DNA levels and an unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT serve as predictors of poor prognosis for patients with advanced-stage NPC. These findings will facilitate further risk stratification, early treatment modification, or both before CCRT.« less

  14. Relationship between pretreatment level of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA, tumor burden, and metabolic activity in advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Brigette; King, Ann; Lo, Y.M. Dennis

    Purpose: Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (pEBV DNA) is an important prognostic marker in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study tested the hypotheses that pEBV DNA reflects tumor burden and metabolic activity by evaluating its relationship with tumor volume and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in NPC. Methods and Materials: Pre-treatment pEBV DNA analysis, {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and neck were performed in 57 patients. Net volume (cm{sup 3}) of the primary tumor (T{sub vol}) and regional nodes (N{sub vol}) were quantified on MRI. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was expressed asmore » the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) at the primary tumor (T{sub suv}) and regional nodes (N{sub suv}). Lesions with SUV{sub max} {>=} 2.5 were considered malignant. Relationship between SUV{sub max}, natural logarithm (log) of pEBV DNA, and square root (sq) of MRI volumes was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. A linear regression model was constructed to test for any interaction between variables and disease stage. Results: Log-pEBV DNA showed significant correlation with sq-T{sub vol} (r = 0.393), sq-N{sub vol} (r = 0.452), total tumor volume (sq-Total{sub vol} = T{sub vol} + N{sub vol}, r = 0.554), T{sub suv} (r = 0.276), N{sub suv} (r = 0.434), and total SUV{sub max} (Total{sub suv} = T{sub suv} + N{sub suv}, r = 0.457). Likewise, sq-T{sub vol} was correlated to T{sub suv} (r 0.426), and sq-N{sub vol} with N{sub suv} (r = 0.651). Regression analysis showed that only log-pEBV DNA was significantly associated with sq-Total{sub vol} (p < 0.001; parameter estimate = 8.844; 95% confidence interval = 3.986-13.703), whereas Sq-T{sub vol} was significantly associated with T{sub suv} (p = 0.002; parameter estimate = 3.923; 95% confidence interval = 1.498-6.348). Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis that cell-free plasma EBV DNA is a marker of tumor

  15. Circulating tumor DNA profiling reveals clonal evolution and real-time disease progression in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi-Xiong; Chen, Geng; Zeng, Yong-Yi; Dong, Xiu-Qing; Lin, Min-Jie; Huang, Xin-Hui; Zhang, Da; Liu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing-Feng

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) provides a potential non-invasive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, but whether it could reflect tumor heterogeneity and monitor therapeutic responses in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Focusing on 574 cancer genes known to harbor actionable mutations, we identified the mutation repertoire of HCC tissues, and monitored the corresponding ctDNA features in blood samples to evaluate its clinical significance. Analysis of 3 HCC patients' mutation profiles revealed that ctDNA could overcome tumor heterogeneity and provide information of tumor burden and prognosis. Further analysis was conducted on the 4th HCC case with multiple lesion samples and sequential plasma samples. We identified 160 subclonal SNVs in tumor tissues as well as matched peritumor tissues with PBMC as control. 96.9% of this patient's tissue mutations could be also detected in plasma samples. These subclonal SNVs were grouped into 9 clusters according to their trends of cellular prevalence shift in tumor tissues. Two clusters constituted of tumor stem somatic mutations showed circulating levels relating with cancer progression. Analysis of tumor somatic mutations revealed that circulating level of such tumor stem somatic mutations could reflect tumor burden and even predict prognosis earlier than traditional strategies. Furthermore, HCK (p.V174M), identified as a recurrent/metastatic related mutation site, could promote migration and invasion of HCC cells. Taken together, study of mutation profiles in biopsy and plasma samples in HCC patients showed that ctDNA could overcome tumor heterogeneity and real-time track the therapeutic responses in the longitudinal monitoring. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Increased Levels of Plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA Identify a Poor-Risk Subset of Patients With Advanced Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Gru, Alejandro A.; Geyer, Susan M.; Bingman, Anissa K.; Hemminger, Jessica A.; Mishra, Anjali; Wong, Henry K.; Pancholi, Preeti; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Discovering prognostic factors that simultaneously describe tumor characteristics and improve risk stratification is a priority in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). More than a third of advanced stage CTCL patients in this cohort had detectable cell free plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-DNA (pEBVd) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An increased level of pEBVd was highly concordant with EBV (ie, Epstein–Barr virus RNAs) in tumor tissue and was associated with inferior survival. Introduction Outcomes in advanced stage (AS) cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are poor but with great variability. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Frequency of plasma EBV-DNA (pEBVd) detection, concordance with EBV RNA (EBER) in tumor tissue, codetection of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA (pCMVd), and prognostic effect in AS CTCL are unknown. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 46; 2006–2013) with AS CTCL (≥IIB) were retrospectively studied. pEBVd and pCMVd were longitudinally measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBER in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on tumor samples. Survival from time of diagnosis (ToD) and time of progression to AS was assessed. Results Plasma EBV-DNA and pCMVd were detected in 37% (17 of 46) and 17% (8 of 46) of AS CTCL patients, respectively. pCMVd detection was significantly more frequent in pEBVd-positive (pEBVd+) than pEBVd− patients (35% vs. 7%; P = .038). Tumor tissue for EBER-ISH was available in 14 of 17 pEBVd+ and 22 of 29 pEBVd− patients; 12 of 14 (85.7%) pEBVd+ patients were EBER+ versus 0 of 22 pEBVd− patients. Frequency of large cell transformation (LCT) tended to be greater in pEBVd+ patients, but was not significant (10 of 14 pEBVd+ vs. 10 of 23 pEBVd−; P = .17). No notable differences in rates of increased levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were observed (17 of 17 pEBVd+ vs. 27 of 29 pEBVd−). pEBVd detection was associated with

  17. Bias-Corrected Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing for Rapid, Multiplexed Detection of Actionable Alterations in Cell-Free DNA from Advanced Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Paweletz, Cloud P; Sacher, Adrian G; Raymond, Chris K; Alden, Ryan S; O'Connell, Allison; Mach, Stacy L; Kuang, Yanan; Gandhi, Leena; Kirschmeier, Paul; English, Jessie M; Lim, Lee P; Jänne, Pasi A; Oxnard, Geoffrey R

    2016-02-15

    Tumor genotyping is a powerful tool for guiding non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) care; however, comprehensive tumor genotyping can be logistically cumbersome. To facilitate genotyping, we developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay using a desktop sequencer to detect actionable mutations and rearrangements in cell-free plasma DNA (cfDNA). An NGS panel was developed targeting 11 driver oncogenes found in NSCLC. Targeted NGS was performed using a novel methodology that maximizes on-target reads, and minimizes artifact, and was validated on DNA dilutions derived from cell lines. Plasma NGS was then blindly performed on 48 patients with advanced, progressive NSCLC and a known tumor genotype, and explored in two patients with incomplete tumor genotyping. NGS could identify mutations present in DNA dilutions at ≥ 0.4% allelic frequency with 100% sensitivity/specificity. Plasma NGS detected a broad range of driver and resistance mutations, including ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements, HER2 insertions, and MET amplification, with 100% specificity. Sensitivity was 77% across 62 known driver and resistance mutations from the 48 cases; in 29 cases with common EGFR and KRAS mutations, sensitivity was similar to droplet digital PCR. In two cases with incomplete tumor genotyping, plasma NGS rapidly identified a novel EGFR exon 19 deletion and a missed case of MET amplification. Blinded to tumor genotype, this plasma NGS approach detected a broad range of targetable genomic alterations in NSCLC with no false positives including complex mutations like rearrangements and unexpected resistance mutations such as EGFR C797S. Through use of widely available vacutainers and a desktop sequencing platform, this assay has the potential to be implemented broadly for patient care and translational research. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Bias-corrected targeted next-generation sequencing for rapid, multiplexed detection of actionable alterations in cell-free DNA from advanced lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Paweletz, Cloud P.; Sacher, Adrian G.; Raymond, Chris K.; Alden, Ryan S.; O'Connell, Allison; Mach, Stacy L.; Kuang, Yanan; Gandhi, Leena; Kirschmeier, Paul; English, Jessie M.; Lim, Lee P.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Oxnard, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tumor genotyping is a powerful tool for guiding non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) care, however comprehensive tumor genotyping can be logistically cumbersome. To facilitate genotyping, we developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay using a desktop sequencer to detect actionable mutations and rearrangements in cell-free plasma DNA (cfDNA). Experimental Design An NGS panel was developed targeting 11 driver oncogenes found in NSCLC. Targeted NGS was performed using a novel methodology that maximizes on-target reads, and minimizes artifact, and was validated on DNA dilutions derived from cell lines. Plasma NGS was then blindly performed on 48 patients with advanced, progressive NSCLC and a known tumor genotype, and explored in two patients with incomplete tumor genotyping. Results NGS could identify mutations present in DNA dilutions at ≥0.4% allelic frequency with 100% sensitivity/specificity. Plasma NGS detected a broad range of driver and resistance mutations, including ALK, ROS1, and RET rearrangements, HER2 insertions, and MET amplification, with 100% specificity. Sensitivity was 77% across 62 known driver and resistance mutations from the 48 cases; in 29 cases with common EGFR and KRAS mutations, sensitivity was similar to droplet digital PCR. In two cases with incomplete tumor genotyping, plasma NGS rapidly identified a novel EGFR exon 19 deletion and a missed case of MET amplification. Conclusion Blinded to tumor genotype, this plasma NGS approach detected a broad range of targetable genomic alterations in NSCLC with no false positives including complex mutations like rearrangements and unexpected resistance mutations such as EGFR C797S. Through use of widely available vacutainers and a desktop sequencing platform, this assay has the potential to be implemented broadly for patient care and translational research. PMID:26459174

  19. HER2 copy number of circulating tumour DNA functions as a biomarker to predict and monitor trastuzumab efficacy in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixing; Li, Beifang; Liu, Zhentao; Gong, Jifang; Shao, Lin; Ren, Jun; Niu, Yunyun; Bo, Shiping; Li, Zhongwu; Lai, Yumei; Lu, Sijia; Gao, Jing; Shen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    HER2 status is significant to trastuzumab therapy; however, it is difficult to determine HER2 status accurately with few pieces of biopsies from advanced gastric cancer (AGC) due to highly heterogeneity and invasive behaviour, which will be investigated in this study. Fifty-six patients with AGC were included in this study. Primary tumour tissues and matched plasmas before medication from 36 patients were retrospectively collected, and the other 20 patients with primary tumour tissues and paired plasmas were prospectively collected. HER2 expression and amplification in 56 tumour tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and dual in situ hybridisation (DISH), and HER2 copy number in 135 circulating tumour DNAs (ctDNAs) was judged by next-generation sequencing. For tumour tissues, HER2 amplification by DISH was most commonly found in patients with HER2 score 3+by IHC. For plasmas, HER2 amplification defined as HER2 copy number >2.22 was identified in 26 of 56 patients. There was a high concordance of HER2 amplification between ctDNA and tumour tissues, suggesting that ctDNA could function as an alternative to screen HER2-targeted population. Moreover, the changes of HER2 copy number in ctDNA could efficiently monitor trastuzumab efficacy, the power of which was superior to commonly used markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA199, suggesting its potential role in clinical practice. ctDNA for HER2 analysis was strongly recommended to serve as a surrogate to screen trastuzumab-suitable population and monitor trastuzumab efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Damage Response and Repair Gene Alterations Are Associated with Improved Survival in Patients with Platinum-Treated Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teo, Min Yuen; Bambury, Richard M; Zabor, Emily C; Jordan, Emmet; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Boyd, Mariel E; Bouvier, Nancy; Mullane, Stephanie A; Cha, Eugene K; Roper, Nitin; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Hyman, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Arcila, Maria E; Solit, David B; Berger, Michael F; Bajorin, Dean F; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Iyer, Gopakumar; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma by inducing DNA damage. We hypothesize that somatic alterations in DNA damage response and repair (DDR) genes are associated with improved sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Patients with diagnosis of locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma treated with platinum-based chemotherapy who had exon sequencing with the Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) assay were identified. Patients were dichotomized based on the presence/absence of alterations in a panel of 34 DDR genes. DDR alteration status was correlated with clinical outcomes and disease features. Results: One hundred patients were identified, of which 47 harbored alterations in DDR genes. Patients with DDR alterations had improved progression-free survival (9.3 vs. 6.0 months, log-rank P = 0.007) and overall survival (23.7 vs. 13.0 months, log-rank P = 0.006). DDR alterations were also associated with higher number mutations and copy-number alterations. A trend toward positive correlation between DDR status and nodal metastases and inverse correlation with visceral metastases were observed. Different DDR pathways also suggested variable impact on clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Somatic DDR alteration is associated with improved clinical outcomes in platinum-treated patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. Once validated, it can improve patient selection for clinical practice and future study enrollment. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3610-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Expression Levels of DNA Damage Repair Proteins Are Associated With Overall Survival in Platinum-Treated Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Werner, Lillian; Guancial, Elizabeth A; Lis, Rosina T; Stack, Edward C; Loda, Massimo; Kantoff, Philip W; Choueiri, Toni K; Rosenberg, Jonathan; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2016-08-01

    Combination platinum chemotherapy is standard first-line therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). Defining the platinum response biomarkers for patients with mUC could establish personalize medicine and provide insights into mUC biology. Although DNA repair mechanisms have been hypothesized to mediate the platinum response, we sought to analyze whether increased expression of DNA damage genes would correlate with worse overall survival (OS) in patients with mUC. We retrospectively identified a clinically annotated cohort of patients with mUC, who had been treated with first-line platinum combination chemotherapy. A tissue microarray was constructed from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from the primary tumor before treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of the following DNA repair proteins was performed: ERCC1, RAD51, BRCA1/2, PAR, and PARP-1. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression was analyzed using multispectral imaging. Nuclear staining was used for the survival analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between the percentage of positive nuclear staining and OS in multivariable analysis, controlling for known prognostic variables. In a cohort of 104 patients with mUC, a greater percentage of nuclear staining of ERCC1 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-4.9; P = .0007), RAD51 (HR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7-18.3; P = .005), and PAR (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.4; P = .026) was associated with worse OS. BRCA1, BRCA2, and PARP-1 expression was not associated with OS (P = .76, P = .38, and P = .09, respectively). A greater percentage of combined ERCC1 and RAD51 nuclear staining was strongly associated with worse OS (P = .005). A high percentage of nuclear staining of ERCC1, RAD51, and PAR, assessed by immunohistochemistry, correlated with worse OS for patients with mUC treated with first-line platinum combination chemotherapy, supporting the evidence of the DNA repair pathways' role in the prognosis of m

  2. Quantification and Dynamic Monitoring of EGFR T790M in Plasma Cell-Free DNA by Digital PCR for Prognosis of EGFR-TKI Treatment in Advanced NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijie; Chen, Rui; Wang, Shuhang; Zhong, Jia; Wu, Meina; Zhao, Jun; Duan, Jianchun; Zhuo, Minglei; An, Tongtong; Wang, Yuyan; Bai, Hua; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Among advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), about 50% carry the T790M mutation, but this frequency in EGFR-TKI-naïve patients and dynamic change during therapy remains unclear. This study investigated the quantification and dynamic change of T790M mutation in plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) of advanced NSCLC patients to assess the clinical outcomes of EGFR-TKI therapy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively investigated 135 patients with advanced NSCLC who obtained progression-free survival (PFS) after EGFR-TKI for >6 months for their EGFR sensitive mutations and T790M mutation in matched pre- and post-TKI plasma samples, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), and digital-PCR (D-PCR). Real-time PCR was performed to measure c-MET amplification. Results Detection limit of D-PCR in assessing the T790M mutation was approximately 0.03%. D-PCR identified higher frequency of T790M than ARMS in pre-TKI (31.3% vs. 5.5%) and post-TKI (43.0% vs. 25.2%) plasma samples. Patients with pre-TKI T790M showed inferior PFS (8.9 vs. 12.1 months, p = 0.007) and overall survival (OS, 19.3 vs. 31.9 months, p = 0.001) compared with those without T790M. In patients harboring EGFR sensitive mutation, high quantities of pre-TKI T790M predicted poorer PFS (p = 0.001) on EGFR-TKI than low ones. Moreover, patients who experienced increased quantity of T790M during EGFR-TKI treatment showed superior PFS and OS compared with those with decreased changes (p = 0.044 and p = 0.015, respectively). Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative T790M in plasma cf-DNA by D-PCR provided a non-invasive and sensitive assay to predict EGFR-TKI prognosis. PMID:25405807

  3. Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA for Local and Regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Era.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hui; Tang, Lin-Quan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-Ting; Qian, Chao-Nan; Guo, Xiang; Xie, Dan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA (EBV DNA) for local and regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era.In this observational study, 404 nonmetastatic local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy were recruited. Blood samples were collected before treatment for examination of plasma EBV DNA levels. We evaluated the association of pretreatment plasma EBV DNA levels with progression-free survival rate (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival rate (DMFS), and overall survival rate (OS).Compared to patients with an EBV DNA level < 4000  copies/mL, patients with an EBV DNA ≥ 4000  copies/mL had a lower rate of 3-year PFS (76%, 95% CI [68-84]) versus (93%, 95% CI [90-96], P < 0.001), DMFS (83%, 95% CI [76-89]) versus (97%, 95% CI [94-99], P < 0.001), and OS (85%, 95% CI [78-92]) versus (98%, 95% CI [95-100], P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that pretreatment EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.324, 95% CI, 1.80-6.138, P < 0.001) and clinical stage (HR = 1.878, 95% CI, 1.036-3.404, P = 0.038) were the only independent factor associated with PFS, pretreatment EBV DNA level was the only significant factor to predict DMFS (HR = 6.292, 95% CI, 2.647-14.956, P < 0.001), and pretreatment EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.753, 95% CI, 1.701-8.284, P < 0.001) and clinical stage (HR = 2.577, 95% CI, 1.252-5.050, P = 0.010) were significantly associated with OS. In subgroup analysis, higher plasma EBV DNA levels still predicted a worse PFS, DMFS, and OS for the patients stage III or stage IVa-b, compared with those with low EBV DNA levels.Elevated plasma EBV DNA was still effective prognostic biomarker for local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy. Future ramdomized

  4. Recent advances in targeting DNA repair pathways for the treatment of ovarian cancer and their clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Oda, Katsutoshi; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Sone, Kenbun; Mori-Uchino, Mayuyo; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have attracted much attention as one of the major molecular-targeted therapeutics for inhibiting DNA damage response. The PARP inhibitor, olaparib, has been clinically applied for treating certain recurrent ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations in Europe and the United States. It was also designated on 24 March 2017 as an orphan drug in Japan for similar clinical indications. In this review, we discuss (i) the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer, (ii) clinical trials of PARP inhibitors in ovarian cancer, (iii) genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer patients, and (iv) non-BRCA genes that may be associated with homologous recombination deficiency.

  5. Comparison of plasma ctDNA and tissue/cytology-based techniques for the detection of EGFR mutation status in advanced NSCLC: Spanish data subset from ASSESS.

    PubMed

    Arriola, E; Paredes-Lario, A; García-Gomez, R; Diz-Tain, P; Constenla, M; García-Girón, C; Márquez, G; Reck, M; López-Vivanco, G

    2018-04-05

    The analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in many patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) has provided the opportunity for successful treatment with specific, targeted EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, this therapeutic decision may be challenging when insufficient tumor tissue is available for EGFR mutation testing. Therefore, blood surrogate samples for EGFR mutation analysis have been suggested. Data were collected from the Spanish cohort of patients in the large, non-interventional, diagnostic ASSESS study (NCT01785888) evaluating the utility of circulating free tumor-derived DNA from plasma for EGFR mutation testing. The incidence of EGFR mutation in Spain and the level of concordance between matched tissue/cytology and plasma samples were evaluated. In a cohort of 154 eligible patients, EGFR mutations were identified in 15.1 and 11.0% of tumor and plasma samples, respectively. The most commonly used EGFR mutation testing method for the tumor tissue samples was the QIAGEN Therascreen ® EGFR RGQ PCR kit (52.1%). Fragment Length Analysis + PNA LNA Clamp was used for the plasma samples. The concordance rate for EGFR mutation status between the tissue/cytology and plasma samples was 88.8%; the sensitivity was 45.5%, and the specificity was 96.7%. The high concordance between the different DNA sources for EGFR mutation testing supports the use of plasma samples when tumor tissue is unavailable.

  6. Multiple advanced logic gates made of DNA-Ag nanocluster and the application for intelligent detection of pathogenic bacterial genes† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Chemicals, materials and DNA sequences used in the investigation, the construction of YES, AND, OR, XOR and INH logic gates, CD and PAGE experimental results. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc05246d

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaodong; Deng, Jiankang; Lyu, Yanlong; Qian, Pengcheng; Li, Yunfei

    2018-01-01

    The integration of multiple DNA logic gates on a universal platform to implement advance logic functions is a critical challenge for DNA computing. Herein, a straightforward and powerful strategy in which a guanine-rich DNA sequence lighting up a silver nanocluster and fluorophore was developed to construct a library of logic gates on a simple DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) platform. This library included basic logic gates, YES, AND, OR, INHIBIT, and XOR, which were further integrated into complex logic circuits to implement diverse advanced arithmetic/non-arithmetic functions including half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer. Under UV irradiation, all the logic functions could be instantly visualized, confirming an excellent repeatability. The logic operations were entirely based on DNA hybridization in an enzyme-free and label-free condition, avoiding waste accumulation and reducing cost consumption. Interestingly, a DNA-AgNCs-based multiplexer was, for the first time, used as an intelligent biosensor to identify pathogenic genes, E. coli and S. aureus genes, with a high sensitivity. The investigation provides a prototype for the wireless integration of multiple devices on even the simplest single-strand DNA platform to perform diverse complex functions in a straightforward and cost-effective way. PMID:29675221

  7. Clinical validation of a highly sensitive assay to detect EGFR mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuping; Xu, Hanyan; Su, Shanshan; Ye, Junru; Chen, Junjie; Jin, Xuru; Lin, Quan; Zhang, Dongqing; Ye, Caier; Chen, Chengshui

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a promising biomarker for noninvasive epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations detection in lung cancer patients, but the existing methods have limitations in sensitivity or in availability. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a novel assay called ADx-SuperARMS in detecting EGFR mutations in plasma cell-free DNA from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 109 patients with metastatic advanced adenocarcinoma were recruited who provided both blood samples and matched tumor tissue samples. EGFR mutation status in plasma samples were tested with ADx-SuperARMS EGFR assay and tumor tissue samples were tested with ADx-ARMS EGFR assay. The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value (PPV), and negative prediction value (NPV) of ADx-SuperARMS EGFR assay were calculated by using EGFR mutation status in tumor tissue as standard reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was implemented and an area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of exon 19 deletion (E19Del) and L858R mutation detection. The objective response rate (ORR) were calculated according to the EGFR mutation status determined by ADx-superARMS as well. 0.2% analytical sensitivity and 100% specificity of the ADx-SuperARMS EGFR assays for EGFR E19Del, L858R, and T790M mutants were confirmed by using a series of diluted cell line DNA. In the clinical study, EGFR mutations were detected in 45.9% (50/109) of the plasma samples and in 56.9% (62/109) of the matched tumor tissue samples. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the ADx-SuperARMS EGFR assay for plasma EGFR mutation detection were 82.0% (50/61), 100% (48/48), 100% (50/50), and 81.4% (48/59), respectively. In ROC analysis, ADx-SuperARMS achieved sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 99% in E19Dels as well as sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 100% in L858R, respectively. Among the 35 patients who were

  8. Advanced purification strategy for CueR, a cysteine containing copper(I) and DNA binding protein.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Ria K; Gyurcsik, Béla; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Christensen, Hans E M; Jancsó, Attila

    2016-07-01

    Metal ion regulation is essential for living organisms. In prokaryotes metal ion dependent transcriptional factors, the so-called metalloregulatory proteins play a fundamental role in controlling the concentration of metal ions. These proteins recognize metal ions with an outstanding selectivity. A detailed understanding of their function may be exploited in potential health, environmental and analytical applications. Members of the MerR protein family sense a broad range of mostly late transition and heavy metal ions through their cysteine thiolates. The air sensitivity of latter groups makes the expression and purification of such proteins challenging. Here we describe a method for the purification of the copper-regulatory CueR protein under optimized conditions. In order to avoid protein precipitation and/or eventual aggregation and to get rid of the co-purifying Escherichia coli elongation factor, our procedure consisted of four steps supplemented by DNA digestion. Subsequent anion exchange on Sepharose FF Q 16/10, affinity chromatography on Heparin FF 16/10, second anion exchange on Source 30 Q 16/13 and gel filtration on Superdex 75 26/60 resulted in large amounts of pure CueR protein without any affinity tag. Structure and functionality tests performed with mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoretic gel mobility shift assays approved the success of the purification procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular studies in olive (Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bracci, T; Busconi, M; Fogher, C; Sebastiani, L

    2011-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) and cultivated (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea). In spite of its economic and nutritional importance, there are few data about the genetic of olive if compared with other fruit crops. Available molecular data are especially related to the application of molecular markers to the analysis of genetic variability in Olea europaea complex and to develop efficient molecular tools for the olive oil origin traceability. With regard to genomic research, in the last years efforts are made for the identification of expressed sequence tag, with particular interest in those sequences expressed during fruit development and in pollen allergens. Very recently the sequencing of chloroplast genome provided new information on the olive nucleotide sequence, opening the olive genomic era. In this article, we provide an overview of the most relevant results in olive molecular studies. A particular attention was given to DNA markers and their application that constitute the most part of published researches. The first important results in genome analysis were reported.

  10. Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment; New Wound Dressing May Lead to Maggot Therapy--Without the Maggots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three reports of research advances. The first report describes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based computer that could lead to faster, more accurate tests for diagnosing West Nile Virus and bird flu. Representing the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit," it is the most powerful computing device of its type to…

  11. Mutation Detection in Patients With Advanced Cancer by Universal Sequencing of Cancer-Related Genes in Tumor and Normal DNA vs Guideline-Based Germline Testing.

    PubMed

    Mandelker, Diana; Zhang, Liying; Kemel, Yelena; Stadler, Zsofia K; Joseph, Vijai; Zehir, Ahmet; Pradhan, Nisha; Arnold, Angela; Walsh, Michael F; Li, Yirong; Balakrishnan, Anoop R; Syed, Aijazuddin; Prasad, Meera; Nafa, Khedoudja; Carlo, Maria I; Cadoo, Karen A; Sheehan, Meg; Fleischut, Megan H; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Trottier, Magan; Lipkin, Steven M; Lincoln, Anne; Mukherjee, Semanti; Ravichandran, Vignesh; Cambria, Roy; Galle, Jesse; Abida, Wassim; Arcila, Marcia E; Benayed, Ryma; Shah, Ronak; Yu, Kenneth; Bajorin, Dean F; Coleman, Jonathan A; Leach, Steven D; Lowery, Maeve A; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Kantoff, Philip W; Sawyers, Charles L; Dickler, Maura N; Saltz, Leonard; Motzer, Robert J; O'Reilly, Eileen M; Scher, Howard I; Baselga, Jose; Klimstra, David S; Solit, David B; Hyman, David M; Berger, Michael F; Ladanyi, Marc; Robson, Mark E; Offit, Kenneth

    2017-09-05

    Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of

  12. The Dynamics of DNA Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morvillo, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Describes a paper-and-pencil activity that helps students understand DNA sequencing and expands student understanding of DNA structure, replication, and gel electrophoresis. Appropriate for advanced biology students who are familiar with the Sanger method. (DDR)

  13. DNA synthesis security.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Ali; Chyba, Christopher F

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that genetic engineering advances will, inevitably, facilitate the misapplication of biotechnology toward the production of biological weapons. Unexpectedly, however, some of these very advances in the areas of DNA synthesis and sequencing may enable the implementation of automated and nonintrusive safeguards to avert the illicit applications of biotechnology. In the case of DNA synthesis, automated DNA screening tools could be built into DNA synthesizers in order to block the synthesis of hazardous agents. In addition, a comprehensive safety and security regime for dual-use genetic engineering research could include nonintrusive monitoring of DNA sequencing. This is increasingly feasible as laboratories outsource this service to just a few centralized sequencing factories. The adoption of automated, nonintrusive monitoring and surveillance of the DNA synthesis and sequencing pipelines may avert many risks associated with dual-use biotechnology. Here, we describe the historical background and current challenges associated with dual-use biotechnologies and propose strategies to address these challenges.

  14. Advanced data mining approaches in the assessment of urinary concentrations of bisphenols, chlorophenols, parabens and benzophenones in Brazilian children and their association to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno A; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Honda, Masato; da Costa, Nattane L; Barbosa, Rommel M; Barbosa, Fernando; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2018-07-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has received considerable attention over the last three decades. However, little is known about the influence of co-exposure to multiple EDCs on effect-biomarkers such as oxidative stress in Brazilian children. In this study, concentrations of 40 EDCs were determined in urine samples collected from 300 Brazilian children of ages 6-14 years and data were analyzed by advanced data mining techniques. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated from the urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHDG). Fourteen EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid (3,4-DHB), methyl-protocatechuic acid (OH-MeP), ethyl-protocatechuic acid (OH-EtP), triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP3), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1), bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·2H 2 O), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) were found in >50% of the urine samples analyzed. The highest geometric mean concentrations were found for MeP (43.1 ng/mL), PrP (3.12 ng/mL), 3,4-DHB (42.2 ng/mL), TCS (8.26 ng/mL), BP3 (3.71 ng/mL), and BP1 (4.85 ng/mL), and exposures to most of which were associated with personal care product (PCP) use. Statistically significant associations were found between urinary concentrations of 8OHDG and BPA, MeP, 3,4-DHB, OH-MeP, OH-EtP, TCS, BP3, 2,4-DCP, and 2,5-DCP. After clustering the data on the basis of i) 14 EDCs (exposure levels), ii) demography (age, gender and geographic location), and iii) 8OHDG (effect), two distinct clusters of samples were identified. 8OHDG concentration was the most critical parameter that differentiated the two clusters, followed by OH-EtP. When 8OHDG was removed from the dataset, predictability of exposure variables increased in the order of: OH-EtP > OH-MeP > 3,4-DHB > BPA > 2,4-DCP >

  15. Animal Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication highlight the diversity of both the mechanisms utilized and the structural and functional organization of the proteins at mtDNA replication fork, despite the simplicity of the animal mtDNA genome. DNA polymerase γ, mtDNA helicase and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein- the key replisome proteins, have evolved distinct structural features and biochemical properties. These appear to be correlated with mtDNA genomic features in different metazoan taxa and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantial integrative research is warranted to establish firmly these links. To date, several modes of mtDNA replication have been described for animals: rolling circle, theta, strand-displacement, and RITOLS/bootlace. Resolution of a continuing controversy relevant to mtDNA replication in mammals/vertebrates will have a direct impact on the mechanistic interpretation of mtDNA-related human diseases. Here we review these subjects, integrating earlier and recent data to provide a perspective on the major challenges for future research. PMID:27241933

  16. Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA for detection of driver and resistance mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guibert, N; Hu, Y; Feeney, N; Kuang, Y; Plagnol, V; Jones, G; Howarth, K; Beeler, J F; Paweletz, C P; Oxnard, G R

    2018-04-01

    Genomic analysis of plasma cell-free DNA is transforming lung cancer care; however, available assays are limited by cost, turnaround time, and imperfect accuracy. Here, we study amplicon-based plasma next-generation sequencing (NGS), rather than hybrid-capture-based plasma NGS, hypothesizing this would allow sensitive detection and monitoring of driver and resistance mutations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Plasma samples from patients with NSCLC and a known targetable genotype (EGFR, ALK/ROS1, and other rare genotypes) were collected while on therapy and analyzed blinded to tumor genotype. Plasma NGS was carried out using enhanced tagged amplicon sequencing of hotspots and coding regions from 36 genes, as well as intronic coverage for detection of ALK/ROS1 fusions. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with plasma droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and tumor genotype. A total of 168 specimens from 46 patients were studied. Matched plasma NGS and ddPCR across 120 variants from 80 samples revealed high concordance of allelic fraction (R2 = 0.95). Pretreatment, sensitivity of plasma NGS for the detection of EGFR driver mutations was 100% (30/30), compared with 87% for ddPCR (26/30). A full spectrum of rare driver oncogenic mutations could be detected including sensitive detection of ALK/ROS1 fusions (8/9 detected, 89%). Studying 25 patients positive for EGFR T790M that developed resistance to osimertinib, 15 resistance mechanisms could be detected including tertiary EGFR mutations (C797S, Q791P) and mutations or amplifications of non-EGFR genes, some of which could be detected pretreatment or months before progression. This blinded analysis demonstrates the ability of amplicon-based plasma NGS to detect a full range of targetable genotypes in NSCLC, including fusion genes, with high accuracy. The ability of plasma NGS to detect a range of preexisting and acquired resistance mechanisms highlights its potential value as an alternative to single mutation

  17. Did glacial advances during the Pleistocene influence differently the demographic histories of benthic and pelagic Antarctic shelf fishes? – Inferences from intraspecific mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence diversity

    PubMed Central

    Janko, Karel; Lecointre, Guillaume; DeVries, Arthur; Couloux, Arnaud; Cruaud, Corinne; Marshall, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background Circum-Antarctic waters harbour a rare example of a marine species flock – the Notothenioid fish, most species of which are restricted to the continental shelf. It remains an open question as to how they survived Pleistocene climatic fluctuations characterised by repeated advances of continental glaciers as far as the shelf break that probably resulted in a loss of habitat for benthic organisms. Pelagic ecosystems, on the other hand, might have flourished during glacial maxima due to the northward expansion of Antarctic polar waters. In order to better understand the role of ecological traits in Quaternary climatic fluctuations, we performed demographic analyses of populations of four fish species from the tribe Trematominae, including both fully benthic and pelagic species using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and an intron from the nuclear S7 gene. Results Nuclear and cytoplasmic markers showed differences in the rate and time of population expansions as well as the likely population structure. Neutrality tests suggest that such discordance comes from different coalescence dynamics of each marker, rather than from selective pressure. Demographic analyses based on intraspecific DNA diversity suggest a recent population expansion in both benthic species, dated by the cyt b locus to the last glacial cycle, whereas the population structure of pelagic feeders either did not deviate from a constant-size model or indicated that the onset of the major population expansion of these species by far predated those of the benthic species. Similar patterns were apparent even when comparing previously published data on other Southern Ocean organisms, but we observed considerable heterogeneity within both groups with regard to the onset of major demographic events and rates. Conclusion Our data suggest benthic and pelagic species reacted differently to the Pleistocene ice-sheet expansions that probably significantly reduced the suitable habitat for benthic

  18. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology. PMID:25435647

  19. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-12-14

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology.

  20. Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination gene variants are associated with functional DNA repair defects in vitro and poor outcome in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, Caroline V.M.; Vossen, David M.; Borgmann, Kerstin; Hageman, Floor; Grénman, Reidar; Verwijs-Janssen, Manon; Mout, Lisanne; Kluin, Roel J.C.; Nieuwland, Marja; Severson, Tesa M.; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron; O’Connor, Mark J.; van der Heijden, Martijn; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise; Verheij, Marcel; Wreesmann, Volkert B.; Wessels, Lodewyk F.A.; van den Brekel, Michiel W.M.; Vens, Conchita

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in Fanconi Anemia or Homologous Recombination (FA/HR) genes can cause DNA repair defects and could therefore impact cancer treatment response and patient outcome. Their functional impact and clinical relevance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unknown. We therefore questioned whether functional FA/HR defects occurred in HNSCC and whether they are associated with FA/HR variants. We assayed a panel of 29 patient-derived HNSCC cell lines and found that a considerable fraction is hypersensitive to the crosslinker Mitomycin C and PARP inhibitors, a functional measure of FA/HR defects. DNA sequencing showed that these hypersensitivities are associated with the presence of bi-allelic rare germline and somatic FA/HR gene variants. We next questioned whether such variants are associated with prognosis and treatment response in HNSCC patients. DNA sequencing of 77 advanced stage HNSCC tumors revealed a 19% incidence of such variants. Importantly, these variants were associated with a poor prognosis (p = 0.027; HR = 2.6, 1.1–6.0) but favorable response to high cumulative cisplatin dose. We show how an integrated in vitro functional repair and genomic analysis can improve the prognostic value of genetic biomarkers. We conclude that repair defects are marked and frequent in HNSCC and are associated with clinical outcome. PMID:29719599

  1. Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination gene variants are associated with functional DNA repair defects in vitro and poor outcome in patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Caroline V M; Vossen, David M; Borgmann, Kerstin; Hageman, Floor; Grénman, Reidar; Verwijs-Janssen, Manon; Mout, Lisanne; Kluin, Roel J C; Nieuwland, Marja; Severson, Tesa M; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron; O'Connor, Mark J; van der Heijden, Martijn; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise; Verheij, Marcel; Wreesmann, Volkert B; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Vens, Conchita

    2018-04-06

    Mutations in Fanconi Anemia or Homologous Recombination (FA/HR) genes can cause DNA repair defects and could therefore impact cancer treatment response and patient outcome. Their functional impact and clinical relevance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is unknown. We therefore questioned whether functional FA/HR defects occurred in HNSCC and whether they are associated with FA/HR variants. We assayed a panel of 29 patient-derived HNSCC cell lines and found that a considerable fraction is hypersensitive to the crosslinker Mitomycin C and PARP inhibitors, a functional measure of FA/HR defects. DNA sequencing showed that these hypersensitivities are associated with the presence of bi-allelic rare germline and somatic FA/HR gene variants. We next questioned whether such variants are associated with prognosis and treatment response in HNSCC patients. DNA sequencing of 77 advanced stage HNSCC tumors revealed a 19% incidence of such variants. Importantly, these variants were associated with a poor prognosis ( p = 0.027; HR = 2.6, 1.1-6.0) but favorable response to high cumulative cisplatin dose. We show how an integrated in vitro functional repair and genomic analysis can improve the prognostic value of genetic biomarkers. We conclude that repair defects are marked and frequent in HNSCC and are associated with clinical outcome.

