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Sample records for advanced uvoir mirror

  1. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Mosier, Gary; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William

    2014-01-01

    ASTRO2010 Decadal stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies. AMTD is deliberately pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with op-tions to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements.

  2. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this work is to define and initiate a long-term program to mature six inter-linked critical technologies for future UVOIR space telescope mirrors to TRL6 by 2018 so that a viable flight mission can be proposed to the 2020 Decadal Review. (1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors: 4 to 8 m monolithic & 8 to 16 m segmented primary mirrors require larger, thicker, stiffer substrates. (2) Support System:Large-aperture mirrors require large support systems to ensure that they survive launch and deploy on orbit in a stress-free and undistorted shape. (3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error:A very smooth mirror is critical for producing a high-quality point spread function (PSF) for high-contrast imaging. (4) Segment Edges:Edges impact PSF for high-contrast imaging applications, contributes to stray light noise, and affects the total collecting aperture. (5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing:Segment phasing is critical for producing a high-quality temporally stable PSF. (6) Integrated Model Validation:On-orbit performance is determined by mechanical and thermal stability. Future systems require validated performance models. We are pursuing multiple design paths give the science community the option to enable either a future monolithic or segmented space telescope.

  3. Overview and Summary of Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD is a multiyear effort to develop, demonstrate and mature critical technologies to TRL-6 by 2018 so that a viable flight mission can be proposed to the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies: center dotLarge-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirror Substrates: Both (4 to 8 m) monolithic and (8 to 16 m) segmented telescopes require larger and stiffer mirrors. center dotSupport System: Large-aperture mirrors require large support systems to ensure that they survive launch, deploy on orbit, and maintain a stable, undistorted shape. center dotMid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error: Very smooth mirror is critical for producing high-quality point spread function (PSF) for high contrast imaging. center dotSegment Edges: The quality of segment edges impacts PSF for high-contrast imaging applications, contributes to stray light noise, and affects total collecting aperture. center dotSegment to Segment Gap Phasing: Segment phasing is critical for producing high-quality temporally-stable PSF. center dotIntegrated Model Validation: On-orbit performance is driven by mechanical & thermal stability. Compliance cannot be 100% tested, but relies on modeling. Because we cannot predict the future, AMTD is pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with options to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements

  4. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Soummer, Remi; Sivramakrishnan, Annand; Macintosh, Bruce; Guyon, Olivier; Krist, John; Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Mosier, Gary; Kirk, Charles; Arnold, William

    2013-01-01

    ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD is the start of a multiyear effort to develop, demonstrate and mature critical technologies to TRL-6 by 2018 so that a viable flight mission can be proposed to the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies: (1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirror Substrates: Both (4 to 8 m) monolithic and (8 to 16 m) segmented primary mirrors require larger, thicker, and stiffer substrates. (2) Support System: Large-aperture mirrors require large support systems to ensure that they survive launch and deploy on orbit in a stress-free and undistorted shape. (3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error: Very smooth mirror is critical for producing high-quality point spread function (PSF) for high contrast imaging. (4) Segment Edges: The quality of segment edges impacts PSF for high-contrast imaging applications, contributes to stray light noise, and affects total collecting aperture. (5) Segment to Segment Gap Phasing: Segment phasing is critical for producing high-quality temporally-stable PSF. (6) Integrated Model Validation: On-orbit performance is driven by mechanical & thermal stability. Compliance cannot be 100% tested, but relies on modeling. AMTD is pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with options to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements.

  5. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  6. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a multi-year effort to systematically mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. This technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. To accomplish our objective, We use a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system.

  7. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas; Stahl, Phil; Arnold, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next Ultraviolet, Optical, Infrared (UVOIR) space observatory. A likely science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet that is 10-10 times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront. This paper investigates two topics: 1) parametric relationships between a primary mirror's thermal parameters and wavefront stability, and 2) optimal temperature profiles in the telescope's shroud and heater plate that minimize static wavefront error (WFE) in the primary mirror.

  8. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Thermal Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is being done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in preparation for the next large aperture UVOIR space observatory. A key science mission of that observatory is the detection and characterization of 'Earth-like' exoplanets. Direct exoplanet observation requires a telescope to see a planet which will be 10(exp -10) times dimmer than its host star. To accomplish this using an internal coronagraph requires a telescope with an ultra-stable wavefront error (WFE). This paper investigates parametric relationships between primary mirror physical parameters and thermal WFE stability. Candidate mirrors are designed as a mesh and placed into a thermal analysis model to determine the temperature distribution in the mirror when it is placed inside of an actively controlled cylindrical shroud at Lagrange point 2. Thermal strains resulting from the temperature distribution are found and an estimation of WFE is found to characterize the effect that thermal inputs have on the optical quality of the mirror. This process is repeated for several mirror material properties, material types, and mirror designs to determine how to design a mirror for thermal stability.

  9. Status of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Phase 2, 1.5m ULE(Registered Trademark) Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egerman, Robert; Matthews, Gary W.; Johnson, Matthew; Ferland, Albert; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Effinger, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. Under a Phase I program, a proof of concept mirror was completed at Exelis and tested down to 250K at MSFC which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. In 2014, Exelis and NASA started a Phase II program to design and build a 1.5m mirror to demonstrate lateral scalability to a 4m monolithic primary mirror. The current status of the Phase II development program will be provided along with a Phase II program summary.

  10. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Project: Overview and Year 4 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort initiated in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, to mature toward the next Technology Readiness Level (TRL) critical technologies required to enable 4-m-or-larger monolithic or segmented ultraviolet, optical, and infrared (UVOIR) space telescope primary-mirror assemblies for general astrophysics and ultra-high-contrast observations of exoplanets. Key hardware accomplishments of 2015/16 are the successful low-temperature fusion of a 1.5-meter diameter ULE mirror that is a 1/3rd scale model of a 4-meter mirror and the initiation of polishing of a 1.2-meter Extreme-Lightweight Zerodur mirror. Critical to AMTD's success is an integrated team of scientists, systems engineers, and technologists; and a science-driven systems engineering approach.

  11. Advanced mirror technology development (AMTD) project: 2.5 year status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William; Blaurock, Carl; Egerman, Robert; Mosier, Gary

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD continues to achieve all of its goals and accomplished all of its milestones to date. We have done this by assembling an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes; by deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence mirror systems needed to make the required science measurements; and by defining and prioritizing the most important technical problems to be solved.

  12. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Accomplishments include: Assembled outstanding team from academia, industry and government with expertise in science and space telescope engineering. Derived engineering specifications for monolithic primary mirror from science measurement needs & implementation constraints. Pursuing long-term strategy to mature technologies necessary to enable future large aperture space telescopes. Successfully demonstrated capability to make 0.5 m deep mirror substrate and polish it to UVOIR traceable figure specification.

  13. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) Project: 3.0 Year Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project. Begun in 2011, we are in Phase 2 of a multi-year effort. Our objective is to mature towards TRL6 critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable astronomy mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST's architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission's architecture (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. Another key accomplishment is that we have matured our technology by building and testing hardware. To demonstrate stacked core technology, we built a 400 mm thick mirror. Currently, to demonstrate lateral scalability, we are manufacturing a 1.5 meter mirror. To assist in architecture trade studies, the Engineering team develops Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance (STOP) models of candidate mirror assembly systems including substrates, structures, and mechanisms. These models are validated by test of full- and subscale components in relevant thermo-vacuum environments. Specific analyses include: maximum

  14. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope

  15. Overview and Accomplishments of Advanced Mirror Technology Development Phase 2 (AMTD-2) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD Phase 1 completed all of its goals and accomplished all of its milestones. AMTD Phase 2 started in 2014. Key accomplishments include deriving primary mirror engineering specifications from science requirements; developing integrated modeling tools and using those tools to perform parametric design trades; and demonstrating new mirror technologies via sub-scale fabrication and test. AMTD-1 demonstrated the stacked core technique by making a 43-cm diameter 400 mm thick 'biscuit-cut' of a 4-m class mirror. AMTD-2 is demonstrating lateral scalability of the stacked core method by making a 1.5 meter 1/3rd scale model of a 4-m class mirror.

  16. Conceptual Design for a 16-m Segmented UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korechoff, Robert; Hickey, G.; Unwin, S.; Rud, M.; ATLAST Concept Study Team

    2009-01-01

    ATLAST - the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope - is one of NASA's 2008 strategic mission concept studies. In this paper, we present an architecture for a 16-m diameter UV-Optical-near IR (UVOIR) telescope that will address fundamental questions in astronomy, inluding the composition of exoplanet atmospheres, galaxy assembly, and the evolution of supermassive black holes. The telescope design uses a segmented primary mirror made of lightweight materials, with deployment from NASA's Ares V heavy launch vehicle. It is anticipated that the instrument suite will include a UV camera and imaging spectrometer, a wide-field optical camera and imaging spectrometer, and an optical coronagraph for high-contrast imaging of exoplanets. Key to the design is a metrology system for controlling the rigid body orientation of the primary mirror segments relative to the secondary mirror and a wavefront sensing and control system to maintain the needed image quality (details in a companion paper). The research described in this paper was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASA’s Next UVOIR Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

  18. Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Kaukler, Donna; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will report risk issues associated with designing, manufacturing, and testing the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD). The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) will be developed as a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. This technology will add to the knowledge base for selection for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Space Based Laser (SBL), Research Laboratory mission (AFRL), and other government agency programs.

  19. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Key Technologies and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew Ryan; Stahle, Carl M.; Balasubramaniam, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Feinberg, Lee D.; Mosier, Gary E.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Redding, David C.; Rioux, Norman M.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 20 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  20. Development of Stacked Core Technology for the Fabrication of Deep Lightweight UV Quality Space Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary; Kirk, Charlie; Maffett, Steve; Abplanalp, Cal; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ITT Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept mirror was completed at ITT Exelis and tested down to 250K at MSFC which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. The parameters and test results of this concept mirror will be shown. The scale-up process will be discussed and the technology development path to a 4m mirror system by 2018 will also be outlined.

  1. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  2. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of Advanced Mirror Technology Development Phase 2 (AMTD-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach to define & execute a long-term strategy to mature technologies necessary to enable future large aperture space telescopes. Because we cannot predict the future, we are pursuing multiple technology paths including monolithic & segmented mirrors. Assembled outstanding team from academia, industry & government; experts in science & space telescope engineering. Derived engineering specifications from science measurement needs & implementation constraints. Maturing 6 critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast exoplanet imaging. AMTD achieving all its goals & accomplishing all its milestones.

  3. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach to define & execute a long-term strategy to mature technologies necessary to enable future large aperture space telescopes. Because we cannot predict the future, we are pursuing multiple technology paths including monolithic & segmented mirrors. Assembled outstanding team from academia, industry & government; experts in science & space telescope engineering. Derived engineering specifications from science measurement needs & implementation constraints. Maturing 6 critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast exoplanet imaging. AMTD achieving all its goals & accomplishing all its milestones.

  4. The Development of Stacked Core Technology for the Fabrication of Deep Lightweight UV-quality Space Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kirk, Charles S.; Maffett, Steven P.; Abplanalp, Calvin E.; Stahl, H. Philip; Effinger, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make up to 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept mirror was completed at Exelis and tested down to 250K at MSFC which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. The parameters and test results of this concept mirror will be shown. The scale-up process will be discussed and the technology development path to a 4m mirror system by 2018 will also be outlined.

  5. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  6. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    AMTD is using a Science Driven Systems Engineering approach to develop Engineering Specifications based on Science Measurement Requirements and Implementation Constraints. Science requirements meet the needs of both Exoplanet and General Astrophysics science. Engineering Specifications are guiding our effort to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review.

  7. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Reference Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  8. Thermal Testing of a Stacked Core Mirror for UV Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kirk, Charles S.; Maffett, Steven P.; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Calvin E.; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and ITT Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make 4m monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept mirror was built and tested down to 250K which would allow imaging out to 2.5 microns. This mirror was thermally tested at the Marshall Spaceflight Center to understand the thermal changes between the processing temperature of 293K and the potential low end of the operational temperature of 250K. Isothermal testing results and front plate gradient results have been evaluated and compared to analysis predictions. Measurement of gravity effects on surface figure will be compared to analytical predictions. Future testing of a larger Pathfinder mirror will also be discussed.

  9. Advances in very lightweight composite mirror technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Bowers, Charles W.; Content, David A.; Marzouk, Marzouk; Romeo, Robert C.

    2000-09-01

    We report progress in the development of very lightweight (< 5 kg/m2) mirrors made by replication using graphite fiber cyanate ester resin composites. The replication process is optimized to significantly improve the surface smoothness and figure quality. Achievements include near- diffraction-limited optical performance [< 1/20 wave root mean square (rms) at 632.8 nm] in replica flats, fractional wave rms performance in curved mirrors at 90% pupil, and almost exact reproduction of the surface microroughness of the mandrel. The curved mirrors typically show some edge roll off and several waves (rms optical) of astigmatism, coma, and third-order spherical aberration. These are indications of thermal contraction in an inhomogeneous medium. This inhomogeneity is due to a systematic radial variation in density and fiber/resin ratio induced in composite plies when draped around a small and highly curved mandrel. The figure accuracy is expected to improve with larger size optics and in mirrors with longer radii of curvature. Nevertheless, the present accuracy figure is sufficient for using postfiguring techniques such as ion milling to achieve diffraction-limited performances at optical and UV wavelengths. We demonstrate active figure control using a simple apparatus of low-mass, low-force actuators to correct astigmatism. The optimized replication technique is applied to the fabrication of a 0.6-m-diam mirror with an areal density of 3.2 kg/m2. Our result demonstrates that the very lightweight, large-aperture construction used in radio telescopes can now be applied to optical telescopes.

  10. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, M.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is 1.315m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  11. The Development of Stacked Core for the Fabrication of Deep Lightweight UV-Quality Space Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Egerman, Robert; Maffett, Steven P.; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Effinger, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 Decadal Survey stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. Under Science and Technology funding, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Exelis have developed a more cost effective process to make 4m class or larger monolithic spaceflight UV quality, low areal density, thermally and dynamically stable primary mirrors. A proof of concept 0.43m mirror was completed at Exelis optically tested at 250K at MSFC which demonstrated the ability for imaging out to 2.5 microns. The parameters and test results of this concept mirror are shown. The next phase of the program includes a 1.5m subscale mirror that will be optically and dynamically tested. The scale-up process will be discussed and the technology development path to a 4m mirror system by 2018 will be outlined.

  12. C/SiC advanced mirror system demonstrator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Brian E.; Mehle, Gregory V.; Seilonen, Martin A.; Papenburg, Ulrich; Mueller, Claus E.; Pfrang, Wilhelm; Kutter, G. Siegfried; Ruch, Eric; Mercier, Renaud; Lightsey, Paul A.; Streetman, Scott; Neam, Douglas C.

    2000-07-01

    Challenges in high-resolution space telescopes have led to the desire to create large primary mirror apertures. One such telescope is the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST, 8-m primary). In order to accommodate launch vehicles, the optical systems using these large apertures are being designed to accommodate extremely lightweight, deployable, segmented primary mirrors. The requirements for these segments include: meter-class diameter, areal densities of the order of 15 kg/m2, aspheric surface figure, near infrared and visible spectrum operation, diffraction limited surface figure, high stiffness, tight radius of curvature matching, and excellent thermal stability. Operating temperatures for various systems include ambient as well as cryogenic ranges. A unique ceramic, carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide, developed by the Industrieanlagen- Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, has shown potential for use as a mirror substrate. This paper presents the deign and predicted performance of this mirror system in various applications. Also included are issues related to the fabrication of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator.

  13. Beyond JWST: A Technology Path to the Next Great UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redding, David; Schiminovich, David; Seager, Sara; Dalcanton, Julianne; Aigrain, Suzanne; Battel, Steven; Brandt, W. Niel; Conroy, Charlie; Feinberg, Lee; Gezari, Suvi; Guyon, Olivier; Harris, Walter M.; Hirata, Chris; Mather, John C.; Postman, Marc; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We report on the AURA 'Beyond JWST' committee's considerations and conclusions regarding technology paths for the development of a large UVOIR observatory, to be launched following JWST and WFIRST-AFTA. The ambitious science goals for this mission include the discovery and spectral characterization of exo-earth candidates; the study of galaxies and stellar populations at spatial resolutions of 100 parsec at any redshift in the UV and visible universe; and multi-object spectroscopy up to R of 50,000, especially in the UV, to probe the chemical evolution and gas kinematics in and around galaxies both near and far. Requirements for aperture size, starlight suppression efficiency, and sensitivity at Far-UV wavelengths, all present significant technology challenges - but challenges that are within reach, building incrementally on current NASA investments and progress within the community. WFIRST-AFTA is pioneering new methods for coronagraphs that work with obscured apertures - work that can be extended to include larger segmented apertures. Exoplanet Program investments in starshade technologies for smaller telescopes inform choices for larger apertures. Cosmic Origins Program and non-NASA investments in mirrors, coatings and detectors already enable a range of telescope and scientific instrument architectures. We will present the consensus recommendations of the AURA committee on both the current readiness levels of these key technologies and on the additional steps needed to support a viable flight concept for a future large UVOIR space telescope.

  14. Finite mirror effects in advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, Andrew P.; Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Tsang, David; Bondarescu, Mihai

    2008-02-15

    Thermal noise is expected to be the dominant source of noise in the most sensitive frequency band of second-generation, ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. Reshaping the beam to a flatter, wider profile which probes more of the mirror surface reduces this noise. The 'Mesa' beam shape has been proposed for this purpose and was subsequently generalized to a family of hyperboloidal beams with two parameters: twist angle {alpha} and beam width D. Varying {alpha} allows a continuous transition from the nearly flat ({alpha}=0) to the nearly concentric ({alpha}={pi}) Mesa beam configurations. We analytically prove that in the limit D{yields}{infinity} hyperboloidal beams become Gaussians. The ideal beam choice for reducing thermal noise is the widest possible beam that satisfies the Advanced LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) diffraction loss design constraint of 1 part per million (ppm) per bounce for a mirror radius of 17 cm. In the past the diffraction loss has often been calculated using the clipping approximation that, in general, underestimates the diffraction loss. We develop a code using pseudospectral methods to compute the diffraction loss directly from the propagator. We find that the diffraction loss is not a strictly monotonic function of beam width, but has local minima that occur due to finite mirror effects and leads to natural choices of D. For an {alpha}={pi} Mesa beam a local minimum occurs at D=10.67 cm and leads to a diffraction loss of 1.4 ppm. We then compute the thermal noise for the entire hyperboloidal family. We find that if one requires a diffraction loss of strictly 1 ppm, the {alpha}=0.91{pi} hyperboloidal beam is optimal, leading to the coating thermal noise (the dominant source of noise for fused-silica mirrors) being lower by about 10% than for a Mesa beam while other types of thermal noise decrease as well. We then develop an iterative process that reconstructs the mirror to specifically account for finite

  15. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    Performing beyond expectations, the high- resolution mirrors for NASA's most powerful orbiting X-ray telescope have successfully completed initial testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility, Huntsville, AL. "We have the first ground test images ever generated by the telescope's mirror assembly, and they are as good as -- or better than -- expected," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Marshall's chief scientist for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The mirror assembly, four pairs of precisely shaped and aligned cylindrical mirrors, will form the heart of NASA's third great observatory. The X-ray telescope produces an image by directing incoming X-rays to detectors at a focal point some 30 feet beyond the telescope's mirrors. The greater the percentage of X-rays brought to focus and the smaller the size of the focal spot, the sharper the image. Tests show that on orbit, the mirror assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility will be able to focus approximately 70 percent of X-rays from a source to a spot less than one-half arc second in radius. The telescope's resolution is equivalent to being able to read the text of a newspaper from half a mile away. "The telescope's focus is very clear, very sharp," said Weisskopf. "It will be able to show us details of very distant sources that we know are out there, but haven't been able to see clearly." In comparison, previous X-ray telescopes -- Einstein and Rosat -- were only capable of focusing X- rays to five arc seconds. The Advanced X-ray Telescope's resolving power is ten times greater. "Images from the new telescope will allow us to make major advances toward understanding how exploding stars create and disperse many of the elements necessary for new solar systems and for life itself," said Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X- ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in Cambridge, MA -- responsible for the telescope

  16. Managing Risk on a Technology Development Project/Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The risk management study applied to the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), a precursor mirror technology development for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is documented. The AMSD will be developed as a segment of a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. The technology gained from the program will support the risk mitigation strategy for the NGST, as well as other government agency space mirror programs.

  17. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Gordon, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes (<10 W/cm/sup 2/), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000/sup 0/C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter.

  18. AMTD: Advanced Mirror Technology Development in mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Analytical tools and processes are being developed at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center in support of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project. One facet of optical performance is mechanical stability with respect to structural dynamics. Pertinent parameters are: (1) the spacecraft structural design, (2) the mechanical disturbances on-board the spacecraft (sources of vibratory/transient motion such as reaction wheels), (3) the vibration isolation systems (invariably required to meet future science needs), and (4) the dynamic characteristics of the optical system itself. With stability requirements of future large aperture space telescopes being in the lower Pico meter regime, it is paramount that all sources of mechanical excitation be considered in both feasibility studies and detailed analyses. The primary objective of this paper is to lay out a path to perform feasibility studies of future large aperture space telescope projects which require extreme stability. To get to that end, a high level overview of a structural dynamic analysis process to assess an integrated spacecraft and optical system is included.

  19. AMTD - Advanced Mirror Technology Development in Mechanical Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    Analytical tools and processes are being developed at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center in support of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project. One facet of optical performance is mechanical stability with respect to structural dynamics. Pertinent parameters are: (1) the spacecraft structural design, (2) the mechanical disturbances on-board the spacecraft (sources of vibratory/transient motion such as reaction wheels), (3) the vibration isolation systems (invariably required to meet future science needs), and (4) the dynamic characteristics of the optical system itself. With stability requirements of future large aperture space telescopes being in the lower Pico meter regime, it is paramount that all sources of mechanical excitation be considered in both feasibility studies and detailed analyses. The primary objective of this paper is to lay out a path to perform feasibility studies of future large aperture space telescope projects which require extreme stability. To get to that end, a high level overview of a structural dynamic analysis process to assess an integrated spacecraft and optical system is included.

  20. Ball Semi-Rigid Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendrick, Stephen; Russell, Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The AMSD Program is to design, fabricate, and test a 1.4-m point-to-point hexagon mirror system. The Ball semi-rigid approach will be described and its current status presented, The mirror system includes a lightweighted beryllium mirror that is attached through flexures and actuators to a composite reaction structure enabling optical performance at ambient and cryogenic temperatures and allowing changes of curvature to be imposed via actuation. This program is administered through NASA MSFC and is jointly funded by NASA, the USAF, and the NRO.

  1. Mirror mounts designed for the Advanced Photon Source SRI-CAT

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Benson, C.; Chang, J.

    1997-09-01

    Use of a mirror for beamlines at third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National laboratory, has many advantages. A mirror as a first optical component provides significant reduction in the beam peak heat flux and total power on the downstream monochromator and simplifies the bremsstrahlung shielding design for the beamline transport. It also allows one to have a system for multibeamline branching and switching. More generally, a mirror is used for beam focusing and/or low-pass filtering. Six different mirror mounts have been designed for the SRI-CAT beamlines. Four of them are designed as water-cooled mirrors for white or pink beam use, and the other two are for monochromatic beam use. Mirror mount designs, including vacuum vessel structure and precision supporting stages, are presented in this paper.

  2. Single-layer mirrors for advanced research light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stoermer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Siewert, F.; Hertlein, F.; Matiaske, M.; Wiesmann, J.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam guidance, beam alignment and monochromatisation at third-generation synchrotron light sources (PETRA III) and forthcoming Free-Electron Lasers (LCLS, European XFEL). Amorphous carbon coatings are currently used as total reflection mirrors at FLASH to guide the photon beam to the various beamlines. These coatings were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering. The new GKSS sputtering facility for the deposition of single and multilayer mirrors with a length of up to 1500 mm and a width of up to 120 mm is in operation. In this contribution we present the results of this new deposition system. A major advantage is that it is now possible to prepare one, two or more mirrors with similar properties over the whole deposition length. The mirror properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The performance of the mirrors is analyzed, considering X-ray reflectivity, film thickness and surface roughness. The uniformity of these properties over the whole deposition length of 1500 mm is demonstrated. The results obtained will be discussed and compared with former results.

  3. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  4. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: Reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-02-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.

  6. Breakthrough capability for UVOIR space astronomy: reaching the darkest sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2014-08-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. Large aperture micro-focus KB mirrors for spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, T.; Andresen, N.; Comins, J.; Franck, A.; Gilles, M.; Tonnessen, T.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2004-06-04

    General purpose refocus mirrors using Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry have been designed, built and installed at a new undulator beam-line facility to provide spot sizes smaller than 10 microns for specialized spectroscopy experiments at the Advanced Light Source. All the available flux is focused and the focal length is adjustable. The mirrors are fully computer controlled and can be detuned to create a spot as big as 500 microns.

  8. Advanced High Reflector Coatings for the Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Phillips, A.; Brown, W.; Wallace, V.; Stillburn, James; Sabag, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    The Association of Universities for Research Astronomy’s (AURA) New Initiatives Office (NIO) is developing a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT), a next generation telescope also known as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The telescope, whose present design consist of six hundred eighteen 1.2 m diameter mirrors, will have truly remarkable performance. It will be able to resolve crowded star fields into individual stars in galaxies as far away as 10 million light years. It will be able to image and analyze planets and dust clouds around hundreds of nearby stars. Imaging will range from the ultraviolet (UV) to long wavelength infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The goal is to have the telescope operational by 2014. Figure 1 shows a conceptual picture of the GSMT compared to the 10-m Keck telescope and Figure 2 shows a conceptual picture of the observatory.

  9. Thermal analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8-meter primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-07-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The objective is to maintain the primary mirror at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop®1. A detailed model of the primary mirror was required in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew and a 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the solar environment that influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model is used to predict gradients across and through the primary mirror using an idealized boundary temperature on the back and sides of the mirror of 280 K.

  10. Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing Algorithm for Coarse Phasing Segmented Mirror Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spechler, Joshua A.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Sigrist, Norbert; Shi, Fang; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.