  2. Detection of Promoter DNA Methylation of APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 Genes in tissue Biopsy and Matched Serum of Advanced-Stage Lung Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ashraf; Kumar, Sachin; Kakaria, Vinod Kumar; Mohan, Anant; Luthra, Kalpana; Upadhyay, Ashish Dutt; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-07-03

    Promoter DNA hypermethylation of APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 genes was evaluated in biopsy and matched serum of 160 lung cancer patients and 70 controls. In biopsy, 83.1, 83.1, and 78.1% of lung cancer patients and 72.9, 70, and 70% of controls, while in serum, 52.5, 30.6, and 65.6% of lung cancer patients and 14.3, 18.6, and 30% of controls were positive for APC, DAPK, and GSTP1 hypermethylation respectively. We couldn't find any significant role of DNA hypermethylation in lung cancer. However, long follow-up of methylation positive controls will be required to confirm its role for the prediction of lung cancer.

  3. Eukaryotic DNA polymerase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Alena V.; Burgers, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on eukaryotic DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ), the enzyme responsible for the bulk of mutagenesis in eukaryotic cells in response to DNA damage. Pol ζ is also responsible for a large portion of mutagenesis during normal cell growth, in response to spontaneous damage or to certain DNA structures and other blocks that stall DNA replication forks. Novel insights in mutagenesis have been derived from recent advances in the elucidation of the subunit structure of Pol ζ. The lagging strand DNA polymerase δ shares the small Pol31 and Pol32 subunits with the Rev3-Rev7 core assembly giving a four subunit Pol ζ complex that is the active form in mutagenesis. Furthermore, Pol ζ forms essential interactions with the mutasome assembly factor Rev1 and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). These interactions are modulated by posttranslational modifications such as ubiquitination and phosphorylation that enhance translesion synthesis (TLS) and mutagenesis. PMID:25737057

  4. Mutagenesis and repair induced by the DNA advanced glycation end product N2-1-(carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine in human cells.

    PubMed

    Tamae, Daniel; Lim, Punnajit; Wuenschell, Gerald E; Termini, John

    2011-03-29

    Glycation of biopolymers by glucose-derived α-oxo-aldehydes such as methylglyoxal (MG) is believed to play a major role in the complex pathologies associated with diabetes and metabolic disease. In contrast to the extensive literature detailing the formation and physiological consequences of protein glycation, there is little information about the corresponding phenomenon for DNA. To assess the potential contribution of DNA glycation to genetic instability, we prepared shuttle vectors containing defined levels of the DNA glycation adduct N(2)-(1-carboxyethyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (CEdG) and transfected them into isogenic human fibroblasts that differed solely in the capacity to conduct nucleotide excision repair (NER). In the NER-compromised fibroblasts, the induced mutation frequencies increased up to 18-fold relative to background over a range of ∼10-1400 CEdG adducts/10(5) dG, whereas the same substrates transfected into NER-competent cells induced a response that was 5-fold over background at the highest adduct density. The positive linear correlation (R(2) = 0.998) of mutation frequency with increasing CEdG level in NER-defective cells suggested that NER was the primary if not exclusive mechanism for repair of this adduct in human fibroblasts. Consistent with predictions from biochemical studies using CEdG-substituted oligonucleotides, guanine transversions were the predominant mutation resulting from replication of MG-modified plasmids. At high CEdG levels, significant increases in the number of AT → GC transitions were observed exclusively in NER-competent cells (P < 0.0001). This suggested the involvement of an NER-dependent mutagenic process in response to critical levels of DNA damage, possibly mediated by error-prone Y-family polymerases.

  5. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  6. DNA book.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-06-01

    We propose herein a new method of DNA distribution, whereby DNA clones or PCR products are printed directly onto the pages of books and delivered to users along with relevant scientific information. DNA sheets, comprising water-soluble paper onto which DNA is spotted, can be bound into books. Readers can easily extract the DNA fragments from DNA sheets and amplify them using PCR. We show that DNA sheets can withstand various conditions that may be experienced during bookbinding and delivery, such as high temperatures and humidity. Almost all genes (95%-100% of randomly selected RIKEN mouse cDNA clones) were recovered successfully by use of PCR. Readers can start their experiments after a 2-h PCR amplification without waiting for the delivery of DNA clones. The DNA Book thus provides a novel method for delivering DNA in a timely and cost-effective manner. A sample DNA sheet (carrying RIKEN mouse cDNA clones encoding genes of enzymes for the TCA cycle) is included in this issue for field-testing. We would greatly appreciate it if readers could attempt to extract DNA and report the results and whether the DNA sheet was shipped to readers in good condition.

  7. DNA Book

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Jun; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We propose herein a new method of DNA distribution, whereby DNA clones or PCR products are printed directly onto the pages of books and delivered to users along with relevant scientific information. DNA sheets, comprising water-soluble paper onto which DNA is spotted, can be bound into books. Readers can easily extract the DNA fragments from DNA sheets and amplify them using PCR. We show that DNA sheets can withstand various conditions that may be experienced during bookbinding and delivery, such as high temperatures and humidity. Almost all genes (95%–100% of randomly selected RIKEN mouse cDNA clones) were recovered successfully by use of PCR. Readers can start their experiments after a 2-h PCR amplification without waiting for the delivery of DNA clones. The DNA Book thus provides a novel method for delivering DNA in a timely and cost-effective manner. A sample DNA sheet (carrying RIKEN mouse cDNA clones encoding genes of enzymes for the TCA cycle) is included in this issue for field-testing. We would greatly appreciate it if readers could attempt to extract DNA and report the results and whether the DNA sheet was shipped to readers in good condition. PMID:12819147

  8. Three-year Follow up of GMCSF/bi-shRNA(furin) DNA-transfected Autologous Tumor Immunotherapy (Vigil) in Metastatic Advanced Ewing's Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ghisoli, Maurizio; Barve, Minal; Mennel, Robert; Lenarsky, Carl; Horvath, Staci; Wallraven, Gladice; Pappen, Beena O; Whiting, Sam; Rao, Donald; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2016-08-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a devastating rare pediatric cancer of the bone. Intense chemotherapy temporarily controls disease in most patients at presentation but has limited effect in patients with progressive or recurrent disease. We previously described preliminary results of a novel immunotherapy, FANG (Vigil) vaccine, in which 12 advanced stage Ewing's patients were safely treated and went on to achieve a predicted immune response (IFNγ ELISPOT). We describe follow-up through year 3 of a prospective, nonrandomized study comparing an expanded group of Vigil-treated advanced disease Ewing's sarcoma patients (n = 16) with a contemporaneous group of Ewing's sarcoma patients (n = 14) not treated with Vigil. Long-term follow-up results show a survival benefit without evidence of significant toxicity (no ≥ grade 3) to Vigil when administered once monthly by intradermal injection (1 × 10e(6) cells/injection to 1 × 10e(7) cells/injection). Specifically, we report a 1-year actual survival of 73% for Vigil-treated patients compared to 23% in those not treated with Vigil. In addition, there was a 17.2-month difference in overall survival (OS; Kaplan-Meier) between the Vigil (median OS 731 days) and no Vigil patient groups (median OS 207 days). In conclusion, these results supply the rational for further testing of Vigil in advanced stage Ewing's sarcoma.

  9. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  10. [Effect of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Hu, Huabin; Xie, Yangchun; Tang, Youhong; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Meizuo

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the impact of β-tubulin-III (TUBB3), thymidylate synthase (TS) and excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with TXT/CDDP/FU (DCF) regimen chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 48 patients with advanced gastric cancer. All patients were treated with DCF regimen palliative chemotherapy. The mRNA expressions of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 of primary tumors were examined by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology. The patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression had higher response rate to chemotherapy than patients with high TUBB3 expression (P=0.011). There were no significant differences between response rate and TS or ERCC1 expression pattern. Median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) were significantly longer in patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression (P=0.002, P<0.001). TS or ERCC1 expression was not correlated with TTP and OS. In the combined analysis including TUBB3, TS and ERCC1, the patients with 0 or 1 high expression gene had better response rate, TTP and OS than the remaining patients (all P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group)≥2 (HR=2.42, P=0.009) and TUBB3 (HR=2.34, P=0.036) mRNA expression significantly impacted on OS. High TUBB3 mRNA expression is correlated with resistance to DCF regimen chemotherapy. TUBB3 might be a predictive and prognostic factor in patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with TXT-based chemotherapy. The combined evaluation of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 expression can promote the individual treatment in advanced gastric cancer.

  11. Advances in the use of DNA barcodes to build a community phylogeny for tropical trees in a Puerto Rican forest dynamics plot.

    PubMed

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Zimmerman, Jess K

    2010-11-09

    Species number, functional traits, and phylogenetic history all contribute to characterizing the biological diversity in plant communities. The phylogenetic component of diversity has been particularly difficult to quantify in species-rich tropical tree assemblages. The compilation of previously published (and often incomplete) data on evolutionary relationships of species into a composite phylogeny of the taxa in a forest, through such programs as Phylomatic, has proven useful in building community phylogenies although often of limited resolution. Recently, DNA barcodes have been used to construct a robust community phylogeny for nearly 300 tree species in a forest dynamics plot in Panama using a supermatrix method. In that study sequence data from three barcode loci were used to generate a well-resolved species-level phylogeny. Here we expand upon this earlier investigation and present results on the use of a phylogenetic constraint tree to generate a community phylogeny for a diverse, tropical forest dynamics plot in Puerto Rico. This enhanced method of phylogenetic reconstruction insures the congruence of the barcode phylogeny with broadly accepted hypotheses on the phylogeny of flowering plants (i.e., APG III) regardless of the number and taxonomic breadth of the taxa sampled. We also compare maximum parsimony versus maximum likelihood estimates of community phylogenetic relationships as well as evaluate the effectiveness of one- versus two- versus three-gene barcodes in resolving community evolutionary history. As first demonstrated in the Panamanian forest dynamics plot, the results for the Puerto Rican plot illustrate that highly resolved phylogenies derived from DNA barcode sequence data combined with a constraint tree based on APG III are particularly useful in comparative analysis of phylogenetic diversity and will enhance research on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  12. Retroviral DNA Integration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome into host chromatin is the defining step of retroviral replication. This enzymatic process is catalyzed by the virus-encoded integrase protein, which is conserved among retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons. Retroviral integration proceeds via two integrase activities: 3′-processing of the viral DNA ends, followed by the strand transfer of the processed ends into host cell chromosomal DNA. Herein we review the molecular mechanism of retroviral DNA integration, with an emphasis on reaction chemistries and architectures of the nucleoprotein complexes involved. We additionally discuss the latest advances on anti-integrase drug development for the treatment of AIDS and the utility of integrating retroviral vectors in gene therapy applications. PMID:27198982

  13. Comparison of EGFR signaling pathway somatic DNA mutations derived from peripheral blood and corresponding tumor tissue of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer using liquidchip technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Deruo; Li, Shanqing; Zheng, Yongqing; Yang, Xinjie; Li, Xi; Zhang, Quan; Qin, Na; Lu, Jialin; Ren-Heidenreich, Lifen; Yang, Huiyi; Wu, Yuhua; Zhang, Xinyong; Nong, Jingying; Sun, Yifen; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-11-01

    Somatic DNA mutations affecting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway are known to predict responsiveness to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancers. We evaluated a sensitive liquidchip platform for detecting EGFR, KRAS (alias Ki-ras), proto-oncogene B-Raf, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations in plasma samples, which were highly correlated with matched tumor tissues from 86 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancers. Either EGFR exon 19 or 21 mutations were detected in 36 patients: 23 of whom had identical mutations in both their blood and tissue samples; whereas mutations in the remaining 13 were found only in their tumor samples. These EGFR mutations occurred at a significantly higher frequency in females, never-smokers, and in patients with adenocarcinomas (P ≤ 0.001). The EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation was detected in only one of the paired samples [100% (95% CI, 96% to 100%) agreement]. For KRAS, proto-oncogene B-Raf, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase CA mutations, the overall agreements were 97% (95% CI, 90% to 99%), 98% (95% CI, 92% to 99%), and 97% (95% CI, 90% to 99%), respectively, and these were not associated with age, sex, smoking history, or histopathologic type. In conclusion, mutations detected in plasma correlated strongly with mutation profiles in each respective tumor sample, suggesting that this liquidchip platform may offer a rapid and noninvasive method for predicting tumor responsiveness to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancers. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  15. Identification of HIV infection-related DNA methylation sites and advanced epigenetic aging in HIV-positive, treatment-naive U.S. veterans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristin N; Hui, Qin; Rimland, David; Xu, Ke; Freiberg, Matthew S; Justice, Amy C; Marconi, Vincent C; Sun, Yan V

    2017-02-20

    HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk than healthy persons for aging-related diseases, including myocardial infarction and non-AIDS defining cancers. Recent evidence suggests that HIV infection may modulate changes in the host cell epigenome, and these changes represent a potential mechanism through which HIV infection accelerates aging. We assessed the difference in DNA methylation (DNAm) age, an aging marker involving multiple age-related cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites, among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in a cohort of veterans from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 19 ART-naive, HIV-positive, and 19 HIV-negative male participants, matched by age and race. Blood samples were collected from HIV-positive participants 7-11 years after ART initiation. We compared DNAm age between HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups at baseline and between HIV-positive patients at baseline and follow-up. We also performed an epigenome-wide analysis to identify CpG methylation sites associated with HIV infection. DNAm age in HIV-positive individuals is, on average, 11.2 years higher than HIV study participants at baseline, and two of 10 HIV-positive individuals showed an increase in DNAm age after ART initiation. Epigenome-wide association studies showed an association of HIV infection with one site, in gene VPS37B, which approached statistical significance in our cohort (P = 3.30 × 10, Bonferroni-corrected threshold = 1.22 × 10) and was replicated in a second, larger cohort. ART treatment-naive HIV-positive individuals have significantly older DNAm age compared to HIV-negative individuals in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study cohort. Longitudinal changes in DNAm age are highly variable across individuals after initiation of antiretroviral therapy.

  16. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  17. Regulation of DNA replication during development

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jared; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    As development unfolds, DNA replication is not only coordinated with cell proliferation, but is regulated uniquely in specific cell types and organs. This differential regulation of DNA synthesis requires crosstalk between DNA replication and differentiation. This dynamic aspect of DNA replication is highlighted by the finding that the distribution of replication origins varies between differentiated cell types and changes with differentiation. Moreover, differential DNA replication in some cell types can lead to increases or decreases in gene copy number along chromosomes. This review highlights the recent advances and technologies that have provided us with new insights into the developmental regulation of DNA replication. PMID:22223677

  18. Unraveling DNA dynamics using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Yoshimura, Shige H; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    The elucidation of structure-function relationships of biological samples has become important issue in post-genomic researches. In order to unveil the molecular mechanisms controlling gene regulations, it is essential to understand the interplay between fundamental DNA properties and the dynamics of the entire molecule. The wide range of applicability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has allowed us to extract physicochemical properties of DNA and DNA-protein complexes, as well as to determine their topographical information. Here, we review how AFM techniques have been utilized to study DNA and DNA-protein complexes and what types of analyses have accelerated the understanding of the DNA dynamics. We begin by illustrating the application of AFM to investigate the fundamental feature of DNA molecules; topological transition of DNA, length dependent properties of DNA molecules, flexibility of double-stranded DNA, and capability of the formation of non-Watson-Crick base pairing. These properties of DNA are critical for the DNA folding and enzymatic reactions. The technical advancement in the time-resolution of AFM and sample preparation methods enabled visual analysis of DNA-protein interactions at sub-second time region. DNA tension-dependent enzymatic reaction and DNA looping dynamics by restriction enzymes were examined at a nanoscale in physiological environments. Contribution of physical properties of DNA to dynamics of nucleosomes and transition of the higher-order structure of reconstituted chromatin are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  20. DNA replication in the archaea.

    PubMed

    Barry, Elizabeth R; Bell, Stephen D

    2006-12-01

    The archaeal DNA replication machinery bears striking similarity to that of eukaryotes and is clearly distinct from the bacterial apparatus. In recent years, considerable advances have been made in understanding the biochemistry of the archaeal replication proteins. Furthermore, a number of structures have now been obtained for individual components and higher-order assemblies of archaeal replication factors, yielding important insights into the mechanisms of DNA replication in both archaea and eukaryotes.

  1. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Moore, Allen J.; Schmitz, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:28025279

  3. The Balancing Act of Ribonucleotides in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Cerritelli, Susana M.; Crouch, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of ribonucleotides in DNA remained undetected until recently because they are efficiently removed by the Ribonucleotides Excision Repair pathway, a process similar to Okazaki fragment processing after incision by RNase H2. All DNA polymerases incorporate ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis. How many, when and why they are incorporated has been the focus of intense work during recent years by many labs. In this review, we discuss recent advances in ribonucleotide incorporation by eukaryotic DNA polymerases that suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for ribonucleotides in DNA and review the data that indicate that removal of ribonucleotides plays an important role in maintaining genome stability. PMID:26996833

  4. DNA Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Explains a method to enable students to understand DNA and protein synthesis using model-building and role-playing. Acquaints students with the triplet code and transcription. Includes copies of the charts used in this technique. (DDR)

  5. Dancing DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    An imaging technique that uses fluorescent dyes and allows scientists to track DNA as it moves through gels or in solution is described. The importance, opportunities, and implications of this technique are discussed. (KR)

  6. DNA nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  7. Triplex technology in studies of DNA damage, DNA repair, and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Vasquez, Karen M

    2011-08-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) can bind to the major groove of homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches of double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding to form DNA triplexes. TFOs by themselves or conjugated to reactive molecules can be used to direct sequence-specific DNA damage, which in turn results in the induction of several DNA metabolic activities. Triplex technology is highly utilized as a tool to study gene regulation, molecular mechanisms of DNA repair, recombination, and mutagenesis. In addition, TFO targeting of specific genes has been exploited in the development of therapeutic strategies to modulate DNA structure and function. In this review, we discuss advances made in studies of DNA damage, DNA repair, recombination, and mutagenesis by using triplex technology to target specific DNA sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial identification and subtyping using DNA microarray and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaldi, Sufian F; Mossoba, Magdi M; Allard, Marc M; Lienau, E Kurt; Brown, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    The era of fast and accurate discovery of biological sequence motifs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is here. The co-evolution of direct genome sequencing and DNA microarray strategies not only will identify, isotype, and serotype pathogenic bacteria, but also it will aid in the discovery of new gene functions by detecting gene expressions in different diseases and environmental conditions. Microarray bacterial identification has made great advances in working with pure and mixed bacterial samples. The technological advances have moved beyond bacterial gene expression to include bacterial identification and isotyping. Application of new tools such as mid-infrared chemical imaging improves detection of hybridization in DNA microarrays. The research in this field is promising and future work will reveal the potential of infrared technology in bacterial identification. On the other hand, DNA sequencing by using 454 pyrosequencing is so cost effective that the promise of $1,000 per bacterial genome sequence is becoming a reality. Pyrosequencing technology is a simple to use technique that can produce accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA sequences with a great speed. The deposition of massive amounts of bacterial genomic information in databanks is creating fingerprint phylogenetic analysis that will ultimately replace several technologies such as Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. In this chapter, we will review (1) the use of DNA microarray using fluorescence and infrared imaging detection for identification of pathogenic bacteria, and (2) use of pyrosequencing in DNA cluster analysis to fingerprint bacterial phylogenetic trees.

  9. How We Make DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Wagenbauer, Klaus F; Engelhardt, Floris A S; Stahl, Evi; Hechtl, Vera K; Stömmer, Pierre; Seebacher, Fabian; Meregalli, Letizia; Ketterer, Philip; Gerling, Thomas; Dietz, Hendrik

    2017-10-05

    DNA origami has attracted substantial attention since its invention ten years ago, due to the seemingly infinite possibilities that it affords for creating customized nanoscale objects. Although the basic concept of DNA origami is easy to understand, using custom DNA origami in practical applications requires detailed know-how for designing and producing the particles with sufficient quality and for preparing them at appropriate concentrations with the necessary degree of purity in custom environments. Such know-how is not readily available for newcomers to the field, thus slowing down the rate at which new applications outside the field of DNA nanotechnology may emerge. To foster faster progress, we share in this article the experience in making and preparing DNA origami that we have accumulated over recent years. We discuss design solutions for creating advanced structural motifs including corners and various types of hinges that expand the design space for the more rigid multilayer DNA origami and provide guidelines for preventing undesired aggregation and on how to induce specific oligomerization of multiple DNA origami building blocks. In addition, we provide detailed protocols and discuss the expected results for five key methods that allow efficient and damage-free preparation of DNA origami. These methods are agarose-gel purification, filtration through molecular cut-off membranes, PEG precipitation, size-exclusion chromatography, and ultracentrifugation-based sedimentation. The guide for creating advanced design motifs and the detailed protocols with their experimental characterization that we describe here should lower the barrier for researchers to accomplish the full DNA origami production workflow. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  11. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  12. Regulating DNA Replication in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Maria de la Paz; Costas, Celina; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication in plants has requirements and constraints similar to those in other eukaryotes. However, some aspects are plant-specific. Studies of DNA replication control in plants, which have unique developmental strategies, can offer unparalleled opportunities of comparing regulatory processes with yeast and, particularly, metazoa to identify common trends and basic rules. In addition to the comparative molecular and biochemical studies, genomic studies in plants that started with Arabidopsis thaliana in the year 2000 have now expanded to several dozens of species. This, together with the applicability of genomic approaches and the availability of a large collection of mutants, underscores the enormous potential to study DNA replication control in a whole developing organism. Recent advances in this field with particular focus on the DNA replication proteins, the nature of replication origins and their epigenetic landscape, and the control of endoreplication will be reviewed. PMID:23209151

  13. DNA testing in neurologic diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D P; Leeb, T

    2014-01-01

    DNA testing is available for a growing number of hereditary diseases in neurology and other specialties. In addition to guiding breeding decisions, DNA tests are important tools in the diagnosis of diseases, particularly in conditions for which clinical signs are relatively nonspecific. DNA testing also can provide valuable insight into the risk of hereditary disease when decisions about treating comorbidities are being made. Advances in technology and bioinformatics will make broad screening for potential disease-causing mutations available soon. As DNA tests come into more common use, it is critical that clinicians understand the proper application and interpretation of these test results. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Environmental Monitoring Technologies are presented. The topics include: 1) Monitoring & Controlling the Environment; 2) Illustrative Example: Canary 3) Ground-based Commercial Technology; 4) High Capability & Low Mass/Power + Autonomy = Key to Future SpaceFlight; 5) Current Practice: in Flight; 6) Current Practice: Post Flight; 7) Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration and Long Duration Human Flight; 8) Hardware and Data Acquisition System; 9) 16S rDNA Phylogenetic Tree; and 10) Preview of Porter.

  15. DNA Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ellen S.; Bertino, Anthony J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a simulation activity that allow students to work through the exercise of DNA profiling and to grapple with some analytical and ethical questions involving a couple arranging with a surrogate mother to have a baby. Can be used to teach the principles of restriction enzyme digestion, gel electrophoresis, and probe hybridization. (MDH)

  16. DNA Camouflage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-08

    Kan), and pBZ51 + pBZ52 (selected on Amp ) were grown overnight, and plasmid DNA was extracted and run on a 1% agarose gel. Cells co-transformed with...pBZ51 and pBZ52 were able to stably maintain both plasmids under Amp selection. SI Fig. 10 SI

  17. DNA Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Carol; della Villa, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students reverse-translate proteins from their amino acid sequences back to their DNA sequences then assign musical notes to represent the adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine bases. Data is obtained from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on the Internet. (DDR)

  18. Molecular mechanism of DNA association with single-stranded DNA binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During DNA replication, the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) wraps single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) with high affinity to protect it from degradation and prevent secondary structure formation. Although SSB binds ssDNA tightly, it can be repositioned along ssDNA to follow the advancement of the replication fork. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we characterized the molecular mechanism of ssDNA association with SSB. Placed in solution, ssDNA–SSB assemblies were observed to change their structure spontaneously; such structural changes were suppressed in the crystallographic environment. Repeat simulations of the SSB–ssDNA complex under mechanical tension revealed a multitude of possible pathways for ssDNA to come off SSB punctuated by prolonged arrests at reproducible sites at the SSB surface. Ensemble simulations of spontaneous association of short ssDNA fragments with SSB detailed a three-dimensional map of local affinity to DNA; the equilibrium amount of ssDNA bound to SSB was found to depend on the electrolyte concentration but not on the presence of the acidic tips of the SSB tails. Spontaneous formation of ssDNA bulges and their diffusive motion along SSB surface was directly observed in multiple 10-µs-long simulations. Such reptation-like motion was confined by DNA binding to high-affinity spots, suggesting a two-step mechanism for SSB diffusion. PMID:29059392

  19. Repair-Resistant DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway is the major mechanism that removes most bulky and some nonbulky lesions from cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that certain DNA lesions are repaired slowly or are entirely resistant to repair in cells, tissues, and in cell extract model assay systems. It is well established that the eukaryotic DNA lesion-sensing proteins do not detect the damaged nucleotide, but recognize the distortions/destabilizations in the native DNA structure caused by the damaged nucleotides. In this article, the nature of the structural features of certain bulky DNA lesions that render them resistant to NER, or cause them to be repaired slowly, is compared to that of those that are good-to-excellent NER substrates. Understanding the structural features that distinguish NER-resistant DNA lesions from good NER substrates may be useful for interpreting the biological significance of biomarkers of exposure of human populations to genotoxic environmental chemicals. NER-resistant lesions can survive to replication and cause mutations that can initiate cancer and other diseases. Furthermore, NER diminishes the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic drugs, and the design of more potent pharmaceuticals that resist repair can be advanced through a better understanding of the structural properties of DNA lesions that engender repair-resistance. PMID:28750166

  20. Food Fish Identification from DNA Extraction through Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment exposed 3rd and 4th y undergraduates and graduate students taking a course in advanced food analysis to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and DNA sequence analysis. Students provided their own fish sample, purchased from local grocery stores, and the class as a whole extracted DNA, which was then subjected to PCR,…

  1. Applications of DNA-Stable Isotope Probing in Bioremediation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yin; Vohra, Jyotsna; Murrell, J. Colin

    DNA-stable isotope probing, a method to identify active microorganisms without the prerequisite of cultivation, has been widely applied in the study of microorganisms involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants. Recent advances and technique considerations in applying DNA-SIP in bioremediation are highlighted. A detailed protocol of a DNA-SIP experiment is provided.

  2. Applications of DNA-stable isotope probing in bioremediation studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin; Vohra, Jyotsna; Murrell, J Colin

    2010-01-01

    DNA-stable isotope probing, a method to identify active microorganisms without the prerequisite of cultivation, has been widely applied in the study of microorganisms involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants. Recent advances and technique considerations in applying DNA-SIP in bioremediation are highlighted. A detailed protocol of a DNA-SIP experiment is provided.

  3. Replication licensing and the DNA damage checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and timely duplication of chromosomal DNA requires that replication be coordinated with processes that ensure genome integrity. Significant advances in determining how the earliest steps in DNA replication are affected by DNA damage have highlighted some of the mechanisms to establish that coordination. Recent insights have expanded the relationship between the ATM and ATR-dependent checkpoint pathways and the proteins that bind and function at replication origins. These findings suggest that checkpoints and replication are more intimately associated than previously appreciated, even in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. This review summarizes some of these developments. PMID:19482602

  4. Choosing and Using a Plant DNA Barcode

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Graham, Sean W.; Little, Damon P.

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of DNA barcoding is to establish a shared community resource of DNA sequences that can be used for organismal identification and taxonomic clarification. This approach was successfully pioneered in animals using a portion of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) mitochondrial gene. In plants, establishing a standardized DNA barcoding system has been more challenging. In this paper, we review the process of selecting and refining a plant barcode; evaluate the factors which influence the discriminatory power of the approach; describe some early applications of plant barcoding and summarise major emerging projects; and outline tool development that will be necessary for plant DNA barcoding to advance. PMID:21637336

  5. Nanoarchitectonics with Porphyrin Functionalized DNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus DNA is well-known as bearer of the genetic code. Since its structure elucidation nearly seven decades ago by Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin, much has been learned about its detailed structure, function, and genetic coding. The development of automated solid-phase synthesis, and with it the availability of synthetic DNA with any desired sequence in lengths of up to hundreds of bases in the best case, has contributed much to the advancement of the field of DNA research. In addition, classic organic synthesis has allowed introduction of a very large number of modifications in the DNA in a sequence specific manner, which have initially been targeted at altering the biological function of DNA. However, in recent years DNA has become a very attractive scaffold in supramolecular chemistry, where DNA is taken out of its biological role and serves as both stick and glue molecule to assemble novel functional structures with nanometer precision. The attachment of functionalities to DNA has led to the creation of supramolecular systems with applications in light harvesting, energy and electron transfer, sensing, and catalysis. Functional DNA is clearly having a significant impact in the field of bioinspired nanosystems. Of particular interest is the use of porphyrins in supramolecular chemistry and bionanotechnology, because they are excellent functional groups due to their electronic properties that can be tailored through chemical modifications of the aromatic core or through insertion of almost any metal of the periodic table into the central cavity. The porphyrins can be attached either to the nucleobase, to the phosphate group, or to the ribose moiety. Additionally, noncovalent templating through Watson–Crick base pairing forms an alternative and attractive approach. With this, the combination of two seemingly simple molecules gives rise to a highly complex system with unprecedented possibilities for modulation of function, and with it applications

  6. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Li, Hua; Wang, Lihua; Gu, Hongzhou; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-02-21

    Over the past decade, we have seen rapid advances in applying nanotechnology in biomedical areas including bioimaging, biodetection, and drug delivery. As an emerging field, DNA nanotechnology offers simple yet powerful design techniques for self-assembly of nanostructures with unique advantages and high potential in enhancing drug targeting and reducing drug toxicity. Various sequence programming and optimization approaches have been developed to design DNA nanostructures with precisely engineered, controllable size, shape, surface chemistry, and function. Potent anticancer drug molecules, including Doxorubicin and CpG oligonucleotides, have been successfully loaded on DNA nanostructures to increase their cell uptake efficiency. These advances have implicated the bright future of DNA nanotechnology-enabled nanomedicine. In this review, we begin with the origin of DNA nanotechnology, followed by summarizing state-of-the-art strategies for the construction of DNA nanostructures and drug payloads delivered by DNA nanovehicles. Further, we discuss the cellular fates of DNA nanostructures as well as challenges and opportunities for DNA nanostructure-based drug delivery.

  7. A polarized view on DNA under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mameren, Joost; Vermeulen, Karen; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.

    2018-03-01

    In the past decades, sensitive fluorescence microscopy techniques have contributed significantly to our understanding of the dynamics of DNA. The specific labeling of DNA using intercalating dyes has allowed for quantitative measurement of the thermal fluctuations the polymers undergo. On the other hand, recent advances in single-molecule manipulation techniques have unraveled the mechanical and elastic properties of this intricate polymer. Here, we have combined these two approaches to study the conformational dynamics of DNA under a wide range of tensions. Using polarized fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with optical-tweezers-based manipulation of YOYO-intercalated DNA, we controllably align the YOYO dyes using DNA tension, enabling us to disentangle the rapid dynamics of the dyes from that of the DNA itself. With unprecedented control of the DNA alignment, we resolve an inconsistency in reports about the tilted orientation of intercalated dyes. We find that intercalated dyes are on average oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the DNA, yet undergo fast dynamics on the time scale of absorption and fluorescence emission. In the overstretching transition of double-stranded DNA, we do not observe changes in orientation or orientational dynamics of the dyes. Only beyond the overstretching transition, a considerable depolarization is observed, presumably caused by an average tilting of the DNA base pairs. Our combined approach thus contributes to the elucidation of unique features of the molecular dynamics of DNA.

  8. Catch the live show: Visualizing damaged DNA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oshidari, Roxanne; Mekhail, Karim

    2018-06-01

    The health of an organism is intimately linked to its ability to repair damaged DNA. Importantly, DNA repair processes are highly dynamic. This highlights the necessity of characterizing DNA repair in live cells. Advanced genome editing and imaging approaches allow us to visualize damaged DNA and its associated factors in real time. Here, we summarize both established and recent methods that are used to induce DNA damage and visualize damaged DNA and its repair in live cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel encoding methods for DNA-templated chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zheng, Wenlu; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Among various types of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, DNA-templated library takes advantage of the sequence-specificity of DNA hybridization, enabling not only highly effective DNA-templated chemical reactions, but also high fidelity in library encoding. This brief review summarizes recent advances that have been made on the encoding strategies for DNA-templated libraries, and it also highlights their respective advantages and limitations for the preparation of DNA-encoded libraries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution of DNA Methylation across Insects.

    PubMed

    Bewick, Adam J; Vogel, Kevin J; Moore, Allen J; Schmitz, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation contributes to gene and transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes, and therefore has been hypothesized to facilitate the evolution of plastic traits such as sociality in insects. However, DNA methylation is sparsely studied in insects. Therefore, we documented patterns of DNA methylation across a wide diversity of insects. We predicted that underlying enzymatic machinery is concordant with patterns of DNA methylation. Finally, given the suggestion that DNA methylation facilitated social evolution in Hymenoptera, we tested the hypothesis that the DNA methylation system will be associated with presence/absence of sociality among other insect orders. We found DNA methylation to be widespread, detected in all orders examined except Diptera (flies). Whole genome bisulfite sequencing showed that orders differed in levels of DNA methylation. Hymenopteran (ants, bees, wasps and sawflies) had some of the lowest levels, including several potential losses. Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) show all possible patterns, including a potential loss of DNA methylation in a eusocial species whereas solitary species had the highest levels. Species with DNA methylation do not always possess the typical enzymatic machinery. We identified a gene duplication event in the maintenance DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) that is shared by some Hymenoptera, and paralogs have experienced divergent, nonneutral evolution. This diversity and nonneutral evolution of underlying machinery suggests alternative DNA methylation pathways may exist. Phylogenetically corrected comparisons revealed no evidence that supports evolutionary association between sociality and DNA methylation. Future functional studies will be required to advance our understanding of DNA methylation in insects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Mendel Meets CSI: Forensic Genotyping as a Method to Teach Genetics & DNA Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurowski, Scotia; Reiss, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a forensic DNA science laboratory exercise for advanced high school and introductory college level biology courses. Students use a commercial genotyping kit and genetic analyzer or gene sequencer to analyze DNA recovered from a fictitious crime scene. DNA profiling and STR genotyping are outlined. DNA extraction, PCR, and…

  12. Sensing of dangerous DNA.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Stephan; Zhang, Wendy Y L; Tan, Nikki Yi Jie; Tripathi, Shubhita; Suter, Manuel A; Chew, Zhi Huan; Khatoo, Muznah; Ngeow, Joanne; Cheung, Florence S G

    2017-07-01

    The presence of damaged and microbial DNA can pose a threat to the survival of organisms. Cells express various sensors that recognize specific aspects of such potentially dangerous DNA. Recognition of damaged or microbial DNA by sensors induces cellular processes that are important for DNA repair and inflammation. Here, we review recent evidence that the cellular response to DNA damage and microbial DNA are tightly intertwined. We also discuss insights into the parameters that enable DNA sensors to distinguish damaged and microbial DNA from DNA present in healthy cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Forensic DNA methylation profiling from evidence material for investigative leads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Soong Deok; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is emerging as an attractive marker providing investigative leads to solve crimes in forensic genetics. The identification of body fluids that utilizes tissue-specific DNA methylation can contribute to solving crimes by predicting activity related to the evidence material. The age estimation based on DNA methylation is expected to reduce the number of potential suspects, when the DNA profile from the evidence does not match with any known person, including those stored in the forensic database. Moreover, the variation in DNA implicates environmental exposure, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, thereby suggesting the possibility to be used as a marker for predicting the lifestyle of potential suspect. In this review, we describe recent advances in our understanding of DNA methylation variations and the utility of DNA methylation as a forensic marker for advanced investigative leads from evidence materials. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 359-369] PMID:27099236

  14. DNA Vaccination Against Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    Although DNA vaccines have shown effectiveness in clinical trials , it is essential to demonstrate pre- clinical effectiveness for anti-tumor DNA vaccines...been shown to induce strong anti-tumor immunity in mice (3). Although gene vaccines have shown effectiveness in clinical trials for infectious...stronger justification for a clinical trial . REFERENCES: 1. Fornier, M., P. Munster, and A. D. Seidman. 1999. Update on the management of advanced breast

  15. Highly Sensitive Droplet Digital PCR Method for Detection of EGFR-Activating Mutations in Plasma Cell-Free DNA from Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanshan; Ye, Xin; Dong, Zhengwei; Lu, Ya Chao; Sun, Yun; Liu, Yi; McCormack, Rose; Gu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in plasma cell-free DNA from lung cancer patients is an emerging clinical tool. However, compared with tissue testing, the sensitivity of plasma testing is not yet satisfactory because of the highly fragmented nature of plasma cell-free DNA, low fraction of tumor DNA, and limitations of available detection technologies. We therefore developed a highly sensitive and specific droplet digital PCR method for plasma EGFR mutation (exon19 deletions and L858R) testing. Plasma from 86 EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-naive lung cancer patients was tested and compared with EGFR mutation status of matched tumor tissues tested by amplification refractory mutation system. By using EGFR mutation-positive cell DNA, we optimized the droplet digital PCR assays to reach 0.04% sensitivity. The plasma testing sensitivity and specificity, compared with the matched tumor tissues tested by amplification refractory mutation system, were 81.82% (95% CI, 59.72%-94.81%) and 98.44% (95% CI, 91.60%-99.96%), respectively, for exon19 deletions, with 94.19% concordance rate (κ = 0.840; 95% CI, 0.704-0.976; P < 0.0001), whereas they were 80.00% (95% CI, 51.91%-95.67%) and 95.77% (95% CI, 88.14%-99.12%), respectively, for L858R, with 93.02% concordance rate (κ = 0.758; 95% CI, 0.571-0.945; P < 0.0001). The reported highly sensitive and specific droplet digital PCR assays for EGFR mutation detection have potential in clinical blood testing. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Advance decision.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Alec; Barrister, J P

    2007-10-01

    In the UK, patients have a statutory right to refuse treatment. Parliament has authorised 'advance decision' whereby a person can specify his or her wishes regarding further medical treatment. Although the advance decision may give a person peace of mind, it could create real problems for doctors and other healthcare professionals. This article will examine the conditions and procedures surrounding the drawing up of an advance decision as well as some of the problems that could arise such as layman's language.

  17. HPV DNA test

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV testing in women; Cervical cancer - HPV DNA test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test ... The HPV DNA test may be done during a Pap smear . You lie on a table and place your feet in stirrups. The ...

  18. Superstatistical model of bacterial DNA architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Mikhail I.; Markelov, Oleg A.; Kayumov, Airat R.; Bunde, Armin

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the physical principles that govern the complex DNA structural organization as well as its mechanical and thermodynamical properties is essential for the advancement in both life sciences and genetic engineering. Recently we have discovered that the complex DNA organization is explicitly reflected in the arrangement of nucleotides depicted by the universal power law tailed internucleotide interval distribution that is valid for complete genomes of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here we suggest a superstatistical model that represents a long DNA molecule by a series of consecutive ~150 bp DNA segments with the alternation of the local nucleotide composition between segments exhibiting long-range correlations. We show that the superstatistical model and the corresponding DNA generation algorithm explicitly reproduce the laws governing the empirical nucleotide arrangement properties of the DNA sequences for various global GC contents and optimal living temperatures. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our model in terms of the DNA mechanical properties. As an outlook, we focus on finding the DNA sequences that encode a given protein while simultaneously reproducing the nucleotide arrangement laws observed from empirical genomes, that may be of interest in the optimization of genetic engineering of long DNA molecules.

  19. Graphene oxide-DNA based sensors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Lian, Chaoqun; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Lirong; Li, Qin; Zhang, Chunxia; Chen, Liang; Chen, Keping

    2014-10-15

    Since graphene oxide (GO) is readily available and exhibits exceptional optical, electrical, mechanical and chemical properties, it has attracted increasing interests for use in GO-DNA based sensors. This paper reviews the advances in GO-DNA based sensors using DNA as recognition elements. In solution, GO is as an excellent acceptor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to quench the fluorescence in dye labeled DNA sequences. This review discusses the emerging GO-DNA based sensors related to FRET for use in the detection of DNA, proteins, metal ions, cysteine (Cys), and others. The application of the electrochemical GO-DNA based sensors is also summarized because GO possesses exceptional electrochemical properties. The detection mechanisms and the advantages of GO are also revealed and discussed. GO-DNA based sensors perform well at low cost, and high sensitivity, and provide low detection limits. Additionally, GO-DNA based sensors should appear in the near future as scientists explore their usefulness and properties. Finally, future perspectives and possible challenges in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sperm DNA oxidative damage and DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate DNA damage and adducts in sperm from coke oven workers who have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measurements during spermatogenesis. Coke-oven workers (n=112) from a coke-oven plant served the PAH-exposed group, while administrators and security personnel (n=67) served the control. Routine semen parameters (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) were analyzed simultaneously; the assessment of sperm DNA integrity endpoints included DNA fragmentation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). The degree of sperm DNA fragmentation was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The PAH-exposed group had a significant increase in bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo compared to the control subjects (Ps = 0.002 and 0.045, respectively). Coke oven workers' percentages of DNA fragmentation and denaturation from the PAH-exposed group were not significantly different from those of the control subjects (Ps = 0.232 and 0.245, respectively). Routine semen parameters and DNA integrity endpoints were not correlated. Concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo were positively correlated with percentages of DNA fragmentation measured by both TUNEL and SCSA (Ps = 0.045 and 0.034, respectively). However, the concentrations of 8-oxo-dGuo and percentages of DNA fragmentation did not correlate with concentrations of bulky DNA adducts. In summary, coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs experienced decreased sperm DNA integrity. Oxidative stress could contribute to the degree of DNA fragmentation. Bulky DNA adducts may be independent of the formation of DNA fragmentation and oxidative adducts in sperm. Monitoring sperm DNA integrity is recommended as a part of the process of assessing the impact of occupational and environmental toxins on

  1. Synthesis of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2008-11-18

    A method of synthesizing a desired double-stranded DNA of a predetermined length and of a predetermined sequence. Preselected sequence segments that will complete the desired double-stranded DNA are determined. Preselected segment sequences of DNA that will be used to complete the desired double-stranded DNA are provided. The preselected segment sequences of DNA are assembled to produce the desired double-stranded DNA.

  2. DNA replication through a chromatin environment.

    PubMed

    Bellush, James M; Whitehouse, Iestyn

    2017-10-05

    Compaction of the genome into the nuclear space is achieved by wrapping DNA around octameric assemblies of histone proteins to form nucleosomes, the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin. Aside from providing a means by which to fit larger genomes into the cell, chromatinization of DNA is a crucial means by which the cell regulates access to the genome. While the complex role that chromatin plays in gene transcription has been appreciated for a long time, it is now also apparent that crucial aspects of DNA replication are linked to the biology of chromatin. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of how the chromatin environment influences key aspects of DNA replication.This article is part of the themed issue 'Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from Pleistocene sediments.

    PubMed

    Slon, Viviane; Hopfe, Charlotte; Weiß, Clemens L; Mafessoni, Fabrizio; de la Rasilla, Marco; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Soressi, Marie; Knul, Monika V; Miller, Rebecca; Stewart, John R; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Jacobs, Zenobia; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Shunkov, Michael V; de Lumley, Henry; Perrenoud, Christian; Gušić, Ivan; Kućan, Željko; Rudan, Pavao; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Essel, Elena; Nagel, Sarah; Nickel, Birgit; Schmidt, Anna; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Burbano, Hernán A; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias

    2017-05-12

    Although a rich record of Pleistocene human-associated archaeological assemblages exists, the scarcity of hominin fossils often impedes the understanding of which hominins occupied a site. Using targeted enrichment of mitochondrial DNA, we show that cave sediments represent a rich source of ancient mammalian DNA that often includes traces of hominin DNA, even at sites and in layers where no hominin remains have been discovered. By automation-assisted screening of numerous sediment samples, we detected Neandertal DNA in eight archaeological layers from four caves in Eurasia. In Denisova Cave, we retrieved Denisovan DNA in a Middle Pleistocene layer near the bottom of the stratigraphy. Our work opens the possibility of detecting the presence of hominin groups at sites and in areas where no skeletal remains are found. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Parvovirus infection-induced DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses are a group of small DNA viruses with ssDNA genomes flanked by two inverted terminal structures. Due to a limited genetic resource they require host cellular factors and sometimes a helper virus for efficient viral replication. Recent studies have shown that parvoviruses interact with the DNA damage machinery, which has a significant impact on the life cycle of the virus as well as the fate of infected cells. In addition, due to special DNA structures of the viral genomes, parvoviruses are useful tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection-induced DNA damage response (DDR). This review aims to summarize recent advances in parvovirus-induced DDR, with a focus on the diverse DDR pathways triggered by different parvoviruses and the consequences of DDR on the viral life cycle as well as the fate of infected cells. PMID:25429305

  5. DNA fingerprinting, DNA barcoding, and next generation sequencing technology in plants.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Hennell, James R; Carles, Maria C

    2012-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications.

  6. DNA-imprinted polymer nanoparticles with monodispersity and prescribed DNA-strand patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Tuan; Liao, Chenyi; Toader, Violeta; Barłóg, Maciej; Bazzi, Hassan S.; Li, Jianing; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-02-01

    As colloidal self-assembly increasingly approaches the complexity of natural systems, an ongoing challenge is to generate non-centrosymmetric structures. For example, patchy, Janus or living crystallization particles have significantly advanced the area of polymer assembly. It has remained difficult, however, to devise polymer particles that associate in a directional manner, with controlled valency and recognition motifs. Here, we present a method to transfer DNA patterns from a DNA cage to a polymeric nanoparticle encapsulated inside the cage in three dimensions. The resulting DNA-imprinted particles (DIPs), which are 'moulded' on the inside of the DNA cage, consist of a monodisperse crosslinked polymer core with a predetermined pattern of different DNA strands covalently 'printed' on their exterior, and further assemble with programmability and directionality. The number, orientation and sequence of DNA strands grafted onto the polymeric core can be controlled during the process, and the strands are addressable independently of each other.

  7. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  8. Advanced Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Mike; Nelms, Rick

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that explores the depth and breadth of scientific facts, principles, and procedures which are required in the Advanced General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQ) science through comparison with GCE Advanced level. The final report takes account of the updated 1996 version of GNVQ science. (DDR)

  9. The polymer physics of single DNA confined in nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Liang; Renner, C Benjamin; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, applications and experimental studies of DNA in nanochannels have stimulated the investigation of the polymer physics of DNA in confinement. Recent advances in the physics of confined polymers, using DNA as a model polymer, have moved beyond the classic Odijk theory for the strong confinement, and the classic blob theory for the weak confinement. In this review, we present the current understanding of the behaviors of confined polymers while briefly reviewing classic theories. Three aspects of confined DNA are presented: static, dynamic, and topological properties. The relevant simulation methods are also summarized. In addition, comparisons of confined DNA with DNA under tension and DNA in semidilute solution are made to emphasize universal behaviors. Finally, an outlook of the possible future research for confined DNA is given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Raman spectroscopy for DNA quantification in cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Okotrub, K A; Surovtsev, N V; Semeshin, V F; Omelyanchuk, L V

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach to quantify DNA in cell nuclei. This approach is based on spectroscopy analysis of Raman light scattering, and avoids the problem of nonstoichiometric binding of dyes to DNA, as it directly measures the signal from DNA. Quantitative analysis of nuclear DNA contribution to Raman spectrum could be reliably performed using intensity of a phosphate mode at 1096 cm(-1) . When compared to the known DNA standards from cells of different animals, our results matched those values at error of 10%. We therefore suggest that this approach will be useful to expand the list of DNA standards, to properly adjust the duration of hydrolysis in Feulgen staining, to assay the applicability of fuchsines for DNA quantification, as well as to measure DNA content in cells with complex hydrolysis patterns, when Feulgen densitometry is inappropriate. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Osmylated DNA, a novel concept for sequencing DNA using nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    2015-03-01

    Saenger sequencing has led the advances in molecular biology, while faster and cheaper next generation technologies are urgently needed. A newer approach exploits nanopores, natural or solid-state, set in an electrical field, and obtains base sequence information from current variations due to the passage of a ssDNA molecule through the pore. A hurdle in this approach is the fact that the four bases are chemically comparable to each other which leads to small differences in current obstruction. ‘Base calling’ becomes even more challenging because most nanopores sense a short sequence and not individual bases. Perhaps sequencing DNA via nanopores would be more manageable, if only the bases were two, and chemically very different from each other; a sequence of 1s and 0s comes to mind. Osmylated DNA comes close to such a sequence of 1s and 0s. Osmylation is the addition of osmium tetroxide bipyridine across the C5-C6 double bond of the pyrimidines. Osmylation adds almost 400% mass to the reactive base, creates a sterically and electronically notably different molecule, labeled 1, compared to the unreactive purines, labeled 0. If osmylated DNA were successfully sequenced, the result would be a sequence of osmylated pyrimidines (1), and purines (0), and not of the actual nucleobases. To solve this problem we studied the osmylation reaction with short oligos and with M13mp18, a long ssDNA, developed a UV-vis assay to measure extent of osmylation, and designed two protocols. Protocol A uses mild conditions and yields osmylated thymidines (1), while leaving the other three bases (0) practically intact. Protocol B uses harsher conditions and effectively osmylates both pyrimidines, but not the purines. Applying these two protocols also to the complementary of the target polynucleotide yields a total of four osmylated strands that collectively could define the actual base sequence of the target DNA.

  12. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the DNA mapping and sequencing technologies. In particular, the present invention provides enhanced methods and compositions for the physical mapping and positional cloning of genomic DNA. The present invention also provides a useful analytical technique to directly map cloned DNA sequences onto individual stretched DNA molecules.

  13. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  14. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj, E-mail: raj@pmc-group.com, E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu; Division of Fundamental Research, PMC Advanced Technology, Mount Laurel, New Jersey 08054

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reactionmore » are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.« less

  15. Engineering DNA scaffolds for delivery of anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wujin; Gu, Zhen

    2015-07-01

    Engineering DNA nanostructures with programmability in size, shape and surface chemistry holds tremendous promise in biomedical applications. As an emerging platform for drug delivery, DNA nanostructures have been extensively studied for delivering anticancer therapeutics, including small-molecule drug, nucleic acids and proteins. In this mini-review, current advances in utilizing DNA scaffolds as drug carriers for cancer treatment were summarized and future challenges were also discussed.

  16. DNA nanotechnology: Bringing lipid bilayers into shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Lipid bilayers form the thin and floppy membranes that define the boundary of compartments such as cells. Now, a method to control the shape and size of bilayers using DNA nanoscaffolds has been developed. Such designer materials advance synthetic biology and could find use in membrane research.

  17. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    PubMed

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  18. Evolution of Structural DNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Nummelin, Sami; Kommeri, Juhana; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Linko, Veikko

    2018-06-01

    The research field entitled structural DNA nanotechnology emerged in the beginning of the 1980s as the first immobile synthetic nucleic acid junctions were postulated and demonstrated. Since then, the field has taken huge leaps toward advanced applications, especially during the past decade. This Progress Report summarizes how the controllable, custom, and accurate nanostructures have recently evolved together with powerful design and simulation software. Simultaneously they have provided a significant expansion of the shape space of the nanostructures. Today, researchers can select the most suitable fabrication methods, and design paradigms and software from a variety of options when creating unique DNA nanoobjects and shapes for a plethora of implementations in materials science, optics, plasmonics, molecular patterning, and nanomedicine. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Surface-assisted DNA self-assembly: An enzyme-free strategy towards formation of branched DNA lattice.

    PubMed

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M; Nayak, Ashok K; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2017-04-01

    DNA based self-assembled nanostructures and DNA origami has proven useful for organizing nanomaterials with firm precision. However, for advanced applications like nanoelectronics and photonics, large-scale organization of self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) into periodic lattices is desired. In this communication for the first time we report a facile method of self-assembly of Y-shaped bDNA nanostructures on the cationic surface of Aluminum (Al) foil to prepare periodic two dimensional (2D) bDNA lattice. Particularly those Y-shaped bDNA structures having smaller overhangs and unable to self-assemble in solution, they are easily assembled on the surface of Al foil in the absence of ligase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis shows homogenous distribution of two-dimensional bDNA lattices across the Al foil. When the assembled bDNA structures were recovered from the Al foil and electrophoresed in nPAGE only higher order polymeric bDNA structures were observed without a trace of monomeric structures which confirms the stability and high yield of the bDNA lattices. Therefore, this enzyme-free economic and efficient strategy for developing bDNA lattices can be utilized in assembling various nanomaterials for functional molecular components towards development of DNA based self-assembled nanodevices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  1. Detecting differential DNA methylation from sequencing of bisulfite converted DNA of diverse species.

    PubMed

    Huh, Iksoo; Wu, Xin; Park, Taesung; Yi, Soojin V

    2017-07-21

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic modifications of genomic DNA. In recent years, sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA, particularly via next-generation sequencing technologies, has become a widely popular method to study DNA methylation. This method can be readily applied to a variety of species, dramatically expanding the scope of DNA methylation studies beyond the traditionally studied human and mouse systems. In parallel to the increasing wealth of genomic methylation profiles, many statistical tools have been developed to detect differentially methylated loci (DMLs) or differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between biological conditions. We discuss and summarize several key properties of currently available tools to detect DMLs and DMRs from sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA. However, the majority of the statistical tools developed for DML/DMR analyses have been validated using only mammalian data sets, and less priority has been placed on the analyses of invertebrate or plant DNA methylation data. We demonstrate that genomic methylation profiles of non-mammalian species are often highly distinct from those of mammalian species using examples of honey bees and humans. We then discuss how such differences in data properties may affect statistical analyses. Based on these differences, we provide three specific recommendations to improve the power and accuracy of DML and DMR analyses of invertebrate data when using currently available statistical tools. These considerations should facilitate systematic and robust analyses of DNA methylation from diverse species, thus advancing our understanding of DNA methylation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  3. New branched DNA constructs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Madhavaiah; Keller, Sascha; Gloeckner, Christian; Bornemann, Benjamin; Marx, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The Watson-Crick base pairing of DNA is an advantageous phenomenon that can be exploited when using DNA as a scaffold for directed self-organization of nanometer-sized objects. Several reports have appeared in the literature that describe the generation of branched DNA (bDNA) with variable numbers of arms that self-assembles into predesigned architectures. These bDNA units are generated by using cleverly designed rigid crossover DNA molecules. Alternatively, bDNA can be generated by using synthetic branch points derived from either nucleoside or non-nucleoside building blocks. Branched DNA has scarcely been explored for use in nanotechnology or from self-assembling perspectives. Herein, we wish to report our results for the synthesis, characterization, and assembling properties of asymmetrical bDNA molecules that are able to generate linear and circular bDNA constructs. Our strategy for the generation of bDNA is based on a branching point that makes use of a novel protecting-group strategy. The bDNA units were generated by means of automated DNA synthesis methods and were used to generate novel objects by employing chemical and biological techniques. The entities generated might be useful building blocks for DNA-based nanobiotechnology.

  4. Antiviral strategies to eliminate hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA).

    PubMed

    Revill, Peter; Locarnini, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    It has been over 50 years since the discovery of hepatitis B virus (HBV), yet 240 million people worldwide live with chronic HBV, resulting in up to 800000 deaths per year. A cure is yet to be achieved, due largely to a viral nuclear reservoir of transcriptionally active covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). While current antiviral therapies are effective at reducing viral replication, they have no impact on the existing cccDNA reservoir. Identifying mechanisms to either eliminate (complete cure) or inactivate (functional cure) HBV cccDNA are a major focus of HBV research worldwide. This review discusses recent advances in efforts to eliminate and/or regulate cccDNA, as well as future directions that may be considered in efforts to cure chronic HBV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Cathal J.; Lucas, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Fergal J.; Castro, Carlos E.

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami is a DNA-based nanotechnology that utilizes programmed combinations of short complementary oligonucleotides to fold a large single strand of DNA into precise 2-D and 3-D shapes. The exquisite nanoscale shape control of this inherently biocompatible material is combined with the potential to spatially address the origami structures with diverse cargos including drugs, antibodies, nucleic acid sequences, small molecules and inorganic particles. This programmable flexibility enables the fabrication of precise nanoscale devices that have already shown great potential for biomedical applications such as: drug delivery, biosensing and synthetic nanopore formation. In this Progress Report, we will review the advances in the DNA origami field since its inception several years ago and then focus on how these DNA-nanodevices can be designed to interact with cells to direct or probe their behavior. PMID:26840503

  6. "First generation" automated DNA sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Slatko, Barton E; Kieleczawa, Jan; Ju, Jingyue; Gardner, Andrew F; Hendrickson, Cynthia L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, automation of DNA sequencing has greatly increased throughput, reduced costs, and enabled large projects to be completed more easily. The development of automation technology paralleled the development of other aspects of DNA sequencing: better enzymes and chemistry, separation and imaging technology, sequencing protocols, robotics, and computational advancements (including base-calling algorithms with quality scores, database developments, and sequence analysis programs). Despite the emergence of high-throughput sequencing platforms, automated Sanger sequencing technology remains useful for many applications. This unit provides background and a description of the "First-Generation" automated DNA sequencing technology. It also includes protocols for using the current Applied Biosystems (ABI) automated DNA sequencing machines. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Andre V.; Han, Dongran; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    DNA molecules have been used to build a variety of nanoscale structures and devices over the past 30 years, and potential applications have begun to emerge. But the development of more advanced structures and applications will require a number of issues to be addressed, the most significant of which are the high cost of DNA and the high error rate of self-assembly. Here we examine the technical challenges in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and outline some of the promising applications that could be developed if these hurdles can be overcome. In particular, we highlight the potential use of DNA nanostructures in molecular and cellular biophysics, as biomimetic systems, in energy transfer and photonics, and in diagnostics and therapeutics for human health. PMID:22056726

  8. Development of fluorescent methods for DNA methyltransferase assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueying; Zou, Xiaoran; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2017-03-01

    DNA methylation modified by DNA methyltransferase (MTase) plays an important role in regulating gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation. The aberrant DNA MTase activity may lead to a variety of human diseases including cancers. Therefore, accurate and sensitive detection of DNA MTase activity is crucial to biomedical research, clinical diagnostics and therapy. However, conventional DNA MTase assays often suffer from labor-intensive operations and time-consuming procedures. Alternatively, fluorescent methods have significant advantages of simplicity and high sensitivity, and have been widely applied for DNA MTase assay. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of fluorescent methods for DNA MTase assay. These emerging methods include amplification-free and the amplification-assisted assays. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and future directions of this area.

  9. Conjugated Polymers/DNA Hybrid Materials for Protein Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Likun; Zhang, Jiangyan; Xu, Huiming; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2016-09-07

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful tool for analyzing protein functions due to the high degree of spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, we demonstrate a CALI approach based on conjugated polymers (CPs)/DNA hybrid material for protein inactivation. The target protein is conjugated with single-stranded DNA in advance. Single-stranded DNA can form CPs/DNA hybrid material with cationic CPs via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Through the formation of CPs/DNA hybrid material, the target protein that is conjugated with DNA is brought into close proximity to CPs. Under irradiation, CPs harvest light and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in the inactivation of the adjacent target protein. This approach can efficiently inactivate any target protein which is conjugated with DNA and has good specificity and universality, providing a new strategy for studies of protein function and adjustment of protein activity.

  10. Surface-assisted DNA self-assembly: An enzyme-free strategy towards formation of branched DNA lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Bhanjadeo, Madhabi M.; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research; Nayak, Ashok K.

    DNA based self-assembled nanostructures and DNA origami has proven useful for organizing nanomaterials with firm precision. However, for advanced applications like nanoelectronics and photonics, large-scale organization of self-assembled branched DNA (bDNA) into periodic lattices is desired. In this communication for the first time we report a facile method of self-assembly of Y-shaped bDNA nanostructures on the cationic surface of Aluminum (Al) foil to prepare periodic two dimensional (2D) bDNA lattice. Particularly those Y-shaped bDNA structures having smaller overhangs and unable to self-assemble in solution, they are easily assembled on the surface of Al foil in the absence of ligase. Fieldmore » emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis shows homogenous distribution of two-dimensional bDNA lattices across the Al foil. When the assembled bDNA structures were recovered from the Al foil and electrophoresed in nPAGE only higher order polymeric bDNA structures were observed without a trace of monomeric structures which confirms the stability and high yield of the bDNA lattices. Therefore, this enzyme-free economic and efficient strategy for developing bDNA lattices can be utilized in assembling various nanomaterials for functional molecular components towards development of DNA based self-assembled nanodevices. - Highlights: • Al foil surface-assisted self-assembly of monomeric structures into larger branched DNA lattice. • FESEM study confirms the uniform distribution of two-dimensional bDNA lattice structures across the surface of Al foil. • Enzyme-free and economic strategy to prepare higher order structures from simpler DNA nanostructures have been confirmed by recovery assay. • Use of well proven sequences for the preparation of pure Y-shaped monomeric DNA nanostructure with high yield.« less

  11. Olaparib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Advanced Solid Tumors, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Histiocytic Disorders With Defects in DNA Damage Repair Genes (A Pediatric MATCH Treatment Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Ann Arbor Stage III Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Ann Arbor Stage IV Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Deleterious ATM Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA1 Gene Mutation; Deleterious BRCA2 Gene Mutation; Deleterious RAD51C Gene Mutation; Deleterious RAD51D Gene Mutation; Histiocytosis; Low Grade Glioma; Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Refractory Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Refractory Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Refractory Neuroblastoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Wilms Tumor

  12. Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A.; Lu, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication—data encoding, data transfer & data extraction—and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system—Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)—that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA. PMID:27050646

  13. Multiplexed Sequence Encoding: A Framework for DNA Communication.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Carr, Peter A; Lu, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic DNA has great propensity for efficiently and stably storing non-biological information. With DNA writing and reading technologies rapidly advancing, new applications for synthetic DNA are emerging in data storage and communication. Traditionally, DNA communication has focused on the encoding and transfer of complete sets of information. Here, we explore the use of DNA for the communication of short messages that are fragmented across multiple distinct DNA molecules. We identified three pivotal points in a communication-data encoding, data transfer & data extraction-and developed novel tools to enable communication via molecules of DNA. To address data encoding, we designed DNA-based individualized keyboards (iKeys) to convert plaintext into DNA, while reducing the occurrence of DNA homopolymers to improve synthesis and sequencing processes. To address data transfer, we implemented a secret-sharing system-Multiplexed Sequence Encoding (MuSE)-that conceals messages between multiple distinct DNA molecules, requiring a combination key to reveal messages. To address data extraction, we achieved the first instance of chromatogram patterning through multiplexed sequencing, thereby enabling a new method for data extraction. We envision these approaches will enable more widespread communication of information via DNA.

  14. Electronic Activation of a DNA Nanodevice Using a Multilayer Nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Ranallo, Simona; Rossetti, Marianna; Heo, Jiwoong; Shin, Jooseok; Park, Kwangyong; Ricci, Francesco; Hong, Jinkee

    2016-10-01

    A method to control activation of a DNA nanodevice by supplying a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand from an electro-responsive nanoplatform is reported. To develop functional nanoplatform, hexalayer nanofilm is precisely designed by layer-by-layer assembly technique based on electrostatic interaction with four kinds of materials: Hydrolyzed poly(β-amino ester) can help cDNA release from the film. A cDNA is used as a key building block to activate DNA nanodevice. Reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and the conductive polymer provide conductivity. In particular, rGOs efficiently incorporate a cDNA in the film via several interactions and act as a barrier. Depending on the types of applied electronic stimuli (reductive and oxidative potentials), a cDNA released from the electrode can quantitatively control the activation of DNA nanodevice. From this report, a new system is successfully demonstrated to precisely control DNA release on demand. By applying more advanced form of DNA-based nanodevices into multilayer system, the electro-responsive nanoplatform will expand the availability of DNA nanotechnology allowing its improved application in areas such as diagnosis, biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. DNA preservation in silk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawen; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Gong, He; Liu, Meng; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-27

    The structure of DNA is susceptible to alterations at high temperature and on changing pH, irradiation and exposure to DNase. Options to protect and preserve DNA during storage are important for applications in genetic diagnosis, identity authentication, drug development and bioresearch. In the present study, the stability of total DNA purified from human dermal fibroblast cells, as well as that of plasmid DNA, was studied in silk protein materials. The DNA/silk mixtures were stabilized on filter paper (silk/DNA + filter) or filter paper pre-coated with silk and treated with methanol (silk/DNA + PT-filter) as a route to practical utility. After air-drying and water extraction, 50-70% of the DNA and silk could be retrieved and showed a single band on electrophoretic gels. 6% silk/DNA + PT-filter samples provided improved stability in comparison with 3% silk/DNA + filter samples and DNA + filter samples for DNA preservation, with ∼40% of the band intensity remaining at 37 °C after 40 days and ∼10% after exposure to UV light for 10 hours. Quantitative analysis using the PicoGreen assay confirmed the results. The use of Tris/borate/EDTA (TBE) buffer enhanced the preservation and/or extraction of the DNA. The DNA extracted after storage maintained integrity and function based on serving as a functional template for PCR amplification of the gene for zinc finger protein 750 (ZNF750) and for transgene expression of red fluorescence protein (dsRed) in HEK293 cells. The high molecular weight and high content of a crystalline beta-sheet structure formed on the coated surfaces likely accounted for the preservation effects observed for the silk/DNA + PT-filter samples. Although similar preservation effects were also obtained for lyophilized silk/DNA samples, the rapid and simple processing available with the silk-DNA-filter membrane system makes it appealing for future applications.

  16. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid) to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element. PMID:22099392

  17. Structural DNA nanotechnology for intelligent drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jie; Liu, Huajie; Su, Shao; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-11-01

    Drug delivery carriers have been popularly employed to improve solubility, stability, and efficacy of chemical and biomolecular drugs. Despite the rapid progress in this field, it remains a great challenge to develop an ideal carrier with minimal cytotoxicity, high biocompatibility and intelligence for targeted controlled release. The emergence of DNA nanotechnology offers unprecedented opportunities in this regard. Due to the unparalleled self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, it is possible to create numerous artificial DNA nanostructures with well-defined structures and DNA nanodevices with precisely controlled motions. More importantly, recent studies have proven that DNA nanostructures possess greater permeability to the membrane barrier of cells, which pave the way to developing new drug delivery carriers with nucleic acids, are summarized. In this Concept, recent advances on the design and fabrication of both static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and the use of these nanostructures for the delivery of various types of drugs, are highlighted. It is also demonstrated that dynamic DNA nanostructures provide the required intelligence to realize logically controlled drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  19. Technological Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  20. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-02

    The Advanced Space Transportation Group takes the future of space travel far into the 21st Century. Pictured is an artist's concept of a third generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Projected for the year 2025, this third generation RLV will introduce an era of space travel not unlike air travel today.

  1. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  2. DNA tagged microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2015-05-05

    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  3. Nanomaterials Based on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of synthetic stable branched DNA and sticky ended cohesion has led to the development of structural DNA nanotechnology over the past 30 years. The basis of this enterprise is that it is possible to construct novel DNA-based materials by combining these features in a self-assembly protocol. Thus, simple branched molecules lead directly to the construction of polyhedra whose edges consist of double helical DNA, and whose vertices correspond to the branch points. Stiffer branched motifs can be used to produce self-assembled two-dimensional and three-dimensional periodic lattices of DNA (crystals). DNA has also been used to make a variety of nanomechanical devices, including molecules that change their shapes, and molecules that can walk along a DNA sidewalk. Devices have been incorporated into two-dimensional DNA arrangements; sequence-dependent devices are driven by increases in nucleotide pairing at each step in their machine cycles. PMID:20222824

  4. Stool DNA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States. Why it's done Stool DNA testing is intended to screen for colon cancer or ... and poses no risks. How you prepare Stool DNA testing requires no preparation. You can eat and drink ...

  5. Advanced uracil DNA glycosylase-supplemented real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (UDG-rRT-LAMP) method for universal and specific detection of Tembusu virus

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi; Chen, Hao; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-01-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which threatens both poultry production and public health. In this study we developed a complete open reading frame alignment-based rRT-LAMP method for the universal detection of TUMV. To prevent false-positive results, the reaction was supplemented with uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) to eliminate carryover contamination. The detection limit of the newly developed UDG-rRT-LAMP for TMUV was as low as 100 copies/reaction of viral RNA and 1 × 100.89 − 1 × 101.55 tissue culture infectious dose/100 μL of viruses. There were no cross-reactions with other viruses, and the reproducibility of the assay was confirmed by intra- and inter-assay tests with variability ranging from 0.22–3.33%. The new UDG-rRT-LAMP method for TMUV produced the same results as viral isolation combined with RT-PCR as the “gold standard” in 96.88% of cases for 81 clinical samples from subjects with suspected TMUV infection. The addition of UDG can eliminate as much as 1 × 10−16 g/reaction of contaminants, which can significantly reduce the likelihood of false-positive results during the rRT-LAMP reaction. Our result indicated that our UDG-rRT-LAMP is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and reliable method that can effectively prevent carryover contamination in the detection of TMUV. PMID:27270462

  6. [Applications of DNA methylation markers in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-sen; Yang, Qing-en

    2005-02-01

    DNA methylation is a post-replication modification that is predominantly found in cytosines of the dinucleotide sequence CpG. Epigenetic information is stored in the distribution of the modified base 5-methylcytosine. DNA methylation profiles represent a more chemically and biologically stable source of molecular diagnostic information than RNA or most proteins. Recent advances attest to the great promise of DNA methylation markers as powerful future tools in the clinic. In the past decade, DNA methylation analysis has been revolutionized by two technological advances--bisulphite modification of DNA and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The methylation pattern of human genome is space-time specific, sex-specific, parent-of-origin specific and disease specific, providing us an alternative way to solve forensic problems.

  7. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains

    PubMed Central

    Girish, KL; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-01-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains. PMID:21731342

  8. DNAzymes in DNA Nanomachines and DNA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu; Tian, Ye; Chen, Yi; Mao, Chengde

    This chapter discusses our efforts in using DNAzymes in DNA nano-machines and DNA analysis systems. 10-23 DNAzymes can cleave specific phos-phodiester bonds in RNA. We use them to construct an autonomous DNA-RNA chimera nanomotor, which constantly extracts chemical energy from RNA substrates and transduces the energy into a mechanical motion: cycles of contraction and extension. The motor's motion can be reversibly turned on and off by a DNA analogue (brake) of the RNA substrate. Addition and removal of the brake stops and restarts, respectively, the motor's motion. Furthermore, when the RNA substrates are preorganized into a one-dimensional track, a DNAzyme can continuously move along the track so long as there are substrates available ahead. Based on a similar mechanism, a novel DNA detection system has been developed. A target DNA activates a DNAzyme to cleave RNA-containing molecular beacons (MB), which generates an enhanced fluorescence signal. A following work integrates two steps of signal amplifications: a rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to synthesize multiple copies of DNAzymes, and the DNAzymes catalyze a chemical reaction to generate a colorimetric signal. This method allows detection of DNA analytes whose concentration is as low as 1 pM.

  9. Advances in PCR technology.

    PubMed

    Lauerman, Lloyd H

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 20 years ago, an avalanche of scientific publications have reported major developments and changes in specialized equipment, reagents, sample preparation, computer programs and techniques, generated through business, government and university research. The requirement for genetic sequences for primer selection and validation has been greatly facilitated by the development of new sequencing techniques, machines and computer programs. Genetic libraries, such as GenBank, EMBL and DDBJ continue to accumulate a wealth of genetic sequence information for the development and validation of molecular-based diagnostic procedures concerning human and veterinary disease agents. The mechanization of various aspects of the PCR assay, such as robotics, microfluidics and nanotechnology, has made it possible for the rapid advancement of new procedures. Real-time PCR, DNA microarray and DNA chips utilize these newer techniques in conjunction with computer and computer programs. Instruments for hand-held PCR assays are being developed. The PCR and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assays have greatly accelerated the speed and accuracy of diagnoses of human and animal disease, especially of the infectious agents that are difficult to isolate or demonstrate. The PCR has made it possible to genetically characterize a microbial isolate inexpensively and rapidly for identification, typing and epidemiological comparison.

  10. Advanced Nanoemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Michael M.; Mason, Thomas G.

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in the growing field of nanoemulsions are opening up new applications in many areas such as pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. Moreover, highly controlled nanoemulsions can also serve as excellent model systems for investigating basic scientific questions about soft matter. Here, we highlight some of the most recent developments in nanoemulsions, focusing on methods of formation, surface modification, material properties, and characterization. These developments provide insight into the substantial advantages that nanoemulsions can offer over their microscale emulsion counterparts.

  11. DNA Sequencing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1992-01-01

    An automated DNA sequencing apparatus having a reactor for providing at least two series of DNA products formed from a single primer and a DNA strand, each DNA product of a series differing in molecular weight and having a chain terminating agent at one end; separating means for separating the DNA products to form a series bands, the intensity of substantially all nearby bands in a different series being different, band reading means for determining the position an This invention was made with government support including a grant from the U.S. Public Health Service, contract number AI-06045. The U.S. government has certain rights in the invention.

  12. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  13. DNA-Mediated Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Gorodetsky, Alon A.; Buzzeo, Marisa C.

    2009-01-01

    The base pair stack of DNA has been demonstrated as a medium for long range charge transport chemistry both in solution and at DNA-modified surfaces. This chemistry is exquisitely sensitive to structural perturbations in the base pair stack as occur with lesions, single base mismatches, and protein binding. We have exploited this sensitivity for the development of reliable electrochemical assays based on DNA charge transport at self-assembled DNA monolayers. Here we discuss the characteristic features, applications, and advantages of DNA-mediated electrochemistry. PMID:18980370

  14. Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank; A control DNA resource.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Shona M; Liewald, David C M; Campbell, Archie; Taylor, Kerrie; Wild, Sarah H; Newby, David; Turner, Marc; Porteous, David J

    2010-11-23

    Many medical disorders of public health importance are complex diseases caused by multiple genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Recent technological advances have made it possible to analyse the genetic variants that predispose to complex diseases. Reliable detection of these variants requires genome-wide association studies in sufficiently large numbers of cases and controls. This approach is often hampered by difficulties in collecting appropriate control samples. The Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank (GS:3D) aims to help solve this problem by providing a resource of control DNA and plasma samples accessible for research. GS:3D participants were recruited from volunteer blood donors attending Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) clinics across Scotland. All participants gave full written consent for GS:3D to take spare blood from their normal donation. Participants also supplied demographic data by completing a short questionnaire. Over five thousand complete sets of samples, data and consent forms were collected. DNA and plasma were extracted and stored. The data and samples were unlinked from their original SNBTS identifier number. The plasma, DNA and demographic data are available for research. New data obtained from analysis of the resource will be fed back to GS:3D and will be made available to other researchers as appropriate. Recruitment of blood donors is an efficient and cost-effective way of collecting thousands of control samples. Because the collection is large, subsets of controls can be selected, based on age range, gender, and ethnic or geographic origin. The GS:3D resource should reduce time and expense for investigators who would otherwise have had to recruit their own controls.

  15. Epigenetic Alteration by DNA Methylation of ESR1, MYOD1 and hTERT Gene Promoters is Useful for Prediction of Response in Patients of Locally Advanced Invasive Cervical Carcinoma Treated by Chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Sood, S; Patel, F D; Ghosh, S; Arora, A; Dhaliwal, L K; Srinivasan, R

    2015-12-01

    Locally advanced invasive cervical cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB/III] is treated by chemoradiation. The response to treatment is variable within a given FIGO stage. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene promoter methylation profile and corresponding transcript expression of a panel of six genes to identify genes which could predict the response of patients treated by chemoradiation. In total, 100 patients with invasive cervical cancer in FIGO stage IIB/III who underwent chemoradiation treatment were evaluated. Ten patients developed systemic metastases during therapy and were excluded. On the basis of patient follow-up, 69 patients were chemoradiation-sensitive, whereas 21 were chemoradiation-resistant. Gene promoter methylation and gene expression was determined by TaqMan assay and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in tissue samples. The methylation frequency of ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MLH1, MYOD1 and hTERT genes ranged from 40 to 70%. Univariate and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that gene promoter methylation of MYOD1, ESR1 and hTERT could predict for chemoradiation response. A pattern of unmethylated MYOD1, unmethylated ESR1 and methylated hTERT promoter as well as lower ESR1 transcript levels predicted for chemoradiation resistance. Methylation profiling of a panel of three genes that includes MYOD1, ESR1 and hTERT may be useful to predict the response of invasive cervical carcinoma patients treated with standard chemoradiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Programmable DNA switches and their applications.