    2013-01-01

    Segment mirror phasing, a critical step of segment mirror alignment, requires the ability to sense and correct the relative pistons between segments from up to a few hundred microns to a fraction of wavelength in order to bring the mirror system to its full diffraction capability. When sampling the aperture of a telescope, using auto-collimating flats (ACFs) is more economical. The performance of a telescope with a segmented primary mirror strongly depends on how well those primary mirror segments can be phased. One such process to phase primary mirror segments in the axial piston direction is dispersed fringe sensing (DFS). DFS technology can be used to co-phase the ACFs. DFS is essentially a signal fitting and processing operation. It is an elegant method of coarse phasing segmented mirrors. DFS performance accuracy is dependent upon careful calibration of the system as well as other factors such as internal optical alignment, system wavefront errors, and detector quality. Novel improvements to the algorithm have led to substantial enhancements in DFS performance. The Advanced Dispersed Fringe Sensing (ADFS) Algorithm is designed to reduce the sensitivity to calibration errors by determining the optimal fringe extraction line. Applying an angular extraction line dithering procedure and combining this dithering process with an error function while minimizing the phase term of the fitted signal, defines in essence the ADFS algorithm.

  11. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  12. Advanced metal mirror processing for tactical ISR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, John P.

    2013-05-01

    Using its patented VQ™ finishing process, Raytheon EO Innovations has been producing low-scatter, low-figure and affordable aluminum 6061-based mirrors for long stand-off intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems in production since 2005. These common aperture multispectral systems require λ/30 root mean square (RMS) surface figure and sub-20Å RMS finishes for optimal visible imaging performance. This paper discusses the process results, scatter performance, and fabrication capabilities of Multispectral Reflective Lightweight Optics Technology (MeRLOT™), a new lightweight substrate material. This new technology enables lightweight, common-aperture, broadband performance that can be put in the hands of the warfighter for precision targeting and surveillance operations.

  13. Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.C.

    1983-04-01

    GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described.

  14. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination.

  15. Advanced materials for multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar astronomy.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, S A; Chkhalo, N I; Kuzin, S V; Pariev, D E; Polkovnikov, V N; Salashchenko, N N; Shestov, S V; Zuev, S Y

    2016-03-20

    We provide an analysis of contemporary multilayer optics for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar astronomy in the wavelength ranges: λ=12.9-13.3  nm, λ=17-21  nm, λ=28-33  nm, and λ=58.4  nm. We found new material pairs, which will make new spaceborne experiments possible due to the high reflection efficiencies, spectral resolution, and long-term stabilities of the proposed multilayer coatings. In the spectral range λ=13  nm, Mo/Be multilayer mirrors were shown to demonstrate a better ratio of reflection efficiency and spectral resolution compared with the commonly used Mo/Si. In the spectral range λ=17-21  nm, a new multilayer structure Al/Si was proposed, which had higher spectral resolution along with comparable reflection efficiency compared with the commonly used Al/Zr multilayer structures. In the spectral range λ=30  nm, the Si/B4C/Mg/Cr multilayer structure turned out to best obey reflection efficiency and long-term stability. The B4C and Cr layers prevented mutual diffusion of the Si and Mg layers. For the spectral range λ=58  nm, a new multilayer Mo/Mg-based structure was developed; its reflection efficiency and long-term stability have been analyzed. We also investigated intrinsic stresses inherent for most of the multilayer structures and proposed possibilities for stress elimination. PMID:27140543

  16. Crack Branching and Fracture Mirror Data of Glasses and Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1998-01-01

    The fracture mirror and crack branching constants were determined from three glasses and nine advanced ceramics tested under various loading and specimen configurations in an attempt to use the constants as a data base for fractography. The ratios of fracture mirror or crack branching constant to fracture toughness were found to be approximately two for most ceramic materials tested. A demonstration of how to use the two constants as a tool for verifying stress measurements was presented for silicon nitride disk specimens subjected to high-temperature, constant stress-rate biaxial flexure testing.

  17. Recent Progress on 2012 SAT for UVOIR Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Del Hoyo, Javier G.; Rice, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+MgF2 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the MgF2 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures. We will also present optical characterization of little studied rare-earth fluorides such as GdF3 and LuF3 that exhibit low-absorption over a wide wavelength range and could therefore be used as high refractive index alternatives fordielectric coatings at FUV wavelengths.

  18. A Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory: Study Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postman, Marc; Thronson, Harley A.; Feinberg, Lee; Redding, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    The scientific drivers for very high angular resolution coupled with very high sensitivity and wavefront stability in the UV and optical wavelength regime have been well established. These include characterization of exoplanets in the habitable zones of solar type stars, probing the physical properties of the circumgalactic medium around z < 2 galaxies, and resolving stellar populations across a broad range of galactic environments. The 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the 2013 NASA Science Mission Directorate 30-Year Roadmap identified a large-aperture UVOIR observatory as a priority future space mission. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI team has extended several earlier studies of the technology and engineering requirements needed to design and build a single filled aperture 10-meter class space-based telescope that can enable these ambitious scientific observations. We present here an overview of our new technical work including a brief summary of the reference science drivers as well as in-depth investigations of the viable telescope architectures, the requirements on thermal control and active wavefront control systems, and the range of possible launch configurations.

  19. Effect of synchrotron radiation on the advanced-fueled field-reversed mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of synchrotron radiation on the energy balance of advanced fuels in the field-reversed mirror (FRM) fusion device. The FRM configuration is simulated by the Hill's vortex model. The synchrotron radiant energy loss can be computed by adding the blackbody contribution (O < ..omega.. < ..omega..*) and the transparent contribution (..omega..* < ..omega.. < infinity), where ..omega.. is the radiation frequency and ..cap omega..* is the cutoff frequency.

  20. Fundamental Performance Improvement of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors for UVOIR Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin

    Ultraviolet, Optical, and near-Infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (UVOIR MKIDs) are one of the most powerful new technologies to emerge out of the NASA APRA detectors program in the last decade. This proposal seeks to build on previous APRA grants to drastically improve the performance of UVOIR MKIDs. Like an X-ray microcalorimeter ultraviolet, optical, and near-IR (UVOIR) MKIDs are cryogenic detectors capable of detecting single photons and measuring their energy without filters or gratings. Our team has created this technology from the ground up, and fielded a 2024-pixel UVOIR MKID array on five separate observing runs at 5-m class telescopes. With 34 observing nights successfully completed and two astronomy papers published using MKID data (the first astronomy papers published using MKID data at any wavelength), UVOIR MKIDs are at TRL 5-6 for ground-based astronomy, and TRL 3 for space-based astronomy. The outstanding potential of these detectors was recognized in the recent NASA long term vision, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions'', which recognized on page 88 that MKIDs have tremendous potential for future NASA UVOIR space missions, especially for finding Earth twins around nearby stars: "..microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) would be a game-changing capability..''. Current UVOIR MKIDs feature array sizes in the 10-30 kpix range, energy resolution R=16 at 254 nm, ~70% pixel yield, and quantum efficiency that goes from 70% in the UV to 25% in the near-IR. These arrays, fabricated out of Titanium Nitride (TiN) on a high resistivity silicon substrate, are fully functional for ground-based science. However, our current MKIDs are far away from their theoretical limits, especially in yield (70% vs. 100%) and energy resolution (R=10 vs. R=100 at 400 nm). The yield is of especially urgent concern as missing pixels make accurate photometry difficult, especially for rapidly time variable sources like compact binaries that we have been studying

  1. Production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR mirror blank for the Advanced Technology Solar telescope (ATST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Werner, Thomas; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope in the world. It is currently being built by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in a height of 3000 m above sea level on the mountain Haleakala of Maui, Hawaii. The primary mirror blank of diameter 4.26 m is made of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® of SCHOTT AG Advanced Optics. The DKIST primary mirror design is extremely challenging. With a mirror thickness of only 78 to 85 mm it is the smallest thickness ever machined on a mirror of 4.26 m in diameter. Additionally the glassy ZERODUR® casting is one of the largest in size ever produced for a 4 m class ZERODUR® mirror blank. The off axis aspherical mirror surface required sophisticated grinding procedures to achieve the specified geometrical tolerance. The small thickness of about 80 mm required special measures during processing, lifting and transport. Additionally acid etch treatment was applied to the convex back-surface and the conical shaped outer diameter surface to improve the strength of the blank. This paper reports on the challenging tasks and the achievements on the material property and dimensional specification parameter during the production of the 4.26 m ZERODUR® primary mirror blank for AURA.

  2. Metrology of a mirror at the Advanced Photon Source : comparison between optical and x-ray measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Assoufid, L.

    1998-10-14

    This paper describes metrology of a vertically focusing mirror on the bending magnet beamline in sector-1 of the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. The mirror was evaluated using measurements from both an optical long trace profiler and x-rays. Slope error profiles obtained with the two methods were compared and were found to be in a good agreement. Further comparisons were made between x-ray measurements and results from the SHADOW ray-tracing code.

  3. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  4. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  5. The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) Technology Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahle, Carl; Balasubramanian, K.; Bolcar, M.; Clampin, M.; Feinberg, L.; Hartman, K.; Mosier, C.; Quijada, M.; Rauscher, B.; Redding, D.; Shaklan, S.; Stahl, P.; Thronson, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present the key technologies and capabilities that will enable a future, large-aperture ultravioletopticalinfrared (UVOIR) space observatory. These include starlight suppression systems, vibration isolation and control systems, lightweight mirror segments, detector systems, and mirror coatings. These capabilities will provide major advances over current and near-future observatories for sensitivity, angular resolution, and starlight suppression. The goals adopted in our study for the starlight suppression system are 10-10 contrast with an inner working angle of 40 milliarcsec and broad bandpass. We estimate that a vibration and isolation control system that achieves a total system vibration isolation of 140 dB for a vibration-isolated mass of 5000 kg is required to achieve the high wavefront error stability needed for exoplanet coronagraphy. Technology challenges for lightweight mirror segments include diffraction-limited optical quality and high wavefront error stability as well as low cost, low mass, and rapid fabrication. Key challenges for the detector systems include visible-blind, high quantum efficiency UV arrays, photon counting visible and NIR arrays for coronagraphic spectroscopy and starlight wavefront sensing and control, and detectors with deep full wells with low persistence and radiation tolerance to enable transit imaging and spectroscopy at all wavelengths. Finally, mirror coatings with high reflectivity ( 90), high uniformity ( 1) and low polarization ( 1) that are scalable to large diameter mirror substrates will be essential for ensuring that both high throughput UV observations and high contrast observations can be performed by the same observatory.

  6. Analytical Verifications in Cryogenic Testing of NGST Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Ramona; Levine, Marie; VanBuren, Dave; Kegley, Jeff; Green, Joseph; Hadaway, James; Presson, Joan; Cline, Todd; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground based testing is a critical and costly part of component, assembly, and system verifications of large space telescopes. At such tests, however, with integral teamwork by planners, analysts, and test personnel, segments can be included to validate specific analytical parameters and algorithms at relatively low additional cost. This paper opens with strategy of analytical verification segments added to vacuum cryogenic testing of Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) assemblies. These AMSD assemblies incorporate material and architecture concepts being considered in the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) design. The test segments for workmanship testing, cold survivability, and cold operation optical throughput are supplemented by segments for analytical verifications of specific structural, thermal, and optical parameters. Utilizing integrated modeling and separate materials testing, the paper continues with support plan for analyses, data, and observation requirements during the AMSD testing, currently slated for late calendar year 2002 to mid calendar year 2003. The paper includes anomaly resolution as gleaned by authors from similar analytical verification support of a previous large space telescope, then closes with draft of plans for parameter extrapolations, to form a well-verified portion of the integrated modeling being done for NGST performance predictions.

  7. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Bolcar, Matt; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark,Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance.

  8. Heat Mirror II: an advanced transparent insulation. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cormia, R.L.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to take five separate approaches to achieve an environmentally stable Heat Mirror II. Heat Mirror I is limited to use in hermetically sealed, dessicated environments to avoid risks to its integrity from physical abuse and atmospheric chemical attack. In this report, the following five tasks were addressed, each designed to give Heat Mirror I greater durability: surface preparation of the substrate; alternative thin film stack design; passivation of the thin film stack; overcoating; and laminating. It is concluded that the laminate is very promising and should be further tested.

  9. Northop Grumman/Xinetics Deformable Mirrors: Enabling Reliable Advanced Imaging for 20 Years and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matijevich, Russ; Jeff Cavaco, Northrop Grumman Xinetics

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Optics Xinetics (AOX), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Northrop Grumman, has manufactured and delivered more than 300 deformable mirrors (DMs) since 1995. With more than 32 gigacycles of use, these mirrors have significantly increased the scientific return of ground based astronomical telescopes by removing atmospheric distortion from the image plane. AOX deformable mirrors exhibit little or no hysteresis, aging or creep, making them highly reliable and predictable. A range of space -based applications are currently in development or under consideration as key enablers for future astronomical missions. We will review a variety of AOX DMs and discuss a number of their real world applications and results.

  10. Effect of synchrotron radiation on the advanced fueled field-reversed mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of synchrotron radiation on the energy balance or advanced fuels in the field-reversed mirror (FRM) fusion device. The FRM configuration is simulated by the Hill's vortex model. The synchrotron radiant energy loss can be computed by adding the blackbody contribution (0 < omega < omega*) and the transsparent contribution (omega* < omega < infinity), where omega is the radiation frequency and omega* is the cutoff frequency. The cutoff frequency is defined by the frequency at which the plasma's optical depth ..cap alpha..(omega)L is unity, where ..cap alpha.. is the absorption coefficient and L is the plasma dimension. The transparent synchrotron radiation at the higher frequencies is not negligible since it is relatively unaffected by proposed reflectors. Wall reflectivity of 0.9 is assumed. The transport equation is traced along a ray across the plasma using the Runge-Kutta techniques. The power loss is obtained by an angular integral of the result with appropriate geometrical factors. Using the FRM reactor design parameter from C. Baker et al. with electron temperature of 70 keV in the Cat-D burn cycle, the cut-off frequency is located at about nine times the cyclotron fundamental frequency. The transparent portion of the synchrotron radiation is about 0.6 of the blackbody counterpart. The net synchrotron radiation power loss is evaluated to be 0.1 MW whereas the fusion power is found to be 2.3 MW, so the synchrotron radiation power loss only accounts for less than 5% of the total fusion power. Similar results are obtained for the D-He/sup 3/ cycle.

  11. Alignment of an aspheric mirror subsystem for an advanced infrared catadioptric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingstad, James S.

    1991-12-01

    With many optical systems the method that is used to align the optical system needs to be an integral portion of the system design and not an afterthought. Once all the pieces are in fabrication it may be too late to implement a cost-effective alignment procedure for both prototype and production designs. This is especially true with catadioptric systems where the mirror alignment tends to be very critical as far as system performance is concerned. This paper describes the design and use of an aspheric null mirror for the alignment of a two mirror subsystem to a lens cell. The optical system to be aligned was a six-in. EFL, F/2 system working in the 3-5 micrometers bandpass. It consisted of two aspheric mirrors, one aspheric lens, and two spherical lenses.

  12. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  13. End-to-end assessment of a large aperture segmented ultraviolet optical infrared (UVOIR) telescope architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Olivier; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-07-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield exo-earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an exo-earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and exo-earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling these missions.

  14. End-to-End Assessment of a Large Aperture Segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Rioux, Norman; Bolcar, Matthew; Liu, Alice; Guyon, Oliver; Stark, Chris; Arenberg, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Key challenges of a future large aperture, segmented Ultraviolet Optical Infrared (UVOIR) Telescope capable of performing a spectroscopic survey of hundreds of Exoplanets will be sufficient stability to achieve 10^-10 contrast measurements and sufficient throughput and sensitivity for high yield Exo-Earth spectroscopic detection. Our team has collectively assessed an optimized end to end architecture including a high throughput coronagraph capable of working with a segmented telescope, a cost-effective and heritage based stable segmented telescope, a control architecture that minimizes the amount of new technologies, and an Exo-Earth yield assessment to evaluate potential performance. These efforts are combined through integrated modeling, coronagraph evaluations, and Exo-Earth yield calculations to assess the potential performance of the selected architecture. In addition, we discusses the scalability of this architecture to larger apertures and the technological tall poles to enabling it.

  15. Profile Coating for KB Mirror Applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.; Ice, G.; Tischler, J.

    2002-01-01

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an ellipse shape is desirable for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray quality smoothness. A differential coating method to convert a cylindrical mirror to an elliptical one has been previously reported The differential coating was obtained by varying the sputter source power while the mirror was passed through. Here we report a new method of profile coating to achieve the same goal more effectively. In the profile coating, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed. The mask is placed very close to the substrate level (within 1.0 mm) on a shield-can over the sputter gun. Four-inch-diameter Si wafers were coated through a 100-mm-long by 152-mm-wide aperture on the top of the shield-can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution of stationary growth. The relative thickness weightings are then digitized at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield-can during a deposition, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed on the opening of the shield-can. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration. The mirror coating profile is determined from the ideal surface figure of a focus ellipse and that obtained

  16. Design of an elliptically bent refocus mirror for the MERLIN beamline at the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelez, Nicholas; Chuang, Yi-De; Smith-Baumann, Alexis; Franck, Keith; Duarte, R.; Lanzara, A.; Hasan, M. Z.; Dessau, D. S.; Chiang, T. C.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Zahid

    2007-11-01

    There is an increasing demand for well-focused beam with high quality imaging of the full field to further explore the potential of novel instruments. For beamlines operating at focal point, mechanical benders have often been used to shape the refocusing mirror into an ideal elliptical cylinder. Unfortunately, the limited number of couplings for these mechanisms requires specific substrate side-shaping, often calculated using beam bending theory [J.H. Underwood, Space Sci. Instrum. 3 (1977) 259; M. Howells et al., Opt. Eng. 39 (2000) 2748; T. Warwick et al., Document available at OSTI website: http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/servlets/purl/842557-JYZCS3/native/], to meet demanding figure requirements. Here, we use finite element analysis (FEA) to validate the side-shaping algorithm and then couple the output with SHADOW to evaluate mirror performance when an ideal ellipse is not achieved.

  17. Advanced ultraviolet-resistant silver mirrors for use in solar reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Gary J.; Gee, Randy

    2009-11-03

    A silver mirror construction that maintains a high percentage of hemispherical reflectance throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors, comprising:a) a pressure sensitive adhesive layer positioned beneath a silver overlay;b) a polymer film disposed on the silver overlay;c) an adhesive layer positioned on the polymer film; andd) a UV screening acrylic film disposed on the adhesive layer.

  18. Profile coating for KB mirror applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chian; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, Albert T.; Ice, Gene E.; Tischler, J. Z.

    2002-12-01

    For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an ellipse shape is desirable for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish elliptical mirrors to x-ray quality smoothness. A differential coating method to convert a cylindrical mirror to an elliptical one has been previously reported The differential coating was obtained by varying the sputter source power while the mirror was passed through. Here we report a new method of profile coating to achieve the same goal more effectively. In the profile coating, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed. The mask is placed very close to the substrate level (within 1.0 mm) on a shield-can over the sputter gun. Four-inch-diameter Si wafers were coated through a 100-mm-long by 152-mm-wide aperture on the top of the shield-can. The thickness distribution was then obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. A model has been developed to fit the measured thickness distribution of stationary growth. The relative thickness weightings are then digitized at every point 1 mm apart for the entire open area of the aperture. When the substrate is moving across the shield-can during a deposition, the film thickness is directly proportional to the length of the opening on the can along the moving direction. By equating the summation of relative weighting to the required relative thickness at the same position, the length of the opening at that position can be determined. By repeating the same process for the whole length of the required profile, a contour can be obtained for a desired thickness profile. The contoured mask is then placed on the opening of the shield-can. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration. The mirror coating profile is determined from the ideal surface figure of a focus ellipse and that obtained

  19. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors to focus hard X-rays in two dimensions as fabricated, tested and installed at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Naresh; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shu, Deming; Shi, Bing; Qian, Jun; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2014-07-01

    The micro-focusing performance for hard X-rays of a fixed-geometry elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors assembly fabricated, tested and finally implemented at the micro-probe beamline 8-BM of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. Testing of the K-B mirror system was performed at the optics and detector test beamline 1-BM. K-B mirrors of length 80 mm and 60 mm were fabricated by profile coating with Pt metal to produce focal lengths of 250 mm and 155 mm for 3 mrad incident angle. For the critical angle of Pt, a broad bandwidth of energies up to 20 keV applies. The classical K-B sequential mirror geometry was used, and mirrors were mounted on micro-translation stages. The beam intensity profiles were measured by differentiating the curves of intensity data measured using a wire-scanning method. A beam size of 1.3 µm (V) and 1.2 µm (H) was measured with monochromatic X-rays of 18 keV at 1-BM. After installation at 8-BM the measured focus met the design requirements. In this paper the fabrication and metrology of the K-B mirrors are reported, as well as the focusing performances of the full mirrors-plus-mount set-up at both beamlines.

  20. Beyond JWST: Science Drivers for the Next Great UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Jason; Seager, Sara; Dalcanton, Julianne; Postman, Marc; Aigrain, Suzanne; battel, Steven; Brandt, W. Niel; Conroy, Charlie; Feinberg, Lee; Gezari, Suvi; Guyon, Olivier; Harris, Walter M.; Hirata, Chris; Mather, John C.; Redding, David; Schiminovich, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    We report on the AURA 'Beyond JWST' committee's considerations and conclusions regarding the science case for the development of a large UVOIR observatory, to be launched following JWST and WFIRST-AFTA. We find that a space-based UVOIR telescope of 10 meters or more in aperture will uniquely enable a wide range of transformational science investigations by itself and in tandem with ground-based OIR and radio facilities in its era. The chief goal of this facility is to assess the possibility of life beyond our Solar System by discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of their host stars, via direct imaging, and by searching spectroscopically for biosignature gases in the atmospheres of the best exo-Earth candidates. The large aperture and mission architecture required to characterize the atmospheres of a significant number of potentially life-bearing planets will also transform studies of the galaxies and stars that led up to them. At 10 meters or larger, the telescope will spatially resolve scales of 100 AU everywhere in the Milky Way, 0.1 parsec everywhere in the Local Group, and 100 parsec everywhere in the observable Universe. This unprecedented spatial resolution over large fields, with stable optics and low backgrounds, will allow astronomers to follow, in high definition, the formation and evolution of the star forming regions inside galaxies over the past 10 Gyr, to robustly determine the complete star formation histories in every galaxy within the local volume (to 10 Mpc), and to track the motions of virtually any star in the Milky Way. High spectral resolution and multi-object spectroscopy in the UV will enable revolutionary new studies of gas flows in galaxies, bodies in the outer solar system, and the evolution of the most massive stars. We present these compelling science drivers and their associated observational requirements here; we summarize the technology requirements for high angular resolution, sensitivity, wavefront stability

  1. [Mirror behaviors in dementia: the many mirror signs].

    PubMed

    Ghika, Joseph; Diéguez, Sebastian; Assal, Frédéric; Demonet, Jean-François

    2013-11-13

    Mirror behaviors in advanced dementia are: the mirror sign of Abely and Delmas, where the patient stares at his face (environment-driven behavior of Lhermitte); non recognition of the self in the mirror (autoprosopagnosia and/or delirious auto-Capgras); mirror agnosia of Ramachandran and Binkofski where the patient do not understand the concept of mirror and its use; the psychovisual reflex, or reflex pursuit of the eyes when passively moving a minrror in front of a patient (intact vision); mirror writing (procedural learning). We describe four demented patients with mirror behaviors assessing brain mechanisms of self recognition, social brain and mental and visuo-spatial manipulation of images and objects.

  2. Advancement of the segment support system for the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Eric C.; Baffes, Curtis; Mast, Terry; Nelson, Jerry; Platt, Benjamin; Ponchione, R. J.; Ponslet, Eric; Setoodeh, Shahriar; Sirota, Mark; Stephens, Vince; Stepp, Larry; Tubb, Alan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents refinements to the design of the TMT primary mirror segment passive-support system that are effective in reducing gravity print-through and thermal distortion effects. First, a novel analytical method is presented for tuning the axial and lateral support systems in a manner that results in improved optical performance when subject to varying gravity fields. The method utilizes counterweights attached to the whiffletrees to cancel astigmatic and comatic errors normally resulting when the lateral support system resists transverse loads induced by gravity. Secondly, several central diaphragm designs are presented and analyzed to assess lateral-gravity and thermal distortion performance: 1) a simple flat diaphragm, 2) a stress-relieving diaphragm having a slotted outer rim and a circumferential convolution near the outside diameter, and 3) a flat diaphragm having a slotted outer rim. The latter design is chosen based on results from analytical studies which show it to have better overall optical performance in the presence of gravity and thermal environments.

  3. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  4. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    energy of 80-120 keV). Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key monochromator components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded into a model describing the key electron-optical parameters of the complete monochromator. The simulations reveal that the mirror monochromator can reduce the energy spread of a Schottky electron source, an established electron emitter used widely in EMs, to 10 meV for practical beam current values and that further reduction of the energy spread down to 3 meV is possible for low current applications with a Cold Field Emitter (an electron source with 10x the brightness of a Schottky source). MirrorChroms can be designed and built to attach to different types of TEMs and SEMs, thus making them suitable for enhancing the study of the structure, composition, and bonding states of new materials at the nanoscale to advance material science research in the field of nanotechnology as well as biomedical research.

  5. Virtual Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple-reflection photograph in Fig. 1 was taken in an elevator on board the cruise ship Norwegian Jade in March 2008. Three of the four walls of the elevator were mirrored, allowing me to see the combination of two standard arrangements of plane mirrors: two mirrors set at 90 degrees to each other and two parallel mirrors. Optical phenomena…

  6. Advanced glycation end product associated skin autofluorescence: a mirror of vascular function?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Britt; Adam, Anne-Catrin; Jacobs, Kathleen; Riemer, Marcus; Erbs, Christian; Bushnaq, Hasan; Simm, Andreas; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Santos, Alexander Navarrete

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) seem to be involved in aging as well as in the development of cardiovascular diseases. During aging, AGEs accumulate in extracellular matrix proteins like collagen and contribute to vessel stiffness. Whether non-invasive measurement of AGE accumulation in the skin may reflect vessel function and vessel protein modification is unknown. Herein we set out to analyze the AGE-modifications in the collagens extracted from residual bypass graft material, the skin autofluorescence reflecting the accumulation of AGEs in the body as well as the pulse wave velocity reflecting vessel stiffness. Collagen types I and III (pepsin digestible collagen fraction) were isolated from the veins of 52 patients by proteolysis. The residual collagen fraction was further extracted by collagenase digestion. Collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assay and AGEs by the AGE intrinsic fluorescence. Skin autofluorescence was measured with an autofluorescence reader; pulse wave velocity with the VICORDER. The collagen AGE autofluorescence in patient vein graft material increased with patient age. The pepsin digestible collagen fraction was significantly less modified in comparison to the collagenase digestible fraction. Decreasing amounts of extracted collagenase digestible collagen correspond with increasing AGE autofluorescence. Skin autofluorescence and vessel stiffness were significantly linked to the AGE autofluorescence of the collagenase digestible collagen fraction from graft material. In conclusion we have found that skin autofluorescence and pulse wave velocity as non-invasive parameters significantly correlate with the AGE contained in graft material and therefore are strong predictors of vessel AGE modifications in patients with coronary heart disease. Whether the analysis of the skin autofluorescence leads to an improvement of the risk stratification in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease has to be further tested.