    PubMed

    Harroun, Scott G; Prévost-Tremblay, Carl; Lauzon, Dominic; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Wang, Xiaomeng; Pedro, Liliana; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2018-03-08

    DNA switches are ideally suited for numerous nanotechnological applications, and increasing efforts are being directed toward their engineering. In this review, we discuss how to engineer these switches starting from the selection of a specific DNA-based recognition element, to its adaptation and optimisation into a switch, with applications ranging from sensing to drug delivery, smart materials, molecular transporters, logic gates and others. We provide many examples showcasing their high programmability and recent advances towards their real life applications. We conclude with a short perspective on this exciting emerging field.

  17. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Profiling in Human DNA.

    PubMed

    Thomson, John P; Nestor, Colm E; Meehan, Richard R

    2017-01-01

    Since its "re-discovery" in 2009, there has been significant interest in defining the genome-wide distribution of DNA marked by 5-hydroxymethylation at cytosine bases (5hmC). In recent years, technological advances have resulted in a multitude of unique strategies to map 5hmC across the human genome. Here we discuss the wide range of approaches available to map this modification and describe in detail the affinity based methods which result in the enrichment of 5hmC marked DNA for downstream analysis.

  18. DNA evidence: current perspective and future challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Goswami, Gajendra K

    2014-08-01

    Since the discovery of DNA fingerprinting technology in 1985 it has been used extensively as evidence in the court of law world-wide to establish the individual identity both in civil and criminal matters. In India, the first case of parentage dispute solved by the use of DNA fingerprinting technology was in 1989. Since then till date, the DNA technology has been used not only to resolve the cases of paternity and maternity disputes, but also for the establishment of individual identity in various criminal cases and for wildlife forensic identification. Since last half a decade, India is exercising to enact legislation on the use of DNA in the judicial realm and the draft 'Human DNA Bill-2012' is pending in the parliament. Largely, the promoters of forensic DNA testing have anticipated that DNA tests are nearly infallible and DNA technology could be the greatest single advance step in search for truth, conviction of the perpetrator, and acquittal of the innocent. The current article provides a comprehensive review on the status of DNA testing in India and elucidates the consequences of the admissibility of DNA as 'evidence' in the judicial dominion. In this backdrop of civil and criminal laws and changing ethical and societal attitudes, it is concluded that the DNA legislation in India and world-wide needs to be designed with utmost care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA nanomaterials for preclinical imaging and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dawei; England, Christopher G; Cai, Weibo

    2016-10-10

    Besides being the carrier of genetic information, DNA is also an excellent biological organizer to establish well-designed nanostructures in the fields of material engineering, nanotechnology, and biomedicine. DNA-based materials represent a diverse nanoscale system primarily due to their predictable base pairing and highly regulated conformations, which greatly facilitate the construction of DNA nanostructures with distinct shapes and sizes. Integrating the emerging advancements in bioconjugation techniques, DNA nanostructures can be readily functionalized with high precision for many purposes ranging from biosensors to imaging to drug delivery. Recent progress in the field of DNA nanotechnology has exhibited collective efforts to employ DNA nanostructures as smart imaging agents or delivery platforms within living organisms. Despite significant improvements in the development of DNA nanostructures, there is limited knowledge regarding the in vivo biological fate of these intriguing nanomaterials. In this review, we summarize the current strategies for designing and purifying highly-versatile DNA nanostructures for biological applications, including molecular imaging and drug delivery. Since DNA nanostructures may elicit an immune response in vivo, we also present a short discussion of their potential toxicities in biomedical applications. Lastly, we discuss future perspectives and potential challenges that may limit the effective preclinical and clinical employment of DNA nanostructures. Due to their unique properties, we predict that DNA nanomaterials will make excellent agents for effective diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, improving patient outcome in cancer and other related diseases in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthropology. Response to Comment on "Late Pleistocene human skeleton and mtDNA link Paleoamericans and modern Native Americans".

    PubMed

    Kemp, Brian M; Lindo, John; Bolnick, Deborah A; Malhi, Ripan S; Chatters, James C

    2015-02-20

    Prüfer and Meyer raise concerns over the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results we reported for the Hoyo Negro individual, citing failure of a portion of these data to conform to their expectations of ancient DNA (aDNA). Because damage patterns in aDNA vary, outright rejection of our findings on this basis is unwarranted, especially in light of our other observations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Artificial Intelligence, DNA Mimicry, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2017-08-14

    The molecular evolution of genomic DNA across diverse plant and animal phyla involved dynamic registrations of sequence modifications to maintain existential homeostasis to increasingly complex patterns of environmental stressors. As an essential corollary, driver effects of positive evolutionary pressure are hypothesized to effect concerted modifications of genomic DNA sequences to meet expanded platforms of regulatory controls for successful implementation of advanced physiological requirements. It is also clearly apparent that preservation of updated registries of advantageous modifications of genomic DNA sequences requires coordinate expansion of convergent cellular proofreading/error correction mechanisms that are encoded by reciprocally modified genomic DNA. Computational expansion of operationally defined DNA memory extends to coordinate modification of coding and previously under-emphasized noncoding regions that now appear to represent essential reservoirs of untapped genetic information amenable to evolutionary driven recruitment into the realm of biologically active domains. Additionally, expansion of DNA memory potential via chemical modification and activation of noncoding sequences is targeted to vertical augmentation and integration of an expanded cadre of transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory factors affecting linear coding of protein amino acid sequences within open reading frames.

  2. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease.

  3. DNA nanotechnology: new adventures for an old warhorse.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-10-01

    As the blueprint of life, the natural exploits of DNA are admirable. However, DNA should not only be viewed within a biological context. It is an elegantly simple yet functionally complex chemical polymer with properties that make it an ideal platform for engineering new nanotechnologies. Rapidly advancing synthesis and sequencing technologies are enabling novel unnatural applications for DNA beyond the realm of genetics. Here we explore the chemical biology of DNA nanotechnology for emerging applications in communication and digital data storage. Early studies of DNA as an alternative to magnetic and optical storage mediums have not only been promising, but have demonstrated the potential of DNA to revolutionize the way we interact with digital data in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding the Toolbox of Photoswitches for DNA Nanotechnology Using Arylazopyrazoles.

    PubMed

    Adam, Volker; Prusty, Deepak K; Centola, Mathias; Škugor, Marko; Hannam, Jeffrey S; Valero, Julián; Klöckner, Bernhard; Famulok, Michael

    2018-01-24

    Photoregulation is among the most promising tools for development of dynamic DNA nanosystems, due to its high spatiotemporal precision, biocompatibility, and ease of use. So far, azobenzene and its derivatives have shown high potential in photocontrolling DNA duplex hybridization by light-dependent photoisomerization. Despite many recent advances, obtaining sufficiently high photoswitching efficiency under conditions more suitable for work with DNA nanostructures are challenging. Here we introduce a pair of arylazopyrazoles as new photoswitches for efficient and reversible control of DNA hybridization achieved even at room temperature with a low number of required modifications. Their photophysical properties in the native state and in DNA strands result in near-quantitative isomerization rates by irradiation with UV and orange light. To demonstrate the applicability of these photoswitches, we have successfully applied one of them to open and close a DNA hairpin by light at room temperature. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. DNA nanotechnology: new adventures for an old warhorse

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    As the blueprint of life, the natural exploits of DNA are admirable. However, DNA should not only be viewed within a biological context. It is an elegantly simple yet functionally complex chemical polymer with properties that make it an ideal platform for engineering new nanotechnologies. Rapidly advancing synthesis and sequencing technologies are enabling novel unnatural applications for DNA beyond the realm of genetics. Here we explore the chemical biology of DNA nanotechnology for emerging applications in communication and digital data storage. Early studies of DNA as an alternative to magnetic and optical storage mediums have not only been promising, but have demonstrated the potential of DNA to revolutionize the way we interact with digital data in the future. PMID:26056949

  6. Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Heng; Wang, Guohua; Qian, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. The classical view of methylation-mediated protein-DNA interactions is that only proteins with a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) can interact with methylated DNA. However, evidence is emerging to suggest that transcription factors lacking a MBD can also interact with methylated DNA. The identification of these proteins and the elucidation of their characteristics and the biological consequences of methylation-dependent transcription factor-DNA interactions are important stepping stones towards a mechanistic understanding of methylation-mediated biological processes, which have crucial implications for human development and disease. PMID:27479905

  7. A Role for the Host DNA Damage Response in Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA Formation—and Beyond?

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Sabrina; Nassal, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions. Hence, cccDNA represents the viral persistence reservoir that is not directly targeted by current anti-HBV therapeutics. Eliminating cccDNA will thus be at the heart of a cure for chronic hepatitis B. The low production of HBV cccDNA in most experimental models and the associated problems in reliable cccDNA quantitation have long hampered a deeper understanding of cccDNA molecular biology. Recent advancements including cccDNA-dependent cell culture systems have begun to identify select host DNA repair enzymes that HBV usurps for RC-DNA to cccDNA conversion. While this list is bound to grow, it may represent just one facet of a broader interaction with the cellular DNA damage response (DDR), a network of pathways that sense and repair aberrant DNA structures and in the process profoundly affect the cell cycle, up to inducing cell death if repair fails. Given the divergent interactions between other viruses and the DDR it will be intriguing to see how HBV copes with this multipronged host system. PMID:28531167

  8. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  9. The association of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes with prognosis of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Someya, M; Sakata, K-i; Matsumoto, Y; Kamdar, R P; Kai, M; Toyota, M; Hareyama, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Repair of various types of DNA damages is critical for genomic stability. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) has an important role in DNA double-strand break repair. We examined whether there may be a correlation between DNA-PK activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and survival percentages in various cancer patients. We also investigated the changes of DNA-PK activity in PBLs after radiotherapy. Methods: A total of 167 of untreated cancer patients participated in this study. Peripheral blood was collected, separated, and centrifuged. DNA-PK activity was measured by DNA-pull-down assay. Chromosomal aberrations were examined by cytogenetic methods. Results: DNA-PK activity of PBLs in advanced cancer patients was significantly lower than that in early stage. The patients with lower DNA-PK activity in PBLs tended to have the lower disease-specific survivals and distant metastasis-free survivals than those with higher DNA-PK activity in advanced stages. There was also a tendency of inverse correlation between DNA-PK activity and excess fragments. The DNA-PK activity of PBLs in most patients decreased in response to radiation as the equivalent whole-body dose increased. Conclusion: Cancer patients in advanced stage, with lower DNA-PK activity of PBLs might have higher distant metastasis and exhibit poorer prognosis. Therefore, DNA-PK activity in PBLs could be used as a marker to predict the chromosomal instability and poorer prognosis. PMID:21559021

  10. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  11. DNA topology and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kouzine, Fedor; Levens, David; Baranello, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a complex assembly that compacts DNA inside the nucleus while providing the necessary level of accessibility to regulatory factors conscripted by cellular signaling systems. In this superstructure, DNA is the subject of mechanical forces applied by variety of molecular motors. Rather than being a rigid stick, DNA possesses dynamic structural variability that could be harnessed during critical steps of genome functioning. The strong relationship between DNA structure and key genomic processes necessitates the study of physical constrains acting on the double helix. Here we provide insight into the source, dynamics, and biology of DNA topological domains in the eukaryotic cells and summarize their possible involvement in gene transcription. We emphasize recent studies that might inspire and impact future experiments on the involvement of DNA topology in cellular functions. PMID:24755522

  12. Detection and quantitation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    DNA mutation binding proteins alone and as chimeric proteins with nucleases are used with solid supports to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The solid supports may be flow cytometry beads, DNA chips, glass slides or DNA dips sticks. DNA molecules are coupled to solid supports to form DNA-support complexes. Labeled DNA is used with unlabeled DNA mutation binding proteins such at TthMutS to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by binding which gives an increase in signal. Unlabeled DNA is utilized with labeled chimeras to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by nuclease activity of the chimera which gives a decrease in signal.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa.

  14. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-16

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  15. Lattice engineering through nanoparticle–DNA frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yugang; Wang, Tong; ...

    2016-02-22

    Advances in self-assembly over the past decade have demonstrated that nano- and microscale particles can be organized into a large diversity of ordered three-dimensional (3D) lattices. However, the ability to generate different desired lattice types from the same set of particles remains challenging. Here, we show that nanoparticles can be assembled into crystalline and open 3D frameworks by connecting them through designed DNA-based polyhedral frames. The geometrical shapes of the frames, combined with the DNA-assisted binding properties of their vertices, facilitate the well-defined topological connections between particles in accordance with frame geometry. With this strategy, different crystallographic lattices using themore » same particles can be assembled by introduction of the corresponding DNA polyhedral frames. As a result, this approach should facilitate the rational assembly of nanoscale lattices through the design of the unit cell.« less

  16. Gold nanocrystals with DNA-directed morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xingyi; Huh, June; Park, Wounjhang; Lee, Luke P.; Kwon, Young Jik; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-09-01

    Precise control over the structure of metal nanomaterials is important for developing advanced nanobiotechnology. Assembly methods of nanoparticles into structured blocks have been widely demonstrated recently. However, synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures remains challenging. Here we show a directed crystallization of gold by a single DNA molecular regulator in a sequence-independent manner and its applications in three-dimensional topological controls of crystalline nanostructures. We anchor DNA onto gold nanoseed with various alignments to form gold nanocrystals with defined topologies. Some topologies are asymmetric including pushpin-, star- and biconcave disk-like structures, as well as more complex jellyfish- and flower-like structures. The approach of employing DNA enables the solution-based synthesis of nanocrystals with controlled, three-dimensional structures in a desired direction, and expands the current tools available for designing and synthesizing feature-rich nanomaterials for future translational biotechnology.

  17. Advanced Pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Synchrony, developed by St. Jude Medical's Cardiac Rhythm Management Division (formerly known as Pacesetter Systems, Inc.) is an advanced state-of-the-art implantable pacemaker that closely matches the natural rhythm of the heart. The companion element of the Synchrony Pacemaker System is the Programmer Analyzer APS-II which allows a doctor to reprogram and fine tune the pacemaker to each user's special requirements without surgery. The two-way communications capability that allows the physician to instruct and query the pacemaker is accomplished by bidirectional telemetry. APS-II features 28 pacing functions and thousands of programming combinations to accommodate diverse lifestyles. Microprocessor unit also records and stores pertinent patient data up to a year.

  18. Immunodetection of human topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anand G.; Flatten, Karen S.; Peterson, Kevin L.; Beito, Thomas G.; Schneider, Paula A.; Perkins, Angela L.; Harki, Daniel A.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    A number of established and investigational anticancer drugs slow the religation step of DNA topoisomerase I (topo I). These agents induce cytotoxicity by stabilizing topo I-DNA covalent complexes, which in turn interact with advancing replication forks or transcription complexes to generate lethal lesions. Despite the importance of topo I-DNA covalent complexes, it has been difficult to detect these lesions within intact cells and tumors. Here, we report development of a monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes covalent topo I-DNA complexes, but not free topo I or DNA, by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence or flow cytometry. Utilizing this antibody, we demonstrate readily detectable topo I-DNA covalent complexes after treatment with camptothecins, indenoisoquinolines and cisplatin but not nucleoside analogues. Topotecan-induced topo I-DNA complexes peak at 15–30 min after drug addition and then decrease, whereas indotecan-induced complexes persist for at least 4 h. Interestingly, simultaneous staining for covalent topo I-DNA complexes, phospho-H2AX and Rad51 suggests that topotecan-induced DNA double-strand breaks occur at sites distinct from stabilized topo I-DNA covalent complexes. These studies not only provide new insight into the action of topo I-directed agents, but also illustrate a strategy that can be applied to study additional topoisomerases and their inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26917015

  19. Disentangling DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  20. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in themore » different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.« less

  1. Forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  2. Multiprotein DNA Looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Jose M. G.; Saiz, Leonor

    2006-06-01

    DNA looping plays a fundamental role in a wide variety of biological processes, providing the backbone for long range interactions on DNA. Here we develop the first model for DNA looping by an arbitrarily large number of proteins and solve it analytically in the case of identical binding. We uncover a switchlike transition between looped and unlooped phases and identify the key parameters that control this transition. Our results establish the basis for the quantitative understanding of fundamental cellular processes like DNA recombination, gene silencing, and telomere maintenance.

  3. Fructosylation induced structural changes in mammalian DNA examined by biophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Asif; Arif, Zarina; Alam, Khursheed

    2017-03-01

    Glycosylation of DNA, proteins, lipids, etc. by reducing sugars, can lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These products may accumulate and involve in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, contributing to tissue injury via several mechanisms. In this study, fructosylation of calf thymus dsDNA was carried out with varying concentrations of fructose. The neo-structure of fructosylated-DNA was studied by various biophysical techniques and morphological characterization. Fructosylated-DNA showed hyperchromicity, increase in fluorescence intensity and decrease in melting temperature. The CD signal of modified-DNA shifted in the direction of higher wavelength indicative of structural changes in DNA. FTIR results indicated shift in specific band positions in fructosylated-DNA. Morphological characterization of fructosylated-DNA exhibited strand breakage and aggregation. The results suggest that the structure and conformation of DNA may be altered under high concentrations of fructose.

  4. The role of ctDNA detection and the potential of the liquid biopsy for breast cancer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Mark Robert; Page, Karen; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Guttery, David; Shaw, Jacqueline Amanda

    2016-07-01

    Recent advances in deep amplicon sequencing have enabled rapid assessment of somatic mutations and structural changes in multiple cancer genes in DNA isolated from tumour tissues and circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA). This cfDNA is under investigation as a 'liquid biopsy' for the real time monitoring of patients with cancer in a growing number of research studies and clinical trials. Here we will provide a brief overview of the potential clinical utility of cfDNA profiling for detection and monitoring of patients with breast cancer. The review was conducted in English using PubMed and search terms including 'breast cancer', 'plasma DNA', 'circulating cell free DNA' and 'circulating tumour DNA'. Expert commentary: Liquid biopsies through circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) enable monitoring of patients with breast cancer. The challenge ahead will be to incorporate cfDNA mutation profiling into routine clinical practice to provide patients with the most appropriate and timely treatment.

  5. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0323 TITLE: Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...increasing its sensitivity and specificity through nanotechnology . Hypothesis: Detection of DNA methylation from individuals with cancer can be used to

  6. DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades ago Alec Jeffreys published his seminal Nature papers on the use of minisatellite probes for DNA fingerprinting of humans (Jeffreys and colleagues Nature 1985, 314:67–73 and Nature 1985, 316:76–79). The new technology was soon adopted for many other organisms including plants, and when Hilde Nybom, Kurt Weising and Alec Jeffreys first met at the very First International Conference on DNA Fingerprinting in Berne, Switzerland, in 1990, everybody was enthusiastic about the novel method that allowed us for the first time to discriminate between humans, animals, plants and fungi on the individual level using DNA markers. A newsletter coined “Fingerprint News” was launched, T-shirts were sold, and the proceedings of the Berne conference filled a first book on “DNA fingerprinting: approaches and applications”. Four more conferences were about to follow, one on each continent, and Alec Jeffreys of course was invited to all of them. Since these early days, methodologies have undergone a rapid evolution and diversification. A multitude of techniques have been developed, optimized, and eventually abandoned when novel and more efficient and/or more reliable methods appeared. Despite some overlap between the lifetimes of the different technologies, three phases can be defined that coincide with major technological advances. Whereas the first phase of DNA fingerprinting (“the past”) was dominated by restriction fragment analysis in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, the advent of the PCR in the late 1980s gave way to the development of PCR-based single- or multi-locus profiling techniques in the second phase. Given that many routine applications of plant DNA fingerprinting still rely on PCR-based markers, we here refer to these methods as “DNA fingerprinting in the present”, and include numerous examples in the present review. The beginning of the third phase actually dates back to 2005, when several novel, highly parallel DNA

  7. DNA methylation in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a consequence of the complex, dysregulated interplay between genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and microbial composition in the intestine. Despite a great advancement in identifying host-susceptibility genes using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the majority of IBD cases are still underrepresented. The immediate challenge in post-GWAS era is to identify other causative genetic factors of IBD. DNA methylation has received increasing attention for its mechanistical role in IBD pathogenesis. This stable, yet dynamic DNA modification, can directly affect gene expression that have important implications in IBD development. The alterations in DNA methylation associated with IBD are likely to outset as early as embryogenesis all the way until old-age. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancement in understanding how DNA methylation alterations can contribute to the development of IBD. PMID:23983426

  8. DNA as information.

    PubMed

    Wills, Peter R

    2016-03-13

    This article reviews contributions to this theme issue covering the topic 'DNA as information' in relation to the structure of DNA, the measure of its information content, the role and meaning of information in biology and the origin of genetic coding as a transition from uninformed to meaningful computational processes in physical systems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. DNA-cell conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  10. MICROWAVE RESONANCES IN DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes spectroscopic studies of DNA which were undertaken to better understand a physical basis for microwave absorption by this molecule. hree types of studies are described. ) The low frequency scattered light spectrum of DNA was studied by two methods. irst, Ram...

  11. Complex DNA Brick Assembly.

    PubMed

    Ong, Luvena L; Ke, Yonggang

    2017-01-01

    DNA nanostructures are a useful technology for precisely organizing and manipulating nanomaterials. The DNA bricks method is a modular and versatile platform for applications requiring discrete or periodic structures with complex three-dimensional features. Here, we describe how structures are designed from the fundamental strand architecture through assembly and characterization of the formed structures.

  12. DNA-cell conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  13. Recombinant DNA for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, James G., III

    1992-01-01

    A science teacher describes his experience at a workshop to learn to teach the Cold Spring Harbor DNA Science Laboratory Protocols. These protocols lead students through processes for taking E. coli cells and transforming them into a new antibiotic resistant strain. The workshop featured discussions of the role of DNA recombinant technology in…

  14. Routine DNA testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  15. DNA codes for nanoscience.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo

    2005-02-11

    The nanometer scale is a special place where all sciences meet and develop a particularly strong interdisciplinarity. While biology is a source of inspiration for nanoscientists, chemistry has a central role in turning inspirations and methods from biological systems to nanotechnological use. DNA is the biological molecule by which nanoscience and nanotechnology is mostly fascinated. Nature uses DNA not only as a repository of the genetic information, but also as a controller of the expression of the genes it contains. Thus, there are codes embedded in the DNA sequence that serve to control recognition processes on the atomic scale, such as the base pairing, and others that control processes taking place on the nanoscale. From the chemical point of view, DNA is the supramolecular building block with the highest informational content. Nanoscience has therefore the opportunity of using DNA molecules to increase the level of complexity and efficiency in self-assembling and self-directing processes.

  16. Racemic DNA crystallography.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Collie, Gavin W; Kauffmann, Brice; Huc, Ivan

    2014-12-22

    Racemates increase the chances of crystallization by allowing molecular contacts to be formed in a greater number of ways. With the advent of protein synthesis, the production of protein racemates and racemic-protein crystallography are now possible. Curiously, racemic DNA crystallography had not been investigated despite the commercial availability of L- and D-deoxyribo-oligonucleotides. Here, we report a study into racemic DNA crystallography showing the strong propensity of racemic DNA mixtures to form racemic crystals. We describe racemic crystal structures of various DNA sequences and folded conformations, including duplexes, quadruplexes, and a four-way junction, showing that the advantages of racemic crystallography should extend to DNA. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Neandertal genome and ancient DNA authenticity

    PubMed Central

    Green, Richard E; Briggs, Adrian W; Krause, Johannes; Prüfer, Kay; Burbano, Hernán A; Siebauer, Michael; Lachmann, Michael; Pääbo, Svante

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in high-thoughput DNA sequencing have made genome-scale analyses of genomes of extinct organisms possible. With these new opportunities come new difficulties in assessing the authenticity of the DNA sequences retrieved. We discuss how these difficulties can be addressed, particularly with regard to analyses of the Neandertal genome. We argue that only direct assays of DNA sequence positions in which Neandertals differ from all contemporary humans can serve as a reliable means to estimate human contamination. Indirect measures, such as the extent of DNA fragmentation, nucleotide misincorporations, or comparison of derived allele frequencies in different fragment size classes, are unreliable. Fortunately, interim approaches based on mtDNA differences between Neandertals and current humans, detection of male contamination through Y chromosomal sequences, and repeated sequencing from the same fossil to detect autosomal contamination allow initial large-scale sequencing of Neandertal genomes. This will result in the discovery of fixed differences in the nuclear genome between Neandertals and current humans that can serve as future direct assays for contamination. For analyses of other fossil hominins, which may become possible in the future, we suggest a similar ‘boot-strap' approach in which interim approaches are applied until sufficient data for more definitive direct assays are acquired. PMID:19661919

  18. Advances in targeted genome editing.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Ousterout, David G; Gersbach, Charles A

    2012-08-01

    New technologies have recently emerged that enable targeted editing of genomes in diverse systems. This includes precise manipulation of gene sequences in their natural chromosomal context and addition of transgenes to specific genomic loci. This progress has been facilitated by advances in engineering targeted nucleases with programmable, site-specific DNA-binding domains, including zinc finger proteins and transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs). Recent improvements have enhanced nuclease performance, accelerated nuclease assembly, and lowered the cost of genome editing. These advances are driving new approaches to many areas of biotechnology, including biopharmaceutical production, agriculture, creation of transgenic organisms and cell lines, and studies of genome structure, regulation, and function. Genome editing is also being investigated in preclinical and clinical gene therapies for many diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoparticle Superlattice Engineering with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkin, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Recent developments in strategies for assembling nanomaterials have allowed us to draw a direct analogy between the assembly of solid state atomic lattices and the construction of nanoparticle superlattices. Herein, we present a set of six design rules for using DNA as a programmable linker to deliberately stabilize nine distinct colloidal crystal structures, with lattice parameters that are tailorable over the 25-150 nm size regime. These rules are analogous to those put forth by Pauling decades ago to explain the relative stability of lattices composed of atoms and small molecules. It is ideal to use DNA as a nanoscale bond to connect nanoparticles to achieve colloidal superlattice structures in this system, since its programmable nature allows for facile control over nanoparticle bond length and strength, and nanoparticle bond selectivity. This assembly method affords simultaneous and independent control over nanoparticle structure, crystallographic symmetry, and lattice parameters with nanometer scale precision. Further, we have developed a phase diagram that predicts the design parameters necessary to achieve a lattice with a given symmetry and lattice parameters a priori. The rules developed in this work present a major advance towards true materials by design, as they effectively separate the identity of a particle core (and thereby its physical properties) from the variables that control its assembly.

  20. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  1. Advanced Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    An artist's rendering of the air-breathing, hypersonic X-43B, the third and largest of NASA's Hyper-X series flight demonstrators, which could fly later this decade. Revolutionizing the way we gain access to space is NASA's primary goal for the Hypersonic Investment Area, managed for NASA by the Advanced Space Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Hypersonic Investment area, which includes leading-edge partners in industry and academia, will support future generation reusable vehicles and improved access to space. These technology demonstrators, intended for flight testing by decade's end, are expected to yield a new generation of vehicles that routinely fly about 100,000 feet above Earth's surface and reach sustained speeds in excess of Mach 5 (3,750 mph), the point at which "supersonic" flight becomes "hypersonic" flight. The flight demonstrators, the Hyper-X series, will be powered by air-breathing rocket or turbine-based engines, and ram/scramjets. Air-breathing engines, known as combined-cycle systems, achieve their efficiency gains over rocket systems by getting their oxygen for combustion from the atmosphere, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its oxygen. Once a hypersonic vehicle has accelerated to more than twice the speed of sound, the turbine or rockets are turned off, and the engine relies solely on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn fuel. When the vehicle has accelerated to more than 10 to 15 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators includes three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  2. Simple & Safe Genomic DNA Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for purifying DNA using either bacteria or rat liver is presented. Directions for doing a qualitative DNA assay using diphenylamine and a quantitative DNA assay using spectroscopy are included. (KR)

  3. Studying DNA in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarins, Silja

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a workshop for teachers that illustrates a method of extracting DNA and provides instructions on how to do some simple work with DNA without sophisticated and expensive equipment. Provides details on viscosity studies and breaking DNA molecules. (DDR)

  4. Omics Advances in Ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Xia, Pu; Wang, Pingping; Yang, Jianghu; Baird, Donald J

    2018-04-03

    Toxic substances in the environment generate adverse effects at all levels of biological organization from the molecular level to community and ecosystem. Given this complexity, it is not surprising that ecotoxicologists have struggled to address the full consequences of toxic substance release at ecosystem level, due to the limits of observational and experimental tools to reveal the changes in deep structure at different levels of organization. -Omics technologies, consisting of genomics and ecogenomics, have the power to reveal, in unprecedented detail, the cellular processes of an individual or biodiversity of a community in response to environmental change with high sample/observation throughput. This represents a historic opportunity to transform the way we study toxic substances in ecosystems, through direct linkage of ecological effects with the systems biology of organisms. Three recent examples of -omics advance in the assessment of toxic substances are explored here: (1) the use of functional genomics in the discovery of novel molecular mechanisms of toxicity of chemicals in the environment; (2) the development of laboratory pipelines of dose-dependent, reduced transcriptomics to support high-throughput chemical testing at the biological pathway level; and (3) the use of eDNA metabarcoding approaches for assessing chemical effects on biological communities in mesocosm experiments and through direct observation in field monitoring. -Omics advances in ecotoxicological studies not only generate new knowledge regarding mechanisms of toxicity and environmental effect, improving the relevance and immediacy of laboratory toxicological assessment, but can provide a wholly new paradigm for ecotoxicology by linking ecological models to mechanism-based, systems biology approaches.

  5. Programmable and Multifunctional DNA-Based Materials for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuezhou; Tu, Jing; Wang, Dongqing; Zhu, Haitao; Maity, Sajal Kumar; Qu, Xiangmeng; Bogaert, Bram; Pei, Hao; Zhang, Hongbo

    2018-06-01

    DNA encodes the genetic information; recently, it has also become a key player in material science. Given the specific Watson-Crick base-pairing interactions between only four types of nucleotides, well-designed DNA self-assembly can be programmable and predictable. Stem-loops, sticky ends, Holliday junctions, DNA tiles, and lattices are typical motifs for forming DNA-based structures. The oligonucleotides experience thermal annealing in a near-neutral buffer containing a divalent cation (usually Mg 2+ ) to produce a variety of DNA nanostructures. These structures not only show beautiful landscape, but can also be endowed with multifaceted functionalities. This Review begins with the fundamental characterization and evolutionary trajectory of DNA-based artificial structures, but concentrates on their biomedical applications. The coverage spans from controlled drug delivery to high therapeutic profile and accurate diagnosis. A variety of DNA-based materials, including aptamers, hydrogels, origamis, and tetrahedrons, are widely utilized in different biomedical fields. In addition, to achieve better performance and functionality, material hybridization is widely witnessed, and DNA nanostructure modification is also discussed. Although there are impressive advances and high expectations, the development of DNA-based structures/technologies is still hindered by several commonly recognized challenges, such as nuclease instability, lack of pharmacokinetics data, and relatively high synthesis cost. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, L. Kate; Catavero, Christina M.; Newman, Dina L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle. The DNA triangle integrates three distinct scales at which one can think about DNA: chromosomal, molecular, and informational. Through analysis of interview and survey data from biology faculty and students through the lens of the DNA triangle, we illustrate important differences in how novices and experts are able to explain the concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing. Similarly, analysis of passages from 16 different biology textbooks shows a large divide between introductory and advanced material, with introductory books omitting explanations of meiosis-linked concepts at the molecular level of DNA. Finally, backed by textbook findings and feedback from biology experts, we show that the DNA triangle can be applied to teaching and learning meiosis. By applying the DNA triangle to topics on meiosis we present a new framework for educators and researchers that ties concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing to knowledge about DNA on the chromosomal, molecular, and informational levels. PMID:28798212

  7. Magnetic Actuation of Self-Assembled DNA Hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauback, S.; Mattioli, K.; Armstrong, M.; Miller, C.; Pease, C.; Castro, C.; Sooryakumar, R.

    DNA nanotechnology offers a broad range of applications spanning from the creation of nanoscale devices, motors and nanoparticle templates to the development of precise drug delivery systems. Central to advancing this technology is the ability to actuate or reconfigure structures in real time, which is currently achieved primarily by DNA strand displacement yielding slow actuation times (about 1-10min). Here we exploit superparamagnetic beads to magnetically actuate DNA structures which also provides a system to measure forces associated with molecular interactions. DNA nanodevices are folded using DNA origami, whereby a long single-stranded DNA is folded into a precise compact geometry using hundreds of short oligonucleotides. Our DNA nanodevice is a nanohinge from which rod shaped DNA nanostructures are polymerized into micron-scale filaments forming handles for actuation. By functionalizing one arm of the hinge and the filament ends, the hinge can be attached to a surface while still allowing an arm to rotate and the filaments can be labeled with magnetic beads enabling the hinge to be actuated almost instantaneously by external magnetic fields. These results lay the groundwork to establish real-time manipulation and direct force application of DNA constructs.

  8. Random access in large-scale DNA data storage.

    PubMed

    Organick, Lee; Ang, Siena Dumas; Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Lopez, Randolph; Yekhanin, Sergey; Makarychev, Konstantin; Racz, Miklos Z; Kamath, Govinda; Gopalan, Parikshit; Nguyen, Bichlien; Takahashi, Christopher N; Newman, Sharon; Parker, Hsing-Yeh; Rashtchian, Cyrus; Stewart, Kendall; Gupta, Gagan; Carlson, Robert; Mulligan, John; Carmean, Douglas; Seelig, Georg; Ceze, Luis; Strauss, Karin

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic DNA is durable and can encode digital data with high density, making it an attractive medium for data storage. However, recovering stored data on a large-scale currently requires all the DNA in a pool to be sequenced, even if only a subset of the information needs to be extracted. Here, we encode and store 35 distinct files (over 200 MB of data), in more than 13 million DNA oligonucleotides, and show that we can recover each file individually and with no errors, using a random access approach. We design and validate a large library of primers that enable individual recovery of all files stored within the DNA. We also develop an algorithm that greatly reduces the sequencing read coverage required for error-free decoding by maximizing information from all sequence reads. These advances demonstrate a viable, large-scale system for DNA data storage and retrieval.

  9. Stability and dynamics of membrane-spanning DNA nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maingi, Vishal; Burns, Jonathan R.; Uusitalo, Jaakko J.; Howorka, Stefan; Marrink, Siewert J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Recently developed DNA-based analogues of membrane proteins have advanced synthetic biology. A fundamental question is how hydrophilic nanostructures reside in the hydrophobic environment of the membrane. Here, we use multiscale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the structure, stability and dynamics of an archetypical DNA nanotube inserted via a ring of membrane anchors into a phospholipid bilayer. Coarse-grained MD reveals that the lipids reorganize locally to interact closely with the membrane-spanning section of the DNA tube. Steered simulations along the bilayer normal establish the metastable nature of the inserted pore, yielding a force profile with barriers for membrane exit due to the membrane anchors. Atomistic, equilibrium simulations at two salt concentrations confirm the close packing of lipid around of the stably inserted DNA pore and its cation selectivity, while revealing localized structural fluctuations. The wide-ranging and detailed insight informs the design of next-generation DNA pores for synthetic biology or biomedicine.

  10. A Perspective on DNA Microarrays in Pathology Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Jonathan R.

    2007-01-01

    DNA microarray technology matured in the mid-1990s, and the past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in its application. DNA microarrays have provided powerful tools for pathology researchers seeking to describe, classify, and understand human disease. There has also been great expectation that the technology would advance the practice of pathology. This review highlights some of the key contributions of DNA microarrays to experimental pathology, focusing in the area of cancer research. Also discussed are some of the current challenges in translating utility to clinical practice. PMID:17600117

  11. What do unicellular organisms teach us about DNA methylation?

    PubMed

    Harony, Hala; Ankri, Serge

    2008-05-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic hallmark that has been studied intensively in mammals and plants. However, knowledge of this phenomenon in unicellular organisms is scanty. Examining epigenetic regulation, and more specifically DNA methylation, in these organisms represents a unique opportunity to better understand their biology. The determination of their methylation status is often complicated by the presence of several differentiation stages in their life cycle. This article focuses on some recent advances that have revealed the unexpected nature of the epigenetic determinants present in protozoa. The role of the enigmatic DNA methyltransferase Dnmt2 in unicellular organisms is discussed.

  12. DNA damage and polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jeremy; Poon, Randy Y C

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that polyploidization triggers chromosomal instability and contributes to tumorigenesis. DNA damage is increasingly being recognized for its roles in promoting polyploidization. Although elegant mechanisms known as the DNA damage checkpoints are responsible for halting the cell cycle after DNA damage, agents that uncouple the checkpoints can induce unscheduled entry into mitosis. Likewise, defects of the checkpoints in several disorders permit mitotic entry even in the presence of DNA damage. Forcing cells with damaged DNA into mitosis causes severe chromosome segregation defects, including lagging chromosomes, chromosomal fragments and chromosomal bridges. The presence of these lesions in the cleavage plane is believed to abort cytokinesis. It is postulated that if cytokinesis failure is coupled with defects of the p53-dependent postmitotic checkpoint pathway, cells can enter S phase and become polyploids. Progress in the past several years has unraveled some of the underlying principles of these pathways and underscored the important role of DNA damage in polyploidization. Furthermore, polyploidization per se may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to DNA damage, thereby may offer an opportunity for novel therapies.

  13. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Network Archive (DNA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    therefore decided for an iterative development process even within such a small project. The first iteration consisted of conducting specific...Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Washington

  14. What Advances Are Being Made in DNA Sequencing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to identify genetic variations; both methods rely on new technologies that allow rapid sequencing of large amounts of ... describes the different sequencing technologies and what the new technologies have meant for the study of the genetic ...

  15. Searching target sites on DNA by proteins: Role of DNA dynamics under confinement

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Anupam; Bhattacherjee, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) rapidly search and specifically bind to their target sites on genomic DNA in order to trigger many cellular regulatory processes. It has been suggested that the facilitation of search dynamics is achieved by combining 3D diffusion with one-dimensional sliding and hopping dynamics of interacting proteins. Although, recent studies have advanced the knowledge of molecular determinants that affect one-dimensional search efficiency, the role of DNA molecule is poorly understood. In this study, by using coarse-grained simulations, we propose that dynamics of DNA molecule and its degree of confinement due to cellular crowding concertedly regulate its groove geometry and modulate the inter-communication with DBPs. Under weak confinement, DNA dynamics promotes many short, rotation-decoupled sliding events interspersed by hopping dynamics. While this results in faster 1D diffusion, associated probability of missing targets by jumping over them increases. In contrast, strong confinement favours rotation-coupled sliding to locate targets but lacks structural flexibility to achieve desired specificity. By testing under physiological crowding, our study provides a plausible mechanism on how DNA molecule may help in maintaining an optimal balance between fast hopping and rotation-coupled sliding dynamics, to locate target sites rapidly and form specific complexes precisely. PMID:26400158

  16. Regulating DNA Self-assembly by DNA-Surface Interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longfei; Li, Yulin; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Jianwei; Mao, Chengde

    2017-12-14

    DNA self-assembly provides a powerful approach for preparation of nanostructures. It is often studied in bulk solution and involves only DNA-DNA interactions. When confined to surfaces, DNA-surface interactions become an additional, important factor to DNA self-assembly. However, the way in which DNA-surface interactions influence DNA self-assembly is not well studied. In this study, we showed that weak DNA-DNA interactions could be stabilized by DNA-surface interactions to allow large DNA nanostructures to form. In addition, the assembly can be conducted isothermally at room temperature in as little as 5 seconds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. DNA-PK assay

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Connelly, Margery A.

    2004-10-12

    The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

  18. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L.

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  19. Cellular processing and destinies of artificial DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Di Sheng; Qian, Hang; Tay, Chor Yong; Leong, David Tai

    2016-08-07

    Since many bionanotechnologies are targeted at cells, understanding how and where their interactions occur and the subsequent results of these interactions is important. Changing the intrinsic properties of DNA nanostructures and linking them with interactions presents a holistic and powerful strategy for understanding dual nanostructure-biological systems. With the recent advances in DNA nanotechnology, DNA nanostructures present a great opportunity to understand the often convoluted mass of information pertaining to nanoparticle-biological interactions due to the more precise control over their chemistry, sizes, and shapes. Coupling just some of these designs with an understanding of biological processes is both a challenge and a source of opportunities. Despite continuous advances in the field of DNA nanotechnology, the intracellular fate of DNA nanostructures has remained unclear and controversial. Because understanding its cellular processing and destiny is a necessary prelude to any rational design of exciting and innovative bionanotechnology, in this review, we will discuss and provide a comprehensive picture relevant to the intracellular processing and the fate of various DNA nanostructures which have been remained elusive for some time. We will also link the unique capabilities of DNA to some novel ideas for developing next-generation bionanotechnologies.

  20. LINE-1 methylation in plasma DNA as a biomarker of activity of DNA methylation inhibitors in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Ana; North, Brittany; Barske, Lindsey; Wang, Xuemei; Bollati, Valentina; Weisenberger, Daniel; Yoo, Christine; Tannir, Nizar; Horne, Erin; Groshen, Susan; Jones, Peter; Yang, Allen; Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Multiple clinical trials are investigating the use of the DNA methylation inhibitors azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of solid tumors. Clinical trials in hematological malignancies have shown that optimal activity does not occur at their maximum tolerated doses but selection of an optimal biological dose and schedule for use in solid tumor patients is hampered by the difficulty of obtaining tumor tissue to measure their activity. Here we investigate the feasibility of using plasma DNA to measure the demethylating activity of the DNA methylation inhibitors in patients with solid tumors. We compared four methods to measure LINE-1 and MAGE-A1 promoter methylation in T24 and HCT116 cancer cells treated with decitabine treatment and selected Pyrosequencing for its greater reproducibility and higher signal to noise ratio. We then obtained DNA from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, buccal mucosa cells and saliva from ten patients with metastatic solid tumors at two different time points, without any intervening treatment. DNA methylation measurements were not significantly different between time point 1 and time point 2 in patient samples. We conclude that measurement of LINE-1 methylation in DNA extracted from the plasma of patients with advanced solid tumors, using Pyrosequencing, is feasible and has low within patient variability. Ongoing studies will determine whether changes in LINE-1 methylation in plasma DNA occur as a result of treatment with DNA methylation inhibitors and parallel changes in tumor tissue DNA.

  1. Quantification of DNA by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis and Analysis of the Topoisomers of Plasmid and M13 DNA Following Treatment with a Restriction Endonuclease or DNA Topoisomerase I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, John W.; Stowell, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    A two-session laboratory exercise for advanced undergraduate students in biochemistry and molecular biology is described. The first session introduces students to DNA quantification by ultraviolet absorbance and agarose gel electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. The second session involves treatment of various topological forms of…

  2. DNA barcoding reveals a cryptic nemertean invasion in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Machordom, Annie

    2013-09-01

    For several groups, like nemerteans, morphology-based identification is a hard discipline, but DNA barcoding may help non-experts in the identification process. In this study, DNA barcoding is used to reveal the cryptic invasion of Pacific Cephalothrix cf. simula into Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Although DNA barcoding is a promising method for the identification of Nemertea, only 6 % of the known number of nemertean species is currently associated with a correct DNA barcode. Therefore, additional morphological and molecular studies are necessary to advance the utility of DNA barcoding in the characterisation of possible nemertean alien invasions.

  3. DNA typing for the identification of old skeletal remains from Korean War victims.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Kim, Na Young; Park, Myung Jin; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-11-01

    The identification of missing casualties of the Korean War (1950-1953) has been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles, but recent advances in DNA extraction techniques and approaches using smaller amplicons have significantly increased the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles from highly degraded skeletal remains. Therefore, 21 skeletal remains of Korean War victims and 24 samples from biological relatives of the supposed victims were selected based on circumstantial evidence and/or mtDNA-matching results and were analyzed to confirm the alleged relationship. Cumulative likelihood ratios were obtained from autosomal short tandem repeat, Y-chromosomal STR, and mtDNA-genotyping results, and mainly confirmed the alleged relationship with values over 10⁵. The present analysis emphasizes the value of mini- and Y-STR systems as well as an efficient DNA extraction method in DNA testing for the identification of old skeletal remains. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Active DNA gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Omar A.; Fygenson, Deborah K.; Bertrand, Olivier J. N.; Park, Chang Young

    2013-02-01

    Research into the mechanics and fluctuations of living cells has revealed the key role played by the cytoskeleton, a gel of stiff filaments driven out of equilibrium by force-generating motor proteins. Inspired by the extraordinary mechanical functions that the cytoskeleton imparts to the cell, we sought to create an artificial gel with similar characteristics. We identified DNA, and DNA-based motor proteins, as functional counterparts to the constituents of the cytoskeleton. We used DNA selfassembly to create a gel, and characterized its fluctuations and mechanics both before and after activation by the motor. We found that certain aspects of the DNA gel quantitatively match those of cytoskeletal networks, indicating the universal features of motor-driven, non-equilibrium networks.

  6. FBI's DNA analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, John R.

    1994-03-01

    Forensic DNA profiling technology is a significant law enforcement tool due to its superior discriminating power. Applying the principles of population genetics to the DNA profile obtained in violent crime investigations results in low frequency of occurrence estimates for the DNA profile. These estimates often range from a frequency of occurrence of 1 in 50 unrelated individuals to 1 in a million unrelated individuals or even smaller. It is this power to discriminate among individuals in the population that has propelled forensic DNA technology to the forefront of forensic testing in violent crime cases. Not only is the technology extremely powerful in including or excluding a criminal suspect as the perpetrator, but it also gives rise to the potential of identifying criminal suspects in cases where the investigators of unknown suspect cases have exhausted all other available leads.

  7. Close encounters with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  8. Multiplex analysis of DNA

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Kieffer-Higgins, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    This invention features vectors and a method for sequencing DNA. The method includes the steps of: a) ligating the DNA into a vector comprising a tag sequence, the tag sequence includes at least 15 bases, wherein the tag sequence will not hybridize to the DNA under stringent hybridization conditions and is unique in the vector, to form a hybrid vector, b) treating the hybrid vector in a plurality of vessels to produce fragments comprising the tag sequence, wherein the fragments differ in length and terminate at a fixed known base or bases, wherein the fixed known base or bases differs in each vessel, c) separating the fragments from each vessel according to their size, d) hybridizing the fragments with an oligonucleotide able to hybridize specifically with the tag sequence, and e) detecting the pattern of hybridization of the tag sequence, wherein the pattern reflects the nucleotide sequence of the DNA.

  9. Making DNA Fingerprints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunley, Kathie F.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity to simulate electrophoresis using everyday items. Uses adding machine paper to construct a set of DNA fingerprints that can be used to solve crime cases designed by students in any biology class. (JRH)

  10. DNA Microarray Technology

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content DNA Microarray Technology Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  11. Close encounters with DNA.

    PubMed

    Maffeo, C; Yoo, J; Comer, J; Wells, D B; Luan, B; Aksimentiev, A

    2014-10-15

    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena. We also discuss the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field.

  12. Ketone-DNA: a versatile postsynthetic DNA decoration platform.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Sheppard, T L

    2001-12-13

    [reaction: see text] A general strategy for the functional diversification of DNA oligonucleotides under physiological conditions was developed. We describe the synthesis of DNA molecules bearing ketone ports (ketone-DNA) and the efficient postsynthetic decoration of ketone-DNA with structurally diverse aminooxy compounds.

  13. DNA biosensors that reason.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Murieta, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    Despite the many designs of devices operating with the DNA strand displacement, surprisingly none is explicitly devoted to the implementation of logical deductions. The present article introduces a new model of biosensor device that uses nucleic acid strands to encode simple rules such as "IF DNA_strand(1) is present THEN disease(A)" or "IF DNA_strand(1) AND DNA_strand(2) are present THEN disease(B)". Taking advantage of the strand displacement operation, our model makes these simple rules interact with input signals (either DNA or any type of RNA) to generate an output signal (in the form of nucleotide strands). This output signal represents a diagnosis, which either can be measured using FRET techniques, cascaded as the input of another logical deduction with different rules, or even be a drug that is administered in response to a set of symptoms. The encoding introduces an implicit error cancellation mechanism, which increases the system scalability enabling longer inference cascades with a bounded and controllable signal-noise relation. It also allows the same rule to be used in forward inference or backward inference, providing the option of validly outputting negated propositions (e.g. "diagnosis A excluded"). The models presented in this paper can be used to implement smart logical DNA devices that perform genetic diagnosis in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitochondrial Disorders of DNA Polymerase γ Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linsheng; Chan, Sherine S. L.; Wolff, Daynna J.

    2011-01-01

    Context Primary mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the most common causes of inherited disorders predominantly involving the neuromuscular system. Advances in the molecular study of mitochondrial DNA have changed our vision and our approach to primary mitochondrial disorders. Many of the mitochondrial disorders are caused by mutations in nuclear genes and are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Among the autosomal inherited mitochondrial disorders, those related to DNA polymerase γ dysfunction are the most common and the best studied. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and being familiar with the recent advances in laboratory diagnosis of this group of mitochondrial disorders are essential for pathologists to interpret abnormal histopathology and laboratory results and to suggest further studies for a definitive diagnosis. Objectives To help pathologists better understand the common clinical syndromes originating from mutations in DNA polymerase γ and its associated proteins and use the stepwise approach of clinical, laboratory, and pathologic diagnosis of these syndromes. Data Sources Review of pertinent published literature and relevant Internet databases. Conclusions Mitochondrial disorders are now better recognized with the development of molecular tests for clinical diagnosis. A cooperative effort among primary physicians, diagnostic pathologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists with expertise in mitochondrial disorders is required to reach a definitive diagnosis. PMID:21732785

  15. Statics and dynamics of DNA knotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Enzo

    2018-02-01

    Knots and entanglement in polymers and biopolymers such as DNA and proteins constitute a timely topic that spans various scientific disciplines ranging from physics to chemistry, biology and mathematics. Although in the past many advancements have been made in understanding the equilibrium knotting probability and knot complexity of long polymer chains in solutions, many questions have been addressed in recent years by both experimental and theoretical means—for instance, how the knotting probability depends on the quality of the solvent, the elastic properties of the molecule and its degree of confinement. How knots form, evolve and eventually disappear in a fluctuating chain. Are the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of knotted molecules affected by the knot swelling/shrinking dynamics? Moreover, thanks to the great advance in nanotechnology and micromanipulation techniques, nowadays knots can be ‘manually’ tied in a single DNA molecule, followed during their motion along the chains, forced to pass through nanopores, or stretched by external forces or elongational flows. All these experimental approaches allow access to new information on the interplay of topology and polymer physics, and this has opened new perspectives in the field. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of this topic, stressing the main results obtained, including the recent developments in experimental and computational approaches. Since almost all experiments on knotting involve DNA, the review will be mainly focused on the topological properties of this fascinating and biologically relevant molecule.

  16. SCIENCE BRIEF: ADVANCED CONCEPTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research on advanced concepts will evaluate and demonstrate the application of innovative infrastructure designs, management procedures and operational approaches. Advanced concepts go beyond simple asset management. The infusion of these advanced concepts into established wastew...

  17. Development of DNA-Free Sediment for Ecological Assays with Genomic Endpoints (NAC SETAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in genomics are currently being exploited to discern ecological changes that have conventionally been measured using laborious counting techniques. For example, next generation sequencing technologies can be used to create DNA libraries from benthic community ass...

  18. COMPETITIVE METAGENOMIC DNA HYBRIDIZATION IDENTIFIES HOST-SPECIFIC GENETIC MARKERS IN HUMAN FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for mo...

  19. Identification of Bacterial DNA Markers for the Detection of Human and Cattle Fecal Pollution - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes. However, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for most laborato...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL DNA MARKERS FOR THE DETECTION OF HUMAN AND CATTLE FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes. However, the use of these approaches to discern key genomic differences between natural microbial communities remains prohibitively expensive for most laborato...

  1. Development of DNA-Free Sediment for Ecological Assays with Genomic Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in genomics are currently being exploited to discern ecological changes that have conventionally been measured using laborious counting techniques. For example, next generation sequencing technologies can be used to create DNA libraries from benthic community ass...

  2. From molecules to management: adopting DNA-based methods for monitoring biological invasions in aquatic environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technological advances have driven rapid development of DNA-based methods designed to facilitate detection and monitoring of invasive species in aquatic environments. These tools promise to significantly alleviate difficulties associated with traditional monitoring approac...

  3. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review)

    PubMed Central

    HU, NA; CONG, BIN; LI, SHUJIN; MA, CHUNLING; FU, LIHONG; ZHANG, XIAOJING

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases. PMID:24748965

  4. Current developments in forensic interpretation of mixed DNA samples (Review).

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Cong, Bin; Li, Shujin; Ma, Chunling; Fu, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent improvements have provided contemporary forensic investigations with a variety of tools to improve the analysis of mixed DNA samples in criminal investigations, producing notable improvements in the analysis of complex trace samples in cases of sexual assult and homicide. Mixed DNA contains DNA from two or more contributors, compounding DNA analysis by combining DNA from one or more major contributors with small amounts of DNA from potentially numerous minor contributors. These samples are characterized by a high probability of drop-out or drop-in combined with elevated stutter, significantly increasing analysis complexity. At some loci, minor contributor alleles may be completely obscured due to amplification bias or over-amplification, creating the illusion of additional contributors. Thus, estimating the number of contributors and separating contributor genotypes at a given locus is significantly more difficult in mixed DNA samples, requiring the application of specialized protocols that have only recently been widely commercialized and standardized. Over the last decade, the accuracy and repeatability of mixed DNA analyses available to conventional forensic laboratories has greatly advanced in terms of laboratory technology, mathematical models and biostatistical software, generating more accurate, rapid and readily available data for legal proceedings and criminal cases.

  5. DNA Knots: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, D. W.

    Cellular DNA is a long, thread-like molecule with remarkably complex topology. Enzymes that manipulate the geometry and topology of cellular DNA perform many vital cellular processes (including segregation of daughter chromosomes, gene regulation, DNA repair, and generation of antibody diversity). Some enzymes pass DNA through itself via enzyme-bridged transient breaks in the DNA; other enzymes break the DNA apart and reconnect it to different ends. In the topological approach to enzymology, circular DNA is incubated with an enzyme, producing an enzyme signature in the form of DNA knots and links. By observing the changes in DNA geometry (supercoiling) and topology (knotting and linking) due to enzyme action, the enzyme binding and mechanism can often be characterized. This paper will discuss some personal research history, and the tangle model for the analysis of site-specific recombination experiments on circular DNA.

  6. Estimating occupancy and abundance of stream amphibians using environmental DNA from filtered water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) methods for detecting aquatic species are advancing rapidly, but with little evaluation of field protocols or precision of resulting estimates. We compared sampling results from traditional field methods with eDNA methods for two amphibians in 13 streams in central Idaho, USA. We also evaluated three water collection protocols and the influence of sampling location, time of day, and distance from animals on eDNA concentration in the water. We found no difference in detection or amount of eDNA among water collection protocols. eDNA methods had slightly higher detection rates than traditional field methods, particularly when species occurred at low densities. eDNA concentration was positively related to field-measured density, biomass, and proportion of transects occupied. Precision of eDNA-based abundance estimates increased with the amount of eDNA in the water and the number of replicate subsamples collected. eDNA concentration did not vary significantly with sample location in the stream, time of day, or distance downstream from animals. Our results further advance the implementation of eDNA methods for monitoring aquatic vertebrates in stream habitats.

  7. A cargo-sorting DNA robot.

    PubMed

    Thubagere, Anupama J; Li, Wei; Johnson, Robert F; Chen, Zibo; Doroudi, Shayan; Lee, Yae Lim; Izatt, Gregory; Wittman, Sarah; Srinivas, Niranjan; Woods, Damien; Winfree, Erik; Qian, Lulu

    2017-09-15

    Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordered locations, and delivers them to specified destinations until all molecules are sorted into two distinct piles. The robot is designed to perform a random walk without any energy supply. Exploiting this feature, a single robot can repeatedly sort multiple cargos. Localization on DNA origami allows for distinct cargo-sorting tasks to take place simultaneously in one test tube or for multiple robots to collectively perform the same task. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linkedmore » polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other

  9. Forensic DNA Profiling and Database

    PubMed Central

    Panneerchelvam, S.; Norazmi, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The incredible power of DNA technology as an identification tool had brought a tremendous change in crimnal justice . DNA data base is an information resource for the forensic DNA typing community with details on commonly used short tandem repeat (STR) DNA markers. This article discusses the essential steps in compilation of COmbined DNA Index System (CODIS) on validated polymerase chain amplified STRs and their use in crime detection. PMID:23386793

  10. Transcription-induced DNA supercoiling: New roles of intranucleosomal DNA loops in DNA repair and transcription

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimova, N. S.; Pestov, N. A.; Kulaeva, O. I.; Clark, D. J.; Studitsky, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through chromatin is accompanied by formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops. Pol II captured within a small loop drives accumulation of DNA supercoiling, facilitating further transcription. DNA breaks relieve supercoiling and induce Pol II arrest, allowing detection of DNA damage hidden in chromatin structure. PMID:27115204

  11. Transcription-induced DNA supercoiling: New roles of intranucleosomal DNA loops in DNA repair and transcription.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, N S; Pestov, N A; Kulaeva, O I; Clark, D J; Studitsky, V M

    2016-05-26

    RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through chromatin is accompanied by formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops. Pol II captured within a small loop drives accumulation of DNA supercoiling, facilitating further transcription. DNA breaks relieve supercoiling and induce Pol II arrest, allowing detection of DNA damage hidden in chromatin structure.

  12. Simple & Rapid Generation of Complex DNA Profiles for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, David H.

    2007-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles can be generated by a variety of techniques incorporating different types of DNA markers. Simple methods are commonly utilized in the undergraduate laboratory, but with certain drawbacks. In this article, the author presents an advancement of the "Alu" dimorphism technique involving two tetraplex polymerase…

  13. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  14. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    PubMed

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology.

  15. Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into DNA

    Science.gov Websites

    replication - through its crystal structure offers new insight into fundamental mechanisms of DNA replication Advanced Photon Source (APS), a U.S. Department of Energy User Facility based at Argonne National Laboratory, to obtain the first atomic-level resolution picture of this complex. The structure shows that

  16. Innate Immune sensing of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rathinam, Vijay A. K.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    DNA viruses are a significant contributor to human morbidity and mortality. The immune system protects against viral infections through coordinated innate and adaptive immune responses. While the antigen-specific adaptive mechanisms have been extensively studied, the critical contributions of innate immunity to anti-viral defenses have only been revealed in the very recent past. Central to these anti-viral defenses is the recognition of viral pathogens by a diverse set of germ-line encoded receptors that survey nearly all cellular compartments for the presence of pathogens. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the innate immune sensing of DNA viruses and focus on the recognition mechanisms involved. PMID:21334037

  17. Sequencing intractable DNA to close microbial genomes.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Richard A; Brown, Steven D; Podar, Mircea; Palumbo, Anthony V; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing technologies has supported a rapid proliferation of microbial genome sequencing projects, providing the genetic blueprint for in-depth studies. Oftentimes, difficult to sequence regions in microbial genomes are ruled "intractable" resulting in a growing number of genomes with sequence gaps deposited in databases. A procedure was developed to sequence such problematic regions in the "non-contiguous finished" Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 genome (6 intractable gaps) and the Desulfovibrio africanus genome (1 intractable gap). The polynucleotides surrounding each gap formed GC rich secondary structures making the regions refractory to amplification and sequencing. Strand-displacing DNA polymerases used in concert with a novel ramped PCR extension cycle supported amplification and closure of all gap regions in both genomes. The developed procedures support accurate gene annotation, and provide a step-wise method that reduces the effort required for genome finishing.

  18. Crosstalk between the nucleolus and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, L M; Baserga, S J

    2017-02-28

    Nucleolar function and the cellular response to DNA damage have long been studied as distinct disciplines. New research and a new appreciation for proteins holding multiple functional roles, however, is beginning to change the way we think about the crosstalk among distinct cellular processes. Here, we focus on the crosstalk between the DNA damage response and the nucleolus, including a comprehensive review of the literature that reveals a role for conventional DNA repair proteins in ribosome biogenesis, and conversely, ribosome biogenesis proteins in DNA repair. Furthermore, with recent advances in nucleolar proteomics and a growing list of proteins that localize to the nucleolus, it is likely that we will continue to identify new DNA repair proteins with a nucleolar-specific role. Given the importance of ribosome biogenesis and DNA repair in essential cellular processes and the role that they play in diverse pathologies, continued elucidation of the overlap between these two disciplines will be essential to the advancement of both fields and to the development of novel therapeutics.

  19. Regulation of Replication Fork Advance and Stability by Nucleosome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Felix; Maya, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The advance of replication forks to duplicate chromosomes in dividing cells requires the disassembly of nucleosomes ahead of the fork and the rapid assembly of parental and de novo histones at the newly synthesized strands behind the fork. Replication-coupled chromatin assembly provides a unique opportunity to regulate fork advance and stability. Through post-translational histone modifications and tightly regulated physical and genetic interactions between chromatin assembly factors and replisome components, chromatin assembly: (1) controls the rate of DNA synthesis and adjusts it to histone availability; (2) provides a mechanism to protect the integrity of the advancing fork; and (3) regulates the mechanisms of DNA damage tolerance in response to replication-blocking lesions. Uncoupling DNA synthesis from nucleosome assembly has deleterious effects on genome integrity and cell cycle progression and is linked to genetic diseases, cancer, and aging. PMID:28125036

  20. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  1. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  2. Transposon facilitated DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.E.; Berg, C.M.; Huang, H.V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods that exploit the power of bacterial transposable elements for large scale DNA sequencing: Our premise is that the use of transposons to put primer binding sites randomly in target DNAs should provide access to all portions of large DNA fragments, without the inefficiencies of methods involving random subcloning and attendant repetitive sequencing, or of sequential synthesis of many oligonucleotide primers that are used to match systematically along a DNA molecule. Two unrelated bacterial transposons, Tn5 and {gamma}{delta}, are being used because they have both proven useful for molecular analyses,more » and because they differ sufficiently in mechanism and specificity of transposition to merit parallel development.« less

  3. Duplication in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masami; Kari, Lila; Kincaid, Zachary; Seki, Shinnosuke

    The duplication and repeat-deletion operations are the basis of a formal language theoretic model of errors that can occur during DNA replication. During DNA replication, subsequences of a strand of DNA may be copied several times (resulting in duplications) or skipped (resulting in repeat-deletions). As formal language operations, iterated duplication and repeat-deletion of words and languages have been well studied in the literature. However, little is known about single-step duplications and repeat-deletions. In this paper, we investigate several properties of these operations, including closure properties of language families in the Chomsky hierarchy and equations involving these operations. We also make progress toward a characterization of regular languages that are generated by duplicating a regular language.

  4. Nanoparticle Superlattice Engineering with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, Robert John

    developments in DNA-programmed nanoparticle assembly not covered in this thesis, as well as future challenges for this field. Supplementary information to support the conclusions of the thesis, as well as provide technical details on how these materials are synthesized, are provided in appendices at the end of the thesis. As a whole, this methodology presents a major advance towards nanoparticle superlattice engineering, as it effectively separates the identity of a particle core (and thereby its physical properties) from the variables that control its assembly, enabling the synthesis of designer nanoparticle-based materials.

  5. Advanced Manufacturing Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    engineering research in advanced manufacturing is focused on the identification and development of advanced materials and advanced processes that drive the impact of new energy technologies. Our world-class strategies, and policy evaluation. We partner with industry to bridge innovation gaps in advanced

  6. DNA banking and DNA databanking by academic and commercial laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, J.E.; Reilly, P.R.

    The advent of DNA-based testing is giving rise to DNA banking (the long-term storage of cells, transformed cell lines, or extracted DNA for subsequent retrieval and analysis) and DNA data banking (the indefinite storage of information derived from DNA analysis). Large scale acquisition and storage of DNA and DNA data has important implications for the privacy rights of individuals. A survey of 148 academically based and commercial DNA diagnostic laboratories was conducted to determine: (1) the extent of their DNA banking activities; (2) their policies and experiences regarding access to DNA samples and data; (3) the quality assurance measures theymore » employ; and (4) whether they have written policies and/or depositor`s agreements addressing specific issues. These issues include: (1) who may have access to DNA samples and data; (2) whether scientists may have access to anonymous samples or data for research use; (3) whether they have plans to contact depositors or retest samples if improved tests for a disorder become available; (4) disposition of samples at the end of the contract period if the laboratory ceases operations, if storage fees are unpaid, or after a death or divorce; (5) the consequence of unauthorized release, loss, or accidental destruction of samples; and (6) whether depositors may share in profits from the commercialization of tests or treatments developed in part from studies of stored DNA. The results suggest that many laboratories are banking DNA, that many have already amassed a large number of samples, and that a significant number plan to further develop DNA banking as a laboratory service over the next two years. Few laboratories have developed written policies governing DNA banking, and fewer still have drafted documents that define the rights and obligations of the parties. There may be a need for increased regulation of DNA banking and DNA data banking and for better defined policies with respect to protecting individual privacy.« less

  7. Effects of pH, conductivity, host cell protein, and DNA size distribution on DNA clearance in anion exchange chromatography media

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Melani C.; Borman, Jon; Ferreira, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Flowthrough anion exchange chromatography is commonly used as a polishing step in downstream processing of monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutic proteins to remove process‐related impurities and contaminants such as host cell DNA, host cell proteins, endotoxin, and viruses. DNA with a wide range of molecular weight distributions derived from Chinese Hamster Ovary cells was used to advance the understanding of DNA binding behavior in selected anion exchange media using the resin (Toyopearl SuperQ‐650M) and membranes (Mustang® Q and Sartobind® Q) through DNA spiking studies. The impacts of the process parameters pH (6–8), conductivity (2–15 mS/cm), and the potential binding competition between host cell proteins and host cell DNA were studied. Studies were conducted at the least and most favorable experimental conditions for DNA binding based on the anticipated electrostatic interactions between the host cell DNA and the resin ligand. The resin showed 50% higher DNA binding capacity compared to the membrane media. Spiking host cell proteins in the load material showed no impact on the DNA clearance capability of the anion exchange media. DNA size distributions were characterized based on a “size exclusion qPCR assay.” Results showed preferential binding of larger DNA fragments (>409 base pairs). © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:141–149, 2018 PMID:28884511

  8. Precisely Tailored DNA Nanostructures and their Theranostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Wang, Lihua; Li, Jiang; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-12-01

    A critical challenge in nanotechnology is the limited precision and controllability of the structural parameters, which brings about concerns in uniformity, reproducibility and performance. Self-assembled DNA nanostructures, as a newly emerged type of nano-biomaterials, possess low-nanometer precision, excellent programmability and addressability. They can precisely arrange various molecules and materials to form spatially ordered complex, resulting in unambiguous physical or chemical properties. Because of these, DNA nanostructures have shown great promise in numerous biomedical theranostic applications. In this account, we briefly review the history and advances on construction of DNA nanoarchitectures and superstructures with accurate structural parameters. We focus on recent progress in exploiting these DNA nanostructures as platforms for quantitative biosensing, intracellular diagnosis, imaging, and smart drug delivery. We also discuss key challenges in practical applications. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tying Knots in DNA with Holographic Optical Tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Mervyn; Foster, David; Seddon, Annela; Phillips, David; Carberry, David; Padgett, Miles; Dennis, Mark

    It has been demonstrated that holographic optical tweezers can be used to tie a trefoil knot in double-stranded DNA. We have developed an advanced holographic optical tweezers system with several types of intuitive control interfaces. It has been used in a range of research projects including the characterization and assembly of structures. Here the process of tying increasingly complex knots with holographic tweezers will be described. The DNA is of the order of 50 μ m in length and is fluorescently labeled, in order that it can be visualized in the optical microscope of the tweezers system. With a knot was tied, the effect of increasing the persistence length of the DNA by partial methylation of the DNA molecule was investigated. Leverhulme Trust.

  10. RPA binds histone H3-H4 and functions in DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaofeng; Xu, Zhiyun; Leng, He; Zheng, Pu; Yang, Jiayi; Chen, Kaifu; Feng, Jianxun; Li, Qing

    2017-01-27

    DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly is essential to maintain genome integrity and retain epigenetic information. Multiple involved histone chaperones have been identified, but how nucleosome assembly is coupled to DNA replication remains elusive. Here we show that replication protein A (RPA), an essential replisome component that binds single-stranded DNA, has a role in replication-coupled nucleosome assembly. RPA directly binds free H3-H4. Assays using a synthetic sequence that mimics freshly unwound single-stranded DNA at replication fork showed that RPA promotes DNA-(H3-H4) complex formation immediately adjacent to double-stranded DNA. Further, an RPA mutant defective in H3-H4 binding exhibited attenuated nucleosome assembly on nascent chromatin. Thus, we propose that RPA functions as a platform for targeting histone deposition to replication fork, through which RPA couples nucleosome assembly with ongoing DNA replication. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. DNA replication components as regulators of epigenetic inheritance--lesson from fission yeast centromere.

    PubMed

    He, Haijin; Gonzalez, Marlyn; Zhang, Fan; Li, Fei

    2014-06-01

    Genetic information stored in DNA is accurately copied and transferred to subsequent generations through DNA replication. This process is accomplished through the concerted actions of highly conserved DNA replication components. Epigenetic information stored in the form of histone modifications and DNA methylation, constitutes a second layer of regulatory information important for many cellular processes, such as gene expression regulation, chromatin organization, and genome stability. During DNA replication, epigenetic information must also be faithfully transmitted to subsequent generations. How this monumental task is achieved remains poorly understood. In this review, we will discuss recent advances on the role of DNA replication components in the inheritance of epigenetic marks, with a particular focus on epigenetic regulation in fission yeast. Based on these findings, we propose that specific DNA replication components function as key regulators in the replication of epigenetic information across the genome.

  12. Logical NAND and NOR Operations Using Algorithmic Self-assembly of DNA Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Cui, Guangzhao; Zhang, Xuncai; Zheng, Yan

    DNA self-assembly is the most advanced and versatile system that has been experimentally demonstrated for programmable construction of patterned systems on the molecular scale. It has been demonstrated that the simple binary arithmetic and logical operations can be computed by the process of self assembly of DNA tiles. Here we report a one-dimensional algorithmic self-assembly of DNA triple-crossover molecules that can be used to execute five steps of a logical NAND and NOR operations on a string of binary bits. To achieve this, abstract tiles were translated into DNA tiles based on triple-crossover motifs. Serving as input for the computation, long single stranded DNA molecules were used to nucleate growth of tiles into algorithmic crystals. Our method shows that engineered DNA self-assembly can be treated as a bottom-up design techniques, and can be capable of designing DNA computer organization and architecture.

  13. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  14. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase wherein the modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase.

  15. DNA profiling of trace DNA recovered from bedding.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, Susan F; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah L

    2006-05-25

    Trace DNA is often detected on handled items and worn clothing examined in forensic laboratories. In this study, the potential transfer of trace DNA to bedding by normal contact, when an individual sleeps in a bed, is examined. Volunteers slept one night on a new, lower bed sheet in their own bed and one night in a bed foreign to them. Samples from the sheets were collected and analysed by DNA profiling. The results indicate that the DNA profile of an individual can be obtained from bedding after one night of sleeping in a bed. The DNA profile of the owner of the bed could also be detected in the foreign bed experiments. Since mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace DNA on bedding, caution should be exercised when drawing conclusions from DNA profiling results obtained from such samples. This transfer may have important repercussions in sexual assault investigations.

  16. DNA polymerase having modified nucleotide binding site for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, S.; Richardson, C.

    1997-03-25

    A modified gene encoding a modified DNA polymerase is disclosed. The modified polymerase incorporates dideoxynucleotides at least 20-fold better compared to the corresponding deoxynucleotides as compared with the corresponding naturally-occurring DNA polymerase. 6 figs.

  17. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haiyong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Teng, Lisong, E-mail: lsteng@zju.edu.cn

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observedmore » to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control.

  18. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Site-specific DNA Inversion by Serine Recombinases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reversible site-specific DNA inversion reactions are widely distributed in bacteria and their viruses. They control a range of biological reactions that most often involve alterations of molecules on the surface of cells or phage. These programmed DNA rearrangements usually occur at a low frequency, thereby preadapting a small subset of the population to a change in environmental conditions, or in the case of phages, an expanded host range. A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. RecA or other components of the general recombination-repair machinery are not involved. This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. The first section summarizes biological features and general properties of inversion reactions by the Fis/enhancer-dependent serine invertases and the recently described serine DNA invertases in Bacteroides. Mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by the Hin and Gin invertases are then discussed in more depth, particularly with regards to recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Fis/enhancer regulatory system, the assembly of the active recombination complex (invertasome) containing the Fis/enhancer, and the process of DNA strand exchange by rotation of synapsed subunit pairs within the invertasome. The role of DNA topological forces that function in concert with the Fis/enhancer controlling element in specifying the overwhelming bias for DNA inversion over deletion and intermolecular recombination is emphasized. PMID:25844275

  20. DNA tagged microparticles

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George R.; Leif, Roald N.; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2016-03-22

    In one embodiment, a product includes a plurality of particles, each particle including: a carrier that includes a non-toxic material; and at least one DNA barcode coupled to the carrier, where the particles each have a diameter in a range from about 1 nanometer to about 100 microns.

  1. Methylation of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Marvin; Gefter, Malcolm; Hausmann, Rudolph; Hurwitz, Jerard

    1966-01-01

    The methylated bases of DNA are formed by the transfer of the methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to a polynucleotide acceptor. This transfer is catalyzed by highly specific enzymes which recognize a limited number of available sites in the DNA. The mechanism for the recognition is presently unknown. In some instances, there is evidence that other cellular components, such as lipopolysaccharides, can influence the methylation reaction. Certain bacteriophages induce new methylases upon infection of their hosts. Phage T3 is unique in establishing an environment in which methylation of neither the phage nor the host nucleic acid can occur. By superinfecting T3-infected cells with other phages, the latter can be obtained with methyl-deficient DNA. Although a great deal is known about the enzymology of the methylation reaction, and there appears to be a strong correlation between the in vitro and in vivo reactions, studies in which DNA is either supermethylated or totally unmethylated have not yielded any insight as to what the possible function of the methylated bases may be. PMID:5338563

  2. Nutrients and DNA Methylation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epigenetics is a new mechanism responsible for development, aging, and disease process such as cancer development. One major epigenetic phenomenon is DNA methylation, which attributes to gene expression and integrity. Deepening the knowledge on one-carbon metabolism is very important to understandin...

  3. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  4. T7 RNA polymerase non-specifically transcribes and induces disassembly of DNA nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Schaffter, Samuel W; Green, Leopold N; Schneider, Joanna; Subramanian, Hari K K; Schulman, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The use of proteins that bind and catalyze reactions with DNA alongside DNA nanostructures has broadened the functionality of DNA devices. DNA binding proteins have been used to specifically pattern and tune structural properties of DNA nanostructures and polymerases have been employed to directly and indirectly drive structural changes in DNA structures and devices. Despite these advances, undesired and poorly understood interactions between DNA nanostructures and proteins that bind DNA continue to negatively affect the performance and stability of DNA devices used in conjunction with enzymes. A better understanding of these undesired interactions will enable the construction of robust DNA nanostructure-enzyme hybrid systems. Here, we investigate the undesired disassembly of DNA nanotubes in the presence of viral RNA polymerases (RNAPs) under conditions used for in vitro transcription. We show that nanotubes and individual nanotube monomers (tiles) are non-specifically transcribed by T7 RNAP, and that RNA transcripts produced during non-specific transcription disassemble the nanotubes. Disassembly requires a single-stranded overhang on the nanotube tiles where transcripts can bind and initiate disassembly through strand displacement, suggesting that single-stranded domains on other DNA nanostructures could cause unexpected interactions in the presence of viral RNA polymerases. PMID:29718412

  5. T7 RNA polymerase non-specifically transcribes and induces disassembly of DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Schaffter, Samuel W; Green, Leopold N; Schneider, Joanna; Subramanian, Hari K K; Schulman, Rebecca; Franco, Elisa

    2018-06-01

    The use of proteins that bind and catalyze reactions with DNA alongside DNA nanostructures has broadened the functionality of DNA devices. DNA binding proteins have been used to specifically pattern and tune structural properties of DNA nanostructures and polymerases have been employed to directly and indirectly drive structural changes in DNA structures and devices. Despite these advances, undesired and poorly understood interactions between DNA nanostructures and proteins that bind DNA continue to negatively affect the performance and stability of DNA devices used in conjunction with enzymes. A better understanding of these undesired interactions will enable the construction of robust DNA nanostructure-enzyme hybrid systems. Here, we investigate the undesired disassembly of DNA nanotubes in the presence of viral RNA polymerases (RNAPs) under conditions used for in vitro transcription. We show that nanotubes and individual nanotube monomers (tiles) are non-specifically transcribed by T7 RNAP, and that RNA transcripts produced during non-specific transcription disassemble the nanotubes. Disassembly requires a single-stranded overhang on the nanotube tiles where transcripts can bind and initiate disassembly through strand displacement, suggesting that single-stranded domains on other DNA nanostructures could cause unexpected interactions in the presence of viral RNA polymerases.