  7. Advanced glycation end product associated skin autofluorescence: a mirror of vascular function?

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Britt; Adam, Anne-Catrin; Jacobs, Kathleen; Riemer, Marcus; Erbs, Christian; Bushnaq, Hasan; Simm, Andreas; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Santos, Alexander Navarrete

    2013-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) seem to be involved in aging as well as in the development of cardiovascular diseases. During aging, AGEs accumulate in extracellular matrix proteins like collagen and contribute to vessel stiffness. Whether non-invasive measurement of AGE accumulation in the skin may reflect vessel function and vessel protein modification is unknown. Herein we set out to analyze the AGE-modifications in the collagens extracted from residual bypass graft material, the skin autofluorescence reflecting the accumulation of AGEs in the body as well as the pulse wave velocity reflecting vessel stiffness. Collagen types I and III (pepsin digestible collagen fraction) were isolated from the veins of 52 patients by proteolysis. The residual collagen fraction was further extracted by collagenase digestion. Collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assay and AGEs by the AGE intrinsic fluorescence. Skin autofluorescence was measured with an autofluorescence reader; pulse wave velocity with the VICORDER. The collagen AGE autofluorescence in patient vein graft material increased with patient age. The pepsin digestible collagen fraction was significantly less modified in comparison to the collagenase digestible fraction. Decreasing amounts of extracted collagenase digestible collagen correspond with increasing AGE autofluorescence. Skin autofluorescence and vessel stiffness were significantly linked to the AGE autofluorescence of the collagenase digestible collagen fraction from graft material. In conclusion we have found that skin autofluorescence and pulse wave velocity as non-invasive parameters significantly correlate with the AGE contained in graft material and therefore are strong predictors of vessel AGE modifications in patients with coronary heart disease. Whether the analysis of the skin autofluorescence leads to an improvement of the risk stratification in patients suffering from cardiovascular disease has to be further tested. PMID:22588061

  8. EUV reflectance characterization of the 94/304 ? flight secondary AIA mirror at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Spiller, E; Aquila, A L; Gullikson, E M; Windt, D L

    2006-02-22

    The AIA secondary flight mirror, previously coated at Columbia University with Mg/SiC for the 303.8 {angstrom} channel and Mo/Y for the 93.9 {angstrom} channel was characterized by means of EUV reflectance measurements at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at LBNL on January 10, 2006. Paul Boerner (LMSAL) also participated in these measurements.

  9. Design and analysis of the internally cooled silicon mirrors and benders for wiggler sources at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schildkamp, W.; Jaski, Y.; Tonnessen, T.; Douglas, G.

    1996-09-01

    When silicon single crystal mirrors are bent to cylindrical figures of typically 6 km bending radius, the moments needed are very small and easy to disturb by cooling attachments to the sides of the mirror. Hence, we decided to abandon the conventional concept of cooling plates attached to the sides of the mirrors and instead have chosen to use internal water channels. We present here the design of mirrors with cooling channels near the neutral axis of the silicon beam that have a rather thick {open_quote}{open_quote}hot wall.{close_quote}{close_quote} The results of this analytical work are nonintuitive, regarding the stresses produced by wiggler heating. The design path chosen minimizes figure errors due to coolant pressure variations and residual stresses from machining and bonding of multiple layers of silicon. The geometry of the water channels avoids water-to-vacuum seals and uses the mirror bender as the coolant manifold. Engineering efforts, which reduce the bending stresses at bender-to-silicon interface by a factor of five, will be presented. The complete mirror bender and motion control mechanics will be shown. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.; Bender, Donald A.

    1994-01-01

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for "X" and "Y" tilts of the mirror only. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time.

  11. Einstein's Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Skeparovski, Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Reflection of light from a plane mirror in uniform rectilinear motion is a century-old problem, intimately related to the foundations of special relativity. The problem was first investigated by Einstein in his famous 1905 paper by using the Lorentz transformations to switch from the mirror's rest frame to the frame where the mirror moves at a…

  12. Chiral mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-06-01

    Mirrors are used in telescopes, microscopes, photo cameras, lasers, satellite dishes, and everywhere else, where redirection of electromagnetic radiation is required making them arguably the most important optical component. While conventional isotropic mirrors will reflect linear polarizations without change, the handedness of circularly polarized waves is reversed upon reflection. Here, we demonstrate a type of mirror reflecting one circular polarization without changing its handedness, while absorbing the other. The polarization-preserving mirror consists of a planar metasurface with a subwavelength pattern that cannot be superimposed with its mirror image without being lifted out of its plane, and a conventional mirror spaced by a fraction of the wavelength from the metasurface. Such mirrors enable circularly polarized lasers and Fabry-Pérot cavities with enhanced tunability, gyroscopic applications, polarization-sensitive detectors of electromagnetic waves, and can be used to enhance spectroscopies of chiral media.

  13. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Primary Mirror Material Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Feinberg, Lee D.; Russell, Kevin; Texter, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) conducted a phase down select process via the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) project to assess the Technology Readiness Level of various candidate mirror materials. This process culminated in the selection of Beryllium as the JWST primary mirror material. This paper outlines the mirror evaluation process, defines the selection criteria and summarizes the candidate mirror's performances.

  14. The Athena Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The Athena mission (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) requires lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution and large effective area. For achieving an effective area of 2 m^2 (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of below 5 arcsec, the Silicon Pore Optics technology was developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the current design of the Athena mirror concentrating on the technology development status of the Silicon Pore Optics, ranging from the manufacturing of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules and their integration into the mirror structure.

  15. Mirror image proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2014-10-01

    Proteins composed entirely of unnatural d-amino acids and the achiral amino acid glycine are mirror image forms of their native l-protein counterparts. Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis afford unique and facile synthetic access to domain-sized mirror image d-proteins, enabling protein research to be conducted through 'the looking glass' and in a way previously unattainable. d-Proteins can facilitate structure determination of their native l-forms that are difficult to crystallize (racemic X-ray crystallography); d-proteins can serve as the bait for library screening to ultimately yield pharmacologically superior d-peptide/d-protein therapeutics (mirror-image phage display); d-proteins can also be used as a powerful mechanistic tool for probing molecular events in biology. This review examines recent progress in the application of mirror image proteins to structural biology, drug discovery, and immunology.

  16. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  17. Magic Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2011-01-01

    "Magic mirrors" were so named because, when they were positioned to throw a reflected patch of sunlight on a nearby wall, this area contained an outline of a design cast on the back of the (bronze) mirror. Investigations begun in the 19th century showed that this was a response to heavy localized pressures exerted on the face of the thin mirror…

  18. Slumped mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pteancu, Mircea; Dragan, Dorin; Dragan, Olivier; Miron, Andrei; Stanescu, Octavian

    2008-02-01

    The authors discusse the construction of slumped mirrors, their fabrication and testing (polishing and lapping). An important topic of the discussion is thermal fabrication of mirrors by using of matrixes. One of the authors of the entry is combining astronomy and aquariums construction.

  19. Mirror, Mirror on the Wall...?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pflaster, Gail

    1979-01-01

    The study determined the value of using a mirror for speech teaching by recording manner, place, voicing, and blend errors produced by 27 hearing-impaired children (5-13 years old) while imitating consonant-vowel syllables under three conditions (audition alone, audition plus direct vision, and audition plus vision using a mirror). (Author)

  20. JWST Mirror Technology Development Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Mirror technology is a critical enabling capability for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST requires a Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) that can survive launch, deploy and align itself to form a 25 square meter collecting area 6.5 meter diameter primary mirror with a 131 nm rms wavefront error at temperatures less than 50K and provide stable optical performance. At the inception of JWST in 1996, such a capability did not exist. A highly successful technology development program was initiated including the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) and Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) projects. These projects along with flight program activities have matured and demonstrated mirror technology for JWST. Directly traceable prototypes or flight hardware has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment. This paper summarizes that technology development effort.

  1. Defining A Risk Analysis Strategy for Exo-Earth Yields from a Future Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandell, Avi; Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Robinson, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars using high-contrast imaging is a critical science metric for constraining the requirements on the next-generation large UVOIR space telescope. The dominant driver for the observatory architecture, cost and schedule is the telescope aperture size. Therefore it is important to provide as much constraint as possible on the required aperture size early in the design and planning process.An estimate of the detection yield for Earth-like planets can be calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation of a design reference mission (DRM), allowing the exploration of a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We have developed such a code (Stark et al. 2014); it optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield for a specific set of mission parameters. However, many of the important astrophysical quantities and future technical capabilities that feed into these parameters are not well constrained. This leads to a large uncertainty in the final mission architecture needed to achieve a specific exo-Earth yield.In this presentation we discuss the various physical and technological parameters that go into the DRM simulations, and the associated uncertainties based on the current state of research. We then present a strategy for a three-tiered risk assessment using these uncertainties, and conclude with a discussion of the current range in telescope aperture size associated with each risk level.

  2. Fused silica mirror development for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced design, lightweight, fuse-quartz mirror of sandwich construction was evaluated for optical figure performance at cryogenic temperatures. A low temperature shroud was constructed with an integral mirror mount and interface to a cryostat for use in a vacuum chamber. The mirror was tested to 13 K. Cryogenic distortion of the mirror was measured interferometrically. Separate interferometry of the chamber window during the test permitted subtraction of the small window distortions from the data. Results indicate that the imaging performance of helium cooled, infrared telescopes will be improved using this type of mirror without correction of cryogenic distortion of the primary mirror.

  3. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, Harold H.

    1987-01-01

    A mirror mount (10) is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror (28) while keeping the location of a point (56) on the surface of the mirror (28) fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount (10). Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders (30,32) that are bearing (52) mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell (42) that is air bearing (72,74) mounted to move between a clamp (60) and an upper pedestal bearing (44). The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell (42) lie upon the point (56). Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror (28) by a pair of pitch paddles (34) and a pair of roll paddles (36) that are independently and separately moved by control rods (76,80) driven by motors (78,82).

  4. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1986-03-21

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors.

  5. Mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  6. Design for an 8 Meter Monolithic UV/OIR Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Hornsby, Linda; Hopkins, Randall; Mosier, Gary E.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Arnold, William R.

    2009-01-01

    ATLAST-8 is an 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The ATLAST-8 will yield fundamental astronomical breakthroughs. The mission concept utilizes two enabling technologies: planned Ares-V launch vehicle (scheduled for 2019) and autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D). The unprecedented Ares-V payload and mass capacity enables the use of a massive, monolithic, thin-meniscus primary mirror - similar to a VLT or Subaru. Furthermore, it enables simple robust design rules to mitigate cost, schedule and performance risk. AR&D enables on-orbit servicing, extending mission life and enhancing science return.

  7. Mirror Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Under a NASA contract, MI-CVD developed a process for producing bulk silicon carbide by means of a chemical vapor deposition process. The technology allows growth of a high purity material with superior mechanical/thermal properties and high polishability - ideal for mirror applications. The company employed the technology to develop three research mirrors for NASA Langley and is now marketing it as CVD SILICON CARBIDE. Its advantages include light weight, thermal stability and high reflectivity. The material has nuclear research facility applications and is of interest to industrial users of high power lasers.

  8. [Mirror neurons].

    PubMed

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  9. Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Redding, David; Lowman, Andrew; Cohen, David; Ohara, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The figure depicts the planned Actuated Hybrid Mirror Telescope (AHMT), which is intended to demonstrate a new approach to the design and construction of wide-aperture spaceborne telescopes for astronomy and Earth science. This technology is also appropriate for Earth-based telescopes. The new approach can be broadly summarized as using advanced lightweight mirrors that can be manufactured rapidly at relatively low cost. More specifically, it is planned to use precise replicated metallic nanolaminate mirrors to obtain the required high-quality optical finishes. Lightweight, dimensionally stable silicon carbide (SiC) structures will support the nanolaminate mirrors in the required surface figures. To enable diffraction- limited telescope performance, errors in surface figures will be corrected by use of mirror-shape-control actuators that will be energized, as needed, by a wave-front-sensing and control system. The concepts of nanolaminate materials and mirrors made from nanolaminate materials were discussed in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. Nanolaminates constitute a relatively new class of materials that can approach theoretical limits of stiffness and strength. Nanolaminate mirrors are synthesized by magnetron sputter deposition of metallic alloys and/or compounds on optically precise master surfaces to obtain optical-quality reflector surfaces backed by thin shell structures. As an integral part of the deposition process, a layer of gold that will constitute the reflective surface layer is deposited first, eliminating the need for a subsequent and separate reflective-coating process. The crystallographic textures of the nanolaminate will be controlled to optimize the performance of the mirror. The entire deposition process for making a nanolaminate mirror takes less than 100 hours, regardless of the mirror diameter. Each nanolaminate mirror will be bonded to its lightweight SiC supporting structure. The lightweight nanolaminate mirrors and Si

  10. Conicoid Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castano, Diego J.; Hawkins, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The first-order equation relating object and image location for a mirror of arbitrary conic-sectional shape is derived. It is also shown that the parabolic reflecting surface is the only one free of aberration and only in the limiting case of distant sources. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Mirror Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

  12. TRL-6 Qualification of JWST Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Since 1996, all key mirror technology for a JWST Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA), as defined directly from the JWST Level 1 Science Requirements, have been developed and matured from a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3 to 6. This has occurred as the result of a highly successful technology development program including sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD), Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), and JWST flight mirror fabrication. Directly traceable prototypes (and in some cases the flight hardware itself) has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment.

  13. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Jim; Rose, M. Annette

    1998-01-01

    Students use tables of anthropometric data, their own measurements, underlying principles of physics, and math to solve a problem. The problem is to determine the height of a wall mirror, and where to mount it, so that 90% of the clientele can view their entire length without stretching or bending. (Author)

  14. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  15. JWST Lightweight Mirror TRL-6 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Mirror technology for a Primary Mirror Segment Assembly (PMSA) is a system of components: reflective coating; polished optical surface; mirror substrate; actuators, mechanisms and flexures; and reaction structure. The functional purpose of a PMSA is to survive launch, deploy and align itself to form a 25 square meter collecting area 6.5 meter diameter primary mirror with a 131 nm rms wavefront error at temperatures less than 50K and provide stable optical performance for the anticipated thermal environment. At the inception of JWST in 1996, such a capability was at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. A highly successful technology development program was initiated including the Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) and Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) projects. These projects along with flight program activities have matured mirror technology for JWST to TRL-6. A directly traceable prototype (and in some cases the flight hardware itself) has been built, tested and operated in a relevant environment.

  16. Skin mirrors human aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolakis, Georgios; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Aged skin exhibits disturbed lipid barrier, angiogenesis, production of sweat, immune functions, and calcitriol synthesis as well as the tendency towards development of certain benign or malignant diseases. These complex biological processes comprise endogenous and exogenous factors. Ethnicity also markedly influences the phenotype of skin aging. The theories of cellular senescence, telomere shortening and decreased proliferative capacity, mitochondrial DNA single mutations, the inflammation theory, and the free radical theory try to explain the biological background of the global aging process, which is mirrored in the skin. The development of advanced glycation end-products and the declining hormonal levels are major factors influencing intrinsic aging. Chronic photodamage of the skin is the prime factor leading to extrinsic skin aging. The deterioration of important skin functions, due to intrinsic and extrinsic aging, leads to clinical manifestations, which mirror several internal age-associated diseases such as diabetes, arterial hypertension and malignancies.

  17. Status on NGST Mirror Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David

    2000-01-01

    NGST Mirror System Demonstrator (NMSD), in order to establish a benchmark for the state-of-the-art in lightweight optics and to establish credibility that the goals of NGST could be achieved. The past two years of the program has seen major steps in the development of several mirror materials, which not only might have NGST applicability but could also support other programs for other customers. Additionally, a second large mirror procurement, the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), has been implemented providing a focal point to complete the mirror technology development and lead ultimately to the production of mirrors that will fly on NEXUS (the NGST flight experiment- discussed below) and NGST. This talk will focus on the mirror technology developed over the past 4 years on the NGST program.

  18. Technology for large tandem mirror experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-09-04

    Construction of a large tandem mirror (MFTF-B) will soon begin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Designed to reach break-even plasma conditions, the facility will significantly advance the physics and technology of magnetic-mirror-based fusion reactors. This paper describes the objectives and the design of the facility.

  19. Mirror Image Agnosia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Material and Methods:: Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Results: Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Discussion: Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles

  20. Evolution of the mirror machine

    SciTech Connect

    Damm, C. C.

    1983-08-18

    The history of the magnetic-mirror approach to a fusion reactor is primarily the history of our understanding and control of several crucial physics issues, coupled with progress in the technology of heating and confining a reacting plasma. The basic requirement of an MHD-stable plasma equilibrium was achieved following the early introduction of minimum-B multipolar magnetic fields. In refined form, the same magnetic-well principle carries over to our present experiments and to reactor designs. The higher frequency microinstabilities, arising from the non-Maxwellian particle distributions inherent in mirror machines, have gradually come under control as theoretical prescriptions for distribution functions have been applied in the experiments. Even with stability, the classical plasma leakage through the mirrors posed a serious question for reactor viability until the principle of electrostatic axial stoppering was applied in the tandem mirror configuration. Experiments to test this principle successfully demonstrated the substantial improvement in confinement predicted. Concurrent with advances in mirror plasma physics, development of both high-power neutral beam injectors and high-speed vacuum pumping techniques has played a crucial role in ongoing experiments. Together with superconducting magnets, cryogenic pumping, and high-power radiofrequency heating, these technologies have evolved to a level that extrapolates readily to meet the requirements of a tandem mirror fusion reactor.

  1. Double arch mirror study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a method of mounting light weight glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes compatible with the goals of the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was investigated. A 20 in. diameter double arch lightweight mirror previously fabricated was modified to use a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed and fabricated. The mounting concept of the double mounting mirror is outlined. The modifications made to the mirror, fabrication of the mirror mount, and room temperature testing of the mirror and mount and the extension of the mirror and mount concept to a full size (40 in. diameter) primary mirror for SIRTF are discussed.

  2. Solar simulator mirror refurbishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Solar simulator mirrors were refurbished. Two different refurbishment methods were employed. In the first, the electroformed mirror replica was removed from the casting and replaced with a new mirror replica. In the second, only the aluminized surface, with its protective overcoat, was removed from the mirror and replaced after cleaning of the nickel surface.

  3. GMT primary mirror support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charlie

    2014-07-01

    The GMT primary mirror support draws on the heritage developed for the 3.5 m, 6.5 m, and 8.4 m mirrors from the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. While similar in design philosophy and concept, each successive generation has incorporated refinements based on the experience gained from previous mirrors.

  4. Floating mirror mount

    SciTech Connect

    Koop, D.E.

    1989-01-03

    This patent describes a floating mirror mount for a mirror of a laser is described consisting of: a mirror having a front surface and a back surface, a keeper encircling the mirror and having a peripheral flange engaging the front surface of the mirror when the mirror is not installed in a laser, a retainer positioned rearwardly of the back surface of the mirror and connected to the keeper and having a spring seating surface, spring means engageable with the spring seating surface of the retainer for exerting a resilient biasing force on the mirror, and fastening means for connecting the retainer to the mirror positioning structure of the laser on installation of the mirror mount in the laser.

  5. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1995-03-21

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis. 7 figures.

  6. Kinematic high bandwidth mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    An adjustable mirror mount system for a mirror is disclosed comprising a mirror support having a planar surface thereon, a mirror frame containing a mirror and having a planar surface behind the mirror facing the planar surface of the mirror support and parallel to the reflecting surface of the mirror and mounted pivotally to the mirror support at a point central to the frame, a first adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along one axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame; and a second adjustment means between the mirror support and the mirror frame spaced from the central pivot mount for adjusting the movement of the mirror along a second axis lying in the plane of the planar surface of the mirror frame and perpendicular to the first axis.

  7. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  8. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  9. At the limit of nondispersive micro and nanofocusing mirror optics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ice, G. E.; Specht, E. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Khounsary, A.; Assoufid, L.; Liu, C.; Experimental Facilities Division; ORNL

    2004-01-01

    We describe x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror designs with the potential to produce hard x-ray beams of 40 nm or smaller. The x-ray quality mirrors required to achieve the desired performance can be fabricated by differential deposition on ultra-smooth surfaces, or by differential polishing. Various mirror systems designed for nanofocusing to {approx}40 nm and below are compared. The performance limits of total-external-reflection mirrors are compared with the limits of multilayer mirrors that can potentially focus to an even smaller spot size. The advantages of side-by-side Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors are evaluated and more advanced, four-mirror systems with significantly greater geometrical demagnification are discussed. These systems can potentially reach 5 - 20 nm focal spot sizes for multilayer and total-external-reflection optics respectively.

  10. The 8.2 metre primary mirrors of the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierickx, P.; Enard, D.; Merkle, F.; Noethe, L.; Wilson, R. N.

    1990-08-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) presently being developed at ESO is described in terms of technological advances which make its use both technically effective and feasible. The VLT capitalizes on advances in materials, polishing techniques, and mirror support systems. The VLT consists of four 8-m alt-az telescopes and a 2-m auxiliary telescope in a single-dish configuration with Zerodur meniscus mirrors passively supported on a lateral system. A discussion of the tradeoffs between glass and metal mirrors is presented, and computerized polishing is described in relation to optical specifications. The mirror is supported with 150 axial and 60 lateral supports with electromechanical actuators to modulate applied force. The active optics concept is employed via the flexibility of the primary mirror, which generates elastomechanical deformations and the position and orientation of the secondary mirror.

  11. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  12. Self in the mirror.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    What are mirror systems good for? Several suggestions have been made in response to this question, addressing the putative functions of mirror systems in minds and brains. This paper examines possible contributions of mirror systems to the emergence of subjectivity. At the heart of the discussion is the notion of social mirroring, which has a long tradition in social philosophy and social anthropology. Taking the existence of mirror devices in minds and brains for granted, I argue that social mirroring is a prerequisite for the constitution of mental selves, and, hence, the emergence of subjectivity. However, the fact that self and subjectivity are socially created should not be taken to indicate that they are illusory. They are as real as natural facts are. PMID:23410785

  13. LOXT mirror design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanspeybroeck, L.; Antrim, W.; Boyd, D.; Giacconi, R.; Sinnamon, G.; Stille, F.

    1972-01-01

    The final report for the large orbiting X-ray telescope (LOXT) high resolution mirror design study is presented. The following tasks were performed: (1) Generation of a reference and alternate preliminary design for the LOXT high resolution mirror assembly, which will meet the LOXT scientific requirements, and are within the present state of the art of materials and fabrication techniques. (2) Measurement, in X-rays, of the scattering properties of a variety of optical flats, embodying materials, coatings, and polishing techniques which might be applicable to the flight configuration LOXT high resolution mirror. (3) Preparation of a procurement specification for a paraboloid test mirror of the size of the innermost paraboloid of the high resolution mirror assembly, including the design requirements for the reference design evolved from this preliminary design study. The results of the engineering and scientific analysis and the conclusions drawn are presented. The procurement specification for the test mirror is included.

  14. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition.

  15. Integration of mirror design with suspension system using NASA's new mirror modeling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  16. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System Using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  17. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold,William R., Sr.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  18. Castable Amorphous Metal Mirrors and Mirror Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Davis, Gregory L.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    A revolutionary way to produce a mirror and mirror assembly is to cast the entire part at once from a metal alloy that combines all of the desired features into the final part: optical smoothness, curvature, flexures, tabs, isogrids, low CTE, and toughness. In this work, it has been demonstrated that castable mirrors are possible using bulk metallic glasses (BMGs, also called amorphous metals) and BMG matrix composites (BMGMCs). These novel alloys have all of the desired mechanical and thermal properties to fabricate an entire mirror assembly without machining, bonding, brazing, welding, or epoxy. BMGs are multi-component metal alloys that have been cooled in such a manner as to avoid crystallization leading to an amorphous (non-crystalline) microstructure. This lack of crystal structure and the fact that these alloys are glasses, leads to a wide assortment of mechanical and thermal properties that are unlike those observed in crystalline metals. Among these are high yield strength, carbide-like hardness, low melting temperatures (making them castable like aluminum), a thermoplastic processing region (for improving smoothness), low stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratios, relatively low CTE, density similar to titanium alloys, high elasticity and ultra-smooth cast parts (as low as 0.2-nm surface roughness has been demonstrated in cast BMGs). BMGMCs are composite alloys that consist of a BMG matrix with crystalline dendrites embedded throughout. BMGMCs are used to overcome the typically brittle failure observed in monolithic BMGs by adding a soft phase that arrests the formation of cracks in the BMG matrix. In some cases, BMGMCs offer superior castability, toughness, and fatigue resistance, if not as good a surface finish as BMGs. This work has demonstrated that BMGs and BMGMCs can be cast into prototype mirrors and mirror assemblies without difficulty.

  19. The mirror box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  20. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  1. Stable mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and a device for simultaneously locking the post assembly and the key assembly in a fixed position.

  2. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  3. Bronze rainbow hologram mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.

    2006-02-01

    This project draws on holographic embossing techniques, ancient artistic conventions of bronze mirror design and modelling and casting processes to accomplish portraiture of reflection. Laser scanning, 3D computer graphics and holographic imaging are employed to enable a permanent 3D static holographic image to appear integrated with the real-time moving reflection of a viewer's face in a polished bronze disc. The disc and the figure which holds it (caryatid) are cast in bronze from a lost wax model, a technique which has been used for millennia to make personal mirrors. The Caryatid form of bronze mirror which went through many permutations in ancient Egyptian, Greece and Rome shows a plethora of expressive figure poses ranging from sleek nudes to highly embellished multifigure arrangements. The prototype of this series was made for Australian choreographer Graeme Murphy, Artistic Director of the Sydney Dance Company. Each subsequent mirror will be unique in figure and holographic imagery as arranged between artist and subject. Conceptually this project references both the modern experience of viewing mirrors retrieved from ancient tombs, which due to deterioration of the surface no longer reflect, and the functioning of Chinese Magic mirrors, which have the ability to project a predetermined image. Inspired by the metaphorical potential of these mirrors, which do not reflect the immediate reality of the viewer, this bronze hologram mirror series enables each viewer to reflect upon himself or herself observing simultaneously the holographic image and their own partially obliterated reflection.

  4. Stroboscopic Interferometer for Measuring Mirror Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Robers, Ted

    2005-01-01

    -function generator (that is, a signal generator), an oscilloscope, a trigger filter, and an advanced charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The optical components are positioned to form a pupil image of the mirror under test on the CCD chip, so that the interference pattern representative of the instantaneous mirror shape is imaged on the CCD chip.

  5. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1978-11-14

    Apparatus and method for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell.

  6. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  7. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  8. Vibration damping for the Segmented Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Yingling, Adam J.; Griffin, Steven F.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Cobb, Richard G.; Chambers, Trevor S.

    2012-09-01

    The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey is a next-generation deployable telescope, featuring a 3-meter 6-segment primary mirror and advanced wavefront sensing and correction capabilities. In its stowed configuration, the SMT primary mirror segments collapse into a small volume; once on location, these segments open to the full 3-meter diameter. The segments must be very accurately aligned after deployment and the segment surfaces are actively controlled using numerous small, embedded actuators. The SMT employs a passive damping system to complement the actuators and mitigate the effects of low-frequency (<40 Hz) vibration modes of the primary mirror segments. Each of the six segments has three or more modes in this bandwidth, and resonant vibration excited by acoustics or small disturbances on the structure can result in phase mismatches between adjacent segments thereby degrading image quality. The damping system consists of two tuned mass dampers (TMDs) for each of the mirror segments. An adjustable TMD with passive magnetic damping was selected to minimize sensitivity to changes in temperature; both frequency and damping characteristics can be tuned for optimal vibration mitigation. Modal testing was performed with a laser vibrometry system to characterize the SMT segments with and without the TMDs. Objectives of this test were to determine operating deflection shapes of the mirror and to quantify segment edge displacements; relative alignment of λ/4 or better was desired. The TMDs attenuated the vibration amplitudes by 80% and reduced adjacent segment phase mismatches to acceptable levels.

  9. Disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi-rui; Fan, Bin; Zhang, Ming

    2014-09-01

    The success of the large telescope is largely linked to the excellent performance and reliability of the primary mirror. In order to maintain the quality of its reflective surface at the high expectations of astronomers, the primary mirror after almost two or three years of astronomical observations, needs to be removed and reinstalled for its cleaning and re-coating operation. There are a series of procedures such as the primary mirror cell dissembling from telescope, mirror handling, transportation, reintegration, alignment and so on. This paper will describe the experiences of disassembling and reintegration of large telescope primary mirror, taking a two meter grade primary mirror for example. As with all advanced and complex opto-mechanical systems, there has been the usual problems and trouble shooting.

  10. Design, test, and evaluation of an electrostatically figured membrane mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James D., Jr.; Patrick, Brian; Gierow, Paul A.; Troy, Edward

    2004-02-01

    Significant advances have been achieved in manufacturing optical quality membrane materials with surface quality suitable for use as first surface mirrors. These materials have been used to fabricate test articles demonstrating diffraction limited performance in the laboratory environment. These mirrors are supported using heavy rigid fixtures and pressure forces to tension the membrane. A lighter weight system is required to transition the membrane mirror technology to space hardware applications. Using electrostatic forces to tension and figure the membrane is one promising approach to developing a flight weight membrane mirror system. This paper discusses the design and testing of an experimental membrane mirror system that was developed to evaluate the potential areal density, figure accuracy and stability of a lightweight electrostatically figured mirror manufactured from precision cast optical quality membrane material.

  11. Final Results of the Ball AMSD Beryllium Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaney, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The 1.4-meter semi-rigid, beryllium Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) mirror completed initial cryogenic testing at Marshall's X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) in August of 2003. Results of this testing show the mirror to have very low cryogenic surface deformation and possess exceptional figure stability. Subsequent to this cryogenic testing beryllium was selected as the material of choice for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) multi-segment primary mirror. Therefore, the AMSD mirror was sent back to SSG-Tinsley for additional ambient polishing to JWST requirements. The mirror was successfully polished to less than 22nm rms of low frequency error. Those additional results are presented with comparisons to the JWST requirements.

  12. Space Mirror Alignment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean L.

    2011-01-01

    An optical alignment mirror mechanism (AMM) has been developed with angular positioning accuracy of +/-0.2 arcsec. This requires the mirror s linear positioning actuators to have positioning resolutions of +/-112 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are 0.1 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy, which translates into linear positioning resolutions at the actuator of 50 nm. The mechanism consists of a structure with sets of cross-directional flexures that enable the mirror s tip and tilt motion, a mirror with its kinematic mount, and two linear actuators. An actuator comprises a brushless DC motor, a linear ball screw, and a piezoelectric brake that holds the mirror s position while the unit is unpowered. An interferometric linear position sensor senses the actuator s position. The AMMs were developed for an Astrometric Beam Combiner (ABC) optical bench, which is part of an interferometer development. Custom electronics were also developed to accommodate the presence of multiple AMMs within the ABC and provide a compact, all-in-one solution to power and control the AMMs.

  13. Design and Analysis of Mirror Modules for IXO and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Powell, Cory; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in X-ray astronomy demand thin, light, and closely packed thin optics which lend themselves to segmentation of the annular mirrors and, in turn, a modular approach to the mirror design. The functionality requirements of such a mirror module are well understood. A baseline modular concept for the proposed International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) consisting of 14,000 glass mirror segments divided into 60 modules was developed and extensively analyzed. Through this development, our understanding of module loads, mirror stress, thermal performance, and gravity distortion have greatly progressed. The latest progress in each of these areas is discussed herein. Gravity distortion during horizontal X-ray testing and on-orbit thermal performance have proved especially difficult design challenges. In light of these challenges, fundamental trades in modular X-ray mirror design have been performed. Future directions in module X-ray mirror design are explored including the development of a 1.8 m diameter FMA utilizing smaller mirror modules. The effect of module size on mirror stress, module self-weight distortion, thermal control, and range of segment sizes required is explored with advantages demonstrated from smaller module size in most cases.

  14. The production of metal mirrors for use in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David

    This thesis demonstrates the possibility of manufacturing larger mirrors from nickel coated aluminium with a considerable cost and risk benefits compared to zero expansion glass ceramic or borosilicate. Constructing large mirrors from aluminium could cut the cost of production by one third. A new generation of very large telescopes is being designed, on the order of 100 meters diameter. The proposed designs are of mosaic type mirrors similar to the Keck Telescope primary. The enormous mass of glass required inhibits the construction, simply by its cost and production time. Very little research has been done on the processes involved in the production of large metal mirrors. However the thermal efficiency and potential improved mirror seeing benefits are documented. Space telescopes and optical telecommunications could also benefit with the application of metal mirrors. Presented here are the processes and results that culminated in the rebirth of the Birr Telescope. The main section concerns the material selection and processes in the construction of a 1.83 meter diameter 1.4 tonne aluminium primary mirror. The aluminium mirror technology developed was also applied to the construction of an aspheric thin meniscus deformable mirror. Methods employed in its production are described. Documented are the advanced computer controlled polishing methods employed in producing a one third scale model of the hyperbolic secondary mirror for the Gemini Telescopes. These were developed using an active polishing lap.

  15. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  16. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  17. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  18. Lighted, Folding Inspection Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roepe, Brian E.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, inexpensive tool used in place of expensive borescopes. Shortens inspection/photographing process. Includes two small metal or glass mirrors hinged together. Two 3-V light bulbs attached along edges of one mirror and connected to battery of two cells. Inserted into narrow opening of clevis or tand, and surface viewed and photographed in opposite mirror. Useful in assembly of segments of solid rocket motors as well as in postflight assessment, engineering evaluation, and refurbishment. Also applied in general to inspection and photographing of inner sealing surfaces to which access difficult.

  19. Ferrofluid based deformable mirrors: a new approach to adaptive optics using liquid mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Phil R.; Bergamasco, R.; Bérubé, Vincent; Borra, Ermanno F.; Gingras, Julie; Ritcey, Anna-Marie R.; Rioux, Myriam; Robitaille, Nathalie; Thibault, Simon; Vieira da Silva, L., Jr.; Yockell-Lelièvre, Helene

    2003-02-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Liquid mirrors have long been recognized a potential low cost alternative to conventional solid mirrors. By using a water or oil based ferrofluid we are able to benefit from a stronger magnetic response than is found in magnetic liquid metal amalgams and avoid the difficulty of passing a uniform current through a liquid. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We present experimental results obtained with a prototype deformable liquid mirror based on this combination.

  20. JWST Mirror Installation

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first six of 18 hexagonal shaped segments that will form NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope’s primary mirror for space observations were readied this week to begin final cryogenic testing at...

  1. The Rotating Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theory of the rotating mirror, its use in measuring the velocity of the electrical signal in wires, and the velocity of light. Concludes with a description of the manometric flame apparatus developed for analyzing sound waves. (SK)

  2. Mirror Attachment For Borescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gearhart, John F.; Peloquin, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Attachment for articulated borescope provides views into small, normally inaccessible spaces. Simple small round mirror on extension arm welded to borescope head. Tilted at angle to axis of borescope head, mirror provides views sideways to borescope head. Disassembly of turbopump blades not necessary to enable fluorescent-penetrant-dye inspection. Attachment used to inspect difficult-to-reach internal parts of other assemblies. Also used for inspection with ordinary white light.

  3. Notes on moving mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Obadia, N.; Parentani, R.

    2001-08-15

    The Davies-Fulling (DF) model describes the scattering of a massless field by a noninertial mirror in two dimensions. In this paper, we generalize this model in two different ways. First, we consider partially reflecting mirrors. We show that the Bogoliubov coefficients relating inertial modes can be expressed in terms of the reflection factor and the transformation from inertial modes to modes at rest with respect to the mirror. In this perspective, the DF model is simply the limiting case when the reflection factor is unity for all frequencies. In the second part, we introduce an alternative model which is based on self-interactions described by an action principle. When the coupling is constant, this model can be solved exactly and gives rise to a partially reflecting mirror. The usefulness of this dynamical model lies in the possibility of switching off the coupling between the mirror and field. This allows us to obtain regularized expressions for the fluxes in situations where they are singular when using the DF model. Two examples are considered. The first concerns the flux induced by the disappearance of the reflection condition, a situation which bears some analogies with the end of the evaporation of a black hole. The second case concerns the flux emitted by a uniformly accelerated mirror.

  4. Superconducting mirror for laser gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.

    1991-05-14

    This paper describes an apparatus for reflecting a light beam. It comprises: a mirror assembly comprising a substrate and a superconductive mirror formed on such substrate, wherein: the substrate is optically transparent to the light beam and has a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 1.0 millimeter, and the superconductive mirror has a thickness of from about 0.5 to about 1.0 microns; means for cooling the superconductive mirror; means for measuring the temperature of the superconductive mirror; means for determining the reflectivity of the superconductive mirror; and means for varying the reflectivity of the superconductive mirror.

  5. Cold welded laser mirror assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffee, E.G.

    1989-02-07

    A gas laser apparatus is described comprising: (a) a gas laser tube having a bore extending between cathode and anode ends; (b) the laser tube terminating at each end with a bellows assembly operative to extend the length of the tube bore; (c) each bellows assembly comprising: (i) an adjustably positionable metal bellows secured to a selected end of the tube; (ii) a tubular pedestal secured at one end to the bellows to form an extension thereof and at the opposite end providing a mirror mount surface; (iii) a mirror secured to the surface; (iv) a cold weld material located between the mirror and mirror mount surface; and (v) retaining means secured to the pedestal encasing the outer portion of the mirror and operative to apply pressure to the cold weld material to establish a cold weld seal between the mirror and mirror mount surface to retain the mirror on and prevent shifting of the mirror with respect to the mirror mount surface.

  6. Mechanical principles of large mirror supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Eisenträger, Peter; Süss, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Large thin meniscus mirrors use force-controlled shape actuators to obtain the required optical performance. The shape actuators can be interpreted as an advancement of classical mirror supports as whiffle trees or iso-static levers, which worked purely mechanical. The paper develops, after a short historical overview, the theoretical background of mirror mechanics. Different combinations of force-controlled shape actuators with mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic whiffle trees or iso-static levers are analyzed in regard of their impact on optical performance, dynamic and control behavior. The investigations were the basis for the choice of the shape actuator system for the E-ELT M2, executed by MT Mechatronics under an ESO contract in 2008-09.

  7. Space Adaptation of Active Mirror Segment Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Gregory H.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a three year effort by Blue Line Engineering Co. to advance the state of segmented mirror systems in several separate but related areas. The initial set of tasks were designed to address the issues of system level architecture, digital processing system, cluster level support structures, and advanced mirror fabrication concepts. Later in the project new tasks were added to provide support to the existing segmented mirror testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the form of upgrades to the 36 subaperture wavefront sensor. Still later, tasks were added to build and install a new system processor based on the results of the new system architecture. The project was successful in achieving a number of important results. These include the following most notable accomplishments: 1) The creation of a new modular digital processing system that is extremely capable and may be applied to a wide range of segmented mirror systems as well as many classes of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control systems such as active structures or industrial automation. 2) A new graphical user interface was created for operation of segmented mirror systems. 3) The development of a high bit rate serial data loop that permits bi-directional flow of data to and from as many as 39 segments daisy-chained to form a single cluster of segments. 4) Upgrade of the 36 subaperture Hartmann type Wave Front Sensor (WFS) of the Phased Array Mirror, Extendible Large Aperture (PAMELA) testbed at MSFC resulting in a 40 to 5OX improvement in SNR which in turn enabled NASA personnel to achieve many significant strides in improved closed-loop system operation in 1998. 5) A new system level processor was built and delivered to MSFC for use with the PAMELA testbed. This new system featured a new graphical user interface to replace the obsolete and non-supported menu system originally delivered with the PAMELA system. The hardware featured Blue Line's new stackable

  8. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William; Bevan Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication is making very large space based telescopes possible. In the many applications, only monolithic mirrors meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass. Again, available and planned payload shroud size limits near term designs to 4 meter class mirror. Practical 8 meter and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors lower mass and larger mirrors, presents the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system and be launched. This paper shows how the design of the suspension system and mirror blank needs to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems, which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass. The AMTD project is developing and maturing the processes for future replacements for HUBBLE, creating the design tools, validating the methods and techniques necessary to manufacture, test and launch extremely large optical missions. This paper will use the AMTD 4 meter "design point" as an illustration of the typical use of the modeler in generating the multiple models of mirror and suspension systems used during the conceptual design phase of most projects. The influence of Hexapod geometry, mirror depth, cell size and construction techniques (Exelsis Deep Core Low Temperature Fusion (c) versus Corning Frit Bonded (c) versus Schott Pocket Milled Zerodur (c) in this particular study) are being evaluated. Due to space and time consideration we will only be able to present snippets of the study in this paper. The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low

  9. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-31

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  10. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  11. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-01-01

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy. PMID:27583794

  12. Variable-curvature mirrors for the VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Marc; Derie, Frederic

    1998-07-01

    A variable curvature mirror is a powerful device that can increase the field of view of optical interferometers. Such a mirror has being developed for the coherent combined focus of the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope Interferometer. The variable focal length permits positioning of the pupil image of an individual telescope at a precise location after the delay-line. This property is necessary to exactly remap homothetically the output pupil configuration at the image beam combiner. Given the large zoom range that is needed in the delay line, when the mirror is not stressed the optical surface is a plane while it is convex with f/2.5 at maximum stress. The mirror itself is a very small stainless steel meniscus, with a 300 micrometers thickness, because only the high elasticity of such material allows to achieve the full domain of curvature. The thickness distribution of the meniscus is calculated using elasticity theory in the case of a large deformation. The realization of this micro-optic active device requires advanced techniques in optical fabrication and in particular high precision manufacturing with numerical command lathe. This article also presents the testing of this highly variable curvature mirror and the surface quality obtained within the full curvature range.

  13. Deformable mirrors based on magnetic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Phil R.; Borra, Ermanno F.; Bergamasco, Rosangela; Gingras, Julie; Truong, Long; Ritcey, Anna

    2004-10-01

    The trend towards ever larger telescopes and more advanced adaptive optics systems such as multi-conjugate adaptive optics is driving the need for deformable mirrors with a large number of low cost actuators. Other applications require strokes larger than those readily available from conventional mirrors. Magnetically deformable liquid mirrors are a potential solution to both these problems. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid-like film (MELLF) on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids. This combination provides a liquid optical surface that can be precisely shaped in a magnetic field. We have demonstrated a reflective coating that is stable for more than 30 days with a reflectivity of 50% in the near infrared. Additional experiments indicate that MELLF coatings can provide near infrared reflectivity values in excess of 80%. We also report on recent response time measurements of liquid deformable mirrors. We have demonstrated liquid mirror actuators with slew rates of 800 μm/s, corresponding to an actuator bandwidth of approximately 40 Hz and 80 Hz for strokes of 10 μm and 5 μm respectively.

  14. Rollable Thin-Shell Nanolaminate Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Barbee, Troy, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A class of lightweight, deployable, thin-shell, curved mirrors with built-in precise-shape-control actuators is being developed for high-resolution scientific imaging. This technology incorporates a combination of advanced design concepts in actuation and membrane optics that, heretofore, have been considered as separate innovations. These mirrors are conceived to be stowed compactly in a launch shroud and transported aboard spacecraft, then deployed in outer space to required precise shapes at much larger dimensions (diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters). A typical shell rollable mirror structure would include: (1) a flexible single- or multiple-layer face sheet that would include an integrated reflective surface layer that would constitute the mirror; (2) structural supports in the form of stiffeners made of a shape-memory alloy (SMA); and (3) piezoelectric actuators. The actuators, together with an electronic control subsystem, would implement a concept of hierarchical distributed control, in which (1) the SMA actuators would be used for global shape control and would generate the large deformations needed for the deployment process and (2) the piezoelectric actuators would generate smaller deformations and would be used primarily to effect fine local control of the shape of the mirror.

  15. Status of Mirror Technology for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, D. N.

    2000-10-01

    establish credibility that the goals of NGST could be achieved. The past two years of the program has seen major steps in the development of several mirror materials, which not only might have NGST applicability but could also support other programs for other customers. Additionally, a second large mirror procurement, the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD), has been implemented providing a focal point to complete the mirror technology development and lead ultimately to the production of mirrors that will fly on NEXUS (NGST flight experimentand) and NGST. This talk will focus on a status of the mirror technology developed over the past 4 years on the NGST program.

  16. Physics of mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1982-05-01

    In recent years the emphasis in research on the magnetic mirror approach to fusion has been shifted to address what are essentially economically-motivated issues. The introduction of the Tandem Mirror idea solved in principal the problem of low Q (low fusion power gain) of mirror-based fusion systems. In order to optimize the tandem mirror idea from an economic standpoint, some important improvements have been suggested. These improvements include the thermal barrier idea of Baldwin and Logan and the axicell concept of Kesner. These new modifications introduce some special physics considerations. Among these are (1) The MHD stability properties of high energy electron components in the end cells; (2) The optimization of end-cell magnetic field configurations with the objective of minimizing equilibrium parallel currents; (3) The suppression of microstabilities by use of sloshing ion distributions. Following a brief outline of tandem mirror concepts, the above three topics are discussed, with illustrative examples taken from earlier work or from recent design studies.

  17. Helically linked mirror arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjan, P.

    1986-08-01

    A scheme is described for helical linking of mirror sections, which endeavors to combine the better features of toroidal and mirror devices by eliminating the longitudinal loss of mirror machines, having moderately high average ..beta.. and steady state operation. This scheme is aimed at a device, with closed magnetic surfaces having rotational transform for equilibrium, one or more axisymmetric straight sections for reduced radial loss, a simple geometrical axis for the links and an overall positive magnetic well depth for stability. We start by describing several other attempts at linking of mirror sections, made both in the past and the present. Then a description of our helically linked mirror scheme is given. This example has three identical straight sections connected by three sections having helical geometric axes. A theoretical analysis of the magnetic field and single-particle orbits in them leads to the conclusion that most of the passing particles would be confined in the device and they would have orbits independent of pitch angle under certain conditions. Numerical results are presented, which agree well with the theoretical results as far as passing particle orbits are concerned.

  18. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  19. Smart materials optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2014-08-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional or `smart' composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation as well. Moreover, since the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and 3D printing. The technology therefore holds promise for development of a new generation of lightweight, compact `smart' telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  20. The mirror neuron system in post-stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization. Up today the basic concepts of the current literature on mirror neurons and the major findings regarding the use of mirror therapy and motor imagery as potential tools to promote reorganization and functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients. We conclude that the experimental advances on Mirror Neurons will bring new rational therapeutic approaches to post-stroke rehabilitation. PMID:24134862

  1. The mirror neuron system in post-stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Diana; Teixeira, Silmar; Lucas, Marina; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Chaves, Fernanda; Peressutti, Caroline; Machado, Sergio; Bittencourt, Juliana; Menéndez-González, Manuel; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Velasques, Bruna; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Different treatments for stroke patients have been proposed; among them the mirror therapy and motion imagery lead to functional recovery by providing a cortical reorganization. Up today the basic concepts of the current literature on mirror neurons and the major findings regarding the use of mirror therapy and motor imagery as potential tools to promote reorganization and functional recovery in post-stroke patients. Bibliographic research was conducted based on publications over the past thirteen years written in English in the databases Scielo, Pubmed/MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge. The studies showed how the interaction among vision, proprioception and motor commands promotes the recruitment of mirror neurons, thus providing cortical reorganization and functional recovery of post-stroke patients. We conclude that the experimental advances on Mirror Neurons will bring new rational therapeutic approaches to post-stroke rehabilitation.

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  3. Mirror Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract led to a commercially available instrument used to measure the shape profile of mirror surfaces in scientific instruments. Bauer Associates, Inc.'s Bauer Model 200 Profilometer is based upon a different measurement concept. The local curvature of the mirror's surface is measured at many points, and the collection of data is computer processed to yield the desired shape profile. (Earlier profilometers are based on the principle of interferometry.) The system is accurate and immune to problems like vibration and turbulence. Two profilometers are currently marketed, and a third will soon be commercialized.

  4. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  5. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  6. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  7. Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2008-06-01

    Mirror neurons are a distinct class of neurons that transform specific sensory information into a motor format. Mirror neurons have been originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey. Subsequent neurophysiological (TMS, EEG, MEG) and brain imaging studies have shown that a mirror mechanism is also present in humans. According to its anatomical locations, mirror mechanism plays a role in action and intention understanding, imitation, speech, and emotion feeling.

  8. Paranal Receives New Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    A 4.1-metre diameter primary mirror, a vital part of the world's newest and fastest survey telescope, VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) has been delivered to its new mountaintop home at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The mirror will now be coupled with a small camera for initial testing prior to installing the main camera in June. Full scientific operations are due to start early next year. VISTA will form part of ESO's Very Large Telescope facility. ESO PR Photo 10d/08 ESO PR Photo 10d/08 The VISTA Mirror The mirror arrived over the Easter weekend at the Paranal Observatory where the telescope is being assembled at an altitude of 2518m, in Chile's Atacama Desert. VISTA Project Manager Alistair McPherson from STFC's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) accompanied the mirror on its journey to Chile: "This is a major milestone for the VISTA project. The precious mirror was loaded on to a plane in a special cradle that used tennis balls to cushion it from impact for its arduous journey across three continents. " "The mirror had a difficult four-day journey, by air and by road. It arrived in perfect condition and now that it has been coated, we will install the mirror in the telescope with a small test camera for about four weeks testing. We plan to install the main camera in June," said the Project Scientist on VISTA, Will Sutherland of Queen Mary, University of London, UK. The VISTA 4.1-metre diameter primary mirror is the most strongly curved large mirror ever polished to such a precise and exacting surface accuracy - deviations from a perfect surface of less than 1/3000th of the thickness of a human hair. On arrival at Cerro Paranal it was safely craned into the telescope dome where it was washed and coated with a thin layer of protected silver in the facility's coating plant. Silver is the best metal for the purpose since it reflects over 98% of near-infrared light, better than the more commonly used aluminium. To date, the reflectivity

  9. Novel high-bandwidth bimorph deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Michael S.; Laycock, Leslie C.; Archer, Nick J.

    2004-12-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a critical underpinning technology for future laser delivery (including free-space optical communications), target illumination and imaging systems. It measures and compensates for optical distortion caused by transmission through the atmosphere, resulting in the ability to deploy smaller lasers and identify targets at greater ranges. One of the key components in an AO system is the wavefront modifier, which acts on the incoming or outgoing beam to counter the effects of the atmosphere. BAE SYSTEMS Advanced Technology Centre is developing multi-element bimorph deformable mirrors for such an applications. Our initial designs were based on a standard construction and exhibited a resonant frequency of 1kHz with a maximum stroke of +/-20μm for an active aperture of 50mm. These devices were limited by the necessity to have a 'dead space' between the inner active area and the mirror boundary; this ensured that both the requirements for the stroke and the fixed boundary conditions could be met simultaneously. However, there was a significant penalty to pay in terms of bandwidth, which is inversely proportional to the square of the full mirror diameter. In a series of iteration steps, we have created novel mounting arrangements that reduce dead space and thus provide the optimum trade-off between bandwidth and stroke. These schemes include supporting the mirror from underneath, rather than at its edge. As a result, models of 60mm active diameter mirrors predict a resonance in excess of 5kHz, combined with a maximum stroke greater than +/-40μm. This paper will discuss a number of different mirror designs and present experimental results for recently assembled devices.

  10. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2011-01-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge. An alternate explanation is given.

  11. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  12. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOEpatents

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  13. Rearview Mirror Dimming Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2011-12-01

    Students are often unaware of the little tab on a rear-view mirror that is used to dim headlights from the rear. Those who know about this tab are usually interested in knowing how it works. Explanations of the optics involved can be found in Serway and Jewett and Jones and Edge.2 An alternate explanation is given below:

  14. Tandem mirror fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.

    1983-12-02

    The tandem mirror program has evolved considerably in the last decade. Of significance is the viable reactor concept embodied in the MARS design. An aggressive experimental program, culminating in the operation of MFTF-B in late 1986, will provide a firm basis for refining the MARS design as necessary for constructing a reactor prototype in the 1990s.

  15. JWST Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Since the initial Design Studies leading to JWST, Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to enable the next generation of large aperture space telescopes required to achieve the science goals of imaging the earliest galaxies and proto-galaxies after the big bang. Specific telescope architectures were explored via three independent design concept studies conducted during the summer of 1996. Achieving the desired science objectives required a never before demonstrated space telescope capability, one with an 8 meter class primary mirror that is diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operating in deep space at temperatures well below 70K. Beryllium was identified in the NASA "Yardstick" design as the preferred material because of its ability to provide stable optical performance in the anticipated thermal environment as well as its excellent specific stiffness. Because of launch vehicle constraints, two very significant architectural constraints were placed upon the telescope: segmentation and areal density. Each of these directly resulted in specific technology capability requirements. First, because the maximum launch vehicle payload fairing diameter is approximately 4.5 meters, the only way to launch an 8 meter class mirror is to segment it, fold it and deploy it on orbit - resulting in actuation and control requirements. Second, because of launch vehicle mass limits, the primary mirror allocation was only 1000 kg - resulting in a maximum areal density specification of 20 kilograms per square meter.