  6. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and DNA binding studies of carbon dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhonsi, Mariadoss Asha; Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Nambirajan, Gayathri; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Yamini, Rekha; Bera, Soumen; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials in life sciences community due to their unexploited potential in biomedical applications; particularly in bio-labeling and sensing. In the advanced nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have shown promise in next generation bioimaging and drug delivery studies. Therefore the knowledge of the exact nature of interaction with biomolecules is of great interest to designing better biosensors. In this study, the interaction between CDs derived from tamarind and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied by vital spectroscopic techniques, which revealed that the CDs could interact with DNA via intercalation. The apparent association constant has been deduced from the absorption spectral changes of ct-DNA-CDs using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. From the DNA induced emission quenching experiments the apparent DNA binding constant of the CDs (Kapp) have also been evaluated. Furthermore, we have analyzed the antibacterial and antifungal activity of CDs using disc diffusion assay method which exhibited excellent activity against E. coli and C. albicans with inhibition zone in the range of 7-12 mm. The biocompatible nature of CDs was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test on L6 normal rat myoblast cells by using MTT assay. The cell viability is not affected till the high dosage of CDs (200 μg/mL) for >48 h. As a consequence of the work, future development of CDs for microbial control and DNA sensing among the various biomolecules is possible in view of emerging biofields.

  7. High-Throughput DNA sequencing of ancient wood.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Lagane, Frédéric; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel; Leroy, Thibault; Guichoux, Erwan; Chancerel, Emilie; Bech-Hebelstrup, Inger; Bernard, Vincent; Billard, Cyrille; Billaud, Yves; Bolliger, Matthias; Croutsch, Christophe; Čufar, Katarina; Eynaud, Frédérique; Heussner, Karl Uwe; Köninger, Joachim; Langenegger, Fabien; Leroy, Frédéric; Lima, Christine; Martinelli, Nicoletta; Momber, Garry; Billamboz, André; Nelle, Oliver; Palomo, Antoni; Piqué, Raquel; Ramstein, Marianne; Schweichel, Roswitha; Stäuble, Harald; Tegel, Willy; Terradas, Xavier; Verdin, Florence; Plomion, Christophe; Kremer, Antoine; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructing the colonization and demographic dynamics that gave rise to extant forests is essential to forecasts of forest responses to environmental changes. Classical approaches to map how population of trees changed through space and time largely rely on pollen distribution patterns, with only a limited number of studies exploiting DNA molecules preserved in wooden tree archaeological and subfossil remains. Here, we advance such analyses by applying high-throughput (HTS) DNA sequencing to wood archaeological and subfossil material for the first time, using a comprehensive sample of 167 European white oak waterlogged remains spanning a large temporal (from 550 to 9,800 years) and geographical range across Europe. The successful characterization of the endogenous DNA and exogenous microbial DNA of 140 (~83%) samples helped the identification of environmental conditions favouring long-term DNA preservation in wood remains, and started to unveil the first trends in the DNA decay process in wood material. Additionally, the maternally inherited chloroplast haplotypes of 21 samples from three periods of forest human-induced use (Neolithic, Bronze Age and Middle Ages) were found to be consistent with those of modern populations growing in the same geographic areas. Our work paves the way for further studies aiming at using ancient DNA preserved in wood to reconstruct the micro-evolutionary response of trees to climate change and human forest management. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Discovery of cyanophage genomes which contain mitochondrial DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yi-Wah; Mohr, Remus; Millard, Andrew D; Holmes, Antony B; Larkum, Anthony W; Whitworth, Anna L; Mann, Nicholas H; Scanlan, David J; Hess, Wolfgang R; Clokie, Martha R J

    2011-08-01

    DNA polymerase γ is a family A DNA polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA in eukaryotes. The origins of DNA polymerase γ have remained elusive because it is not present in any known bacterium, though it has been hypothesized that mitochondria may have inherited the enzyme by phage-mediated nonorthologous displacement. Here, we present an analysis of two full-length homologues of this gene, which were found in the genomes of two bacteriophages, which infect the chlorophyll-d containing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. Phylogenetic analyses of these phage DNA polymerase γ proteins show that they branch deeply within the DNA polymerase γ clade and therefore share a common origin with their eukaryotic homologues. We also found homologues of these phage polymerases in the environmental Community Cyberinfrastructure for Advanced Microbial Ecology Research and Analysis (CAMERA) database, which fell in the same clade. An analysis of the CAMERA assemblies containing the environmental homologues together with the filter fraction metadata indicated some of these assemblies may be of bacterial origin. We also show that the phage-encoded DNA polymerase γ is highly transcribed as the phage genomes are replicated. These findings provide data that may assist in reconstructing the evolution of mitochondria.

  9. A review of state legislation on DNA forensic data banking.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J. E.; Reilly, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA identification technology are making their way into the criminal law. States across the country are enacting legislation to create repositories for the storage both of DNA samples collected from convicted offenders and of the DNA profiles derived from them. These data banks will be used to assist in the resolution of future crimes. This study surveys existing state statues, pending legislation, and administrative regulations that govern these DNA forensic data banks. We critically analyzed these laws with respect to their treatment of the collection, storage, analysis, retrieval, and use of DNA and DNA data. We found much variation among data-banking laws and conclude that, while DNA forensic data banking carries tremendous potential for law enforcement, many states, in their rush to create data banks, have paid little attention to issues of quality control, quality assurance, and privacy. In addition, the sweep of some laws is unnecessarily broad. Legislative modifications are needed in many states to better safeguard civil liberties and individual privacy. PMID:8198138

  10. The Dynamic Interplay Between DNA Topoisomerases and DNA Topology.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-09-01

    Topological properties of DNA influence its structure and biochemical interactions. Within the cell DNA topology is constantly in flux. Transcription and other essential processes including DNA replication and repair, alter the topology of the genome, while introducing additional complications associated with DNA knotting and catenation. These topological perturbations are counteracted by the action of topoisomerases, a specialized class of highly conserved and essential enzymes that actively regulate the topological state of the genome. This dynamic interplay among DNA topology, DNA processing enzymes, and DNA topoisomerases, is a pervasive factor that influences DNA metabolism in vivo . Building on the extensive structural and biochemical characterization over the past four decades that established the fundamental mechanistic basis of topoisomerase activity, the unique roles played by DNA topology in modulating and influencing the activity of topoisomerases have begun to be explored. In this review we survey established and emerging DNA topology dependent protein-DNA interactions with a focus on in vitro measurements of the dynamic interplay between DNA topology and topoisomerase activity.

  11. The dynamic interplay between DNA topoisomerases and DNA topology.

    PubMed

    Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C

    2016-11-01

    Topological properties of DNA influence its structure and biochemical interactions. Within the cell, DNA topology is constantly in flux. Transcription and other essential processes, including DNA replication and repair, not only alter the topology of the genome but also introduce additional complications associated with DNA knotting and catenation. These topological perturbations are counteracted by the action of topoisomerases, a specialized class of highly conserved and essential enzymes that actively regulate the topological state of the genome. This dynamic interplay among DNA topology, DNA processing enzymes, and DNA topoisomerases is a pervasive factor that influences DNA metabolism in vivo. Building on the extensive structural and biochemical characterization over the past four decades that has established the fundamental mechanistic basis of topoisomerase activity, scientists have begun to explore the unique roles played by DNA topology in modulating and influencing the activity of topoisomerases. In this review we survey established and emerging DNA topology-dependent protein-DNA interactions with a focus on in vitro measurements of the dynamic interplay between DNA topology and topoisomerase activity.

  12. Technological advances in precision medicine and drug development.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Elaine; Patterson, Nicole E; Montagna, Cristina

    New technologies are rapidly becoming available to expand the arsenal of tools accessible for precision medicine and to support the development of new therapeutics. Advances in liquid biopsies, which analyze cells, DNA, RNA, proteins, or vesicles isolated from the blood, have gained particular interest for their uses in acquiring information reflecting the biology of tumors and metastatic tissues. Through advancements in DNA sequencing that have merged unprecedented accuracy with affordable cost, personalized treatments based on genetic variations are becoming a real possibility. Extraordinary progress has been achieved in the development of biological therapies aimed to even further advance personalized treatments. We provide a summary of current and future applications of blood based liquid biopsies and how new technologies are utilized for the development of biological therapeutic treatments. We discuss current and future sequencing methods with an emphasis on how technological advances will support the progress in the field of precision medicine.

  13. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Chen, Muyuan; Barker, Anna K.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Harris, Sarah A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    By regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism. Despite its importance, however, much about supercoiled DNA (positively supercoiled DNA, in particular) remains unknown. Here we use electron cryo-tomography together with biochemical analyses to investigate structures of individual purified DNA minicircle topoisomers with defined degrees of supercoiling. Our results reveal that each topoisomer, negative or positive, adopts a unique and surprisingly wide distribution of three-dimensional conformations. Moreover, we uncover striking differences in how the topoisomers handle torsional stress. As negative supercoiling increases, bases are increasingly exposed. Beyond a sharp supercoiling threshold, we also detect exposed bases in positively supercoiled DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations independently confirm the conformational heterogeneity and provide atomistic insight into the flexibility of supercoiled DNA. Our integrated approach reveals the three-dimensional structures of DNA that are essential for its function. PMID:26455586

  14. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyanesh; Pachouri, U C; Khaidem, Devika Chanu; Kundu, Aman; Chopra, Chirag; Singh, Pushplata

    2015-01-01

    Various endogenous and environmental factors can cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage.  One of the reasons for enhanced mtDNA damage could be its proximity to the source of oxidants, and lack of histone-like protective proteins. Moreover, mitochondria contain inadequate DNA repair pathways, and, diminished DNA repair capacity may be one of the factors responsible for high mutation frequency of the mtDNA. mtDNA damage might cause impaired mitochondrial function, and, unrepaired mtDNA damage has been frequently linked with several diseases. Exploration of mitochondrial perspective of diseases might lead to a better understanding of several diseases, and will certainly open new avenues for detection, cure, and prevention of ailments.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyanesh; Pachouri, U C; Khaidem, Devika Chanu; Kundu, Aman; Chopra, Chirag; Singh, Pushplata

    2015-01-01

    Various endogenous and environmental factors can cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage.  One of the reasons for enhanced mtDNA damage could be its proximity to the source of oxidants, and lack of histone-like protective proteins. Moreover, mitochondria contain inadequate DNA repair pathways, and, diminished DNA repair capacity may be one of the factors responsible for high mutation frequency of the mtDNA. mtDNA damage might cause impaired mitochondrial function, and, unrepaired mtDNA damage has been frequently linked with several diseases. Exploration of mitochondrial perspective of diseases might lead to a better understanding of several diseases, and will certainly open new avenues for detection, cure, and prevention of ailments. PMID:27508052

  16. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N.; Fogg, Jonathan M.; Catanese, Daniel J.; Sutthibutpong, Thana; Chen, Muyuan; Barker, Anna K.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Harris, Sarah A.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    By regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism. Despite its importance, however, much about supercoiled DNA (positively supercoiled DNA, in particular) remains unknown. Here we use electron cryo-tomography together with biochemical analyses to investigate structures of individual purified DNA minicircle topoisomers with defined degrees of supercoiling. Our results reveal that each topoisomer, negative or positive, adopts a unique and surprisingly wide distribution of three-dimensional conformations. Moreover, we uncover striking differences in how the topoisomers handle torsional stress. As negative supercoiling increases, bases are increasingly exposed. Beyond a sharp supercoiling threshold, we also detect exposed bases in positively supercoiled DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations independently confirm the conformational heterogeneity and provide atomistic insight into the flexibility of supercoiled DNA. Our integrated approach reveals the three-dimensional structures of DNA that are essential for its function.

  17. Complementary DNA libraries: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shao-Yao

    2004-07-01

    The generation of complete and full-length cDNA libraries for potential functional assays of specific gene sequences is essential for most molecules in biotechnology and biomedical research. The field of cDNA library generation has changed rapidly in the past 10 yr. This review presents an overview of the method available for the basic information of generating cDNA libraries, including the definition of the cDNA library, different kinds of cDNA libraries, difference between methods for cDNA library generation using conventional approaches and a novel strategy, and the quality of cDNA libraries. It is anticipated that the high-quality cDNA libraries so generated would facilitate studies involving genechips and the microarray, differential display, subtractive hybridization, gene cloning, and peptide library generation.

  18. MAMMALIAN DNA IN PCR REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high- cycle PCR amplification t...

  19. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by

  20. Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

  1. Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang

    2014-06-21

    Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.

  2. DNAVaxDB: the first web-based DNA vaccine database and its data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the first DNA vaccine studies were done in the 1990s, thousands more studies have followed. Here we report the development and analysis of DNAVaxDB (http://www.violinet.org/dnavaxdb), the first publically available web-based DNA vaccine database that curates, stores, and analyzes experimentally verified DNA vaccines, DNA vaccine plasmid vectors, and protective antigens used in DNA vaccines. All data in DNAVaxDB are annotated from reliable resources, particularly peer-reviewed articles. Among over 140 DNA vaccine plasmids, some plasmids were more frequently used in one type of pathogen than others; for example, pCMVi-UB for G- bacterial DNA vaccines, and pCAGGS for viral DNA vaccines. Presently, over 400 DNA vaccines containing over 370 protective antigens from over 90 infectious and non-infectious diseases have been curated in DNAVaxDB. While extracellular and bacterial cell surface proteins and adhesin proteins were frequently used for DNA vaccine development, the majority of protective antigens used in Chlamydophila DNA vaccines are localized to the inner portion of the cell. The DNA vaccine priming, other vaccine boosting vaccination regimen has been widely used to induce protection against infection of different pathogens such as HIV. Parasitic and cancer DNA vaccines were also systematically analyzed. User-friendly web query and visualization interfaces are available in DNAVaxDB for interactive data search. To support data exchange, the information of DNA vaccines, plasmids, and protective antigens is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). DNAVaxDB is targeted to become a timely and vital source of DNA vaccines and related data and facilitate advanced DNA vaccine research and development. PMID:25104313

  3. Electrotransformation of highly DNA-restrictive corynebacteria with synthetic DNA.

    PubMed

    Ankri, S; Reyes, O; Leblon, G

    1996-01-01

    Highly DNA-restrictive Corynebacteria can be transformed with DNA made in vitro by PCR amplification of a sequence that contains the replication origin of pBL1, a plasmid common to many Corynebacteria. In all strains examined, the transformation efficiencies of PCR-synthetized DNA equal or improve the performances of heterologous DNA extracted from wild-type and dam(-)-dcm-strains of Escherichia coli. The transformation efficiencies obtained with PCR-made DNA may be high enough to permit its general application to experiments of gene integration.

  4. Programmable DNA Hydrogels Assembled from Multidomain DNA Strands.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiling; Pan, Victor; Vivek, Skanda; Weeks, Eric R; Ke, Yonggang

    2016-06-16

    Hydrogels are important in biological and medical applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering. DNA hydrogels have attracted significant attention due to the programmability and biocompatibility of the material. We developed a series of low-cost one-strand DNA hydrogels self-assembled from single-stranded DNA monomers containing multiple palindromic domains. This new hydrogel design is simple and programmable. Thermal stability, mechanical properties, and loading capacity of these one-strand DNA hydrogels can be readily regulated by simply adjusting the DNA domains. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. DNA Based Molecular Scale Nanofabrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-04

    structure. We developed a method to produce nanoscale patterns on SAM. (d) Studied the molecular imprinting of DNA origami structure using polymer...to produce nanoscale patterns on SAM. (d) Studied the molecular imprinting of DNA origami structure using polymer substrates. Developed a high... imprinting using DNA nanostructure templates. Soft lithography uses polymeric stamps with certain features to transfer the pattern for printing

  6. DNA Damage Responses in Prokaryotes: Regulating Gene Expression, Modulating Growth Patterns, and Manipulating Replication Forks

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Kenneth N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of bacterial DNA damage responses are reviewed here. The SOS pathway is still the major paradigm of bacterial DNA damage response, and recent studies have clarified the mechanisms of SOS induction and key physiological roles of SOS including a very major role in genetic exchange and variation. When considering diverse bacteria, it is clear that SOS is not a uniform pathway with one purpose, but rather a platform that has evolved for differing functions in different bacteria. Relating in part to the SOS response, the field has uncovered multiple apparent cell-cycle checkpoints that assist cell survival after DNA damage and remarkable pathways that induce programmed cell death in bacteria. Bacterial DNA damage responses are also much broader than SOS, and several important examples of LexA-independent regulation will be reviewed. Finally, some recent advances that relate to the replication and repair of damaged DNA will be summarized. PMID:24097899

  7. Imparting the unique properties of DNA into complex material architectures and functions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Phyllis F; Noh, Hyunwoo; Lee, Ju Hun; Domaille, Dylan W; Nakatsuka, Matthew A; Goodwin, Andrew P; Cha, Jennifer N

    2013-07-01

    While the remarkable chemical and biological properties of DNA have been known for decades, these properties have only been imparted into materials with unprecedented function much more recently. The inimitable ability of DNA to form programmable, complex assemblies through stable, specific, and reversible molecular recognition has allowed the creation of new materials through DNA's ability to control a material's architecture and properties. In this review we discuss recent progress in how DNA has brought unmatched function to materials, focusing specifically on new advances in delivery agents, devices, and sensors.

  8. A survey of DNA diagnostic laboratories regarding DNA banking.

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, J E; Reilly, P R

    1995-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey of 148 academically based and commercial DNA diagnostic labs regarding DNA banking (defined as the storage of individual DNA samples in some form with identifiers for later retrieval). The population surveyed consisted of all laboratories listed with HELIX, a national directory of DNA diagnostic labs that includes a fairly comprehensive listing of clinical service labs as well as a large number of research labs. The survey was concerned primarily with the legal and ethical issues that the long-term storage of DNA may raise. The survey inquired into the respondents' policies and procedures concerning (1) the extent of DNA banking and of interest in developing DNA banking in academia and industry and (2) the degree to which DNA banks had developed written internal policies and/or a written depositor's agreement (a signed document defining the rights and obligations of the person from whom the sample was taken and the bank) designed to anticipate or prevent some of the ethical and legal problems that can arise from the long-term retention of DNA. Our research suggests that (1) the activity of DNA banking is growing, particularly in the academic setting, and (2) most academically based DNA banks lack written internal policies, written depositor's agreements, or other relevant documentation regarding important aspects of this activity. PMID:7762571

  9. Efficient Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposition From DNA Minicircles

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nynne; Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Jakobsen, Martin R; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2013-01-01

    DNA transposon-based vectors have emerged as new potential delivery tools in therapeutic gene transfer. Such vectors are now showing promise in hematopoietic stem cells and primary human T cells, and clinical trials with transposon-engineered cells are on the way. However, the use of plasmid DNA as a carrier of the vector raises safety concerns due to the undesirable administration of bacterial sequences. To optimize vectors based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) DNA transposon for clinical use, we examine here SB transposition from DNA minicircles (MCs) devoid of the bacterial plasmid backbone. Potent DNA transposition, directed by the hyperactive SB100X transposase, is demonstrated from MC donors, and the stable transfection rate is significantly enhanced by expressing the SB100X transposase from MCs. The stable transfection rate is inversely related to the size of circular donor, suggesting that a MC-based SB transposition system benefits primarily from an increased cellular uptake and/or enhanced expression which can be observed with DNA MCs. DNA transposon and transposase MCs are easily produced, are favorable in size, do not carry irrelevant DNA, and are robust substrates for DNA transposition. In accordance, DNA MCs should become a standard source of DNA transposons not only in therapeutic settings but also in the daily use of the SB system. PMID:23443502

  10. DNA Origami-Graphene Hybrid Nanopore for DNA Detection.

    PubMed

    Barati Farimani, Amir; Dibaeinia, Payam; Aluru, Narayana R

    2017-01-11

    DNA origami nanostructures can be used to functionalize solid-state nanopores for single molecule studies. In this study, we characterized a nanopore in a DNA origami-graphene heterostructure for DNA detection. The DNA origami nanopore is functionalized with a specific nucleotide type at the edge of the pore. Using extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we computed and analyzed the ionic conductivity of nanopores in heterostructures carpeted with one or two layers of DNA origami on graphene. We demonstrate that a nanopore in DNA origami-graphene gives rise to distinguishable dwell times for the four DNA base types, whereas for a nanopore in bare graphene, the dwell time is almost the same for all types of bases. The specific interactions (hydrogen bonds) between DNA origami and the translocating DNA strand yield different residence times and ionic currents. We also conclude that the speed of DNA translocation decreases due to the friction between the dangling bases at the pore mouth and the sequencing DNA strands.

  11. Antenatal noninvasive DNA testing: clinical experience and impact.

    PubMed

    Ferres, Millie A; Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2014-08-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the discovery of circulating cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood created a paradigm shift in prenatal testing. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the rapid translation of DNA-based testing into clinical antenatal care. In this review, we summarize the technical approaches and current clinical applications of noninvasive testing using cell-free DNA in maternal plasma. We discuss the impact of these tests on clinical care, outline proposed integration models, and suggest future directions for the field. The use of cell-free DNA in maternal blood for the detection of fetal rhesus D antigen status, fetal sex, and common whole chromosomal aneuploidies is now well established, although testing for aneuploidy is still considered screening and not diagnostic. Further advances in technology and bioinformatics may see future clinical applications extend to the noninvasive detection of fetal subchromosomal aneuploidy, single gene disorders, and the entire fetal genome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, S. Don

    2000-01-01

    Design, propellant selection, and launch assistance for advanced chemical propulsion system is discussed. Topics discussed include: rocket design, advance fuel and high energy density materials, launch assist, and criteria for fuel selection.

  13. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TEAM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-16

    ZACK JONES AND JIM LYDON OF MSFC’S ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TEAM, WITH MSFC’S M2 SELECTIVE LASER MELTING SYSTEM. THE M2 IS CURRENTLY DEDICATED TO ADVANCED COPPER MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE LOW COST UPPER STAGE PROGRAM.

  14. DNA Clutch Probes for Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Das, Jagotamoy; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Sargent, Edward H; Kelley, Shana O

    2016-08-31

    Progress toward the development of minimally invasive liquid biopsies of disease is being bolstered by breakthroughs in the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA): DNA released from cancer cells into the bloodstream. However, robust, sensitive, and specific methods of detecting this emerging analyte are lacking. ctDNA analysis has unique challenges, since it is imperative to distinguish circulating DNA from normal cells vs mutation-bearing sequences originating from tumors. Here we report the electrochemical detection of mutated ctDNA in samples collected from cancer patients. By developing a strategy relying on the use of DNA clutch probes (DCPs) that render specific sequences of ctDNA accessible, we were able to readout the presence of mutated ctDNA. DCPs prevent reassociation of denatured DNA strands: they make one of the two strands of a dsDNA accessible for hybridization to a probe, and they also deactivate other closely related sequences in solution. DCPs ensure thereby that only mutated sequences associate with chip-based sensors detecting hybridization events. The assay exhibits excellent sensitivity and specificity in the detection of mutated ctDNA: it detects 1 fg/μL of a target mutation in the presence of 100 pg/μL of wild-type DNA, corresponding to detecting mutations at a level of 0.01% relative to wild type. This approach allows accurate analysis of samples collected from lung cancer and melanoma patients. This work represents the first detection of ctDNA without enzymatic amplification.

  15. Your DNA, Your Say.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Genomic and medical data sharing is pivotal if the promise of genomic medicine is to be fully realised. Social scientists working in the genomics arena ask the public 'how is the technology working for you?' Empirical studies on attitudes, values and beliefs are incredibly valuable; they offer a voice from those who are, or will be, directly affected. This is paramount if personalised medicine is to be truly personal. An International attitude study, Your DNA, Your Say, uses film to provide background information and an online survey to gather public views on donating one's own personal DNA and medical data for use by others. In this paper the rationale to the project is introduced together with an overview of the survey and film design. The project has been translated into multiple languages and the results will be used in policy for the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health.

  16. Fleet DNA (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkokwicz, K.; Duran, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Fleet DNA project objectives include capturing and quantifying drive cycle and technology variation for the multitude of medium- and heavy-duty vocations; providing a common data storage warehouse for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet data across DOE activities and laboratories; and integrating existing DOE tools, models, and analyses to provide data-driven decision making capabilities. Fleet DNA advantages include: for Government - providing in-use data for standard drive cycle development, R&D, tech targets, and rule making; for OEMs - real-world usage datasets provide concrete examples of customer use profiles; for fleets - vocational datasets help illustrate how to maximize return onmore » technology investments; for Funding Agencies - ways are revealed to optimize the impact of financial incentive offers; and for researchers -a data source is provided for modeling and simulation.« less

  17. Your DNA, Your Say

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Genomic and medical data sharing is pivotal if the promise of genomic medicine is to be fully realised. Social scientists working in the genomics arena ask the public ‘how is the technology working for you?’ Empirical studies on attitudes, values and beliefs are incredibly valuable; they offer a voice from those who are, or will be, directly affected. This is paramount if personalised medicine is to be truly personal. An International attitude study, Your DNA, Your Say, uses film to provide background information and an online survey to gather public views on donating one's own personal DNA and medical data for use by others. In this paper the rationale to the project is introduced together with an overview of the survey and film design. The project has been translated into multiple languages and the results will be used in policy for the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. PMID:28517993

  18. DNA Methylation in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Kenis, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors-likely through epigenetic mechanisms-may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.

  19. Brain Connectivity as a DNA Sequencing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zador, Anthony

    The mammalian cortex consists of millions or billions of neurons, each connected to thousands of other neurons. Traditional methods for determining the brain connectivity rely on microscopy to visualize neuronal connections, but such methods are slow, labor-intensive and often lack single neuron resolution. We have recently developed a new method, MAPseq, to recast the determination of brain wiring into a form that can exploit the tremendous recent advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing technology has outpaced even Moore's law, so that the cost of sequencing the human genome has dropped from a billion dollars in 2001 to below a thousand dollars today. MAPseq works by introducing random sequences of DNA-``barcodes''-to tag neurons uniquely. With MAPseq, we can determine the connectivity of over 50K single neurons in a single mouse cortex in about a week, an unprecedented throughput, ushering in the era of ``big data'' for brain wiring. We are now developing analytical tools and algorithms to make sense of these novel data sets.

  20. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Schroeder, Steven; Flint-Garcia, Sherry; Guill, Katherine E; Yamasaki, Masanori; McMullen, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor) that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism. PMID:18366684

  1. Repulsive DNA-DNA interactions accelerate viral DNA packaging in phage Phi29.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicholas; delToro, Damian; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Smith, Douglas E

    2014-06-20

    We use optical tweezers to study the effect of attractive versus repulsive DNA-DNA interactions on motor-driven viral packaging. Screening of repulsive interactions accelerates packaging, but induction of attractive interactions by spermidine(3+) causes heterogeneous dynamics. Acceleration is observed in a fraction of complexes, but most exhibit slowing and stalling, suggesting that attractive interactions promote nonequilibrium DNA conformations that impede the motor. Thus, repulsive interactions facilitate packaging despite increasing the energy of the theoretical optimum spooled DNA conformation.

  2. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology: challenges, solutions and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-08-01

    The cellular machinery performs millions of complex reactions with extreme precision at nanoscale. From studying these reactions, scientists have become inspired to build artificial nanosized molecular devices with programmed functions. One of the fundamental tools in designing and creating these nanodevices is molecular self-assembly. In nature, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is inarguably one of the most remarkable self-assembling molecules. Governed by the Watson-Crick base-pairing rules, DNA assembles with a structural reliability and predictability based on sequence composition unlike any other complex biological polymer. This consistency has enabled rational design of hundreds of two- and three-dimensional shapes with a molecular precision and homogeneity not preceded by any other known technology at the nanometer scale. During the last two decades, DNA nanotechnology has undergone a rapid evolution pioneered by the work of Nadrian Seeman (Kallenbach et al 1983 Nature 205 829-31). Especially the introduction of the versatile DNA Origami technique by Rothemund (2006 Nature 440 297-302) led to an efflorescence of new DNA-based self-assembled nanostructures (Andersen et al 2009 Nature 459 73-6, Douglas et al 2009 Nature 459 414-8, Dietz et al 2009 Science 325 725-30, Han et al 2011 Science 332 342-6, Iinuma et al 2014 Science 344 65-9), and variations of this technique have contributed to an increasing repertoire of DNA nanostructures (Wei et al 2012 Nature 485 623-6, Ke et al 2012 Science 338 1177-83, Benson et al 2015 Nature 523 441-4, Zhang et al 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 779-84, Scheible et al 2015 Small 11 5200-5). These advances have naturally triggered the question: What can these DNA nanostructures be used for? One of the leading proposals of use for DNA nanotechnology has been in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of

  3. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    ADVANCED THERMAL BATTERIES NATIONAL UNION ELECTRIC CORPORATION ADVANCE SCIENCE DIVISION 1201 E. BELL STREET BLXXMINGTON, ILLINOIS 61701 JUNE 1981...December 1978 in: " Advanced Thermal Batteries " AFAPL-TR-78-114 Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Air Force...March 1980 in: " Advanced Thermal Batteries " AFAPL-TR-80-2017 Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Air Force

  4. [Recent advance in chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Aiba, K

    1996-04-01

    Chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer is reviewed stressing the historical development of combination chemotherapy and the application of a new idea called biochemical modulation based upon a preclinical biochemical and molecular pharmacological rationale. While 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a key drug for more than three decades, many a combination chemotherapy with 5-FU and other drugs such as methyl-CCNU, vincristine, streptozocin, mitomycin C and so on has been studied extensively only to show no significant improvement compared with monotherapy with 5-FU. Recently, the mechanisms of 5-FU action have been recognized more in detail biochemically, and it enabled us to try the drug in a more optimal way. For example, bolus i.v. infusion of 5-FU can produce a response rate of around 10% to 15% at most for advanced colorectal cancer. On the other hand, a more continuous mode of i.v. infusion, typically known as protracted i.v. infusion lasting up to 6 weeks or more, can produce the response rate of up to 40%. The difference underlying the mechanisms of action in these typical two administrative methods is that the main target can be RNA-directed cytotoxicity in the bolus type infusion and it can be shifted toward DNA-directed cytotoxicity in the continuous type infusion through the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS) enzyme activity which is relevant to DNA de novo synthesis. More importantly, investigations using clinical materials imply that DNA-directed cytotoxicity may be more relevant in a clinical setting, showing consistent findings between bench-top experiments and the clinical outcome. Given a precise knowledge about the mechanisms of 5-FU action, we could have developed a new type combination chemotherapy called biochemical modulation which manipulates non-cytotoxic agents or cytotoxic agents in non-cytotoxic level as modulators enhancing cytotoxicity of 5-FU biochemically. Among modulators, leucovorin (LV) has been shown to have a pivotal role in

  5. The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis.

    PubMed

    Wright, L Kate; Catavero, Christina M; Newman, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle The DNA triangle integrates three distinct scales at which one can think about DNA: chromosomal , molecular , and informational Through analysis of interview and survey data from biology faculty and students through the lens of the DNA triangle, we illustrate important differences in how novices and experts are able to explain the concepts of ploidy , homology , and mechanism of homologous pairing Similarly, analysis of passages from 16 different biology textbooks shows a large divide between introductory and advanced material, with introductory books omitting explanations of meiosis-linked concepts at the molecular level of DNA. Finally, backed by textbook findings and feedback from biology experts, we show that the DNA triangle can be applied to teaching and learning meiosis. By applying the DNA triangle to topics on meiosis we present a new framework for educators and researchers that ties concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing to knowledge about DNA on the chromosomal, molecular, and informational levels. © 2017 L. K. Wright et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    PubMed

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epigenetics of Ancient DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhenilo, S V; Sokolov, A S; Prokhortchouk, E B

    2016-01-01

    Initially, the study of DNA isolated from ancient specimens had been based on the analysis of the primary nucleotide sequence. This approach has allowed researchers to study the evolutionary changes that occur in different populations and determine the influence of the environment on genetic selection. However, the improvement of methodological approaches to genome-wide analysis has opened up new possibilities in the search for the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression. It was discovered recently that the methylation status of the regulatory elements of the HOXD cluster and MEIS 1 gene changed during human evolution. Epigenetic changes in these genes played a key role in the evolution of the limbs of modern humans. Recent works have demonstrated that it is possible to determine the transcriptional activity of genes in ancient DNA samples by combining information on DNA methylation and the DNAaseI hypersensitive sequences located at the transcription start sites of genes. In the nearest future, if a preserved fossils brain is found, it will be possible to identify the evolutionary changes in the higher nervous system associated with epigenetic differences.