  16. NIF small mirror mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarville, Tom J.

    1999-11-01

    The most prominent physical characteristics of the 192-beam NIF laser are the 123 m length of the main laser and 400 mm aperture of each beam line. The main laser is illustrated in Figure 1, which shows half the total beam lines. Less visible are the many small optics (less than 100-mm diameter) used to align and diagnose each beam line. Commercial mounts can be used for most of the small aperture turning mirrors. This paper reviews the NIF projects effort to identify suitable commercial mirror mounts. The small mirror mounts have stability, wave front, space, and cleanliness requirements similar to the large aperture optics. While cost favors use of commercial mounts, there is little other than user experience to guide the mount qualification process. At present, there is no recognizable qualification standard with which to compare various products. In a large project like NIF, different user experience leads to different product selection. In some cases the differences are justified by application needs, but more often the selection process is somewhat random due to a lack of design standards. The result is redundant design and testing by project staff and suppliers. Identification of suitable mirror mounts for large projects like NIF would be streamlined if standards for physical and performance criteria were available, reducing cost for both the project and suppliers. Such standards could distinguish mounts for performance critical applications like NIF from laboratory applications, where ease of use and flexibility is important.

  17. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    The goal of the proposed program is to enable increased angular resolution and collection areas for future major X-ray observatories by incorporating control of the mirror surfaces after fab-rication and mounting. We propose to develop and implement a method for preparing adjustable optics with integrated control elements on curved mirror segments for future X-ray space telescopes. Development of such mirror elements will provide a major advance to the field of X-ray astronomy, by enabling mirrors with half an arcsecond angular resolution using thin, lightweight glass to significantly increase the collection area. This is an enabling technology for mission concepts such as the X-ray Surveyor. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  18. Cosmology with liquid mirror telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, David W.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Liquid mirrors provide an exciting means to obtain large optical telescopes for substantially lower costs than conventional technologies. The liquid mirror concept has been demonstrated in the lab with the construction of a diffraction limited 1.5 m mirror. The mirror surface, using liquid mercury, forms a perfect parabolic shape when the mirror cell is rotated at a uniform velocity. A liquid mirror must be able to support a heavy mercury load with minimal flexure and have a fundamental resonant frequency that is as high as possible, to suppress the amplitude of surface waves caused by small vibrations transmitted to the mirror. To minimize the transmission of vibrations to the liquid surface, the entire mirror rests on an air bearing. This necessitates the mirror cell being lightweight, due to the limited load capabilities of the air bearing. The mirror components must also have physical characteristics which minimize the effects of thermal expansion with ambient temperature fluctuations in the observatory. In addition, the 2.7 m mirror construction is designed so that the techniques used may be readily extended to the construction of large mirrors. To attain the goals of a lightweight, rigid mirror, a composite laminant construction was used. The mirror consists of a foam core cut to the desired parabolic shape, with an accuracy of a few mm. An aluminum hub serves as an anchor for the foam and skin, and allows precise centering of the mirror on the air bearing and drive system. Several plys of Kevlar, covered in an epoxy matrix, are then applied to the foam. A final layer of pure epoxy is formed by spin casting. This final layer is parabolic to within a fraction of a mm. An aluminum ring bonded to the circumference of the mirror retains the mercury, and incorporates stainless-steel hard-points for the attachment of balance weights.

  19. Optimum selection of high performance mirror substrates for diamond finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Sutherland, James S.

    2016-05-01

    Due to advances in manufacturing processes, the substrate options for high performance diamond machined mirrors are expanding. Fewer compromises have to be made to achieve the needed weight, stiffness and finish while maintaining reasonable costs. In addition to the traditional mirror materials like aluminum and beryllium, there are some less common materials that can now be included in the trade space that fill the cost and performance continuum between wrought aluminum and beryllium mirrors. Aluminum and beryllium, respectively, had been the low cost/fair performance and very high cost/very high performance bounds for substrate selection. These additional substrates provide multiple near net shape blank options and processes, mostly within these bounds, that can be considered in a mirror cost versus performance trade analysis. This paper will include a summary of some advances in manufacturing processes that provide more substrate options for diamond machined mirrors with some sample performance analysis and data. This is merged with the traditional substrate options to illustrate the now larger mirror substrate trade space. Some benchmark structural analysis is provided to back up a generic mirror design trade study.

  20. Finite Element Modeling of a Semi-Rigid Hybrid Mirror and a Highly Actuated Membrane Mirror as Candidates for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Larry; Jacobson, Dave; Mosier, Gary; Nein, Max; Page, Timothy; Redding, Dave; Sutherlin, Steve; Wilkerson, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Advanced space telescopes, which will eventually replace the Hubble Space Telescope (HTS), will have apertures of 8 - 20 n. Primary mirrors of these dimensions will have to be foldable to fit into the space launcher. By necessity these mirrors will be extremely light weight and flexible and the historical approaches to mirror designs, where the mirror is made as rigid as possible to maintain figure and to serve as the anchor for the entire telescope, cannot be applied any longer. New design concepts and verifications will depend entirely on analytical methods to predict optical performance. Finite element modeling of the structural and thermal behavior of such mirrors is becoming the tool for advanced space mirror designs. This paper discusses some of the preliminary tasks and study results, which are currently the basis for the design studies of the Next Generation Space Telescope.

  1. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia.

  2. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia. PMID:26118388

  3. Deterministic magnetorheological finishing of optical aspheric mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ci; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Li, Shengyi; Shi, Feng

    2009-05-01

    A new method magnetorheological finishing (MRF) used for deterministical finishing of optical aspheric mirrors is applied to overcome some disadvantages including low finishing efficiency, long iterative time and unstable convergence in the process of conventional polishing. Based on the introduction of the basic principle of MRF, the key techniques to implement deterministical MRF are also discussed. To demonstrate it, a 200 mm diameter K9 class concave asphere with a vertex radius of 640mm was figured on MRF polish tool developed by ourselves. Through one process about two hours, the surface accuracy peak-to-valley (PV) is improved from initial 0.216λ to final 0.179λ and root-mean-square (RMS) is improved from 0.027λ to 0.017λ (λ = 0.6328um ). High-precision and high-efficiency convergence of optical aspheric surface error shows that MRF is an advanced optical manufacturing method that owns high convergence ratio of surface figure, high precision of optical surfacing, stabile and controllable finishing process. Therefore, utilizing MRF to finish optical aspheric mirrors determinately is credible and stabile; its advantages can be also used for finishing optical elements on varieties of types such as plane mirrors and spherical mirrors.

  4. Alignment and Integration of Lightweight Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler; Biskach, Michael; Mazzarella, Jim; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it difficult not to impart distortion at the sub-arc-second level. This paper outlines the precise alignment, permanent bonding, and verification testing techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Improvements in alignment include new hardware and automation software. Improvements in bonding include two module new simulators to bond mirrors into, a glass housing for proving single pair bonding, and a Kovar module for bonding multiple pairs of mirrors. Three separate bonding trials were x-ray tested producing results meeting the requirement of sub ten arc-second alignment. This paper will highlight these recent advances in alignment, testing, and bonding techniques and the exciting developments in thin x-ray optic technology development.

  5. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  6. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  7. Improved cryogenic aluminum mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Don, Ken; Sumner, Richard E.

    1998-09-01

    Optical surface deformation of metal mirrors used at cryogenic temperatures is reduced through the use of a new process of plating amorphous aluminum on aluminum. The AlumiPlateTM process (produced by AlumiPlate, Inc. in Minneapolis, MN) plates a layer of 99.9+% high purity aluminum about 125 micrometers thick atop the substrate. Very good surface finishes are produced by direct diamond turning of the plating, with some samples below 40 angstroms RMS. Optical testing of a 175-mm diameter, 550-mm optical radius of curvature 6061-T651/AlumiPlateTM aluminum sphere was performed at 65 K to determine cryogenic optical surface figure stability. In five cycles from 300 to 65 K, an average optical surface change of 0.047 wave RMS (1 wave equals 633 nm) was observed. A total optical figure change of 0.03 wave RMS at 65 K was observed from the first to last cycle. The cause of this relatively small long-term change is not yet determined. The test mirror is bi-concave, with a semi- kinematic toroidal mount, and is machined from the axis of a billet. An `uphill quench' heat treatment consisting of five cycles from liquid nitrogen to boiling water temperatures is used to minimize residual stress in the test mirror. Initial diamond turning of the mirror by the Optical Filter Corp., Keene, NH, produced a 300 K unmounted optical surface figure of 0.380 wave peak-to-valley and 0.059 wave RMS. A second effort at diamond turning by II-VI, Inc., Saxonburg, PA produced a 300 K optical figure of 0.443 wave peak-to-valley and 0.066 wave RMS, with a surface roughness varying from 29 to 42 angstroms.

  8. Lightweight Substrates For Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. Kyle

    1991-01-01

    New substrate uses conventional quasi-isotropic fabric laminate with surfacing layer of carbon-fiber paper consisting of randomly oriented chopped carbon fibers. Layered structure of fabric and paper relatively easy to manufacture. When impregnated with carbon, structure rigid and stable. Substrates of this type made quite thin, thus keeping areal weights to minimum. Mirrors of this type made faster, and cost less, than predecessors.

  9. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  10. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  11. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers and Technology Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers and the resulting performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsecond angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We also discuss the priorities for technology development needed to enable the construction of ATLAST for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions. Keywords: Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST); ultraviolet/optical space telescopes; astrophysics; astrobiology; technology development.

  12. Nanolaminate Mirrors With "Piston" Figure-Control Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Andrew; Redding, David; Hickey, Gregory; Knight, Jennifer; Moynihan, Philip; Lih, Shyh0Shiuh; Barbee, Troy

    2003-01-01

    Efforts are under way to develop a special class of thin-shell curved mirrors for high-resolution imaging in visible and infrared light in a variety of terrestrial or extraterrestrial applications. These mirrors can have diameters of the order of a meter and include metallic film reflectors on nanolaminate substrates supported by multiple distributed piezoceramic gpiston h-type actuators for micron-level figure control. Whereas conventional glass mirrors of equivalent size and precision have areal mass densities between 50 and 150 kg/sq m, the nanolaminate mirrors, including not only the reflector/ shell portions but also the actuators and the backing structures needed to react the actuation forces, would have areal mass densities that may approach .5 kg/m2. Moreover, whereas fabrication of a conventional glass mirror of equivalent precision takes several years, the reflector/shell portion of a nanolaminate mirror can be fabricated in less than a week, and its actuation system can be fabricated in 1 to 2 months. The engineering of these mirrors involves a fusion of the technological heritage of multisegmented adaptive optics and deformable mirrors with more recent advances in metallic nanolaminates and in mathematical modeling of the deflections of thin, curved shells in response to displacements by multiple, distributed actuators. Because a nanolaminate shell is of the order of 10 times as strong as an otherwise identical shell made of a single, high-strength, non-nanolaminate metal suitable for mirror use, a nanolaminate mirror can be made very thin (typically between 100 and 150 m from the back of the nanolaminate substrate to the front reflecting surface). The thinness and strength of the nanolaminate are what make it possible to use distributed gpiston h-type actuators for surface figure control with minimal local concentrated distortion (called print-through in the art) at the actuation points.

  13. Replication of lightweight mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming Y.; Matson, Lawrence E.; Lee, Heedong; Chen, Chenggang

    2009-08-01

    The fabrication of lightweight mirror assemblages via a replication technique offers great potential for eliminating the high cost and schedule associated with the grinding and polishing steps needed for conventional glass or SiC mirrors. A replication mandrel is polished to an inverse figure shape and to the desired finish quality. It is then, coated with a release layer, the appropriate reflective layer, and followed by a laminate for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) tailorability and strength. This optical membrane is adhered to a mirror structural substrate with a low shrinkage, CTE tailored adhesive. Afterwards, the whole assembly is separated from the mandrel. The mandrel is then cleaned and reused for the next replication run. The ultimate goal of replication is to preserve the surface finish and figure of the optical membrane upon its release from the mandrel. Successful replication requires a minimization of the residual stresses within the optical coating stack, the curing stresses from the adhesive and the thermal stress resulting from CTE mismatch between the structural substrate, the adhesive, and the optical membrane. In this paper, the results on replicated trials using both metal/metal and ceramic/ceramic laminates adhered to light weighted structural substrates made from syntactic foams (both inorganic and organic) will be discussed.

  14. Two-mirror optical system with a small fold mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinping; Li, Yingcai; Yang, Jianfeng

    1998-09-01

    A new configuration of two-mirror optical system with a small fold mirror is presented in this paper. Consisting of a concave (positive power) primary mirror followed by a small flat mirror, a concave (positive power) secondary mirror, four lenses and a beam splitter, it gives the excellent image quality. A 1.5-m EFL, F/10 system of the upper configuration is designed over the 4 degree(s) field angle and 0.50 approximately 0.70 micrometers wavelength range. The aberrations have been highly corrected and the distortion is less than 0.3% over the field. The obscuration could be minimized by reducing primary radius of curvature and avoiding the spider that holds the small fold mirror.

  15. Next Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William; Fitzgerald, Matthew; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models possible.

  16. Next-Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, Phil

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models possible

  17. Next Generation Lightweight Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Fitzgerald, Mathew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 5-10 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any editor, all the key shell thickness parameters are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite models easier.

  18. Next generation lightweight mirror modeling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.; Fitzgerald, Matthew; Rosa, Rubin Jaca; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low temperature fusion, Corning's continued improvements in the Frit bonding process and the ability to cast large complex designs, combined with water-jet and conventional diamond machining of glasses and ceramics has created the need for more efficient means of generating finite element models of these structures. Traditional methods of assembling 400,000 + element models can take weeks of effort, severely limiting the range of possible optimization variables. This paper will introduce model generation software developed under NASA sponsorship for the design of both terrestrial and space based mirrors. The software deals with any current mirror manufacturing technique, single substrates, multiple arrays of substrates, as well as the ability to merge submodels into a single large model. The modeler generates both mirror and suspension system elements, suspensions can be created either for each individual petal or the whole mirror. A typical model generation of 250,000 nodes and 450,000 elements only takes 3-5 minutes, much of that time being variable input time. The program can create input decks for ANSYS, ABAQUS and NASTRAN. An archive/retrieval system permits creation of complete trade studies, varying cell size, depth, and petal size, suspension geometry with the ability to recall a particular set of parameters and make small or large changes with ease. The input decks created by the modeler are text files which can be modified by any text editor, all the shell thickness parameters and suspension spring rates are accessible and comments in deck identify which groups of elements are associated with these parameters. This again makes optimization easier. With ANSYS decks, the nodes representing support attachments are grouped into components; in ABAQUS these are SETS and in NASTRAN as GRIDPOINT SETS, this make integration of these models into large telescope or satellite

  19. Design of optical mirror structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soosaar, K.

    1971-01-01

    The structural requirements for large optical telescope mirrors was studied with a particular emphasis placed on the three-meter Large Space Telescope primary mirror. Analysis approaches through finite element methods were evaluated with the testing and verification of a number of element types suitable for particular mirror loadings and configurations. The environmental conditions that a mirror will experience were defined and a candidate list of suitable mirror materials with their properties compiled. The relation of the mirror mechanical behavior to the optical performance is discussed and a number of suitable design criteria are proposed and implemented. A general outline of a systematic method to obtain the best structure for the three-meter diffraction-limited system is outlined. Finite element programs, using the STRUDL 2 analysis system, were written for specific mirror structures encompassing all types of active and passive mirror designs. Parametric studies on support locations, effects of shear deformation, diameter to thickness ratios, lightweight and sandwich mirror configurations, and thin shell active mirror needs were performed.

  20. A spectrum of shadowed mirroring.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Melissa C

    2012-04-01

    The central focus of this paper is to explore and extend Kohut's theory of maternal mirroring and to place it within the current context of psychoanalytic thinking. Kohut believed a child must experience "positive" mirroring from his or her mother in infancy and beyond to ensure development of a healthy self. Kohut alludes, however, to a possible situation in which the mother's face, metaphorically a mirror, can appear "faceless" to her child. From this I have inferred the concept of what I shall call "shadowed mirroring." Clinical and literary examples show that distorted, "shadowed" mirroring appears on a spectrum, with passive mirroring at one end and hostile (either verbal or nonverbal) mirroring on the other; some individuals experience both. I then consider how "shadowed mirroring," especially hostile mirroring, can be understood within the twin contexts of the overall mother-child relationship and present-day Intersubjective/Relational thinking that is both bidirectional and co-constructed. Shadowed mirroring can lead to severe personality dysfunction along the borderline-narcissistic range, as well as to difficulties in the areas of identity formation, failure of self-cohesiveness, and the blunting of certain humane qualities like empathy.

  1. A spectrum of shadowed mirroring.

    PubMed

    Wanamaker, Melissa C

    2012-04-01

    The central focus of this paper is to explore and extend Kohut's theory of maternal mirroring and to place it within the current context of psychoanalytic thinking. Kohut believed a child must experience "positive" mirroring from his or her mother in infancy and beyond to ensure development of a healthy self. Kohut alludes, however, to a possible situation in which the mother's face, metaphorically a mirror, can appear "faceless" to her child. From this I have inferred the concept of what I shall call "shadowed mirroring." Clinical and literary examples show that distorted, "shadowed" mirroring appears on a spectrum, with passive mirroring at one end and hostile (either verbal or nonverbal) mirroring on the other; some individuals experience both. I then consider how "shadowed mirroring," especially hostile mirroring, can be understood within the twin contexts of the overall mother-child relationship and present-day Intersubjective/Relational thinking that is both bidirectional and co-constructed. Shadowed mirroring can lead to severe personality dysfunction along the borderline-narcissistic range, as well as to difficulties in the areas of identity formation, failure of self-cohesiveness, and the blunting of certain humane qualities like empathy. PMID:22489812

  2. Relating the "mirrorness" of mirror neurons to their origins.

    PubMed

    Kilner, James M; Friston, Karl J

    2014-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, mirror neurons have generated much interest and debate. A commonly held view of mirror neuron function is that they transform "visual information into knowledge," thus enabling action understanding and non-verbal social communication between con-specifics (Rizzolatti & Craighero 2004). This functionality is thought to be so important that it has been argued that mirror neurons must be a result of selective pressure.

  3. Development of diamond machined mirror arrays for integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David; Wells, Martyn; Dickson, Colin J.; Shore, Paul; Morantz, Paul

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in the design of all reflective integral field units have led engineers to look for new techniques to manufacture monolithic mirror arrays for use in such instruments. One such design is being developed at the UKATC for use on the Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space telescope. The MIRI instrument will contain four integral field units with image slicer and re-imaging mirror arrays manufactured at Cranfield University. The mirror arrays have been designed with particular attention to the requirements of precision machining and subsequent metrology. The philosophy of "design for manufacture" has led to the production of mirror arrays with unrivalled levels of accuracy. Initially, this paper will describe the opto-mechanical design of the mirror arrays. The paper will then discuss the diamond turning manufacturing technique specially developed to machine these complex components. The paper will also describe the precision metrology capability developed specifically for the MIRI project that is used to accurately measure mirror locations and surface form errors. Finally, the paper will present the results obtained so far for the mirror arrays being prepared for the IFU verification model and prototype.

  4. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Samuel K; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-07-21

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 212-223 (2010)]. The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  5. Developmental long trace profiler using optimally aligned mirror based pentaprism

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Samuel K; Morrison, Gregory Y; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-12-20

    A low-budget surface slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory. The instrument is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator and a movable pentaprism. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology has been verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high-performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high-quality test optics. In the present work, a further improvement of the DLTP is achieved by replacing the existing bulk pentaprism with a specially designed mirror based pentaprism. A mirror based pentaprism offers the possibility to eliminate systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of a bulk pentaprism. We provide the details of the mirror based pentaprism design and describe an original experimental procedure for precision mutual alignment of the mirrors. The algorithm of the alignment procedure and its efficiency are verified with rigorous ray tracing simulations. Results of measurements of a spherically curved test mirror and a flat test mirror using the original bulk pentaprism are compared with measurements using the new mirror based pentaprism, demonstrating the improved performance.

  6. Enhancing nanoparticle electrodynamics with gold nanoplate mirrors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Manna, Uttam; Shah, Raman A; Scherer, Norbert F

    2014-05-14

    Mirrors and optical cavities can modify and enhance matter-radiation interactions. Here we report that chemically synthesized Au nanoplates can serve as micrometer-size mirrors that enhance electrodynamic interactions. Because of their plasmonic properties, the Au nanoplates enhance the brightness of scattered light from Ag nanoparticles near the nanoplate surface in dark-field microscopy. More importantly, enhanced optical trapping and optical binding of Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated in interferometric optical traps created from a single laser beam and its reflection from individual Au nanoplates. The enhancement of the interparticle force constant is ≈20-fold more than expected from the increased intensity due to standing wave interference. We show that the additional stability for optical binding arises from the restricted axial thermal motion of the nanoparticles that couples to and reduces the fluctuations in the lateral plane. This new mechanism greatly advances the photonic synthesis of ultrastable nanoparticle arrays and investigation of their properties.

  7. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  8. Silicon pore optics mirror modules for inner and outer radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Oosterbroek, Tim; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Günther, Ramses; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Vervest, Mark; Yanson, Alexei; van Baren, Coen; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Leenstra, Anne; Wijnperle, Maurice; Pareschi, Giovanni; Civitani, Marta; Conconi, Paolo; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Marioni, Fabio; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Schweitzer, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is an x-ray observatory using a Silicon Pore Optics telescope and was selected as ESA's second L-class science mission for a launch in 2028. The x-ray telescope consists of several hundreds of mirror modules distributed over about 15-20 radial rings. The radius of curvature and the module sizes vary among the different radial positions of the rings resulting in different technical challenges for mirror modules for inner and outer radii. We present first results of demonstrating Silicon Pore Optics for the extreme radial positions of the Athena telescope. For the inner most radii (0.25 m) a new mirror plate design is shown which overcomes the challenges of larger curvatures, higher stress values and bigger plates. Preliminary designs for the mounting system and its mechanical properties are discussed for mirror modules covering all other radial positions up to the most outer radius of the Athena telescope.

  9. Poco Graphite Mirror Metrology Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently a lightweight mirror technology was tested at Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Optic Manufacturing Technology Center (MSFC, SOMTC). The mirror is a Poco Graphite CVD Si clad SiC substrate. It was tested for cryogenic (cryo) survivability to 20deg Kelvin in SOMTC's X-ray Calibration and Cryogenic Test Facility. The surface figure of the mirror was measured before and after cry0 cycling. The test technique and results are discussed.

  10. Single Crystal Silicon Instrument Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vince

    2007-01-01

    The goals for the fabrication of single crystal silicon instrument mirrors include the following: 1) Develop a process for fabricating lightweight mirrors from single crystal silicon (SCS); 2) Modest lightweighting: 3X to 4X less than equivalent solid mirror; 3) High surface quality, better than lambda/40 RMS @ 633nm; 4) Significantly less expensive than current technology; and 5) Negligible distortion when cooled to cryogenic temperatures.

  11. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  12. SXI prototype mirror mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule. A number of development hardware parts have been designed and fabricated jointly by MSFC and UAH for the engineering model of SXI. The major parts include a nickel electroformed mirror and a mirror mount, plating and coating of the ceramic spacers, and gold plating of the contact rings and fingers for the camera assembly. An aluminum model of the high accuracy sun sensor (HASS) was also designed and fabricated. A number of fiber optic tapers for the camera assembly were also coated with indium tin oxide and phosphor for testing and evaluation by MSFC. A large number of the SXI optical bench parts were also redesigned and simplified for a prototype telescope. These parts include the forward and rear support flanges, front aperture plate, the graphite epoxy optical bench and a test fixture for the prototype telescope. More than fifty (50) drawings were generated for various components of the prototype telescope. Some of these parts were subsequently fabricated at UAH machine shop or at MSFC or by the outside contractors. UAH also provide technical support to MSFC staff for a number of preliminary and critical design reviews. These design reviews included PDR and CDR for the mirror assembly by United Technologies Optical Systems (UTOS), and the program quarterly reviews, and SXI PDR and CDR. UAH staff also regularly attended the monthly status reviews, and made a significant number of suggestions to improve

  13. Multilayer Active Shell Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeves, John

    This thesis presents a novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber composites and replication manufacturing processes. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the structure in order to provide the reflective layer, actuation capabilities and electrode routing. The mirror is thin, lightweight, and has large actuation capabilities. These features, along with the associated manufacturing processes, represent a significant change in design compared to traditional optics. Structural redundancy in the form of added material or support structures is replaced by thin, unsupported lightweight substrates with large actuation capabilities. Several studies motivated by the desire to improve as-manufactured figure quality are performed. Firstly, imperfections in thin CFRP laminates and their effect on post-cure shape errors are studied. Numerical models are developed and compared to experimental measurements on flat laminates. Techniques to mitigate figure errors for thicker laminates are also identified. A method of properly integrating the reflective facesheet onto the front surface of the CFRP substrate is also presented. Finally, the effect of bonding multiple initially flat active plates to the backside of a curved CFRP substrate is studied. Figure deformations along with local surface defects are predicted and characterized experimentally. By understanding the mechanics behind these processes, significant improvements to the overall figure quality have been made. Studies related to the actuation response of the mirror are also performed. The active properties of two materials are characterized and compared. Optimal active layer thicknesses for thin surface-parallel schemes are determined. Finite element simulations are used to make predictions on shape correction capabilities, demonstrating high correctabiliity and stroke over low-order modes. The effect of actuator saturation is studied and shown to significantly degrade shape correction performance. The

  14. SXI Prototype mirror mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This final report describes the work performed from June 1993 to January 1995. The purpose of this contract was to provide optomechanical engineering and fabrication support to the Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) program in the areas of mirror, optical bench and camera assemblies of the telescope. The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) worked closely with the Optics and S&E technical staff of MSFC to develop and investigate the most viable and economical options for the design and fabrication of a number of parts for the various telescope assemblies. All the tasks under this delivery order have been successfully completed within budget and schedule.

  15. JWST Primary Mirror Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Mirror Technology was identified as a (if not the) critical capability necessary to achieve the Level 1 science goals. A never before demonstrated space telescope capability was required: 6 to 8 meter class pri mary mirror, diffraction limited at 2 micrometers and operates at temperatures below 50K. Launch vehicle constraints placed significant architectural constraints: deployed/segmented primary mirror (4.5 meter fairing diameter) 20 kg/m2 areal density (PM 1000 kg mass) Such mirror technology had never been demonstrated - and did not exist

  16. Mirror development for CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Doro, M.; Brun, P.; Canestrari, R.; Chadwick, P.; Font, L.; Ghigo, M.; Lorenz, E.; Mariotti, M.; Michalowski, J.; Niemiec, J.; Pareschi, G.; Peyaud, B.; Seweryn, K.