  8. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  9. Herpesvirus capsid assembly and DNA packaging

    PubMed Central

    Heming, Jason D.; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome. The capsid shell of HSV-1 is built from four structural proteins: a major capsid protein, VP5, which forms the capsomers (hexons and pentons), the triplex consisting of VP19C and VP23 found between the capsomers, and VP26 which binds to VP5 on hexons but not pentons. In addition, the dodecameric pUL6 portal complex occupies one of the 12 capsid vertices, and the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC), a heterotrimer complex of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 binds specifically to the triplexes adjacent to each penton. The capsid is assembled in the nucleus where the viral genome is packaged into newly assembled closed capsid shells. Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA requires the seven viral proteins encoded by the UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33 genes. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the structure of the herpesvirus capsid and the function of several of the DNA packaging proteins by applying biochemical, genetic, and structural techniques. This review is a summary of recent advances with respect to the structure of the HSV-1 virion capsid and what is known about the function of the seven packaging proteins and their interactions with each other and with the capsid shell. PMID:28528442

  10. Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong

    Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

  11. DNA repair targeted therapy: the past or future of cancer treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Gavande, Navnath S.; VanderVere-Carozza, Pamela S.; Hinshaw, Hilary D.; Jalal, Shadia I.; Sears, Catherine R.; Pawelczak, Katherine S.; Turchi, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The repair of DNA damage is a complex process that relies on particular pathways to remedy specific types of damage to DNA. The range of insults to DNA includes small, modest changes in structure including mismatched bases and simple methylation events to oxidized bases, intra- and interstrand DNA crosslinks, DNA double strand breaks and protein-DNA adducts. Pathways required for the repair of these lesions include mismatch repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, and the homology directed repair/Fanconi anemia pathway. Each of these pathways contributes to genetic stability, and mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in these pathways have been demonstrated to promote genetic instability and cancer. In fact, it has been suggested all cancers display defects in DNA repair. It has also been demonstrated that the ability of cancer cells to repair therapeutically induced DNA damage impacts therapeutic efficacy. This has led to targeting DNA repair pathways and proteins to develop anti-cancer agents that will increase sensitivity to traditional chemotherapeutics. While initial studies languished and were plagued by a lack of specificity and a defined mechanism of action, more recent approaches to exploit synthetic lethal interaction and develop high affinity chemical inhibitors have proven considerably more effective. In this review we will highlight recent advances and discuss previous failures in targeting DNA repair to pave the way for future DNA repair targeted agents and their use in cancer therapy. PMID:26896565

  12. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  13. DNA Methylation and Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Delpu, Yannick; Cordelier, Pierre; Cho, William C.; Torrisani, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that is strongly involved in the physiological control of genome expression. DNA methylation patterns are largely modified in cancer cells and can therefore be used to distinguish cancer cells from normal tissues. This review describes the main technologies available for the detection and the discovery of aberrantly methylated DNA patterns. It also presents the different sources of biological samples suitable for DNA methylation studies. We discuss the interest and perspectives on the use of DNA methylation measurements for cancer diagnosis through examples of methylated genes commonly documented in the literature. The discussion leads to our consideration for why DNA methylation is not commonly used in clinical practice through an examination of the main requirements that constitute a reliable biomarker. Finally, we describe the main DNA methylation inhibitors currently used in clinical trials and those that exhibit promising results. PMID:23873296

  14. Analysis of Fecal DNA Methylation to Detect Gastrointestinal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Noriaki; Cullings, Harry M.; Sun, Dong-Sheng; Sasamoto, Hiromi; Uchida, Takuyuki; Koi, Minoru; Nishida, Naoshi; Naomoto, Yoshio; Boland, C. Richard; Matsubara, Nagahide; Goel, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    Background The development of noninvasive screening tests is important to reduce mortality from gastrointestinal neoplasia. We sought to develop such a test by analysis of DNA methylation from exfoliated cancer cells in feces. Methods We first analyzed methylation of the RASSF2 and SFRP2 gene promoters from 788 primary gastric and colorectal tissue specimens to determine whether methylation patterns could act as stage-dependent biomarkers of gastrointestinal tumorigenesis. Next, we developed a novel strategy that uses single-step modification of DNA with sodium bisulfite and fluorescence polymerase chain reaction methodology to measure aberrant methylation in fecal DNA. Methylation of the RASSF2 and SFRP2 promoters was analyzed in 296 fecal samples obtained from a variety of patients, including 21 with gastric tumors, 152 with colorectal tumors, and 10 with non-neoplastic or inflammatory lesions in the gastrointestinal lumen. Results Analysis of DNA from tissues showed presence of extensive methylation in both gene promoters exclusively in advanced gastric and colorectal tumors. The assay successfully identified one or more methylated markers in fecal DNA from 57.1% of patients with gastric cancer, 75.0% of patients with colorectal cancer, and 44.4% of patients with advanced colorectal adenomas, but only 10.6% of subjects without neoplastic or active diseases (difference, gastric cancer vs undiseased  =  46.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)  =  24.6% to 68.4%, P < .001; difference, colorectal cancer vs undiseased = 64.4%, 95% CI = 53.5% to 75.2%, P < .001; difference, colorectal adenoma vs undiseased = 33.8%, 95% CI = 14.2% to 53.4%, P < .001). Conclusions Methylation of the RASSF2 and SFRP2 promoters in fecal DNA is associated with the presence of gastrointestinal tumors relative to non-neoplastic conditions. Our novel fecal DNA methylation assay provides a possible means to noninvasively screen not only for colorectal tumors but also for gastric tumors

  15. Functionalizing Designer DNA Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Arun Richard

    Three-dimensional crystals have been self-assembled from a DNA tensegrity triangle via sticky end interaction. The tensegrity triangle is a rigid DNA motif containing three double helical edges connected pair-wise by three four-arm junctions. The symmetric triangle contains 3 unique strands combined in a 3:3:1 ratio: 3 crossover, 3 helical and 1 central. The length of the sticky end reported previously was two nucleotides (nt) (GA:TC) and the motif with 2-helical turns of DNA per edge diffracted to 4.9 A at beam line NSLS-X25 and to 4 A at beam line ID19 at APS. The purpose of these self-assembled DNA crystals is that they can be used as a framework for hosting external guests for use in crystallographic structure solving or the periodic positioning of molecules for nanoelectronics. This thesis describes strategies to improve the resolution and to incorporate guests into the 3D lattice. The first chapter describes the effect of varying sticky end lengths and the influence of 5'-phosphate addition on crystal formation and resolution. X-ray diffraction data from beam line NSLS-X25 revealed that the crystal resolution for 1-nt (G:C) sticky end was 3.4 A. Motifs with every possible combination of 1-nt and 2-nt sticky-ended phosphorylated strands were crystallized and X-ray data were collected. The position of the 5'-phosphate on either the crossover (strand 1), helical (strand 2), or central strand (3) had an impact on the resolution of the self-assembled crystals with the 1-nt 1P-2-3 system diffracting to 2.62 A at APS and 3.1 A at NSLS-X25. The second chapter describes the sequence-specific recognition of DNA motifs with triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). This study examined the feasibility of using TFOs to bind to specific locations within a 3-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif. The TFO 5'-TTCTTTCTTCTCT was used to target the tensegrity motif containing an appropriately embedded oligopurine.oligopyrimidine binding site. As triplex formation involving cytidine

  16. DNA methyltransferase-3 like protein expression in various histological types of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Taeko; Kawai, Koji; Ando, Satoshi; Sugita, Shintaro; Kandori, Shuya; Kojima, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    DNA methyltransferase 3-like plays an important role in germ cell development. The aim of this study was to analyse the DNA methyltransferase 3-like protein expression in testicular germ cell tumors. The immunohistochemical expression of DNA methyltransferase 3-like was examined in 86 testicular germ cell tumor specimens in various clinical settings. The association between DNA methyltransferase 3-like expression and disease stage was analyzed. DNA methyltransferase 3-like was strongly expressed in seven of the eight pure embryonal carcinomas (87.5%). Partial DNA methyltransferase 3-like expression was observed in 6 of 23 (26.1%) pure seminomas. Various degrees of DNA methyltransferase 3-like expression was observed in all four pure yolk sac tumors, of which three were prepubertal yolk sac tumors. In mixed germ cell tumors, DNA methyltransferase 3-like protein was expressed in various degrees in elements of the embryonal carcinoma (14/18, 77.8%), seminoma (4/11, 36.4%), teratoma (4/7, 57.1%) and choriocarcinoma (3/3, 100%) but not in the yolk sac tumors (0/4). When DNA methyltransferase 3-like expression was analyzed according to disease stages, it was significantly correlated with advanced seminoma rather than Stage I seminoma (46.2 vs. 0%, P = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in the DNA methyltransferase 3-like-positive proportion between Stage I and advanced disease in the mixed germ cell tumors. Our findings suggest that DNA methyltransferase 3-like protein may play roles not only in the development of embryonal carcinoma but also in the development of advanced pure seminoma and pure yolk sac tumor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sequence and Structure Dependent DNA-DNA Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopchick, Benjamin; Qiu, Xiangyun

    Molecular forces between dsDNA strands are largely dominated by electrostatics and have been extensively studied. Quantitative knowledge has been accumulated on how DNA-DNA interactions are modulated by varied biological constituents such as ions, cationic ligands, and proteins. Despite its central role in biology, the sequence of DNA has not received substantial attention and ``random'' DNA sequences are typically used in biophysical studies. However, ~50% of human genome is composed of non-random-sequence DNAs, particularly repetitive sequences. Furthermore, covalent modifications of DNA such as methylation play key roles in gene functions. Such DNAs with specific sequences or modifications often take on structures other than the canonical B-form. Here we present series of quantitative measurements of the DNA-DNA forces with the osmotic stress method on different DNA sequences, from short repeats to the most frequent sequences in genome, and to modifications such as bromination and methylation. We observe peculiar behaviors that appear to be strongly correlated with the incurred structural changes. We speculate the causalities in terms of the differences in hydration shell and DNA surface structures.

  18. Multivalent Lipid--DNA Complexes: Distinct DNA Compaction Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Heather M.; Ahmad, A.; Ewert, K.; Safinya, C. R.

    2004-03-01

    Cationic liposomes (CL), while intrinsically advantageous in comparison to viruses, still have limited success for gene therapy and require more study. CL spontaneously self-assemble with DNA via counterion release, forming small particles approximately 200nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction reveals CL-DNA structures that are typically a multilamellar organization of lipids with DNA intercalated between the layers. We explore the structural properties of CL-DNA complexes formed with new multivalent lipids (Ewert et al, J. Med. Chem. 2002; 45:5023) that range from 2+ to 16+. Contrary to a simple prediction for the DNA interaxial spacing d_DNA based on a geometrical space-filling model, these lipids show dramatic DNA compaction, down to d_DNA ˜ 25 ÅVariations in the membrane charge density, σ _M, lead to distinct spacing regimes. We propose that this DNA condensation is controlled by a unique locking mechanism between the DNA double helix and the large, multivalent lipid head groups. Funded by NSF DMR-0203755 and NIH GM-59288.

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Packaging without Measurable DNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Church, Geoffrey A.; Dasgupta, Anindya; Wilson, Duncan W.

    1998-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 DNA synthesis and packaging occur within the nuclei of infected cells; however, the extent to which the two processes are coupled remains unclear. Correct packaging is thought to be dependent upon DNA debranching or other repair processes, and such events commonly involve new DNA synthesis. Furthermore, the HSV UL15 gene product, essential for packaging, nevertheless localizes to sites of active DNA replication and may link the two events. It has previously been difficult to determine whether packaging requires concomitant DNA synthesis due to the complexity of these processes and of the viral life cycle; however, we have recently described a model system which simplifies the study of HSV assembly. Cells infected with HSV strain tsProt.A accumulate unpackaged capsids at the nonpermissive temperature of 39°C. Following release of the temperature block, these capsids proceed to package viral DNA in a single, synchronous wave. Here we report that, when DNA replication was inhibited prior to release of the temperature block, DNA packaging and later events in viral assembly nevertheless occurred at near-normal levels. We conclude that, under our conditions, HSV DNA packaging does not require detectable levels of DNA synthesis. PMID:9525593

  20. Genetics, structure, and prevalence of FP967 (CDC Triffid) T-DNA in flax.

    PubMed

    Young, Lester; Hammerlindl, Joseph; Babic, Vivijan; McLeod, Jamille; Sharpe, Andrew; Matsalla, Chad; Bekkaoui, Faouzi; Marquess, Leigh; Booker, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    The detection of T-DNA from a genetically modified flaxseed line (FP967, formally CDC Triffid) in a shipment of Canadian flaxseed exported to Europe resulted in a large decrease in the amount of flax planted in Canada. The Canadian flaxseed industry undertook major changes to ensure the removal of FP967 from the supply chain. This study aimed to resolve the genetics and structure of the FP967 transfer DNA (T-DNA). The FP967 T-DNA is thought to be inserted in at single genomic locus. The junction between the T-DNA and genomic DNA consisted of two inverted Right Borders with no Left Border (LB) flanking genomic DNA sequences recovered. This information was used to develop an event-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. This assay and an existing assay specific to the T-DNA construct were used to determine the genetics and prevalence of the FP967 T-DNA. These data supported the hypothesis that the T-DNA is present at a single location in the genome. The FP967 T-DNA is present at a low level (between 0.01 and 0.1%) in breeder seed lots from 2009 and 2010. None of the 11,000 and 16,000 lines selected for advancement through the Flax Breeding Program in 2010 and 2011, respectively, tested positive for the FP967 T-DNA, however. Most of the FP967 T-DNA sequence was resolved via PCR cloning and next generation sequencing. A 3,720 bp duplication of an internal portion of the T-DNA (including a Right Border) was discovered between the flanking genomic DNA and the LB. An event-specific assay, SAT2-LB, was developed for the junction between this repeat and the LB.

  1. Relationship between DNA damage response, initiated by camptothecin or oxidative stress, and DNA replication, analyzed by quantitative 3D image analysis.

    PubMed

    Berniak, K; Rybak, P; Bernas, T; Zarębski, M; Biela, E; Zhao, H; Darzynkiewicz, Z; Dobrucki, J W

    2013-10-01

    A method of quantitative analysis of spatial (3D) relationship between discrete nuclear events detected by confocal microscopy is described and applied in analysis of a dependence between sites of DNA damage signaling (γH2AX foci) and DNA replication (EdU incorporation) in cells subjected to treatments with camptothecin (Cpt) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cpt induces γH2AX foci, likely reporting formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), almost exclusively at sites of DNA replication. This finding is consistent with the known mechanism of induction of DSBs by DNA topoisomerase I (topo1) inhibitors at the sites of collisions of the moving replication forks with topo1-DNA "cleavable complexes" stabilized by Cpt. Whereas an increased level of H2AX histone phosphorylation is seen in S-phase of cells subjected to H2O2, only a minor proportion of γH2AX foci coincide with DNA replication sites. Thus, the increased level of H2AX phosphorylation induced by H2O2 is not a direct consequence of formation of DNA lesions at the sites of moving DNA replication forks. These data suggest that oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and formation of the primary H2O2-induced lesions (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine) inhibits replication globally and triggers formation of γH2AX at various distances from replication forks. Quantitative analysis of a frequency of DNA replication sites and γH2AX foci suggests also that stalling of replicating forks by Cpt leads to activation of new DNA replication origins. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Searching mixed DNA profiles directly against profile databases.

    PubMed

    Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Curran, James; Buckleton, John

    2014-03-01

    DNA databases have revolutionised forensic science. They are a powerful investigative tool as they have the potential to identify persons of interest in criminal investigations. Routinely, a DNA profile generated from a crime sample could only be searched for in a database of individuals if the stain was from single contributor (single source) or if a contributor could unambiguously be determined from a mixed DNA profile. This meant that a significant number of samples were unsuitable for database searching. The advent of continuous methods for the interpretation of DNA profiles offers an advanced way to draw inferential power from the considerable investment made in DNA databases. Using these methods, each profile on the database may be considered a possible contributor to a mixture and a likelihood ratio (LR) can be formed. Those profiles which produce a sufficiently large LR can serve as an investigative lead. In this paper empirical studies are described to determine what constitutes a large LR. We investigate the effect on a database search of complex mixed DNA profiles with contributors in equal proportions with dropout as a consideration, and also the effect of an incorrect assignment of the number of contributors to a profile. In addition, we give, as a demonstration of the method, the results using two crime samples that were previously unsuitable for database comparison. We show that effective management of the selection of samples for searching and the interpretation of the output can be highly informative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid high-resolution method for resolving DNA topoisomers.

    PubMed

    Mitchenall, Lesley A; Hipkin, Rachel E; Piperakis, Michael M; Burton, Nicolas P; Maxwell, Anthony

    2018-01-16

    Agarose gel electrophoresis has been the mainstay technique for the analysis of DNA samples of moderate size. In addition to separating linear DNA molecules, it can also resolve different topological forms of plasmid DNAs, an application useful for the analysis of the reactions of DNA topoisomerases. However, gel electrophoresis is an intrinsically low-throughput technique and suffers from other potential disadvantages. We describe the application of the QIAxcel Advanced System, a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis system, to separate DNA topoisomers, and compare this technique with gel electrophoresis. We prepared a range of topoisomers of plasmids pBR322 and pUC19, and a 339 bp DNA minicircle, and compared their separation by gel electrophoresis and the QIAxcel System. We found superior resolution with the QIAxcel System, and that quantitative analysis of topoisomer distributions was straightforward. We show that the QIAxcel system has advantages in terms of speed, resolution and cost, and can be applied to DNA circles of various sizes. It can readily be adapted for use in compound screening against topoisomerase targets.

  4. DNA confinement in nanochannels: physics and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, Walter; Pedersen, Jonas N.; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-10-01

    DNA is the central storage molecule of genetic information in the cell, and reading that information is a central problem in biology. While sequencing technology has made enormous advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in platforms that can readout genetic information directly from long single DNA molecules, with the ultimate goal of single-cell, single-genome analysis. Such a capability would obviate the need for ensemble averaging over heterogeneous cellular populations and eliminate uncertainties introduced by cloning and molecular amplification steps (thus enabling direct assessment of the genome in its native state). In this review, we will discuss how the information contained in genomic-length single DNA molecules can be accessed via physical confinement in nanochannels. Due to self-avoidance interactions, DNA molecules will stretch out when confined in nanochannels, creating a linear unscrolling of the genome along the channel for analysis. We will first review the fundamental physics of DNA nanochannel confinement—including the effect of varying ionic strength—and then discuss recent applications of these systems to genomic mapping. Apart from the intense biological interest in extracting linear sequence information from elongated DNA molecules, from a physics view these systems are fascinating as they enable probing of single-molecule conformation in environments with dimensions that intersect key physical length-scales in the 1 nm to 100 µm range.

  5. Ancient DNA studies: new perspectives on old samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In spite of past controversies, the field of ancient DNA is now a reliable research area due to recent methodological improvements. A series of recent large-scale studies have revealed the true potential of ancient DNA samples to study the processes of evolution and to test models and assumptions commonly used to reconstruct patterns of evolution and to analyze population genetics and palaeoecological changes. Recent advances in DNA technologies, such as next-generation sequencing make it possible to recover DNA information from archaeological and paleontological remains allowing us to go back in time and study the genetic relationships between extinct organisms and their contemporary relatives. With the next-generation sequencing methodologies, DNA sequences can be retrieved even from samples (for example human remains) for which the technical pitfalls of classical methodologies required stringent criteria to guaranty the reliability of the results. In this paper, we review the methodologies applied to ancient DNA analysis and the perspectives that next-generation sequencing applications provide in this field. PMID:22697611

  6. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on a Square Lattice

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yonggang; Douglas, Shawn M.; Liu, Minghui; Sharma, Jaswinder; Cheng, Anchi; Leung, Albert; Liu, Yan; Shih, William M.; Yan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly using DNA as a structural building block has proven to be an efficient route to the construction of nanoscale objects and arrays of increasing complexity. Using the remarkable “scaffolded DNA origami” strategy, Rothemund demonstrated that a long single-stranded DNA from a viral genome (M13) can be folded into a variety of custom two-dimensional (2D) shapes using hundreds of short synthetic DNA molecules as staple strands. More recently, we generalized a strategy to build custom-shaped, three-dimensional (3D) objects formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice, with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Here we describe a more compact design for 3D origami, with layers of helices packed on a square lattice, that can be folded successfully into structures of designed dimensions in a one-step annealing process, despite the increased density of DNA helices. A square lattice provides a more natural framework for designing rectangular structures, the option for a more densely packed architecture, and the ability to create surfaces that are more flat than is possible with the honeycomb lattice. Thus enabling the design and construction of custom 3D shapes from helices packed on a square lattice provides a general foundational advance for increasing the versatility and scope of DNA nanotechnology. PMID:19807088

  7. DNA confinement in nanochannels: physics and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Walter; Pedersen, Jonas N; Austin, Robert H

    2012-10-01

    DNA is the central storage molecule of genetic information in the cell, and reading that information is a central problem in biology. While sequencing technology has made enormous advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in platforms that can readout genetic information directly from long single DNA molecules, with the ultimate goal of single-cell, single-genome analysis. Such a capability would obviate the need for ensemble averaging over heterogeneous cellular populations and eliminate uncertainties introduced by cloning and molecular amplification steps (thus enabling direct assessment of the genome in its native state). In this review, we will discuss how the information contained in genomic-length single DNA molecules can be accessed via physical confinement in nanochannels. Due to self-avoidance interactions, DNA molecules will stretch out when confined in nanochannels, creating a linear unscrolling of the genome along the channel for analysis. We will first review the fundamental physics of DNA nanochannel confinement--including the effect of varying ionic strength--and then discuss recent applications of these systems to genomic mapping. Apart from the intense biological interest in extracting linear sequence information from elongated DNA molecules, from a physics view these systems are fascinating as they enable probing of single-molecule conformation in environments with dimensions that intersect key physical length-scales in the 1 nm to 100 µm range.

  8. Increasing global participation in genetics research through DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Sarah J; Steinke, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    DNA barcoding--the sequencing of short, standardized DNA regions for specimen identification and species discovery--has promised to facilitate rapid access to biodiversity knowledge by diverse users. Here, we advance our opinion that increased global participation in genetics research is beneficial, both to scientists and for science, and explore the premise that DNA barcoding can help to democratize participation in genetics research. We examine publication patterns (2003-2014) in the DNA barcoding literature and compare trends with those in the broader, related domain of genomics. While genomics is the older and much larger field, the number of nations contributing to the published literature is similar between disciplines. Meanwhile, DNA barcoding exhibits a higher pace of growth in the number of publications as well as greater evenness among nations in their proportional contribution to total authorships. This exploration revealed DNA barcoding to be a highly international discipline, with growing participation by researchers in especially biodiverse nations. We briefly consider several of the challenges that may hinder further participation in genetics research, including access to training and molecular facilities as well as policy relating to the movement of genetic resources.

  9. Left-handed Z-DNA: structure and function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, A.; Rich, A.

    1999-01-01

    Z-DNA is a high energy conformer of B-DNA that forms in vivo during transcription as a result of torsional strain generated by a moving polymerase. An understanding of the biological role of Z-DNA has advanced with the discovery that the RNA editing enzyme double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase type I (ADAR1) has motifs specific for the Z-DNA conformation. Editing by ADAR1 requires a double-stranded RNA substrate. In the cases known, the substrate is formed by folding an intron back onto the exon that is targeted for modification. The use of introns to direct processing of exons requires that editing occurs before splicing. Recognition of Z-DNA by ADAR1 may allow editing of nascent transcripts to be initiated immediately after transcription, ensuring that editing and splicing are performed in the correct sequence. Structural characterization of the Z-DNA binding domain indicates that it belongs to the winged helix-turn-helix class of proteins and is similar to the globular domain of histone-H5.

  10. High molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo for synthetic biology applications.

    PubMed

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2017-05-01

    DNA assembly is the key technology of the emerging interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology. While the assembly of smaller DNA fragments is usually performed in vitro, high molecular weight DNA molecules are assembled in vivo via homologous recombination in the host cell. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the main hosts used for DNA assembly in vivo. Progress in DNA assembly over the last few years has paved the way for the construction of whole genomes. This review provides an update on recent synthetic biology advances with particular emphasis on high molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo in E. coli, B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae. Special attention is paid to the assembly of whole genomes, such as those of the first synthetic cell, synthetic yeast and minimal genomes.

  11. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  12. USE OF COMPETITIVE DNA HYBRIDIZATION TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENCES IN THE GENOMES OF TWO CLOSELY RELATED FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, comparisons of closely related bacterial species and individual isolates by whole-genome sequencing approaches remains prohibitively expens...

  13. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP).

    PubMed

    Dunford, Eric A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2010-08-02

    DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) is a powerful technique for identifying active microorganisms that assimilate particular carbon substrates and nutrients into cellular biomass. As such, this cultivation-independent technique has been an important methodology for assigning metabolic function to the diverse communities inhabiting a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Following the incubation of an environmental sample with stable-isotope labelled compounds, extracted nucleic acid is subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation and subsequent gradient fractionation to separate nucleic acids of differing densities. Purification of DNA from cesium chloride retrieves labelled and unlabelled DNA for subsequent molecular characterization (e.g. fingerprinting, microarrays, clone libraries, metagenomics). This JoVE video protocol provides visual step-by-step explanations of the protocol for density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient fractionation and recovery of labelled DNA. The protocol also includes sample SIP data and highlights important tips and cautions that must be considered to ensure a successful DNA-SIP analysis.

  14. Advances in Biological Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  15. Investigating DNA Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Stephen P.; Hart, Peter E.; Russell, Eric M.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in the field of molecular biology, powered by a technological revolution, have increased dramatically over the past decades. Notable developments such as the cloning of adult sheep, the sequencing of the human genome, and the production of genetically modified organisms capture the attention of biologists, their students, and the general…

  16. Decoding tree DNA

    Treesearch

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1986-01-01

    Check the laboratory reports after your next physical. You'll find information on a number of biochemical processes. Procedures like those used in the medical sciences are yielding valuable information about genetic differences among trees and tree pests. New procedures that provide ways to isolate and move genes are advancing progress in tree improvement. These...

  17. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mullane, Stephanie A.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Summary Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients. PMID:26909474

  18. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  19. DNA Vaccines for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Christopher D.; Colluru, Viswa Teja; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines offer many advantages over other anti-tumor vaccine approaches due to their simplicity, ease of manufacturing, and safety. Results from several clinical trials in patients with cancer have demonstrated that DNA vaccines are safe and can elicit immune responses. However, to date few DNA vaccines have progressed beyond phase I clinical trial evaluation. Studies into the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines in terms of antigen-presenting cell types able to directly present or cross-present DNA-encoded antigens, and the activation of innate immune responses due to DNA itself, have suggested opportunities to increase the immunogenicity of these vaccines. In addition, studies into the mechanisms of tumor resistance to anti-tumor vaccination have suggested combination approaches that can increase the antitumor effect of DNA vaccines. This review focuses on these mechanisms of action and mechanisms of resistance using DNA vaccines, and how this information is being used to improve the anti-tumor effect of DNA vaccines. These approaches are then specifically discussed in the context of human prostate cancer, a disease for which DNA vaccines have been and continue to be explored as treatments. PMID:28185916

  20. Topological Behavior of Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, N. Patrick; Vologodskii, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the B-form structure of DNA by Watson and Crick led to an explosion of research on nucleic acids in the fields of biochemistry, biophysics, and genetics. Powerful techniques were developed to reveal a myriad of different structural conformations that change B-DNA as it is transcribed, replicated, and recombined and as sister chromosomes are moved into new daughter cell compartments during cell division. This article links the original discoveries of superhelical structure and molecular topology to non-B form DNA structure and contemporary biochemical and biophysical techniques. The emphasis is on the power of plasmids for studying DNA structure and function. The conditions that trigger the formation of alternative DNA structures such as left-handed Z-DNA, inter- and intra-molecular triplexes, triple-stranded DNA, and linked catenanes and hemicatenanes are explained. The DNA dynamics and topological issues are detailed for stalled replication forks and for torsional and structural changes on DNA in front of and behind a transcription complex and a replisome. The complex and interconnected roles of topoisomerases and abundant small nucleoid association proteins are explained. And methods are described for comparing in vivo and in vitro reactions to probe and understand the temporal pathways of DNA and chromosome chemistry that occur inside living cells. PMID:26104708

  1. A mathematical model for DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    Recently, some authors have shown that a DNA molecule produces electromagnetic signals and communicates with other DNA molecules or other molecules. In fact, a DNA acts like a receiver or transmitter of radio waves. In this paper, we suggest a mathematical model for the DNA molecule and use of its communication to cure some diseases like cancer. In this model, first, by using concepts from string theory and M-theory, we calculate the energy of a DNA in terms of interactions between free electrons and bound electrons. We show that when a DNA is damaged, its energy changes and an extra current is produced. This extra current causes the electromagnetic signals of a damaged DNA molecule to be different when compared to the electromagnetic signals of a normal DNA molecule. The electromagnetic signals of a damaged DNA molecule induce an extra current in a normal DNA molecule and lead to its destruction. By sending crafted electromagnetic signals to normal DNA molecules and inducing an opposite current with respect to this extra current, we can prevent the destruction of normal DNA. Finally, we argue that the type of packing of DNA in chromosomes of men and women is different. This causes radiated waves from DNAs of men and women to have opposite signs and cancel the effect of each other in a pair. Using this property, we suggest another mechanism to cancel the effect of extra waves, which are produced by DNAs in cancer cells of a male or a female, by extra waves which are produced by DNAs in similar cells of a female or a male and prevent the progression of the disease.

  2. Superimposed Code Theoretic Analysis of DNA Codes and DNA Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    complements of one another and the DNA duplex formed is a Watson - Crick (WC) duplex. However, there are many instances when the formation of non-WC...that the user’s requirements for probe selection are met based on the Watson - Crick probe locality within a target. The second type, called...AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2007-288 Final Technical Report January 2008 SUPERIMPOSED CODE THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF DNA CODES AND DNA COMPUTING

  3. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm.

    PubMed

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-05-29

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  4. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  5. Recent Advances in Aptamers Targeting Immune System.

    PubMed

    Hu, Piao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The immune system plays important role in protecting the organism by recognizing non-self molecules from pathogen such as bacteria, parasitic worms, and viruses. When the balance of the host defense system is disturbed, immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and inflammation occur. Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA ligands that interact with complementary molecules with high specificity and affinity. Aptamers that target the molecules involved in immune system to modulate their function have great potential to be explored as new diagnostic and therapeutic agents for immune disorders. This review summarizes recent advances in the development of aptamers targeting immune system. The selection of aptamers with superior chemical and biological characteristics will facilitate their application in the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders.

  6. Recent progress in DNA origami technology.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    DNA origami is an emerging technology for designing defined two-dimensional DNA nanostructures. In this review, we focus on and describe several types of DNA origami-related studies, as follows: (1) programmed DNA origami assembly, (2) DNA origami-templated molecular assembly, (3) design and construction of various three-dimensional DNA origami structures, (4) programmed functionalization of DNA origami and combination with top-down nanotechnology, (5) single molecular observation on a designed DNA origami, and (6) DNA nanomachines working on a DNA origami. © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. The DNA Files

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-06-09

    The DNA Files is a radio documentary which disseminates genetics information over public radio. The documentaries explore subjects which include the following: How genetics affects society. How human life began and how it evolved. Could new prenatal genetic tests hold the key to disease prevention later in life? Would a national genetic data base sacrifice individual privacy? and Should genes that may lead to the cure for cancer be privately owned? This report serves as a project update for the second quarter of 1998. It includes the spring/summer 1998 newsletter, the winter 1998 newsletter, the program clock, and the latestmore » flyer.« less

  8. Pre-Incubation of Auric Acid with DNA Is Unnecessary for the Formation of DNA-Templated Gold Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Tao, Guangyu; Lin, Ruoyun; Pei, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng; Li, Na

    2016-06-06

    The rationale for the preparation of DNA-templated gold nanoclusters (DNA-Au NCs) has not been well understood, thereby slowing down the advancement of the synthesis and applications of DNA-Au NCs. The interaction between metal ions and the DNA template seems to be the key factor for the successful preparation of DNA-templated metal nanoclusters. With the help of circular dichroism in this contribution, we put efforts into interrogating the necessity of pre-incubation of HAuCl4 with poly-adenine template in the formation of Au NCs by citrate reduction. Our results revealed that the pre-incubation of HAuCl4 with poly-adenine is not favorable for the formation of Au NCs, which is distinctly different from the formation process for silver nanoclusters. It is our hope that this study can provide guidance in the preparation of Au NCs with more DNA templates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Towards a DNA Nanoprocessor: Reusable Tile-Integrated DNA Circuits.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2016-08-22

    Modern electronic microprocessors use semiconductor logic gates organized on a silicon chip to enable efficient inter-gate communication. Here, arrays of communicating DNA logic gates integrated on a single DNA tile were designed and used to process nucleic acid inputs in a reusable format. Our results lay the foundation for the development of a DNA nanoprocessor, a small and biocompatible device capable of performing complex analyses of DNA and RNA inputs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mechanism for priming DNA synthesis by yeast DNA Polymerase α

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Rajika L; Torella, Rubben; Klinge, Sebastian; Kilkenny, Mairi L; Maman, Joseph D; Pellegrini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The DNA Polymerase α (Pol α)/primase complex initiates DNA synthesis in eukaryotic replication. In the complex, Pol α and primase cooperate in the production of RNA-DNA oligonucleotides that prime synthesis of new DNA. Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic core of yeast Pol α in unliganded form, bound to an RNA primer/DNA template and extending an RNA primer with deoxynucleotides. We combine the structural analysis with biochemical and computational data to demonstrate that Pol α specifically recognizes the A-form RNA/DNA helix and that the ensuing synthesis of B-form DNA terminates primer synthesis. The spontaneous release of the completed RNA-DNA primer by the Pol α/primase complex simplifies current models of primer transfer to leading- and lagging strand polymerases. The proposed mechanism of nucleotide polymerization by Pol α might contribute to genomic stability by limiting the amount of inaccurate DNA to be corrected at the start of each Okazaki fragment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00482.001 PMID:23599895

  11. DNA glycosylases search for and remove oxidized DNA bases.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Susan S

    2013-12-01

    This review article presents, an overview of the DNA glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases using the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases as models for how structure can inform function. For example, even though human NEIL1 and the plant and fungal orthologs lack the zinc finger shown to be required for binding, DNA crystal structures revealed a "zincless finger" with the same properties. Moreover, the "lesion recognition loop" is not involved in lesion recognition, rather, it stabilizes 8-oxoG in the active site pocket. Unlike the other Fpg/Nei family members, Neil3 lacks two of the three void-filling residues that stabilize the DNA duplex and interact with the opposite strand to the damage which may account for its preference for lesions in single-stranded DNA. Also single-molecule approaches show that DNA glycosylases search for their substrates in a sea of undamaged DNA by using a wedge residue that is inserted into the DNA helix to probe for the presence of damage. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Foldback intercoil DNA and the mechanism of DNA transposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-09-01

    Foldback intercoil (FBI) DNA is formed by the folding back at one point of a non-helical parallel track of double-stranded DNA at as sharp as 180° and the intertwining of two double helixes within each other's major groove to form an intercoil with a diameter of 2.2 nm. FBI DNA has been suggested to mediate intra-molecular homologous recombination of a deletion and inversion. Inter-molecular homologous recombination, known as site-specific insertion, on the other hand, is mediated by the direct perpendicular approach of the FBI DNA tip, as the attP site, onto the target DNA, as the attB site. Transposition of DNA transposons involves the pairing of terminal inverted repeats and 5-7-bp tandem target duplication. FBI DNA configuration effectively explains simple as well as replicative transposition, along with the involvement of an enhancer element. The majority of diverse retrotransposable elements that employ a target site duplication mechanism is also suggested to follow the FBI DNA-mediated perpendicular insertion of the paired intercoil ends by non-homologous end-joining, together with gap filling. A genome-wide perspective of transposable elements in light of FBI DNA is discussed.

  13. A mechanical mechanism for translocation of ring-shaped helicases on DNA and its demonstration in a macroscopic simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Y. C.

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetry in the two-layered ring structure of helicases and the random thermal fluctuations of the helicase and DNA molecules are considered as the bases for the generation of the force required for translocation of the ring-shaped helicase on DNA. The helicase comprises a channel at its center with two unequal ends, through which strands of DNA can pass. The random collisions between the portion of the DNA strand in the central channel and the wall of the channel generate an impulsive force toward the small end. This impulsive force is the starting point for the helicase to translocate along the DNA with the small end in front. Such a physical mechanism may serve as a complementary for the chemomechanical mechanism of the translocation of helicase on DNA. When the helicase arrives at the junction of ssDNA and dsDNA (a fork), the collision between the helicase and the closest base pair may produce a sufficient impulsive force to break the weak hydrogen bond of the base pair. Thus, the helicase may advance and repeat the process of unwinding the dsDNA strand. This mechanism was tested in a macroscopic simulation system where the helicase was simulated using a truncated-cone structure and DNA was simulated with bead chains. Many features of translocation and unwinding such as translocation on ssDNA and dsDNA, unwinding of dsDNA, rewinding, strand switching, and Holliday junction resolution were reproduced.

  14. Methods of DNA methylation detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Wusi Chen (Inventor); Filanoski, Brian John (Inventor); Mishra, Nirankar (Inventor); Rastogi, Shiva (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides for methods of DNA methylation detection. The present invention provides for methods of generating and detecting specific electronic signals that report the methylation status of targeted DNA molecules in biological samples.Two methods are described, direct and indirect detection of methylated DNA molecules in a nano transistor based device. In the direct detection, methylated target DNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface resulting in changes in the electrical properties of a nano transistor. These changes generate detectable electronic signals. In the indirect detection, antibody-DNA conjugates are used to identify methylated DNA molecules. RNA signal molecules are generated through an in vitro transcription process. These RNA molecules are captured on the sensing surface change the electrical properties of nano transistor thereby generating detectable electronic signals.

  15. Updating the maize karyotype by chromosome DNA sizing.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jéssica Coutinho; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2018-01-01

    The karyotype is a basic concept regarding the genome, fundamentally described by the number and morphological features of all chromosomes. Chromosome class, centromeric index, intra- and interchromosomal asymmetry index, and constriction localization are important in clinical, systematic and evolutionary approaches. In spite of the advances in karyotype characterization made over the last years, new data about the chromosomes can be generated from quantitative methods, such as image cytometry. Therefore, using Zea mays L., this study aimed to update the species' karyotype by supplementing information on chromosome DNA sizing. After adjustment of the procedures, chromosome morphometry and class as well as knob localization enabled describing the Z. mays karyotype. In addition, applying image cytometry, DNA sizing was unprecedentedly measured for the arms and satellite of all chromosomes. This way, unambiguous identification of the chromosome pairs, and hence the assembly of 51 karyograms, were only possible after the DNA sizing of each chromosome, their arms and satellite portions. These accurate, quantitative and reproducible data also enabled determining the distribution and variation of DNA content in each chromosome. From this, a correlation between DNA amount and total chromosome length evidenced that the mean DNA content of chromosome 9 was higher than that of chromosome 8. The chromosomal DNA sizing updated the Z. mays karyotype, providing insights into its dynamic genome with regards to the organization of the ten chromosomes and their respective portions. Considering the results and the relevance of cytogenetics in the current scenario of comparative sequencing and genomics, chromosomal DNA sizing should be incorporated as an additional parameter for karyotype definition. Based on this study, it can be affirmed that cytogenetic approaches go beyond the simple morphological description of chromosomes.

  16. Updating the maize karyotype by chromosome DNA sizing

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The karyotype is a basic concept regarding the genome, fundamentally described by the number and morphological features of all chromosomes. Chromosome class, centromeric index, intra- and interchromosomal asymmetry index, and constriction localization are important in clinical, systematic and evolutionary approaches. In spite of the advances in karyotype characterization made over the last years, new data about the chromosomes can be generated from quantitative methods, such as image cytometry. Therefore, using Zea mays L., this study aimed to update the species’ karyotype by supplementing information on chromosome DNA sizing. After adjustment of the procedures, chromosome morphometry and class as well as knob localization enabled describing the Z. mays karyotype. In addition, applying image cytometry, DNA sizing was unprecedentedly measured for the arms and satellite of all chromosomes. This way, unambiguous identification of the chromosome pairs, and hence the assembly of 51 karyograms, were only possible after the DNA sizing of each chromosome, their arms and satellite portions. These accurate, quantitative and reproducible data also enabled determining the distribution and variation of DNA content in each chromosome. From this, a correlation between DNA amount and total chromosome length evidenced that the mean DNA content of chromosome 9 was higher than that of chromosome 8. The chromosomal DNA sizing updated the Z. mays karyotype, providing insights into its dynamic genome with regards to the organization of the ten chromosomes and their respective portions. Considering the results and the relevance of cytogenetics in the current scenario of comparative sequencing and genomics, chromosomal DNA sizing should be incorporated as an additional parameter for karyotype definition. Based on this study, it can be affirmed that cytogenetic approaches go beyond the simple morphological description of chromosomes. PMID:29293613

  17. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining.

    PubMed

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L; Tomkinson, Alan E; Tainer, John A; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-08-18

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Human DNA ligase III recognizes DNA ends by dynamic switching between two DNA-bound states.

    PubMed

    Cotner-Gohara, Elizabeth; Kim, In-Kwon; Hammel, Michal; Tainer, John A; Tomkinson, Alan E; Ellenberger, Tom

    2010-07-27

    Human DNA ligase III has essential functions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and repair and contains a PARP-like zinc finger (ZnF) that increases the extent of DNA nick joining and intermolecular DNA ligation, yet the bases for ligase III specificity and structural variation among human ligases are not understood. Here combined crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering results reveal dynamic switching between two nick-binding components of ligase III: the ZnF-DNA binding domain (DBD) forms a crescent-shaped surface used for DNA end recognition which switches to a ring formed by the nucleotidyl transferase (NTase) and OB-fold (OBD) domains for catalysis. Structural and mutational analyses indicate that high flexibility and distinct DNA binding domain features in ligase III assist both nick sensing and the transition from nick sensing by the ZnF to nick joining by the catalytic core. The collective results support a "jackknife model" in which the ZnF loads ligase III onto nicked DNA and conformational changes deliver DNA into the active site. This work has implications for the biological specificity of DNA ligases and functions of PARP-like zinc fingers.

  19. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Nishiyama, Atsuya

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program.more » Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.« less

  20. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    PubMed Central

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  1. Fluorescence studies with DNA probes: dynamic aspects of DNA structure and DNA-protein interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, David P.; Carver, Theodore E.