    2009-08-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), currently in its early design phase, is a proposed new project for groundbased gamma-ray astronomy with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. CTA is planned to consist of several tens of large Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) with a combined reflective surface of up to 10,000 m2. The challenge for the future CTA array is to develop lightweight and cost efficient mirrors with high production rates, good longterm durability and adequate optical properties. The technologies currently under investigation comprise different methods of carbon fibre/epoxy based substrates, sandwich concepts with cold-slumped surfaces made of thin float glass and different structural materials like aluminum honeycomb, glass foam or PU foam inside, and aluminum sandwich structures with either diamond milled surfaces or reflective foils. The current status of the mirror development for CTA will be summarized together with investigations on the improvement of the reflective surfaces and their protection against degradation.

  17. Development of lightweight mirror elements for the Euro50 mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Harold E.; Romeo, Robert C.; Shaffer, Joseph J.; Chen, Peter C.

    2004-07-01

    New, very large telescopes with apertures of 30, 50, and 100 meters are being proposed by the astronomical community. Superpolished or ultrapolished mirrors with low scattered light levels and the use of adaptive optics for near-diffraction-limited performance would make such large telescopes a turning point in astronomy. The secondary mirror for the Euro50 will be a four meter adaptive optic made of a low expansion graphite-filled cyanate ester resin composite produced using a replica transfer technique. We have made three 1/3rd meter diameter prototype composite adaptive optic mirrors of this cyanate ester composite material. Because of the embedded graphite fibers, the composite material has a measured expansion coefficient in the 10-8 range, as has Zerodur or ULE glass. It is very much lighter, more rugged and more economical than Zerodur or ULE, and can be fabricated in weeks, not months. The Zerodur mandrels upon which these replica transfer mirrors are made are superpolished using centrifugal elutriation, so the replica surface has an rms roughness of 0.6 to 0.8 nm. It thus scatters about an order of magnitude less light than typical conventionally polished astronomical mirrors. In adaptive optic mirrors with sub-mm thick faceplates the number of plies used is insufficient to produce an isotropic surface. For mirrors 2 mm thick, with more plies, the surfaces are isotropic, and the slight astigmatism sometimes resulting from the mesh in the ply can be corrected by actuators to make them attractive mirrors. They must be supported to maintain a good optical figure over a meter diameter mirror. The support requirement may be met by using a new type of mechanical/piezoelectric actuator adjustable to a fraction of a wavelength. The mechanical actuators have a coarse adjust of over an mm and a fine adjust of less than a wavelength of light. They can be used in series with a novel type of piezoelectric actuator for final static adjustment. The low voltage, up to 2

  18. Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. I. Modeling mirror-scanning devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Katz, J

    1995-10-01

    Avector approach to tracing the path of a laser beam through an optical system containing movable plane mirrors is described, which permits a unified treatment of a number of basic mirror-scanning devices. We show that the scan field produced by the mirror-scanning system is a curved surface with a straight line as its generating element. The cross section of the scan field can be a circle, an ellipse, or a curve in the shape of an egg. Based on this understanding, some advanced topics are addressed, e.g., the relationship between the scan field and the scan pattern, the dependence of the scan pattern on the location and orientation of the observation surface, optical distortions in a scan pattern, spot-size enlargement caused by non-normal incidence of the scan beam on the observation plane, and so on. Design equations and curves are derived for the mirror-scanning devices that most frequently exist in linear and circular scan technology. Part II contains an analysis of the galvanometer-based optical scanner paddle scanner and the regular polygon. In Part III, X-Y scanning systems are studied. PMID:21060488

  19. Acoustic Models of Optical Mirrors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2014-01-01

    Students form a more exact idea of the action of optical mirrors if they can observe the wave field being formed during reflection. For this purpose it is possible to organize model experiments with flexural waves propagating in thin elastic plates. The direct and round edges of the plates are used as models of plane, convex and concave mirrors.…

  20. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  1. Forming Mirrors on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauldin, R. E.; Ramohalli, K.

    1983-01-01

    Smooth coatings deposited on hard-to-polish substrates. Lightweight mirror, leaning against conventional glass mirror, consists of metallic relective layer on substrate coated with polyester resin. Smooth surface of polyester resin made by covering freshly applied resin with piece of smooth glass coated with release agent.

  2. Polishing technique for beryllium mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests, accomplished by inserting entire X ray telescope and polished mirror into vacuum line 67 m long and taking photographs of an X ray resolution source, indicate that polishing increases mirror efficiency from 0.06 percent for X rays at 0.8 nm and increases resolution from 15 to 3.75 arc-seconds.

  3. Gemini primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Huang, Eugene W.; Cho, Myung K.

    1994-06-01

    The primary mirror selected for the Gemini 8-m Telescopes is a thin meniscus made of Corning ULE(superscript TM) glass. The conceptual design of the Gemini support system has evolved in response to the properties of the meniscus mirror and the functional requirements of the Gemini Telescopes. This paper describes the design requirements, the design features, and predicted performance of this system.

  4. National mirror fusion program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchers, R. R.; Vanatta, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments are under way in the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) facility at Livermore. Recently this idea was greatly improved by incorporating a new element called the thermal barrier, a concept that promises a higher power gain factor (Q = 10 to 20) with much less demanding neutral beam and magnet technology and a higher fusion power density in the reactor. In addition to the tandem-mirror experiments in TMX, a new attempt will be made in the Beta 2 facility during FY 1980 to create and sustain a field-reversed mirror configuration, which is a different mirror fusion approach that could lead to early commercialization of small reactors. The plan presented here is designed to exploit the results of these and other mirror experiments and theoretical developments toward a variety of applications. The main objective is electric power generation.

  5. More questions for mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Borg, Emma

    2013-09-01

    The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called 'intentional worry'. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour (Sections 2 and 3), second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry (Section 4). I argue that the first response requires an account of the mechanism by which small-scale gestures are supposedly mapped to larger chains of actions but that none of the extant accounts of this mechanism are plausible. Section 4 then briefly examines refinements of the mirror neuron-mindreading hypothesis which avoid the intentional worry. I conclude that these refinements may well be plausible but that they undermine many of the claims standardly made for mirror neurons.

  6. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema

    Kumar, Krishna

    2016-07-12

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  7. Point Relay Scanner Utilizing Ellipsoidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manhart, Paul K. (Inventor); Pagano, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A scanning system uses a polygonal mirror assembly with each facet of the polygon having an ellipsoidal mirror located thereon. One focal point of each ellipsoidal mirror is located at a common point on the axis of rotation of the polygonal mirror assembly. As the mirror assembly rotates. a second focal point of the ellipsoidal mirrors traces out a scan line. The scanner can be utilized for scanned output display of information or for scanning information to be detected.

  8. Mirror man: a case of skilled deliberate mirror writing.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert D; De Lucia, Natascia; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Mirror writing is a striking behaviour that is common in children and can reemerge in adults following brain damage. Skilled deliberate mirror writing has also been reported, but only anecdotally. We provide the first quantitative study of skilled deliberate mirror writing. K.B. can write forward or backward, vertically upright or inverted, with the hands acting alone or simultaneously. K.B. is predominantly left handed, but writes habitually with his right hand. Of his writing formats, his left hand mirror writing is by far the most similar in style to his normal handwriting. When writing bimanually, he performs better when his two hands make mirror-symmetrical movements to write opposite scripts than if they move in the same direction to write similar scripts. He has no special facility for reading mirrored text. These features are consistent with prior anecdotal cases and support a motor basis for K.B.'s ability, according to which his skilled mirror writing results from the left hand execution of a low-level motor program for a right hand abductive writing action. Our methods offer a novel framework for investigating the sharing of motor representations across effectors.

  9. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the mirrors of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being assembled in the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York. The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for its project management. The Observatory was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-93 mission.

  10. Optimization of the ATST primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Price, Ronald S.; Moon, Il K.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) primary mirror is a 4.24-m diameter, 75-mm thick, off-axis parabola solid meniscus mirror made out of a glass or glass ceramic material. Its baseline support system consists of 120 axial supports mounted at the mirror back surface and 24 lateral supports along the outer edge with an active optics capability. This primary mirror support system was optimized for the telescope at a near horizon position to achieve the best gravity and thermal effects. To fulfill the optical and mechanical performance requirements, extensive finite element analyses using I-DEAS and optical analyses with PCFRINGE have been conducted for the support optimization. Analyses include static deformation (gravity and thermal), frequency calculations, and support system sensitivity evaluations. An influence matrix was established to compensate potential errors using an active optics system. Performances of the primary mirror support system were evaluated from mechanical deformation calculations and the optical analyses before and after active optics corrections. The performance of the mirror cell structure was also discussed.

  11. Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.

    2013-03-01

    Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 μm. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

  12. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) integration at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  13. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) integration at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSCF was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  14. Observational physics of mirror world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

  15. Verification procedure for the wavefront quality of the primary mirrors for the MRO interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Eric J.; Olivares, Andres; Schmell, Reed A.; Schmell, Rodney A.; Gartner, Darren; Jaramillo, Anthony; Romero, Kelly; Rael, Andres; Lewis, Jeff

    2009-08-01

    We present the verification procedure for the 1.4 meter primary mirrors of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI). Six mirrors are in mass production at Optical Surface Technologies (OST) in Albuquerque. The six identical parabolic mirrors will have a radius of curvature of 6300 mm and a final surface wavefront quality of 29 nm rms. The mirrors will be tested in a tower using a computer generated hologram, and the Intellium⢠H2000 interferometer from Engineering Synthesis Design, Inc. (ESDI). The mirror fabrication activities are currently in the early stage of polishing and have already delivered some promising results with the interferometer. A complex passive whiffle tree has been designed and fabricated by Advanced Mechanical and Optical Systems (AMOS, Belgium) that takes into account the gravity loading for an alt-alt mount. The final testing of the primary mirrors will be completed with the mirror cells that will be used in the telescopes. In addition we report on shear tests performed on the mirror cell pads on the back of the primary mirrors. These pads are glued to the mirror. The shear test has demonstrated that the glue can withstand at least 4.9 kilo Newton. This is within the requirements.

  16. JWST NIRCam flight mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Holmes, Howard C.; Huff, Lynn; Jacoby, Mike S.; Lopez, Frank

    2011-10-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an optical prescription which includes numerous fold mirror assemblies. The instrument will operate at 35K after experiencing launch loads at ~293K. The optic mounts must accommodate all associated thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain exceptional optical quality during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) conceived, designed, analyzed, assembled, tested, and integrated the mirror assemblies for the NIRCam instrument. This paper covers the design, analysis, assembly, and test of two of the instruments key fold mirrors.

  17. Structural materials for space mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, C.

    1990-06-01

    Work leading to the development of XMM telescope mirrors is described. Although a carbon/epoxy composite structure was specified, a hot type of material was proposed. The further use of such technology in the development of substrates for space mirrors is discussed. The specifications for the plane plates used for the XMM telescope are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various other materials in producing substrates for space mirrors are discussed. The potential uses of glass matrix ceramics reinforced with carbon or silicon carbide fibers is given particular attention.

  18. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  19. Tests and characterization of a laterally graded multilayer Montel mirror.

    PubMed

    Mundboth, K; Sutter, J; Laundy, D; Collins, S; Stoupin, S; Shvyd'ko, Y

    2014-01-01

    Multilayers are becoming an increasingly important tool in X-ray optics. The essential parameters to design a pair of laterally graded multilayer mirrors arranged in a Montel-type configuration for use as an X-ray collimating device are provided. The results of X-ray reflectometry tests carried out on the optics in addition to metrology characterization are also shown. Finally, using experimental data and combined with X-ray tracing simulations it is demonstrated that the mirror meets all stringent specifications as required for a novel ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer at the Advanced Photon Source.

  20. Tinbergen on mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology-the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible 'best explanation' for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of 'survival value', should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding-or another social cognitive function-by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories. PMID:24778376

  1. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  2. Responder fast steering mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-09-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  3. Tinbergen on mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology-the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible 'best explanation' for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of 'survival value', should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding-or another social cognitive function-by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories.

  4. Congenital mirror movements

    PubMed Central

    Méneret, Aurélie; Depienne, Christel; Riant, Florence; Trouillard, Oriane; Bouteiller, Delphine; Cincotta, Massimo; Bitoun, Pierre; Wickert, Julia; Lagroua, Isabelle; Westenberger, Ana; Borgheresi, Alessandra; Doummar, Diane; Romano, Marcello; Rossi, Simone; Defebvre, Luc; De Meirleir, Linda; Espay, Alberto J.; Fiori, Simona; Klebe, Stephan; Quélin, Chloé; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Plessis, Ghislaine; Dale, Russell C.; Sklower Brooks, Susan; Dziezyc, Karolina; Pollak, Pierre; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Vidailhet, Marie; Brice, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We screened a large series of individuals with congenital mirror movements (CMM) for mutations in the 2 identified causative genes, DCC and RAD51. Methods: We studied 6 familial and 20 simplex CMM cases. Each patient had a standardized neurologic assessment. Analysis of DCC and RAD51 coding regions included Sanger sequencing and a quantitative method allowing detection of micro rearrangements. We then compared the frequency of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic by either the PolyPhen-2 or the SIFT algorithm in our population and in the 4,300 controls of European origin on the Exome Variant Server. Results: We found 3 novel truncating mutations of DCC that segregate with CMM in 4 of the 6 families. Among the 20 simplex cases, we found one exonic deletion of DCC, one DCC mutation leading to a frameshift, 5 missense variants in DCC, and 2 missense variants in RAD51. All 7 missense variants were predicted to be pathogenic by one or both algorithms. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious was significantly different between patients and controls (p < 0.001 for both RAD51 and DCC). Conclusion: Mutations and variants in DCC and RAD51 are strongly associated with CMM, but additional genes causing CMM remain to be discovered. PMID:24808016

  5. Tinbergen on mirror neurons

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Niko Tinbergen defined the scope of behavioural biology with his four problems: causation, ontogeny, survival value and evolution. About 20 years ago, there was another highly significant development in behavioural biology—the discovery of mirror neurons (MNs). Here, I use Tinbergen's original four problems (rather than the list that appears in textbooks) to highlight the differences between two prominent accounts of MNs, the genetic and associative accounts; to suggest that the latter provides the defeasible ‘best explanation’ for current data on the causation and ontogeny of MNs; and to argue that functional analysis, of the kind that Tinbergen identified somewhat misleadingly with studies of ‘survival value’, should be a high priority for future research. In this kind of functional analysis, system-level theories would assign MNs a small, but potentially important, role in the achievement of action understanding—or another social cognitive function—by a production line of interacting component processes. These theories would be tested by experimental intervention in human and non-human animal samples with carefully documented and controlled developmental histories. PMID:24778376

  6. Honeycomb mirrors of borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of different types of honeycomb mirrors with various kinds of borosilicate glass is discussed. Borosilicate glass is much less expensive to make than zero expansion glass, and can be used for ground-based applications. A mirror 60 cm in diameter made with a slotted strut or egg-crate honeycomb of 6 mm polished Pyrex plate is shown. The faceplates are 12 mm thick, laminated from the same 6 mm sheet. The result of an interferometric test is shown, with residual errors of about wavelength/8 RMS. An alternative fabrication technique for very large mirrors which require high quality bonds between separate sheets of thick Pyrex is described. The result of a recent test casting of a 60 cm honeycomb structure made in a mold with towers 14 cm square and 6 mm gaps between is shown, and methods to cast an entire mirror in one operation are discussed.

  7. The magic of relay mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Washburn, Donald C.

    2004-09-01

    Laser weapon systems would be significantly enhanced with the addition of high altitude or space-borne relay mirrors. Such mirrors, operating alone with a directed energy source, or many in a series fashion, can be shown to effectively move the laser source to the last, so-called fighting mirror. This "magically" reduces the range to target and offers to enhance the performance of directed energy systems like the Airborne Laser and even ground-based or ship-based lasers. Recent development of high altitude airships will be shown to provide stationary positions for such relay mirrors thereby enabling many new and important applications for laser weapons. The technical challenges to achieve this capability are discussed.

  8. JWST Secondary Mirror Deploy Timelapse

    NASA Video Gallery

    Setting up NASA's James Webb Space Telescope's secondary mirror in space will require special arms that resemble a tripod that was recently demonstrated in a NASA cleanroom. TRT: 1:25 / Credit: NAS...

  9. JWST Primary Mirror Installation Complete

    NASA Video Gallery

    Completing the assembly of the primary mirror, which took place at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, is a significant milestone and the culmination of over a decade of desi...

  10. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  11. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  12. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2008-07-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. The collaboration between optical- and mechanical designers at Astron led to new design philosophies and strategies. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness (~1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions.

  13. Membrane mirror light modulator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warde, Cardinal; McCann, James T.; Shrauger, Vern; Ieong, H.-H.; Ersen, Ali; Wang, X. Y.; Hubbard, J.

    2000-03-01

    We have incorporated membrane mirror technology over a discrete array of pixel wells to create both high-efficiency optical shutters and spatial light modulators (SLM). A continuous metalized-membrane mirror with greater than 98% reflectivity minimizes optical insertion loss. This mirror is electrostatically deformed into the wells with either a common electrode (shutter) or pixilated electrodes (SLM). By using a spatial filter, analog intensity optical modulation is realized. Both 1-D (linear) and 2-D grating pixel patterns have been investigated. With the appropriate pixel dimensions, both coherent monochromatic and broadband incoherent light within the 0.25 to 10.6 micron range can be modulated with contrast ratios up to 1000:1. Small well sizes (approximately 10-micron diameter) allow for modulation speeds up to 1 MHz. The theoretical foundations for the well layout, the membrane mirror deformation and its diffraction properties, and the design trade-offs are detailed. We have applied our membrane mirror technology to CMOS VLSI circuits creating a high-speed, high-efficiency spatial light modulator capable of 80 X 64 resolution and scalable to HDTV standards. The membrane mirror SLM provides either amplitude or phase modulation. In the phase modulation mode, at least two waves of stroke per discrete well are possible.

  14. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  15. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  16. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  17. Surface Figure Metrology for CELT Primary Mirror Segments

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, G; Phillion, D; Seppala, L; Lerner, S

    2001-02-27

    The University of California and California Institute of Technology are currently studying the feasibility of building a 30-m segmented ground based optical telescope called the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT). The early ideas for this telescope were first described by Nelson and Mast and more recently refined by Nelson. In parallel, concepts for the fabrication of the primary segments were proposed by Mast, Nelson and Sommargren where high risk technologies were identified. One of these was the surface figure metrology needed for fabricating the aspheric mirror segments. This report addresses the advanced interferometry that will be needed to achieve 15nm rms accuracy for mirror segments with aspheric departures as large as 35mm peak-to-valley. For reasons of cost, size, measurement consistency and ease of operation we believe it is desirable to have a single interferometer that can be universally applied to each and every mirror segment. Such an instrument is described in this report.

  18. The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Science Drivers, Technology Developments, and Synergies with Other Future Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Brown, Tom; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R. Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Remi; Hyde, Tupper

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astrophysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 m to 2.4 m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  19. Alignment Mirror Mechanisms for Space Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; McKinney, Colin M.; Smythe, Robert F.; Palmer, Dean

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes an optical Alignment Mirror Mechanism (AMM), and discusses its control scheme. The mirror's angular positioning accuracy requirement is +/- 0.2 arc-sec. This requires the mirror's linear positioning actuators to have a positioning accuracy of +/- 109 nm to enable the mirror to meet the angular tip/tilt accuracy requirement. Demonstrated capabilities are +/- 35 nm linear positioning capability at the actuator, which translates into +/- 0.07 arc-sec angular mirror positioning accuracy.

  20. Cost effective aluminum beryllium mirrors for critical optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Say, Carissa; Duich, Jack; Huskamp, Chris; White, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The unique performance of aluminum-beryllium frequently makes it an ideal material for manufacturing precision optical-grade metal mirrors. Traditional methods of manufacture utilize hot-pressed powder block in billet form which is subsequently machined to final dimensions. Complex component geometries such as lightweighted, non-plano mirrors require extensive tool path programming, fixturing, and CNC machining time and result in a high buy-to-fly ratio (the ratio of the mass of raw material purchased to the mass of the finished part). This increases the cost of the mirror structure as a significant percentage of the procurement cost is consumed in the form of machining, tooling, and scrap material that do not add value to the final part. Inrad Optics, Inc. and IBC Advanced Alloys Corp. undertook a joint study to evaluate the suitability of investment-cast Beralcast® 191 and 363 aluminum-beryllium as a precision mirror substrate material. Net shape investment castings of the desired geometry minimizes machining to just cleanup stock, thereby reducing the recurring procurement cost while still maintaining performance. The thermal stability of two mirrors, (one each of Beralcast® 191 and Beralcast® 363), was characterized from -40°F to +150°F. A representative pocketed mirror was developed, including the creation of a relevant geometry and production of a cast component to validate the approach. Information from the demonstration unit was used as a basis for a comparative cost study of the representative mirror produced in Beralcast® and one machined from a billet of AlBeMet® 162 (AlBeMet® is a registered trademark of Materion Corporation). The technical and financial results of these studies will be discussed in detail.

  1. Arc-Second Alignment of International X-Ray Observatory Mirror Segments in a Fixed Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler, C.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T.

    2010-01-01

    The optics for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) require alignment and integration of about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arc-seconds. These mirror segments are 0.4 mm thick, and 200 to 400 mm in size, which makes it hard to meet the strict angular resolution requirement of 5 arc-seconds for the telescope. This paper outlines the precise alignment, verification testing, and permanent bonding techniques developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). These techniques are used to overcome the challenge of transferring thin mirror segments from a temporary mount to a fixed structure with arc-second alignment and minimal figure distortion. Recent advances in technology development in addition to the automation of several processes have produced significant results. Recent advances in the mirror fixture process known as the suspension mount has allowed for a mirror to be mounted to a fixture with minimal distortion. Once on the fixture, mirror segments have been aligned to around 5 arc-seconds which is halfway to the goal of 2.5 arc-seconds per mirror segment. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment, testing, and permanent bonding techniques as well as the results they have produced.

  2. Non-linear mirror instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/B ∝ t2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).

  3. Large mirror ratio tandem mirror magnetic design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, G.L.; Myra, J.R.; D'lppolito, D.A.; Catto, P.J.; Aamodt, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    A systematic study of magnetic designs has been carried out for three-cell quadrupole-stabilized tandem mirror reactors comparable in size to the (octupole) mini-MARS design. In these designs, a single mirror cell at each end of the device serves as end plug, thermal barrier and MHD anchor. The multiple functions of the end plugs make it difficult to simultaneously optimize the physics properties of the plasma (stability, radial confinement, and good particle drift orbits). Two different design approaches have been studied using recently developed magnetic optimization techniques. Typical physics figures of merit are given and critical issues discussed for each design.

  4. Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E

    2014-05-27

    A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.

  5. A mirror for science.

    PubMed

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Early conceptions of the public understanding of science suffered from a narrow framing of what science means and a presumption that science is divided from its publics by walls of ignorance and indifference. Those assumptions amplified misunderstanding and led to faulty policies. It is time to reopen each element in the term "public understanding of science" to renewed reflection. This journal can advance that goal by encouraging research on actual rather than imagined public responses to science, on representations of science in the public sphere, and on interactions between science, technology and society.

  6. Parasitic driven heliostat mirror declinator

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, W.A.

    1983-09-06

    An automatic parasitically driven declinator is disclosed for changing the tilt angle of the mirror of a heliostat to provide solar declination tracking by the heliostat. The declinator includes an axial gear drive train coupled to the polar axial shaft of the heliostat, which shaft is rotated. A pendulum arrangement coupled via an input shaft to the axial gear drive train is substantially held in plumb position by gravity wherein the gear drive train is driven as it is rotated about the polar axis by the polar axial shaft. An output shaft coupled to the gear train is rotated to drive a skew bar linkage assembly that is connected to the mirror mounting assembly of the heliostat. The gear ratio of the gear drive train assembly is made 365:1 so that the mirror angle is annually nutated a predetermined number of degrees corresponding to the cyclic variations of solar declination.

  7. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  8. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  9. Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1983-08-11

    Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror.

  10. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William

    2009-08-01

    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  11. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  13. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  14. NASA CONNECT: Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe' is the last of seven programs in the 1999-2000 NASA CONNECT series. Produced by NASA Langley Research Center's Office of Education, NASA CONNECT is an award-winning series of instructional programs designed to enhance the teaching of math, science and technology concepts in grades 5-8. NASA CONNECT establishes the 'connection' between the mathematics, science, and technology concepts taught in the classroom and NASA research. Each program in the series supports the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; includes a resource-rich teacher guide; and uses a classroom experiment and web-based activity to complement and enhance the math, science, and technology concepts presented in the program. NASA CONNECT is FREE and the programs in the series are in the public domain. Visit our web site and register. http://connect.larc.nasa.gov In 'Algebra: Mirror, Mirror on the Universe', students will learn how algebra is used to explore the universe.

  15. MICA: The Mirror Coronagraph for Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Schwenn, R.; Srivastava, N.; Inhester, B.; Podlipnik, B.; Rovira, M.; Francile, C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the new German-Argentinian Solar Observatory in El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina, a new ground-based solar telescope (MICA) began to operate in August 1997. MICA is an advanced mirror coronagraph, its design being an almost exact copy of the LASCO-C1 instrument. Since its installation, it has been imaging the inner solar corona (1.05 to 2.0 solar radii) in two spectral ranges corresponding to the emission lines of the Fe XIV and Fe X ions. The instrument can image the corona as fast as every minute. Thus, it is ideally suited to study fast processes in the inner corona. In this way, it is a good complement for the LASCO-C1 instrument. After a brief review of the instrument, we present some recent observations showing the capabilities of the instrument.

  16. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  17. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition.

  18. Timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror effects measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Heyes, Cecilia; Becchio, Cristina; Bird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    The human mirror system has been the subject of much research over the past two decades, but little is known about the timecourse of mirror responses. In addition, it is unclear whether mirror and counter-mirror effects follow the same timecourse. We used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the timecourse of mirror and counter-mirror responses in the human brain. Experiment 1 demonstrated that mirror responses can be measured from around 200 ms after observed action onset. Experiment 2 demonstrated significant effects of counter-mirror sensorimotor training at all timepoints at which a mirror response was found in Experiment 1 (i.e. from 200 ms onward), indicating that mirror and counter-mirror responses follow the same timecourse. By suggesting similarly direct routes for mirror and counter-mirror responses, these results support the associative account of mirror neuron origins whereby mirror responses arise as a result of correlated sensorimotor experience during development. More generally, they contribute to theorizing regarding mirror neuron function by providing some constraints on how quickly mirror responses can influence social cognition. PMID:23709352

  19. [The ontogeny of the mirror neuron system].

    PubMed

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Humans utilize the mirror neuron system to understand and predict others' actions. However, the ontogeny of the mirror neuron system remains unknown. Whether mirror neuron function is an innate trait or whether mirror neurons acquire their sensorimotor matching properties ontogenetically remains to be clarified. In this paper, I review the ontogenetic theory of the mirror neuron system. I then discuss the functioning of the mirror neuron system in the context of social cognitive abilities, which are unique to humans. Recently, some researchers argue that it is too early to interpret the function of mirror neurons as an understanding of the underlying psychological states of others. They imply that such functioning would require inferential cognitive processes that are known to involve areas outside the mirror neuron system. Filling in this missing link may be the key to elucidating the unique ability of humans to understand others' actions.

  20. Modeling of Intellite 3 Layer Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A

    2002-04-15

    This is a report on modeling of the Intellite three layer membrane mirror design. The goal of this project was to provide Intellite with a model that will allow them to design a mirror with confidence.

  1. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  2. Miniature anastigmatic spectrometer design with a concave toroidal mirror.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianing; Chen, He; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2016-03-01

    An advanced optical design for a low-cost and astigmatism-corrected spectrometer with a high resolution is presented. The theory and method of astigmatism correction are determined with the use of a concave toroidal mirror. The performances of a modified spectrometer and a traditional spectrometer are compared, and the analysis is verified. Experimentally, the limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.1 nm full width at half-maximum, as measured for 579.1 nm.

  3. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  4. The "Rear View Mirror" Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The new interactive videodisk systems with augmented audio capabilities have great potential for improving the teaching of foreign languages. At present that potential is unfulfilled because the profession is following a "rear view mirror" approach to media use: first, to fixate current practice; second, to distribute it broadly; and last, to…

  5. Hartmann test of aspherical mirrors.

    PubMed

    Malacara, D

    1972-01-01

    Astronomical aspherical mirrors may be tested in the optical shop with a Hartmann null test. A null test is obtained by placing small wedges over each hole of the Hartmann screen. The wedges have an angle between the two faces such that the spherical aberration with the object and the image at the center of curvature is just compensated.

  6. Bonding Thin Mirror Segments Without Distortion for the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Tyler C.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Saha, Timo T.

    2011-01-01

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) uses thin glass optics to maximize large effective area and precise low angular resolution. The thin glass mirror segments must be transferred from their fabricated state to a permanent structure without imparting distortion. IXO will incorporate about fourteen thousand thin mirror segments to achieve the mission goal of 3.0 square meters of effective area at 1.25 keV with an angular resolution of five arcseconds. To preserve figure and alignment, the mirror segment must be bonded with sub-micron movement at each corner. Recent advances in technology development have produced significant x-ray test results of a bonded pair of mirrors. Three specific bonding cycles will be described highlighting the improvements in procedure, temperature control, and precision bonding. This paper will highlight the recent advances in alignment and permanent bonding as well as the results they have produced.

  7. Mounting and Alignment of IXO Mirror Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William; Evans, Tyler; McClelland, Ryan; Hong, Melinda; Mazzarella, James; Saha, Timo; Jalota, Lalit; Olsen, Lawrence; Byron, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    A suspension-mounting scheme is developed for the IXO (International X-ray Observatory) mirror segments in which the figure of the mirror segment is preserved in each stage of mounting. The mirror, first fixed on a thermally compatible strongback, is subsequently transported, aligned and transferred onto its mirror housing. In this paper, we shall outline the requirement, approaches, and recent progress of the suspension mount processes.

  8. Detecting surface faults on solar mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Shumate, M. S.; Walker, W. L.; Zanteson, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two quality control tests determine reflectivity and curvature faults of concave solar mirrors. Curvature defects in solar mirrors are easily revealed by photographing mirror surface. Calibrated aperture placed in front of camera lens admits rays reflecting only from acceptable areas of mirror, blocking out diverging rays reflected from defective areas. Defects can pinpoint problems that may exist in production. Same photograph can be obtained using calibrated disk instead of aperture, except that, this time, only defective areas would be exposed.

  9. Development of precision Wolter mirrors for future solar x-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakao, Taro; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Kime, Ayumi; Goto, Takumi; Nishihara, Akihiko; Nakamori, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Miyake, Akira; Hashizume, Hirokazu; Maezawa, Tadakazu; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Narukage, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    High resolution imagery of the solar X-ray corona provides a crucial key to understand dynamics and heating processes of plasma particles there. However, X-ray imagery of the Sun with sub-arcsecond resolution has yet to be conducted due to severe technical difficulty in fabricating precision Wolter mirrors. For future X-ray observations of the Sun's corona, we are attempting to realize precision Wolter mirrors with sub-arcsecond resolution by adopting advanced surface polish and metrology methods based on nano-technology to sector mirrors which consist of a portion of an entire annulus. Following fabrication of the first engineering mirror and subsequent evaluation on the X-ray focusing performance in 2013, the second engineering mirror was made with improvements in both precision polish and metrology introduced. Measurement of focusing performance on the second mirror at SPring-8 synchrotron facility with 8 keV X-rays has demonstrated that the FWHM size of the PSF core reached down to 0.2" while its HPD (Half Power Diameter) size remained at ~3" due to the presence of small-angle scatter just outside of the core. Also, there was notable difference in the focal length between sagittal and meridional focusing which could have been caused by an error in the sag in the meridional direction of <10 nm in the mirror area. Further improvements to overcome these issues have been planned for the next engineering mirror.

  10. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) being removed from the test structure in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  11. Chandra X-Ray Observatory High Resolution Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) being removed from the test structure in the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRMA, the heart of the telescope system, is contained in the cylindrical 'telescope' portion of the observatory. Since high-energy x-rays would penetrate a normal mirror, special cylindrical mirrors were created. The two sets of four nested mirrors resemble tubes within tubes. Incoming x-rays graze off the highly polished mirror surface and are furneled to the instrument section for detection and study. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  12. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  13. Silver coating of the 1.3 m infrared secondary mirror of Subaru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzawa, T.; Sasaki, G.; Yutani, M.; Torii, Y.; Ohshima, N.; Kamata, Y.; Hayashi, S. S.; Nakagiri, M.; Imi, K.; Noguchi, T.

    1999-09-01

    The authors report the silver coating of 1266 mm secondary mirror to be used for infrared observations at Subaru Telescope. Silver was deposited over the chromium bondage layer, using a 1.6-m vacuum coating chamber at the Advanced Technology Center of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The witness mirrors coated at the same time with this mirror show the characteristics as follows: 1) Total thickness of the chromium plus silver film is 1300±100 Å. 2) Reflectivity is 98±1% over the wide range of visible wavelength to the near infrared wavelength.

  14. Development of achromatic full-field hard x-ray microscopy with two monolithic imaging mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, S.; Kino, H.; Yasuda, S.; Kohmura, Y.; Okada, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamauchi, K.

    2015-09-01

    Advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics using two monolithic imaging mirrors was developed to realize an achromatic, high-resolution, and a high-stability full-field X-ray microscope. The mirror consists of an elliptical section and a hyperbolic section on a quartz glass substrate, in which the geometry follows the Wolter (type I) optics rules. A preliminary test was performed at SPring-8 using X-rays monochromatized to 9.881 keV. A 100-nm feature on a Siemens star chart could be clearly observed.

  15. Design and construction of the VLT primary mirror cell: support of the large, thin primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Legrand, P.; Baty, A.; Hovsepian, T.

    1997-03-01

    The primary mirror cell of the very large telescope supports the primary mirror, the tertiary tower and mirror, and the Cassegrain instrumentation. Stringent requirements have been set to achieve the desired image quality, flexibility of use, and the necessary mirror safety. This paper describes the most important requirements set on the system and some of the design solutions which were chosen.

  16. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  17. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  18. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1500 - Headband mirror.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Headband mirror. 886.1500 Section 886.1500 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1500 Headband mirror. (a) Identification. A headband mirror is a device intended to be strapped to the head of the user to reflect light for use...

  1. Finite element analysis of a meniscus mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Y.

    1989-10-01

    Finite element analyses were carried out for a 7.5 m meniscus mirror of 20 cm thickness. Calculations were made for deformations of the mirror surface due to the gravity and the effect of a hole through which a lateral supporting mechanism would be installed. Vibrational eigenmodes were also calculated when the mirror is fixed by three axial and three lateral hard points.

  2. Light Weight Silicon Mirrors for Space Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bly, Vincent T.; Hill, Peter C.; Hagopian, John G.; Strojay, Carl R.; Miller, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Each mirror is a monolithic structure from a single crystal of silicon. The mirrors are light weighted after the optical surface is ground and polished. Mirrors made during the initial phase of this work were typically 1/50 lambda or better (RMS at 633 n m)

  3. Tandem mirror next step conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.; Damm, C.C.; Bulmer, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    A study was made to define the features of the experimental mirror fusion device - The Tandem Mirror Next Step, or TMNS - that will bridge the gap between present mirror confinement experiments and a power-producing reactor. We outline the project goals, describe some initial device parameters, and relate the technological requirements to ongoing development programs.

  4. Physics issues in mirror and tandem mirror systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1984-06-15

    Over the years the study of the confinement of high temperature plasma in magnetic mirror systems has presented researchers with many unusual physics problems. Many of these issues are by now understood theoretically and documented experimentally. With the advent of the tandem mirror idea, some new issues have emerged and are now under intensive study. These include: (1) the generation and control of ambipolar confining potentials and their effect on axial confinement and, (2) the combined influence of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields (used to ensure MHD stability) and electric magnetic particle drifts on radial transport. Physics considerations associated with these two categories of issues will be reviewed, including concepts for the control of radial transport, under study or proposed.

  5. Phase-Controlled Magnetic Mirror for Wavefront Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John; Wollack, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Typically, light interacts with matter via the electric field and interaction with weakly bound electrons. In a magnetic mirror, a patterned nanowire is fabricated over a metallic layer with a dielectric layer in between. Oscillation of the electrons in the nanowires in response to the magnetic field of incident photons causes a re-emission of photons and operation as a "magnetic mirror." By controlling the index of refraction in the dielectric layer using a local applied voltage, the phase of the emitted radiation can be controlled. This allows electrical modification of the reflected wavefront, resulting in a deformable mirror that can be used for wavefront control. Certain applications require wavefront quality in the few-nanometer regime, which is a major challenge for optical fabrication and alignment of mirrors or lenses. The use of a deformable magnetic mirror allows for a device with no moving parts that can modify the phase of incident light over many spatial scales, potentially with higher resolution than current approaches. Current deformable mirrors modify the incident wavefront by using nano-actuation of a substrate to physically bend the mirror to a desired shape. The purpose of the innovation is to modify the incident wavefront for the purpose of correction of fabrication and alignment-induced wavefront errors at the system level. The advanced degree of precision required for some applications such as gravity wave detection (LISA - Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) or planet finding (FKSI - Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer) requires wavefront control at the limits of the current state of the art. All the steps required to fabricate a magnetic mirror have been demonstrated. The modification is to apply a bias voltage to the dielectric layer so as to change the index of refraction and modify the phase of the reflected radiation. Light is reflected off the device and collected by a phase-sensing interferometer. The interferometer determines the

  6. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Miller, J.R.; Perkins, J.R.

    1983-12-07

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 10/sup 10/ to 10/sup 11/ rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/.

  7. SIRTF primary mirror design, analysis, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L., III; Maa, Scott; Chang, LI

    1990-01-01

    The primary mirror assembly (PMA) requirements and concepts for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program are discussed. The PMA studies at NASA/ARC resulted in the design of two engineering test articles, the development of a mirror mount cryogenic static load testing system, and the procurement and partial testing of a full scale spherical mirror mounting system. Preliminary analysis and testing of the single arch mirror with conical mount design and the structured mirror with the spherical mount design indicate that the designs will meet all figure and environmental requirements of the SIRTF program.

  8. [What mirror neurons have revealed: revisited].

    PubMed

    Murata, Akira; Maeda, Kazutaka

    2014-06-01

    The first paper on mirror neurons was published in 1992. In the span of over two decades since then, much knowledge about the relationship between social cognitive function and the motor control system has been accumulated. Direct matching of visual actions and their corresponding motor representations is the most important functional property of mirror neuron. Many studies have emphasized intrinsic simulation as a core concept for mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are thought to play a role in social cognitive function. However, the function of mirror neurons in the macaque remains unclear, because such cognitive functions are limited or lacking in macaque monkeys. It is therefore important to discuss these neurons in the context of motor function. Rizzolatti and colleagues have stressed that the most important function of mirror neurons in macaques is recognition of actions performed by other individuals. I suggest that mirror neurons in the Macaque inferior pariental lobule might be correlated with body schema. In the parieto-premotor network, matching of corollary discharge and actual sensory feedback is an essential neuronal operation. Recently, neurons showing mirror properties were found in some cortical areas outside the mirror neuron system. The current work would revisit the outcomes of mirror neuron studies to discuss the function of mirror neurons in the monkey.

  9. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (Light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  10. Mirror neurons: their implications for group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Victor L

    2010-10-01

    Recently discovered mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the brain register the actions and intentions of both the organism and others in the environment. As such, they may play a significant role in social behavior and groups. This paper considers the potential implications of mirror neurons and related neural networks for group therapists, proposing that mirror neurons and mirror systems provide "hard-wired" support for the group therapist's belief in the centrality of relationships in the treatment process and exploring their value in accounting for group-as-a-whole phenomena. Mirror neurons further confirm the holistic, social nature of perception, action, and intention as distinct from a stimulus-response behaviorism. The implications of mirror neurons and mirroring processes for the group therapist role, interventions, and training are also discussed.

  11. What do fish make of mirror images?

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Julie K.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish act aggressively towards their mirror image suggesting that they consider it another individual, whereas in some mammals behavioural response to mirrors may be an evidence of self-recognition. Since fish cannot self-recognize, we asked whether they could distinguish between fighting a mirror image and fighting a real fish. We compared molecular, physiological and behavioural responses in each condition and found large differences in brain gene expression levels. Although neither levels of aggressive behaviour nor circulating androgens differed between these conditions, males fighting a mirror image had higher immediate early gene (IEG) expression in brain areas homologous to the amygdala and hippocampus than controls. Since amygdalar responses are associated with fear and fear conditioning in other species, higher levels of brain activation when fighting a mirror suggest fish experience fear in response to fights with a mirror image. Clearly, the fish recognize something unusual about the mirror image and the differential brain response may reflect a cognitive distinction. PMID:20462889

  12. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction and ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55-m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being polished at the the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This photograph shows engineers inspecting the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025- micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Primary Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This photograph shows the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) Primary Mirror being ground at the Perkin-Elmer Corporation's large optics fabrication facility. After the 8-foot diameter mirror was ground to shape and polished, the glass surface was coated with a reflective layer of aluminum and a protective layer of magnesium fluoride, 0.1- and 0.025-micrometers thick, respectively. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST and the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  16. LST secondary mirror articulation mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis, design, manufacture, test, and delivery of one secondary mirror articulation mechanism for the large space telescope (LST) are reported. The mechanism provides angular freedom about two axes that are perpendicular to the optical axis of the secondary mirror. Motion in each axis is controlled from two sources; one source provides alignment, the other source provides stabilization. Two articulation mechanism configurations were evaluated. In one configuration the stabilization system was assembled with piezoelectric actuators. In the second configuration the stabilization system utilized flexure torque motor actuators. The alignment system was the same for both configurations. System testing confirmed performance that met or exceeded all operational requirements. The two types of stabilization actuators had different performance characteristics. Both types demonstrated position resolution and frequency response better than specified limits.

  17. Radius of curvature controlled mirror

    DOEpatents

    Neil, George R.; Rathke, John Wickham; Schultheiss, Thomas John; Shinn, Michelle D.; Dillon-Townes, Lawrence A.

    2006-01-17

    A controlled radius of curvature mirror assembly comprising: a distortable mirror having a reflective surface and a rear surface; and in descending order from the rear surface; a counter-distortion plate; a flow diverter having a flow diverter aperture at the center thereof; a flow return plate having a flow return aperture at the center thereof; a thermal isolation plate having a thermal isolation plate aperture at the center thereof and a flexible heater having a rear surface and a flexible heater aperture at the center thereof; a double walled tube defining a coolant feed chamber and a coolant return chamber; said coolant feed chamber extending to and through the flow diverter aperture and terminating at the counter-distortion plate and the coolant return chamber extending to and through the thermal isolation backplate and terminating at the flow diverter; and a coolant feed and a coolant return exit at the rear of said flexible heater.

  18. Beautiful mirrors at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kunal; Shepherd, William; Tait, Tim M. P.; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2010-08-01

    We explore the “Beautiful Mirrors” model, which aims to explain the measured value of A b FB , discrepant at the 2.9σ level. This scenario introduces vector-like quarks which mix with the bottom, subtly affecting its coupling to the Z. The spectrum of the new particles consists of two bottom-like quarks and a charge -4/3 quark, all of which have electroweak interactions with the third generation. We explore the phenomenology and discovery reach for these new particles at the LHC, exploring single mirror quark production modes whose rates are proportional to the same mixing parameters which resolve the A b FB anomaly. We find that for mirror quark masses ≲ 500 GeV, a 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb-1 is required to reasonably establish the scenario and extract the relevant mixing parameters.

  19. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  20. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Roger

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  1. The construction and performance of a one-meter-long elliptically bent steel mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, T.R.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Padmore, H.A.; Rah, S.Y.

    1997-10-01

    An elliptically bent mirror of total length 1.25 m has been developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) for focusing soft x-rays. The mirror is used to produce a small, high flux density illuminated field of view for a Photo Emission Electron Microscope (PEEM). The requirement to collect the maximum horizontal aperture with the need to highly demagnify the source leads to a mirror with a wide range of curvatures along the surface. This combined with the need to produce a low slope error surface at a reasonably low cost has required the authors to develop a mirror based on the controlled bending of a flat substrate. This is an extension of several other mirror projects at the ALS where controlled bending of glass and metal substrates has been used in microfocusing applications. Those mirrors however are a maximum of 200 mm long, and in this paper they describe the new challenges they have faced and the solutions they have adopted in developing a long and highly elliptical mirror. The mirror described here is manufactured from a low carbon steel (1006) which is capable of good dimensional stability, it is electroless nickel plated for polishing, and is bent into an elliptical shape by the application of unequal couples. They describe the mirror fabrication process, the mechanical details of the bending mechanism and the experimentally measured slope error from an ellipse. The final mirror has an rms roughness of 6{angstrom} (rms), a full aperture (1.1 m) slope error of 14 {micro}rad (rms), and a slope error of < 3 {micro} rad when optimized over approximately 2/3 of the required optical length (0.917 m).

  2. Advancement's Sticky Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The author did not expect to be surprised or disturbed by the data from the latest Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) salary survey; however, she was. CASE has been conducting the survey since 1982, so she assumed the findings would mirror her own salary history and those of her peers. While she suspected that older women…

  3. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  4. Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    This contract and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and demonstration of a different technology for construction of lightweight mirrors. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities; Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (less than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or quaternary mirror into a quasi-continuous surface with individual subapertures phased so that near diffraction limited imaging in the visible wavelength region is achieved. Continuous compensation of optical wavefront due to perturbations caused by imperfections, natural disturbances, and equipment induced vibrations/deflections to provide near diffraction limited imaging performance in the visible wavelength region. Demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating such systems with reduced mass and cost compared to past approaches. While the SSD could not be expected to satisfy all of the above capabilities, the intent was to start identifying and understanding new technologies that might be applicable to these goals.

  5. Deflectometric measurement of large mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesch, Evelyn; Häusler, Gerd; Wörnlein, André; Stinzing, Friedrich; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the inspection of large-sized, spherical mirror tiles by `Phase Measuring Deflectometry' (PMD). About 10 000 of such mirror tiles, each satisfying strict requirements regarding the spatial extent of the point-spread-function (PSF), are planned to be installed on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future ground-based instrument to observe the sky in very high energy gamma-rays. Owing to their large radii of curvature of up to 60 m, a direct PSF measurement of these mirrors with concentric geometry requires large space. We present a PMD sensor with a footprint of only 5×2×1.2 m3 that overcomes this limitation. The sensor intrinsically acquires the surface slope; the shape data are calculated by integration. In this way, the PSF can be calculated for real case scenarios, e.g., when the light source is close to infinity and off-axis. The major challenge is the calibration of the PMD sensor, specifically because the PSF data have to be reconstructed from different camera views. The calibration of the setup is described, and measurements presented and compared to results obtained with the direct approach.

  6. Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the

  7. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  8. Engineering Specifications derived from Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Arnold, William; Bevan, Ryan M.; Smith, W. Scott; Kirk, Charles S.; Postman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a multi-year effort to systematically mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. This technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. To accomplish our objective, we use a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system.

  9. Fabrication of the LSST monolithic primary-tertiary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuell, Michael T.; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.; Ketelsen, Dean A.; Law, Kevin; Gressler, William J.; Zhao, Chunyu

    2012-09-01

    As previously reported (at the SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation conference of 2010 in San Diego1), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes a three-mirror design in which the primary (M1) and tertiary (M3) mirrors are two concentric aspheric surfaces on one monolithic substrate. The substrate material is Ohara E6 borosilicate glass, in a honeycomb sandwich configuration, currently in production at The University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. We will provide an update to the status of the mirrors and metrology systems, which have advanced from concepts to hardware in the past two years. In addition to the normal requirements for smooth surfaces of the appropriate prescriptions, the alignment of the two surfaces must be accurately measured and controlled in the production lab, reducing the degrees of freedom needed to be controlled in the telescope. The surface specification is described as a structure function, related to seeing in excellent conditions. Both the pointing and centration of the two optical axes are important parameters, in addition to the axial spacing of the two vertices. This paper details the manufacturing process and metrology systems for each surface, including the alignment of the two surfaces. M1 is a hyperboloid and can utilize a standard Offner null corrector, whereas M3 is an oblate ellipsoid, so it has positive spherical aberration. The null corrector is a phase-etched computer-generated hologram (CGH) between the mirror surface and the center-of-curvature. Laser trackers are relied upon to measure the alignment and spacing as well as rough-surface metrology during looseabrasive grinding.

  10. Production of metal matrix composite mirrors for tank fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Alan L.; Ulph, Eric, Sr.

    1992-09-01

    The first production lot of 50 units of metal matrix composite mirrors for the Leopard I tank fire control system was recently completed by Optical Corporation of America (OCA), Garden Grove, California. The mirror substrates were finish machined from forgings of Optical Grade SXATM metal matrix composite manufactured by Advanced Composite Materials Corporation (ACMC), Greer, South Carolina. Use of forgings rather than hot pressed billet yields more efficient use of material and reduces machining time, resulting in lower cost. The mirrors were fabricated by a process sequence of machining, thermal stabilization, electroless nickel plating, polishing, and coating with a high efficiency, laser damage-resistant optical coating. The mirrors are used in the fire control system for a day channel (direct view) and near infrared (CCD), a muzzle reference system laser transceiver, a laser range finder, and an infrared thermal imaging system. SXA composite was chosen over competitive mirror materials (glass and beryllium) because of its high specific strength and stiffness, good stability, and moderate machining cost. The mirrors exhibit excellent stability and optical performance. Field trials of prototype mirrors in fire control systems have proven successful.

  11. ATLAST ULE mirror segment performance analytical predictions based on thermally induced distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhower, Michael J.; Cohen, Lester M.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Matthews, Gary W.; Nissen, Joel A.; Park, Sang C.; Peabody, Hume L.

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for a 9.2 m aperture space-borne observatory operating across the UV/Optical/NIR spectra. The primary mirror for ATLAST is a segmented architecture with pico-meter class wavefront stability. Due to its extraordinarily low coefficient of thermal expansion, a leading candidate for the primary mirror substrate is Corning's ULE® titania-silicate glass. The ATLAST ULE® mirror substrates will be maintained at `room temperature' during on orbit flight operations minimizing the need for compensation of mirror deformation between the manufacturing temperature and the operational temperatures. This approach requires active thermal management to maintain operational temperature while on orbit. Furthermore, the active thermal control must be sufficiently stable to prevent time-varying thermally induced distortions in the mirror substrates. This paper describes a conceptual thermal management system for the ATLAST 9.2 m segmented mirror architecture that maintains the wavefront stability to less than 10 pico-meters/10 minutes RMS. Thermal and finite element models, analytical techniques, accuracies involved in solving the mirror figure errors, and early findings from the thermal and thermal-distortion analyses are presented.

  12. Fabrication of single crystal silicon mirror substrates for X-ray astronomical missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Bly, Vincent T.; Kolos, Linette D.; McKeon, Kevin P.; Mazzarella, James R.; Miller, Timothy M.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-07-01

    The advancement of X-ray astronomy largely depends on technological advances in the manufacturing of X-ray optics. Future X-ray astronomy missions will require thousands of nearly perfect mirror segments to produce an X-ray optical assembly with < 5 arcsecond resolving capability. Present-day optical manufacturing technologies are not capable of producing thousands of such mirrors within typical mission time and budget allotments. Therefore, efforts towards the establishment of a process capable of producing sufficiently precise X-ray mirrors in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner are needed. Single-crystal silicon is preferred as a mirror substrate material over glass since it is stronger and free of internal stress, allowing it to retain its precision when cut into very thin mirror substrates. This paper details our early pursuits of suitable fabrication technologies for the mass production of sub-arcsecond angular resolution single-crystal silicon mirror substrates for X-ray telescopes.

  13. Mirrors, mirrors on the wall…the ubiquitous multiple reflection error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Participants decided when somebody, Janine, could see their face in a horizontal row of adjacent mirrors mounted flat on the same wall. They saw real mirrors and a shop-dummy representing Janine. Such coplanar mirrors reflect different, non-overlapping areas of a scene. However, almost everybody made an unexpected error: they claimed that Janine would see her face reflected in multiple mirrors simultaneously. They therefore responded as if each mirror showed similar information and thus grossly overestimated how much each mirror revealed. Further studies established that this multiple reflection error also occurred for vertical rows of mirrors and for different areas of a single, large mirror. The error was even common if the participant themselves sat in front of a set of covered-up mirrors and indicated where they would be able to see their own reflection. In the latter case, people often made multiple reflection errors despite having seen all the mirrors uncovered immediately before they responded. People's gross overestimation of how much of a scene a mirror reflects and their inability to learn to correct this false belief explains why, despite a lifetime's experience of mirrors, they incorrectly think they will see themselves in all nearby mirrors.

  14. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most powerful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  15. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Camera Integrated With Mirror Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows the High Resolution Camera (HRC) for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), formerly Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), being integrated with the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) in Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) 24-foot Vacuum Chamber at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). The AXAF was renamed CXO in 1999. The CXO is the most sophisticated and the world's most poweful x-ray telescope ever built. It observes x-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as hot gas in the remnants of exploded stars. The HRC is one of the two instruments used at the focus of CXO, where it will detect x-rays reflected from an assembly of eight mirrors. The unique capabilities of the HRC stem from the close match of its imaging capability to the focusing of the mirrors. When used with CXO mirrors, the HRC makes images that reveal detail as small as one-half an arc second. This is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper at a distance of 1 kilometer. MSFC's XRCF is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produces a space-like environment in which components relatedto x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performances in space is predicted. TRW, Inc. was the prime contractor for the development of the CXO and NASA's MSFC was responsible for its project management. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the CXO for NASA from Cambridge, Massachusetts. The CXO was launched July 22, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-93).