    1994-08-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements of optical probes incorporated at specific sites in DNA provides a new approach to studies of DNA structure and DNA:protein interactions. This approach can be used to study complex multi-state behavior, such as the folding of DNA into alternative higher order structures or the transfer of DNA between multiple binding sites on a protein. In this study, fluorescence anisotropy decay of an internal dansyl probe attached to 17/27-mer oligonucleotides was used to monitor the distribution of DNA 3' termini bound at either the polymerase of 3' to 5' exonuclease sites of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I. Partitioning of the primer terminus between the two active sites of the enzyme resulted in a heterogeneous probe environment, reflected in the associative behavior of the fluorescence anisotropy decay. Analysis of the anisotropy decay with a two state model of solvent-exposed and protein-associated dansyl probes was used to determine the fraction of DNA bound at each site. We examined complexes of Klenow fragment with DNAs containing various base mismatches. Single mismatches at the primer terminus caused a 3-fold increase in the equilibrium partitioning of DNA into the exonuclease site, while two or more consecutive G:G mismatches caused the DNA to bind exclusively at the exonuclease site, with a partitioning constant at least 250- fold greater than that of the corresponding matched DNA sequence. Internal single mismatches located up to four bases from the primer terminus produced larger effects than the same mismatch at the primer terminus. These results provide insight into the recognition mechanisms that enable DNA polymerases to proofread misincorporated bases during DNA replication.

  2. Rapid electrokinetic isolation of cancer-related circulating cell-free DNA directly from blood.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y; Rassenti, Laura; Ghia, Emanuela M; Skowronski, Elaine A; Manouchehri, Sareh; McCanna, James; Widhopf, George F; Kipps, Thomas J; Heller, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccf-DNA) is becoming an important biomarker for cancer diagnostics and therapy monitoring. The isolation of ccf-DNA from plasma as a "liquid biopsy" may begin to replace more invasive tissue biopsies for the detection and analysis of cancer-related mutations. Conventional methods for the isolation of ccf-DNA from plasma are costly, time-consuming, and complex, preventing the use of ccf-DNA biomarkers for point-of-care diagnostics and limiting other biomedical research applications. We used an AC electrokinetic device to rapidly isolate ccf-DNA from 25 μL unprocessed blood. ccf-DNA from 15 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and 3 healthy individuals was separated into dielectrophoretic (DEP) high-field regions, after which other blood components were removed by a fluidic wash. Concentrated ccf-DNA was detected by fluorescence and eluted for quantification, PCR, and DNA sequencing. The complete process, blood to PCR, required <10 min. ccf-DNA was amplified by PCR with immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV)-specific primers to identify the unique IGHV gene expressed by the leukemic B-cell clone, and then sequenced. PCR and DNA sequencing results obtained by DEP from 25 μL CLL blood matched results obtained by use of conventional methods for ccf-DNA isolation from 1 mL plasma and for genomic DNA isolation from CLL patient leukemic B cells isolated from 15-20 mL blood. Rapid isolation of ccf-DNA directly from a drop of blood will advance disease-related biomarker research, accelerate the transition from tissue to liquid biopsies, and enable point-of-care diagnostic systems for patient monitoring.

  3. Rapid Electrokinetic Isolation of Cancer-Related Circulating Cell-Free DNA Directly from Blood

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, Avery; Marciniak, Jennifer Y.; Rassenti, Laura; Ghia, Emanuela M.; Skowronski, Elaine A.; Manouchehri, Sareh; McCanna, James; Widhopf, George F.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Heller, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Circulating cell-free DNA (ccf-DNA) is becoming an important biomarker for cancer diagnostics and therapy monitoring. The isolation of ccf-DNA from plasma as a “liquid biopsy” may begin to replace more invasive tissue biopsies for the detection and analysis of cancer-related mutations. Conventional methods for the isolation of ccf-DNA from plasma are costly, time-consuming, and complex, preventing the use of ccf-DNA biomarkers for point-of-care diagnostics and limiting other biomedical research applications. METHODS We used an AC electrokinetic device to rapidly isolate ccf-DNA from 25 μL unprocessed blood. ccf-DNA from 15 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients and 3 healthy individuals was separated into dielectrophoretic (DEP) high-field regions, after which other blood components were removed by a fluidic wash. Concentrated ccf-DNA was detected by fluorescence and eluted for quantification,PCR,and DNA sequencing. The complete process, blood to PCR, required <10 min. ccf-DNA was amplified by PCR with immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV)-specific primers to identify the unique IGHV gene expressed by the leukemic B-cell clone, and then sequenced. RESULTS PCR and DNA sequencing results obtained by DEP from 25 μL CLL blood matched results obtained by use of conventional methods for ccf-DNA isolation from 1 mL plasma and for genomic DNA isolation from CLL patient leukemic B cells isolated from 15–20 mL blood. CONCLUSIONS Rapid isolation of ccf-DNA directly from a drop of blood will advance disease-related biomarker research, accelerate the transition from tissue to liquid biopsies, and enable point-of-care diagnostic systems for patient monitoring. PMID:24270796

  4. DNA Damage Induced Neuronal Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    heterozygous for the DNA repair genes Os-methylguanine methyltransferase (Mgmt), 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag) , and xeroderma pigmentosum ...mice by human 06-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Science 1993; 259: 219-222. 4. Enokido Y, Inamura N, Araki T, et al: Loss of the xeroderma ... pigmentosum group A gene (XPA) enhances apoptosis of cultured cerebellar neurons induced by UV but not by low-K+ medium. J Neurochem 199; 69: 246-251. 5

  5. Integrated Sensing Using DNA Nanoarchitectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-20

    Norton. Thiolated Dendrimers as Multi-Point Binding Headgroups for DNA Immobilization on Gold, Langmuir, (10 2011): 0. doi: 10.1021/la202444s...Figure 6, uses dendrimers to provide multipoint adhesion of a single stranded DNA component on a surface. Figure 6 Process for immobilizing... dendrimer (shown as a round species). These dendrimer species are Generation 3 PAMAM dendrimers with ~ 30 thiol groups to bind the dendrimer /DNA construct

  6. Biosensors for DNA sequence detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, Wenonah; Akeson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    DNA biosensors are being developed as alternatives to conventional DNA microarrays. These devices couple signal transduction directly to sequence recognition. Some of the most sensitive and functional technologies use fibre optics or electrochemical sensors in combination with DNA hybridization. In a shift from sequence recognition by hybridization, two emerging single-molecule techniques read sequence composition using zero-mode waveguides or electrical impedance in nanoscale pores.

  7. Japan's advanced medicine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform.

  8. A journey through the microscopic ages of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Marius; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Scientific discoveries and technological advancements are inseparable but not always take place in a coherent chronological manner. In the next, we will provide a seemingly unconnected and serendipitous series of scientific facts that, in the whole, converged to unveil DNA and its duplication. We will not cover here the many and fundamental contributions from microbial genetics and in vitro biochemistry. Rather, in this journey, we will emphasize the interplay between microscopy development culminating on super resolution fluorescence microscopy (i.e., nanoscopy) and digital image analysis and its impact on our understanding of DNA duplication. We will interlace the journey with landmark concepts and experiments that have brought the cellular DNA replication field to its present state.

  9. DNA markers in molecular diagnostics for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying-Hsiu; Lin, Selena Y; Song, Wei; Jain, Surbhi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the world, mainly due to the difficulty of early detection and limited therapeutic options. The implementation of HCC surveillance programs in well-defined, high-risk populations were only able to detect about 40–50% of HCC at curative stages (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stages 0 & 1) due to the low sensitivities of the current screening methods. The advance of sequencing technologies has identified numerous modifications as potential candidate DNA markers for diagnosis/surveillance. Here we aim to provide an overview of the DNA alterations that result in activation of cancer pathways known to potentially drive HCC carcinogenesis and to summarize performance characteristics of each DNA marker in the periphery (blood or urine) for HCC screening. PMID:25098554

  10. Computational optimisation of targeted DNA sequencing for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Pierre; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; Swanton, Charles

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent progress thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies, personalised cancer medicine is still hampered by intra-tumour heterogeneity and drug resistance. As most patients with advanced metastatic disease face poor survival, there is need to improve early diagnosis. Analysing circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) might represent a non-invasive method to detect mutations in patients, facilitating early detection. In this article, we define reduced gene panels from publicly available datasets as a first step to assess and optimise the potential of targeted ctDNA scans for early tumour detection. Dividing 4,467 samples into one discovery and two independent validation cohorts, we show that up to 76% of 10 cancer types harbour at least one mutation in a panel of only 25 genes, with high sensitivity across most tumour types. Our analyses demonstrate that targeting ``hotspot'' regions would introduce biases towards in-frame mutations and would compromise the reproducibility of tumour detection.

  11. Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    One type of anticancer vaccine relies on the administration of DNA constructs encoding one or multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The ultimate objective of these preparations, which can be naked or vectored by non-pathogenic viruses, bacteria or yeast cells, is to drive the synthesis of TAAs in the context of an immunostimulatory milieu, resulting in the (re-)elicitation of a tumor-targeting immune response. In spite of encouraging preclinical results, the clinical efficacy of DNA-based vaccines employed as standalone immunotherapeutic interventions in cancer patients appears to be limited. Thus, efforts are currently being devoted to the development of combinatorial regimens that allow DNA-based anticancer vaccines to elicit clinically relevant immune responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of this therapeutic paradigm.

  12. DNA-Methylation: Master or Slave of Neural Fate Decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, Stefan H.; Götz, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The pristine formation of complex organs depends on sharp temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been frequently attributed a central role in controlling cell fate determination. A prime example for this is the first discovered and still most studied epigenetic mark, DNA methylation, and the development of the most complex mammalian organ, the brain. Recently, the field of epigenetics has advanced significantly: new DNA modifications were discovered, epigenomic profiling became widely accessible, and methods for targeted epigenomic manipulation have been developed. Thus, it is time to challenge established models of epigenetic gene regulation. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about DNA modifications, their epigenomic distribution, and their regulatory role. We will summarize the evidence suggesting they possess crucial roles in neurogenesis and discuss whether this likely includes lineage choice regulation or rather effects on differentiation. Finally, we will attempt an outlook on how questions, which remain unresolved, could be answered soon. PMID:29449798

  13. Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One type of anticancer vaccine relies on the administration of DNA constructs encoding one or multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The ultimate objective of these preparations, which can be naked or vectored by non-pathogenic viruses, bacteria or yeast cells, is to drive the synthesis of TAAs in the context of an immunostimulatory milieu, resulting in the (re-)elicitation of a tumor-targeting immune response. In spite of encouraging preclinical results, the clinical efficacy of DNA-based vaccines employed as standalone immunotherapeutic interventions in cancer patients appears to be limited. Thus, efforts are currently being devoted to the development of combinatorial regimens that allow DNA-based anticancer vaccines to elicit clinically relevant immune responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of this therapeutic paradigm. PMID:26155408

  14. Fluorescence Microscopy of Nanochannel-Confined DNA.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Fredrik; Persson, Fredrik; Fritzsche, Joachim; Beech, Jason P; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O

    2018-01-01

    Stretching of DNA in nanoscale confinement allows for several important studies. The genetic contents of the DNA can be visualized on the single DNA molecule level and both the polymer physics of confined DNA and also DNA/protein and other DNA/DNA-binding molecule interactions can be explored. This chapter describes the basic steps to fabricate the nanostructures, perform the experiments and analyze the data.

  15. Hydromechanical Advanced Coal Excavator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Summers, David

    1990-01-01

    Water-jet cutting reduces coal dust and its hazards. Advanced mining system utilizes full-face, hydromechanical, continuous miner. Coal excavator uses high-pressure water-jet lances, one in each of cutting heads and one in movable lance, to make cuts across top, bottom and middle height, respectively, of coal face. Wedge-shaped cutting heads advance into lower and upper cuts in turn, thereby breaking coal toward middle cut. Thrust cylinders and walking pads advance excavator toward coal face.

  16. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Imperiale, Thomas F; Ransohoff, David F; Itzkowitz, Steven H; Levin, Theodore R; Lavin, Philip; Lidgard, Graham P; Ahlquist, David A; Berger, Barry M

    2014-04-03

    An accurate, noninvasive test could improve the effectiveness of colorectal-cancer screening. We compared a noninvasive, multitarget stool DNA test with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in persons at average risk for colorectal cancer. The DNA test includes quantitative molecular assays for KRAS mutations, aberrant NDRG4 and BMP3 methylation, and β-actin, plus a hemoglobin immunoassay. Results were generated with the use of a logistic-regression algorithm, with values of 183 or more considered to be positive. FIT values of more than 100 ng of hemoglobin per milliliter of buffer were considered to be positive. Tests were processed independently of colonoscopic findings. Of the 9989 participants who could be evaluated, 65 (0.7%) had colorectal cancer and 757 (7.6%) had advanced precancerous lesions (advanced adenomas or sessile serrated polyps measuring ≥1 cm in the greatest dimension) on colonoscopy. The sensitivity for detecting colorectal cancer was 92.3% with DNA testing and 73.8% with FIT (P=0.002). The sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% with DNA testing and 23.8% with FIT (P<0.001). The rate of detection of polyps with high-grade dysplasia was 69.2% with DNA testing and 46.2% with FIT (P=0.004); the rates of detection of serrated sessile polyps measuring 1 cm or more were 42.4% and 5.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Specificities with DNA testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively, among participants with nonadvanced or negative findings (P<0.001) and 89.8% and 96.4%, respectively, among those with negative results on colonoscopy (P<0.001). The numbers of persons who would need to be screened to detect one cancer were 154 with colonoscopy, 166 with DNA testing, and 208 with FIT. In asymptomatic persons at average risk for colorectal cancer, multitarget stool DNA testing detected significantly more cancers than did FIT but had more false positive results. (Funded by Exact Sciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01397747.).

  17. Mitochondrial DNA content in embryo culture medium is significantly associated with human embryo fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, S; Anserini, P; Venturini, P L; Scaruffi, P

    2013-10-01

    Is the amount of cell-free DNA released by human embryos into culture medium correlated with embryo morphological features? The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content of culture medium is significantly associated with the fragmentation rate on Days 2 and 3 of embryo development, whether the oocyte came from women ≤ 35 or >35 years old. Cellular fragmentation is often utilized as one of the morphological parameters for embryo quality assessment. The amount of cellular fragments is considered to be an important morphological parameter for embryo implantation potential. It has been hypothesized that fragments are apoptotic bodies or anuclear cytoplasmatic pieces of blastomeres, although no definitive conclusion has been drawn about their pathogenesis. Human fertilized oocytes were individually cultured from Day 1 to Days 2 and 3. A total of 800 samples (166 spent media from Day 2 and 634 from Day 3) were enrolled into the present study. Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was quantified in 800 spent embryo culture media by Pico Green dye fluorescence assay. After DNA purification, genomic DNA (gDNA) and mtDNA were profiled by specific quantitative PCR. Statistical analyses defined correlations among DNA contents, embryo morphology and maternal age. Different independent tests confirmed the presence of DNA into embryo culture medium and, for the first time, we demonstrate that both gDNA and mtDNA are detectable in the secretome. The amount of DNA is larger in embryos with bad quality cleavage compared with high-grade embryos, suggesting that the DNA profile of culture medium is an objective marker for embryo quality assessment. In particular, DNA profiles are significantly associated with fragmentation feature (total dsDNA: P = 0.0010; mtDNA; P = 0.0247) and advanced maternal age. It is necessary to establish whether DNA profiling of spent embryo culture medium is a robust onsite test that can improve the prediction of blastulation, implantation and/or pregnancy rate. The

  18. Supercoil Formation During DNA Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayar, Mehmet; Avsaroglu, Baris; Kabakcioglu, Alkan

    2009-03-01

    Supercoil formation plays a key role in determining the structure-function relationship in DNA. Biological and technological processes, such as protein synthesis, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays relys on separation of the two strands in DNA, which is coupled to the unwinding of the supercoiled structure. This problem has been studied theoretically via Peyrard-Bishop and Poland-Scheraga type models, which include a simple representation of the DNA structural properties. In recent years, computational models, which provide a more realtistic representaion of DNA molecule, have been used to study the melting behavior of short DNA chains. Here, we will present a new coarse-grained model of DNA which is capable of simulating sufficiently long DNA chains for studying the supercoil formation during melting, without sacrificing the local structural properties. Our coarse-grained model successfully reproduces the local geometry of the DNA molecule, such as the 3'-5' directionality, major-minor groove structure, and the helical pitch. We will present our initial results on the dynamics of supercoiling during DNA melting.

  19. DNA attachment to support structures

    DOEpatents

    Balhorn, Rodney L.; Barry, Christopher H.

    2002-01-01

    Microscopic beads or other structures are attached to nucleic acids (DNA) using a terminal transferase. The transferase adds labeled dideoxy nucleotide bases to the ends of linear strands of DNA. The labels, such as the antigens digoxigenin and biotin, bind to the antibody compounds or other appropriate complementary ligands, which are bound to the microscopic beads or other support structures. The method does not require the synthesis of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe. The method can be used to tag or label DNA even when the DNA has an unknown sequence, has blunt ends, or is a very large fragment (e.g., >500 kilobase pairs).

  20. The DnaA Tale

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Atlung, Tove

    2018-01-01

    More than 50 years have passed since the presentation of the Replicon Model which states that a positively acting initiator interacts with a specific site on a circular chromosome molecule to initiate DNA replication. Since then, the origin of chromosome replication, oriC, has been determined as a specific region that carries sequences required for binding of positively acting initiator proteins, DnaA-boxes and DnaA proteins, respectively. In this review we will give a historical overview of significant findings which have led to the very detailed knowledge we now possess about the initiation process in bacteria using Escherichia coli as the model organism, but emphasizing that virtually all bacteria have DnaA proteins that interacts with DnaA boxes to initiate chromosome replication. We will discuss the dnaA gene regulation, the special features of the dnaA gene expression, promoter strength, and translation efficiency, as well as, the DnaA protein, its concentration, its binding to DnaA-boxes, and its binding of ATP or ADP. Furthermore, we will discuss the different models for regulation of initiation which have been proposed over the years, with particular emphasis on the Initiator Titration Model. PMID:29541066

  1. Moving environmental DNA methods from concept to practice for monitoring aquatic macroorganisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, Caren S.; Strickler, Katherine M.; Pilliod, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that macroorganisms can be detected from their environmental DNA (eDNA) in aquatic systems has immense potential for the conservation of biological diversity. This special issue contains 11 papers that review and advance the field of eDNA detection of vertebrates and other macroorganisms, including studies of eDNA production, transport, and degradation; sample collection and processing to maximize detection rates; and applications of eDNA for conservation using citizen scientists. This body of work is an important contribution to the ongoing efforts to take eDNA detection of macroorganisms from technical breakthrough to established, reliable method that can be used in survey, monitoring, and research applications worldwide. While the rapid advances in this field are remarkable, important challenges remain, including consensus on best practices for collection and analysis, understanding of eDNA diffusion and transport, and avoidance of inhibition in sample collection and processing. Nonetheless, as demonstrated in this special issue, eDNA techniques for research and monitoring are beginning to realize their potential for contributing to the conservation of biodiversity globally.

  2. Zinc finger nuclease technology: advances and obstacles in modelling and treating genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Jabalameli, Hamid Reza; Zahednasab, Hamid; Karimi-Moghaddam, Amin; Jabalameli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are engineered restriction enzymes designed to target specific DNA sequences within the genome. Assembly of zinc finger DNA-binding domain to a DNA-cleavage domain enables the enzyme machinery to target unique locus in the genome and invoke endogenous DNA repair mechanisms. This machinery offers a versatile approach in allele editing and gene therapy. Here we discuss the architecture of ZFNs and strategies for generating targeted modifications within the genome. We review advances in gene therapy and modelling of the disease using these enzymes and finally, discuss the practical obstacles in using this technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Research status and prospects of DNA test on difficult specimens].

    PubMed

    Dang, Hua-Wei; Mao, Jiong; Wang, Hui; Huang, Jiang-Ping; Bai, Xiao-Gang

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews the advances of DNA detection on three types of difficult biological specimens including degraded samples, trace evidences and mixed samples. The source of different samples, processing methods and announcements were analyzed. New methods such as mitochondrial test system, changing the original experimental conditions, low-volume PCR amplification and new technologies such as whole genome amplification techniques, laser capture micro-dissection, and mini-STR technology in recent years are introduced.

  4. New procedure for recovering extra- and intracellular DNA from marine sediment samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a ubiquitous biological compound in aquatic sediment and soil. Despite major methodological advances, analysis of DNA from sediment is still technically challenging, not just because of the co-elution of inhibitory substances, but also due to co-elution of extracellular DNA, which potentially leads to an overestimate of the actual diversity. Previous studies suggested that eDNA might play an important role in biogeochemical element cycling, horizontal gene transfer and stabilization of biofilm structures. Several protocols based on the precipitation of eDNA e.g. with CTAB and ethanol have already been published. However, using these methods we did not succeed in quantifying very low amounts of eDNA (e.g. <1μg eDNA/g dry wt) in marine sediment even when using DNA carriers like glycogen. Since the recovery of eDNA by precipitation strongly depends on its concentration, these previously published procedures are not adequate for deep biosphere sediment due to the low eDNA content. We have focused on the question whether eDNA could be a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for microbes in the subseafloor biosphere. Therefore we developed a new method for the (semi)-quantitative extraction of eDNA from sediment. The new extraction procedure is based on sequential washing of the sediment to remove simultaneously eDNA and microbial cells without lysing them. After separation of the cells by centrifugation, the eDNA was extracted from the supernatant and purified by adsorption onto a solid phase, followed by removal of the solids and subsequent elution of the pure eDNA. Intracellular DNA (iDNA) was extracted and purified from the cell pellet using a commercial DNA extraction kit. Additional to a very low detection limit and reproducible quantification, this new method allows separation and purification of both extracellular and intracellular DNA to an extent that inhibitors are removed and downstream applications like PCR can be performed. To

  5. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  7. DNA Glycosylases Search for and Remove Oxidized DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    The following mini review summarizes recent research from the Author’s laboratory as presented to the Environmental Mutagen Society in October 2012. It provides an overview of the DNA glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases using the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases as models for how structure can inform function. For example, even though human NEIL1 and the plant and fungal orthologs lack the zinc finger shown to be required for binding, DNA crystal structures revealed a “zincless finger” with the same properties. Also the “lesion recognition loop” is not involved in lesion recognition rather stabilization of 8-oxoG in the active site pocket. Unlike the other Fpg/Nei family members, Neil3 lacks two of the three void-filling residues that stabilize the duplex and interact with the opposite strand which may account for its preference for lesions in single stranded DNA. We also showed, using single molecule approaches, that DNA glycosylases search for their substrates in a sea of undamaged DNA by using a wedge residue that is inserted into the DNA helix to probe for the presence of damage. PMID:24123395

  8. Flexible DNA bending in HU–DNA cocrystal structures

    PubMed Central

    Swinger, Kerren K.; Lemberg, Kathryn M.; Zhang, Ying; Rice, Phoebe A.

    2003-01-01

    HU and IHF are members of a family of prokaryotic proteins that interact with the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific (IHF) or non-specific (HU) manner to induce and/or stabilize DNA bending. HU plays architectural roles in replication initiation, transcription regulation and site-specific recombination, and is associated with bacterial nucleoids. Cocrystal structures of Anabaena HU bound to DNA (1P71, 1P78, 1P51) reveal that while underlying proline intercalation and asymmetric charge neutralization mechanisms of DNA bending are similar for IHF and HU, HU stabilizes different DNA bend angles (∼105–140°). The two bend angles within a single HU complex are not coplanar, and the resulting dihedral angle is consistent with negative supercoiling. Comparison of HU–DNA and IHF–DNA structures suggests that sharper bending is correlated with longer DNA binding sites and smaller dihedral angles. An HU-induced bend may be better modeled as a hinge, not a rigid bend. The ability to induce or stabilize varying bend angles is consistent with HU’s role as an architectural cofactor in many different systems that may require differing geometries. PMID:12853489

  9. ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

  10. Prognostic value of DNA repair based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhuo; Xu, Shi-Hao; Wang, Hai-Qing; Cai, Yi-Jing; Ying, Li; Song, Mei; Wang, Yu-Qun; Du, Shan-Jie; Shi, Ke-Qing; Zhou, Meng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of DNA repair is frequently associated with tumor progression and response to therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bioinformatics analyses of HCC data in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were performed to define DNA repair based molecular classification that could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC. Furthermore, we tested its predictive performance in 120 independent cases. Four molecular subgroups were identified on the basis of coordinate DNA repair cluster (CDRC) comprising 15 genes in TCGA dataset. Increasing expression of CDRC genes were significantly associated with TP53 mutation. High CDRC was significantly correlated with advanced tumor grades, advanced pathological stage and increased vascular invasion rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the molecular subgrouping was an independent prognostic parameter for both overall survival (p = 0.004, hazard ratio (HR): 2.989) and tumor-free survival (p = 0.049, HR: 3.366) in TCGA dataset. Similar results were also obtained by analyzing the independent cohort. These data suggest that distinct dysregulation of DNA repair constituents based molecular classes in HCC would be useful for predicting prognosis and designing clinical trials for targeted therapy. PMID:27174663

  11. Variola Type IB DNA Topoisomerase: DNA Binding and Supercoil Unwinding Using Engineered DNA Minicircles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Type IB topoisomerases unwind positive and negative DNA supercoils and play a key role in removing supercoils that would otherwise accumulate at replication and transcription forks. An interesting question is whether topoisomerase activity is regulated by the topological state of the DNA, thereby providing a mechanism for targeting the enzyme to highly supercoiled DNA domains in genomes. The type IB enzyme from variola virus (vTopo) has proven to be useful in addressing mechanistic questions about topoisomerase function because it forms a reversible 3′-phosphotyrosyl adduct with the DNA backbone at a specific target sequence (5′-CCCTT-3′) from which DNA unwinding can proceed. We have synthesized supercoiled DNA minicircles (MCs) containing a single vTopo target site that provides highly defined substrates for exploring the effects of supercoil density on DNA binding, strand cleavage and ligation, and unwinding. We observed no topological dependence for binding of vTopo to these supercoiled MC DNAs, indicating that affinity-based targeting to supercoiled DNA regions by vTopo is unlikely. Similarly, the cleavage and religation rates of the MCs were not topologically dependent, but topoisomers with low superhelical densities were found to unwind more slowly than highly supercoiled topoisomers, suggesting that reduced torque at low superhelical densities leads to an increased number of cycles of cleavage and ligation before a successful unwinding event. The K271E charge reversal mutant has an impaired interaction with the rotating DNA segment that leads to an increase in the number of supercoils that were unwound per cleavage event. This result provides evidence that interactions of the enzyme with the rotating DNA segment can restrict the number of supercoils that are unwound. We infer that both superhelical density and transient contacts between vTopo and the rotating DNA determine the efficiency of supercoil unwinding. Such determinants are likely to be

  12. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  13. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOEpatents

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  14. Circulating tumor DNA as a liquid biopsy target for detection of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Erina; Yachida, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Most pancreatic cancer patients present with advanced metastatic disease, resulting in extremely poor 5-year survival, mainly because of the lack of a reliable modality for early detection and limited therapeutic options for advanced disease. Therefore, there is a need for minimally-invasive diagnostic tools for detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, when curative surgery and also novel therapeutic approaches including precision medicine may be feasible. The “liquid biopsy” addresses these unmet clinical needs based on the concept that simple peripheral blood sampling and detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could provide diagnostic information. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of blood-based tests for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and the potential utility of ctDNA for precision medicine. We also discuss challenges that remain to be addressed in developing practical ctDNA-based liquid biopsy approaches for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27784960

  15. Circulating tumor DNA as a liquid biopsy target for detection of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Takai, Erina; Yachida, Shinichi

    2016-10-14

    Most pancreatic cancer patients present with advanced metastatic disease, resulting in extremely poor 5-year survival, mainly because of the lack of a reliable modality for early detection and limited therapeutic options for advanced disease. Therefore, there is a need for minimally-invasive diagnostic tools for detecting pancreatic cancer at an early stage, when curative surgery and also novel therapeutic approaches including precision medicine may be feasible. The "liquid biopsy" addresses these unmet clinical needs based on the concept that simple peripheral blood sampling and detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) could provide diagnostic information. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of blood-based tests for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and the potential utility of ctDNA for precision medicine. We also discuss challenges that remain to be addressed in developing practical ctDNA-based liquid biopsy approaches for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  16. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule onto a force cantilever using the optical tweezer and local heating. With this method, a force versus extension assay of double stranded DNA was realized. The resolution was about 10 picoN. To improve on this force measurement resolution, a simple light backscattering technique was developed and used to probe the DNA polymer flexibility and its fluctuations. It combined the optical tweezer to trap a DNA tethered bead and the laser backscattering to detect the beads Brownian fluctuations. With this technique the resolution was about 0.1 picoN with a millisecond access time, and the whole entropic part of the DNA force-extension was measured. With this experimental strategy, we measured the polymerization of the protein RecA on an isolated double stranded DNA. We observed the progressive decoration of RecA on the l DNA molecule, which results in the extension of l , due to unwinding of the double helix. The dynamics of polymerization, the resulting change in the DNA entropic elasticity and the role of ATP hydrolysis were the main parts of the study. A simple model for RecA assembly on DNA was proposed. This work presents a first step in the study of genetic recombination. Recently we have started a study of equilibrium binding which utilizes fluorescence polarization methods to probe the polymerization of RecA on single stranded DNA. In addition to the study of material properties of DNA and DNA-RecA, we have developed experiments for which the code of the DNA is central. We studied one aspect of DNA as a molecular code, using different techniques. In particular the programmatic use of template specificity makes

  17. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  18. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal cell-free DNA screening Overview Prenatal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, also known as noninvasive prenatal screening, is a method to screen ... in a developing baby. During prenatal cell-free DNA screening, DNA from the mother and fetus is ...

  19. Advanced Gradient Heating Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) is a European Space Agency (ESA) developed hardware. The AGHF was flown on STS-78, which featured four European PI's and two NASA PI's. The AGHFsupports the production of advanced semiconductor materials and alloys using the directional process, which depends on establishing a hot side and a cold side in the sample.

  20. Advanced Airspace Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of the Advanced Airspace Concept (AAC) is presented. The topics include: 1) Limitations of the existing system; 2) The Advanced Airspace Concept; 3) Candidate architecture for the AAC; 4) Separation assurance and conflict avoidance system (TSAFE); and 5) Ground-Air Interactions. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  1. Planning for Advanced Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Find out what issues need to be addressed when dealing with an advanced or metastatic cancer diagnosis. Completing advance directives, looking at health insurance, organizing records and documents, and looking at the meanings in your life are some of the things to think about.

  2. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  3. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  4. Advanced Engineering Fibers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, Dan D.; Dunham, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Clemson University's Advanced Engineered Fibers Laboratory, which was established to provide national leadership and expertise in developing the processing equipment and advance fibers necessary for the chemical, fiber, and textile industries to enter the composite materials market. Discusses some of the laboratory's activities in…

  5. ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TEAM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-16

    QUINCY BEAN, JIM LYDON, AND ZACK JONES OF MSFC’S ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TEAM, WITH MSFC’S M2 SELECTIVE LASER MELTING SYSTEM. THE M2 IS CURRENTLY DEDICATED TO ADVANCED COPPER MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE LOW COST UPPER STAGE PROGRAM.

  6. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  7. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator mission concepts for airless planets/satellites, geology orbiter payload adaptability, lunar mission performance, and advanced planning activities. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  8. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  9. DNA nanomechanics allows direct digital detection of complementary DNA and microRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Husale, Sudhir; Persson, Henrik H J; Sahin, Ozgur

    2009-12-24

    Techniques to detect and quantify DNA and RNA molecules in biological samples have had a central role in genomics research. Over the past decade, several techniques have been developed to improve detection performance and reduce the cost of genetic analysis. In particular, significant advances in label-free methods have been reported. Yet detection of DNA molecules at concentrations below the femtomolar level requires amplified detection schemes. Here we report a unique nanomechanical response of hybridized DNA and RNA molecules that serves as an intrinsic molecular label. Nanomechanical measurements on a microarray surface have sufficient background signal rejection to allow direct detection and counting of hybridized molecules. The digital response of the sensor provides a large dynamic range that is critical for gene expression profiling. We have measured differential expressions of microRNAs in tumour samples; such measurements have been shown to help discriminate between the tissue origins of metastatic tumours. Two hundred picograms of total RNA is found to be sufficient for this analysis. In addition, the limit of detection in pure samples is found to be one attomolar. These results suggest that nanomechanical read-out of microarrays promises attomolar-level sensitivity and large dynamic range for the analysis of gene expression, while eliminating biochemical manipulations, amplification and labelling.

  10. DNA nanotechnology: a future perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its genetic function, DNA is one of the most distinct and smart self-assembling nanomaterials. DNA nanotechnology exploits the predictable self-assembly of DNA oligonucleotides to design and assemble innovative and highly discrete nanostructures. Highly ordered DNA motifs are capable of providing an ultra-fine framework for the next generation of nanofabrications. The majority of these applications are based upon the complementarity of DNA base pairing: adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. DNA provides an intelligent route for the creation of nanoarchitectures with programmable and predictable patterns. DNA strands twist along one helix for a number of bases before switching to the other helix by passing through a crossover junction. The association of two crossovers keeps the helices parallel and holds them tightly together, allowing the assembly of bigger structures. Because of the DNA molecule's unique and novel characteristics, it can easily be applied in a vast variety of multidisciplinary research areas like biomedicine, computer science, nano/optoelectronics, and bionanotechnology. PMID:23497147

  11. DNA methylation in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wippermann, Anna; Noll, Thomas

    2017-09-20

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells account for the production of the majority of biopharmaceutical molecules - however, the molecular basis for their versatile properties is not entirely understood yet and the underlying cellular processes need to be characterized in detail. One such process that is supposed to contribute significantly to CHO cell phenotype is methylation of DNA at cytosine residues. DNA methylation was shown to be involved in several central biological processes in humans and to contribute to diseases like cancer. Early studies of DNA methylation in CHO mostly focused on methylation of single recombinant genes and promoters and proved a correlation between DNA methylation status and recombinant gene expression or production stability. More recent publications utilized the CHO genomic and transcriptomic data available since 2011 and provided first insights into the CHO DNA methylation landscape and DNA methylation changes in response to effector molecules or culture conditions. Generally, further genome-wide studies of DNA methylation in CHO will be required to shed light on the relevance of this process regarding biopharmaceuticals production and might, e.g., address a potential link between CHO cell metabolism and DNA methylation or provide novel targets for rational cell line engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods of DNA methylation analysis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this review was to provide guidance for investigators who are new to the field of DNA methylation analysis. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not mediated by changes in DNA sequence. Recently, it has become clear that n...

  13. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  14. Casting inorganic structures with DNA molds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Boulais, Etienne; Hakobyan, Yera; Wang, Wei Li; Guan, Amy; Bathe, Mark; Yin, Peng

    2014-11-07

    We report a general strategy for designing and synthesizing inorganic nanostructures with arbitrarily prescribed three-dimensional shapes. Computationally designed DNA strands self-assemble into a stiff "nanomold" that contains a user-specified three-dimensional cavity and encloses a nucleating gold "seed." Under mild conditions, this seed grows into a larger cast structure that fills and thus replicates the cavity. We synthesized a variety of nanoparticles with 3-nanometer resolution: three distinct silver cuboids with three independently tunable dimensions, silver and gold nanoparticles with diverse cross sections, and composite structures with homo- and heterogeneous components. The designer equilateral silver triangular and spherical nanoparticles exhibited plasmonic properties consistent with electromagnetism-based simulations. Our framework is generalizable to more complex geometries and diverse inorganic materials, offering a range of applications in biosensing, photonics, and nanoelectronics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Nuclear dna amounts in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Smith, J B

    1976-05-27

    The number of angiosperm species for which nuclear DNA amount estimates have been made has nearly trebled since the last collected lists of such values were published, and therefore, publication of a more comprehensive list is over due. This paper lists absolute nuclear DNA amounts for 753 angiosperm species. The dats were assembled primarily for reference purposes, and so the species are listed in alphabetical order, as this was felt to be more helpful to cyto- and biochemists whom, it is anticipated, will be among its major users. The paper also reviews aspects of the history, nomenclature, methods, accuracy and problems of nuclear DNA estimation in angiosperms. No attempt is made to reconsider those aspects of nuclear DNA estimation which have been fully revised previously, although the bibliography of such aspects is given. Instead, the paper is intended as a source of basic information regarding the terminology, practice and limitations of nuclear DNA estimation, especially by Feulgen microdensitometry, as currently practiced.

  16. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L; Klauser, Paul C; Brandsen, Benjamin M; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K

    2016-02-24

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases.

  17. DNA vaccines in veterinary use

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Laurel; Werner, David B

    2015-01-01

    DNA vaccines represent a new frontier in vaccine technology. One important application of this technology is in the veterinary arena. DNA vaccines have already gained a foothold in certain fields of veterinary medicine. However, several important questions must be addressed when developing DNA vaccines for animals, including whether or not the vaccine is efficacious and cost effective compared with currently available options. Another important question to consider is how to apply this developing technology in a wide range of different situations, from the domestic pet to individual fish in fisheries with several thousand animals, to wildlife programs for disease control. In some cases, DNA vaccines represent an interesting option for vaccination, while in others, currently available options are sufficient. This review will examine a number of diseases of veterinary importance and the progress being made in DNA vaccine technology relevant to these diseases, and we compare these with the conventional treatment options available. PMID:19722897

  18. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  19. Re-entrant DNA gels

    PubMed Central

    Bomboi, Francesca; Romano, Flavio; Leo, Manuela; Fernandez-Castanon, Javier; Cerbino, Roberto; Bellini, Tommaso; Bordi, Federico; Filetici, Patrizia; Sciortino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling. The relaxation time, measured by light scattering, slows down dramatically in a limited window of temperatures. The phase diagram displays a peculiar re-entrant shape, the hallmark of the competition between different bonding patterns. Our study shows that it is possible to rationally design biocompatible bulk materials with unconventional phase diagrams and tuneable properties by encoding into DNA sequences both the particle shape and the physics of the collective response. PMID:27767029

  20. Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0270 TITLE: Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by DNA-PKcs Inhibitor PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancement of Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer by 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER DNA-PKcs Inhibitor 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0270...the treatment of localized prostate cancer . However, a proportion of locally advanced cancers develop radiation resistance and recur after therapy