  16. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  17. Magnetic mirror fusion: status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.

    1980-02-11

    Two improved mirror systems, the tandem mirror (TM) and the field-reversed mirror (FRM) are being intensively studied. The twin practical aims of these studies: to improve the economic prospects for mirror fusion power plants and to reduce the size and/or complexity of such plants relative to earlier approaches to magnetic fusion. While at the present time the program emphasis is still strongly oriented toward answering scientific questions, the emphasis is shifting as the data accumulates and as larger facilities - ones with a heavy technological and engineering orientation - are being prepared. The experimental and theoretical progress that led to the new look in mirror fusion research is briefly reviewed, the new TM and the FRM ideas are outlined, and the projected future course of mirror fusion research is discussed.

  18. Thermal analysis of multifacet-mirror ring resonator for XUV free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, B.D.; Goldstein, J.C.; McFarland, R.D.; Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    XUV (10 nm {le} {lambda} {le} 100 nm) free-electron lasers (FELs) are potentially important light sources for advanced lithography and materials applications. The average power of an XUV FEL oscillator may be limited by thermal loading of the resonator mirrors. We analyze the requirements for the thermal performance of the mirrors of a metal, multifacet-mirror ring resonator for use at 12 nm. We use analytical methods and numerical approaches which include simulations with the 3-D FEL code FELEX. Thermal distortion of mirror surfaces leads to optical wavefront aberrations which reduce the focusability of the light beam in the gain medium (wiggler/electron beam) and limit the laser performance. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  20. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Buckwalter, Jr., Charles Q.

    1981-01-01

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  1. Future engineering needs of mirror fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1982-07-30

    Fusion research has matured during the last decade and significant insight into the future program needs has emerged. While some will properly note that the crystal ball is cloudy, it is equally important to note that the shape and outline of our course is discernable. In this short summary paper, I will draw upon the National Mirror Program Plan for mirror projects and on available design studies of these projects to put the specific needs of the mirror program in perspective.

  2. Deformable mirror for short wavelength applications

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Henry N.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    A deformable mirror compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation that can be precisely controlled to nanometer and subnanometer accuracy is described. Actuators are coupled between a reaction plate and a face plate which has a reflective coating. A control system adjusts the voltage supplied to the actuators; by coordinating the voltages supplied to the actuators, the reflective surface of the mirror can be deformed to correct for dimensional errors in the mirror or to produce a desired contour.

  3. The Physical Mirror Equivalence for the Local

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatori, Sergio Luigi; Compagnoni, Marco; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the total space of the canonical bundle of and we use a proposal by Hosono, together with results of Seidel and Auroux-Katzarkov-Orlov, to deduce the physical mirror equivalence between and the derived Fukaya category of its mirror which assigns the expected central charge to BPS states. By construction, our equivalence is compatible with the mirror map relating the complex and the Kähler moduli spaces and with the computation of Gromov-Witten invariants.

  4. Imaging performance of elliptical-boundary varifocal mirrors in active optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, Sarah Jane

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems deformable-membrane mirrors provide a means of focus control and attendant spherical aberration correction for miniaturized imaging systems. The technology has greatly advanced in the last decade, thereby extending their focal range capabilities. This dissertation describes a novel SU-8 2002 silicon-on-insulator wafer deformable mirror. A 4.000 mm x 5.657 mm mirror for 45o incident light rays achieves 22 mum stroke or 65 diopters, limited by snapdown. The mirrors show excellent optical quality while flat. Most have peak-to-valley difference of less than 150 nm and root-mean-square less than 25 nm. The process proves simple, only requiring a silicon-on-insulator wafer, SU-8 2002, and a metal layer. Xenon difluoride etches the silicon to release the mirrors. Greater than 90% of the devices survive fabrication and release. While current literature includes several aberration analyses on static mirrors, analyses that incorporate the dynamic nature of these mirrors do not exist. Optical designers may have a choice between deformable mirrors and other types of varifocal mirrors or lenses. Furthermore, a dynamic mirror at an incidence angle other than normal may be desired due to space limitations or for higher throughput (normal incidence requires a beam splitter). This dissertation presents an analysis based on the characteristic function of the system. It provides 2nd and 3rd order aberration coefficients in terms of dynamic focus range and base ray incidence angle. These afford an understanding of the significance of different types of aberrations. Root-mean-square and Strehl calculations provide insight into overall imaging performance for various conditions. I present general guidelines for maximum incidence angle and field of fiew that provide near diffraction-limited performance. Experimental verification of the MEMS mirrors at 5o and 45o incidence angles validates the analytical results. A Blu-ray optical pick-up imaging

  5. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  6. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  7. Effect of Gemini primary mirror position relative to the lateral support on mirror figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Stepp, Larry M.

    2000-07-01

    The Gemini primary mirror support incorporates a system of hydraulic whiffletrees to carry the mirror weight and define its position. The six orthogonal kinematic degrees of freedom are controlled by six hydraulic zones--three axial, two lateral, plus a transverse lateral. By varying the fluid volumes in these hydraulic zones the mirror position can be adjusted in all six degrees of freedom. Because of the finite lengths of the linkages that connect the mirror to the lateral supports, any shift in mirror position changes the amplitudes and directions of the applied forces with a resulting effect on the static balance and mirror figure. These effects have been calculated for mirror translations and rotations in all six degrees of freedom, resulting in predictions of the changes in the axial and lateral support forces and in the mirror figure. This paper describes the modeling as well as experimental verification of the results.

  8. Zero Density of Open Paths in the Lorentz Mirror Model for Arbitrary Mirror Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Atahualpa S.; Sanders, David P.

    2014-09-01

    We show, incorporating results obtained from numerical simulations, that in the Lorentz mirror model, the density of open paths in any finite box tends to 0 as the box size tends to infinity, for any mirror probability.

  9. Simulation of segmented mirror telescope and calculating asphericity of segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhou; Qiu, Qi; Zhang, Yudong

    2014-09-01

    To determine parameters of the Segmented Mirror Telescope is quite essential for the design, manufacture, testing and construct of the telescope system, especially the F-number parameters and curvature radius of the primary mirror, as well as the asphericity. A model of Sub-segmented mirror was established in this paper, based on which, using the feature points combined with lagrange condition extreme, the asphericity calculation of the asymmetrical hexagon off-axis parabolic mirror in different central points is solved. The 8m and 11m segmented mirror telescope were taken for example in the calculation, and got the relation curve between F-number of primary mirror and Asphericity of segmented mirror, respectively. This work is useful for the design, manufacturing and testing of the large diameter Segmented Mirror Telescope.

  10. Membrane Mirrors With Bimorph Shape Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2003-01-01

    Deformable mirrors of a proposed type would be equipped with relatively-large-stroke microscopic piezoelectric actuators that would be used to maintain their reflective surfaces in precise shapes. These mirrors would be members of the class of MEMS-DM (for microelectromechanical system deformable mirror) devices, which offer potential for a precise optical control in adaptive-optics applications in such diverse fields as astronomy and vision science. The proposed mirror would be fabricated, in part, by use of a membrane-transfer technique. The actuator design would contain bimorph-type piezoelectric actuators.

  11. Unimorph piezoelectric deformable mirrors for space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, P.; Verpoort, S.; Wittrock, U.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed, manufactured and tested a unimorph deformable mirror for space applications based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror was designed for the correction of low-order Zernike modes with a stroke of several tens of micrometers over a clear aperture of 50 mm. It was successfully tested in thermal vacuum, underwent lifetime tests, and was exposed to random vibrations, sinusoidal vibrations, and to ionizing radiation. We report on design considerations, manufacturing of the mirror, and present the test results. Furthermore, we discuss critical design parameters, and how our mirror could be adapted to serve recently proposed space telescopes such as HDST and TALC.

  12. Mounting with compliant cylinders for deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Reinlein, Claudia; Goy, Matthias; Lange, Nicolas; Appelfelder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A method is presented to mount large aperture unimorph deformable mirrors by compliant cylinders (CC). The CCs are manufactured from a soft silicone, and shear testing is performed in order to evaluate the Young's modulus. A scale mirror model is assembled to evaluate mount-induced change of piezoelectric deformation, and its applicability for tightly focusing mirrors. Experiments do not show any decrease of piezoelectric stroke. Further it is shown that the changes of surface fidelity by the attachment of the deformable mirror to its mount are neglectable.

  13. First mirrors for diagnostic systems of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Costley, A.; Donné, A. J. H.; SWG on First Mirrors of the ITPA Topical Group on Diagnostics

    2007-08-01

    The majority of optical diagnostics presently foreseen for ITER will implement in-vessel metallic mirrors as plasma-viewing components. Mirrors are used for the observation of the plasma radiation in a very wide wavelength range: from about 1 nm up to a few mm. In the hostile ITER environment, mirrors are subject to erosion, deposition, particle implantation and other adverse effects which will change their optical properties, affecting the entire performance of the respective diagnostic systems. The Specialists Working Group (SWG) on first mirrors was established under the wings of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) Topical Group (TG) on Diagnostics to coordinate and guide the investigations on diagnostic mirrors towards the development of optimal, robust and durable solutions for ITER diagnostic systems. The results of tests of various ITER-candidate mirror materials, performed in Tore-Supra, TEXTOR, DIII-D, TCV, T-10, TRIAM-1M and LHD under various plasma conditions, as well as an overview of laboratory investigations of mirror performance and mirror cleaning techniques are presented in the paper. The current tasks in the R&D of diagnostic mirrors will be addressed.

  14. Composite technology for lightweight optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Bernd; Helwig, Gunter; Scheulen, Dietmar

    1990-07-01

    Reflectors for antennas using fiber-composite technology today represent the state of the art, and mirrors for radio telescopes occasionally are already made using this technology. For even shorter wavelengths, including the visible light, glass mirrors have been used almost exclusively and, rarely, metal mirrors (for example made of beryllium). In general a surface contour accuracy of about 1/20 wavelength is required. Years of development work based on experience gained in aircraft construction and space technology made it possible to improve fiber-composite technology to such an extent that a substitute for heavy glass has become feasible, opening up new applications for lighter and/or larger mirrors.

  15. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  16. Plasma confinement apparatus using solenoidal and mirror coils

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, T. Kenneth; Condit, William C.

    1979-01-01

    A plasma confinement apparatus, wherein multiple magnetic mirror cells are linked by magnetic field lines inside of a solenoid with the mirroring regions for adjacent magnetic mirror cells each formed by a separate mirror coil inside of the solenoid. The magnetic mirror cells may be field reversed.

  17. Toward a functional account of the human mirror system. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enticott, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first reports of macaque "mirror neurons" appeared in the literature [1], and a large number of studies have since established an analogous system in the human brain [2]. Despite a raft of studies using various methodological approaches, we appear to be moving further away from any form of consensus, particularly concerning what this mirror system actually "mirrors" (e.g., low-level motor representation, goal or intention coding), and the functional significance (if any) of this mechanism [3]. The conceptual issues discussed by D'Ausilio et al. [4] are indeed critical to the advancement of this field; interestingly, they suggest that examining kinematic vs. goal coding aspects of the mirror system might be redundant, and propose instead a new approach that examines the recruitment of motor synergies within the context of the mirror system.

  18. Mirrors, Mirrors on the Wall...The Ubiquitous Multiple Reflection Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Participants decided when somebody, Janine, could see their face in a horizontal row of adjacent mirrors mounted flat on the same wall. They saw real mirrors and a shop-dummy representing Janine. Such coplanar mirrors reflect different, non-overlapping areas of a scene. However, almost everybody made an unexpected error: they claimed that Janine…

  19. Shape memory composite deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the critical aspects regarding Shape Memory Composite (SMC) design: firstly some technological aspects concerning embedding technique and their efficiency secondarily the lack of useful numerical tools for this peculiar design. It has been taken into account as a possible application a deformable panel which is devoted to act as a substrate for a deformable mirror. The activity has been mainly focused to the study of embedding technologies, activation and authority. In detail it will be presented the "how to" manufacturing of some smart panels with embedded NiTiNol wires in order to show the technology developed for SMC structures. The first part of the work compares non conventional pull-out tests on wires embedded in composites laminates (real condition of application), with standard pull-out in pure epoxy resin blocks. Considering the numerical approach some different modeling techniques to be implemented in commercial codes (ABAQUS) have been investigated. The Turner's thermo-mechanical model has been adopted for the modeling of the benchmark: A spherical panel devoted to work as an active substrate for a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) deformable mirror has been considered as a significant technological demonstrator and possible future application (f=240mm, r.o.c.=1996mm).

  20. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

  1. Barstow heliostat mirror glass characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, M.A.; Buckwalter, C.Q.

    1980-09-01

    The technical analysis performed on the special run of low iron float glass procured from the Ford Glass Division for the ten megawatt solar thermal/electric pilot power plant to be constructed at Barstow, California is discussed. The topics that are addressed include the optical properties and the relative durability of the glass. Two optical parameters, solar transmittance and optical flatness, were measured as referenced in the specification and found to be better than the stated tolerances. The average solar transmittance exceeded 0.890 transmittance units. The glass also exhibited optical angular flatness deviations less than +-1.0 mrad as required. Both qualitative and quantitative accelerated weathering tests were performed on the glass in order to compare its durability to other soda lime float glass and alternate composition glasses of interest to the solar community. In both the quantitative leaching experiments and the more qualitative room temperature and elevated temperature water vapor exposure experiments the heliostat glass exhibited the same characteristics as the other soda-lime silicate float glasses. As a final test for mirroring compatability, selected samples of the production run of the glass were sent to four different commercial manufacturers for mirror coating. None of the manufacturers reported any difficulty silvering the glass. Based on the tests performed, the glass meets or exceeds all optical specifications for the Barstow heliostat field.

  2. Neurodegeneration and Mirror Image Agnosia

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal Percept with abnormal meaning (Agnosias) has been described from nineteenth century onwards. Later literature became abundant with information on the spectrum of Prosopagnosias. However, selective difficulty in identifying reflected self images with relatively better cognitive functions leads to problems in differentiating it from non-organic psychosis. Aim: In the present study, we investigated patients with dementia who showed difficulty in identifying reflected self images while they were being tested for problems in gnosis with reference to identification of reflected objects, animals, relatives, and themselves and correlate with neuropsychological and radiological parameters. Patients and Methods: Five such patients were identified and tested with a 45 cm × 45 cm mirror kept at 30-cm distance straight ahead of them. Results: Mirror image agnosia is seen in patients with moderate stage posterior dementias who showed neuropsychological and radiological evidence of right parietal dysfunction. Conclusion: Interpretation of reflected self images perception in real time probably involves distinct data-linking circuits in the right parietal lobe, which may get disrupted early in the course of the disease. PMID:25317393

  3. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  4. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain). PMID:25893437

  5. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-06-24

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic 'flying mirror', which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of {approx_equal}4-6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are {approx}55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3x10{sup 7} photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  6. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.

    2008-06-01

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  7. Performance of a collimating L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror for the IXS analyzer system at NSLS-II.

    PubMed

    Suvorov, Alexey; Coburn, David S; Cunsolo, Alessandro; Keister, Jeffrey W; Upton, Mary H; Cai, Yong Q

    2014-05-01

    The L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is a vital part of the ultrahigh-energy and momentum-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer at the National Synchrotron Light Source II. This mirror was designed and implemented as a two-dimensional collimating optic for the analyzer system. Its performance was characterized using a secondary large-divergence source at the 30-ID beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, which yielded an integrated reflectivity of 47% and a collimated beam divergence of 78 µrad with a source size of 10 µm. Numerical simulations of the mirror performance in tandem with the analyzer crystal optics provided details on the acceptance sample volume in forward scattering and defined the technical requirements on the mirror stability and positioning precision. It was shown that the mirror spatial and angular stability must be in the range <8.4 µm and <21.4 µrad, respectively, for reliable operation of the analyzer.

  8. Advanced stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Arnulf

    1983-03-01

    Toroidal confinement of a plasma by an external magnetic field is not compatible with axisymmetry, in contrast to confinement by the pinch effect of induced electric currents as in a tokomak or by the reversed field pinch configuration. The existence of magnetic surfaces throughout the region in which grad p ≠ 0 is therefore not guaranteed in such configurations, though it is necessary for MHD-equilibrium when the lines of force possess a finite twist (or "rotational transform"). These twisted equilibria are called stellarators. The other type of external confinement requires all lines of force to be closed upon themselves and p to be function of the well defined quantity Q = φ d l/ B only. The resulting "bumpy" tori are sometimes also referred to as being M + S like. By discussing specific examples it is shown that stellarator configurations exist which retain as much as possible the properties of M + S like configurations, combine these with the magnetic well, and with an approximation to the isodynamic requirement of D. Palumbo. These so-called Advanced Stellarators shown an improvement in predicted particle confinement and beta-limit compared to the classical stellarators. They can also be viewed as forming a system of linked stabilized mirrors of small mirror ratio. These fields can be produced by modular coils. A prototype of such a configuration is being designed by the stellarator division of IPP under the name of Wendelstein VII-AS. Expected physical data and technical details of W VII-AS are given.

  9. Particle confinement property in the cusp-mirror field of a compact fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Limin; Liu, Haifeng; Wang, Xianqu

    2016-09-01

    The cusp-mirror magnetic structure in a compact fusion reactor (CFR) is investigated to understand the properties of the particle confinement for the first time. Compared with a cascade magnetic mirror device, its advanced performance is shown by means of test particle simulations. Some interesting results are obtained as follows: the adiabatic region and non-adiabatic region are found in the CFR’s magnetic configuration. In the non-adiabatic region, due to the magnetic field-free space existing, the ions are scattered stochastically and are not directly guided into the loss cone, unlike the particles around the fixed magnetic lines in the adiabatic region, which decrease the ion loss fraction. The CFR’s configuration, combining advantages of cusp-magnetic configuration and mirror-magnetic configuration, leads to confine particles longer than cascade magnetic mirror’s. This phenomenon may be relevant to the construction of advanced magnetic-confinement devices.

  10. Foil Panel Mirrors for Nonimaging Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuyper, D. J.; Castillo, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    Large durable, lightweight mirrors made by bonding thick aluminum foil to honeycomb panels or other rigid, flat backings. Mirrors suitable for use as infrared shields, telescope doors, solar-furnance doors, advertising displays, or other reflectors that require low thermal emissivity and high specularity but do not require precise surface figure necessary for imaging.

  11. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  12. Do mirror neurons subserve action understanding?

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons were once widely believed to support action understanding via motor simulation of the observed actions. Recent evidence regarding the functional properties of mirror neurons in monkeys as well as much neuropsychological evidence in humans has shown that this is not the case.

  13. Where do mirror neurons come from?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    Debates about the evolution of the 'mirror neuron system' imply that it is an adaptation for action understanding. Alternatively, mirror neurons may be a byproduct of associative learning. Here I argue that the adaptation and associative hypotheses both offer plausible accounts of the origin of mirror neurons, but the associative hypothesis has three advantages. First, it provides a straightforward, testable explanation for the differences between monkeys and humans that have led some researchers to question the existence of a mirror neuron system. Second, it is consistent with emerging evidence that mirror neurons contribute to a range of social cognitive functions, but do not play a dominant, specialised role in action understanding. Finally, the associative hypothesis is supported by recent data showing that, even in adulthood, the mirror neuron system can be transformed by sensorimotor learning. The associative account implies that mirror neurons come from sensorimotor experience, and that much of this experience is obtained through interaction with others. Therefore, if the associative account is correct, the mirror neuron system is a product, as well as a process, of social interaction.

  14. Naive Optics: Acting on Mirror Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Heiko; Bertamini, Marco; Gamer, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    It is known that naive observers have striking misconceptions about mirror reflections. In 5 experiments, this article systematically extends the findings to graphic stimuli, to interactive visual tasks, and finally to tasks involving real mirrors. The results show that the perceptual knowledge of nonexpert adults is far superior to their…

  15. Segmented mirror control system hardware for CELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary mirror of the proposed California Extremely Large Telescope is a 30-meter diameter mosaic of hexagonal segments. The primary mirror active control will be achieved using four systems: sensors, actuators, processor, and alignment camera. We describe here the basic requirements of sensors and actuators, sketch a sensor design, and indicate interesting actuator alternatives.

  16. Laser cavity with a nonlinear mirror

    SciTech Connect

    McDuff, R.; Heckenberg, N.R. )

    1990-05-01

    A pulsed CO{sub 2} laser was operated using an InSb etalon as a cavity mirror. The nonlinear behavior of the mirror caused significant modification of the pulse shape, introducing a characteristic transient ringing. A simplified theoretical model reproduces the behavior.

  17. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOEpatents

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  18. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  19. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  20. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  1. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  2. Optimal alignment of mirror based pentaprisms for scanning deflectometric devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Samuel K.; Geckeler, Ralf D.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Buchheim, Jana; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2011-03-04

    In the recent work [Proc. of SPIE 7801, 7801-2/1-12 (2010), Opt. Eng. 50(5) (2011), in press], we have reported on improvement of the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), a slope measuring profiler available at the Advanced Light Source Optical Metrology Laboratory, achieved by replacing the bulk pentaprism with a mirror based pentaprism (MBPP). An original experimental procedure for optimal mutual alignment of the MBPP mirrors has been suggested and verified with numerical ray tracing simulations. It has been experimentally shown that the optimally aligned MBPP allows the elimination of systematic errors introduced by inhomogeneity of the optical material and fabrication imperfections of the bulk pentaprism. In the present article, we provide the analytical derivation and verification of easily executed optimal alignment algorithms for two different designs of mirror based pentaprisms. We also provide an analytical description for the mechanism for reduction of the systematic errors introduced by a typical high quality bulk pentaprism. It is also shown that residual misalignments of an MBPP introduce entirely negligible systematic errors in surface slope measurements with scanning deflectometric devices.

  3. Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermann, Frederick Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation

  4. Development of an improved mirror facet for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertz, Paul; Saifee, Shabbar; Lammert, Luke

    1991-01-01

    A fabrication technique was successfully developed for a metallic aluminum honeycomb, high-accuracy, lightweight, and long-life solar concentrator (mirror) for Advanced Solar Dynamic Space Power Systems. The program scope was limited to the development, fabrication, evaluation, and delivery of a solar concentrator facet (petal) that was sized for a 2-meter deployable solar concentrator. A surface accuracy of 1.0 mrad was achieved. The development incorporated tooling design, material selection, facet forming, adhesive selection, testing, and analysis. Techniques for applying levelizing, reflective, and protective optical coatings were also developed.

  5. Refurbishment of solar simulation optical train mirror assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leverton, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    Mirror refurbishment processing is described, and the results of processing 251 mirror assemblies are reported. The mirror replica bonding, optical tests, electrical discharge machining, and vacuum coating are discussed.

  6. Optical properties of relativistic plasma mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Vincenti, H.; Monchocé, S.; Kahaly, S.; Bonnaud, G.; Martin, Ph.; Quéré, F.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of ultrahigh-power femtosecond lasers creates a need for an entirely new class of optical components based on plasmas. The most promising of these are known as plasma mirrors, formed when an intense femtosecond laser ionizes a solid surface. These mirrors specularly reflect the main part of a laser pulse and can be used as active optical elements to manipulate its temporal and spatial properties. Unfortunately, the considerable pressures exerted by the laser can deform the mirror surface, unfavourably affecting the reflected beam and complicating, or even preventing, the use of plasma mirrors at ultrahigh intensities. Here we derive a simple analytical model of the basic physics involved in laser-induced deformation of a plasma mirror. We validate this model numerically and experimentally, and use it to show how such deformation might be mitigated by appropriate control of the laser phase. PMID:24614748

  7. High reflection mirrors for pulse compression gratings.

    PubMed

    Palmier, S; Neauport, J; Baclet, N; Lavastre, E; Dupuy, G

    2009-10-26

    We report an experimental investigation of high reflection mirrors used to fabricate gratings for pulse compression application at the wavelength of 1.053microm. Two kinds of mirrors are studied: the mixed Metal MultiLayer Dielectric (MMLD) mirrors which combine a gold metal layer with some e-beam evaporated dielectric bilayers on the top and the standard e-beam evaporated MultiLayer Dielectric (MLD) mirrors. Various samples were manufactured, damage tested at a pulse duration of 500fs. Damage sites were subsequently observed by means of Nomarski microscopy and white light interferometer microscopy. The comparison of the results evidences that if MMLD design can offer damage performances rather similar to MLD design, it also exhibits lower stresses; being thus an optimal mirror substrate for a pulse compression grating operating under vacuum.

  8. Mirror neurons through the lens of epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Pier F; Tramacere, Antonella; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Iriki, Atsushi

    2013-09-01

    The consensus view in mirror neuron research is that mirror neurons comprise a uniform, stable execution-observation matching system. In this opinion article, we argue that, in light of recent evidence, this is at best an incomplete and oversimplified view of mirror neurons, where activity is actually variable and more plastic than previously theorized. We propose an epigenetic account for understanding developmental changes in sensorimotor systems, including variations in mirror neuron activity. Although associative and genetic accounts fail to consider the complexity of genetic and nongenetic interactions, we propose a new evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) perspective, which predicts that environmental differences early in development should produce variations in mirror neuron response patterns, tuning them to the social environment.

  9. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  10. Mirror Neurons through the Lens of Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pier F.; Tramacere, Antonella; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Iriki, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    The consensus view in mirror neuron research is that mirror neurons comprise a uniform, stable execution-observation matching system. In this article, we argue that, in light of recent evidence, this is, at best, an incomplete and oversimplified view of mirror neurons, whose activity is actually quite variable and more plastic than previously theorized. We propose an epigenetic account for understanding developmental changes in sensorimotor systems, including variations in mirror neuron activity. Although extant associative and genetic accounts fail to consider the complexity of genetic and non-genetic interactions, we propose a new Evo-Devo perspective, which predicts that environmental differences early in development, or through sensorimotor training, should produce variations in mirror neuron response patterns, tuning them to the social environment. PMID:23953747

  11. Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes.

    PubMed

    Xifré-Pérez, Elisabet; Shi, Lei; Tuzer, Umut; Fenollosa, Roberto; Ramiro-Manzano, Fernando; Quidant, Romain; Meseguer, Francisco

    2013-01-22

    Reflection in a mirror changes the handedness of the real world, and right-handed objects turn left-handed and vice versa (M. Gardner, The Ambidextrous Universe, Penguin Books, 1964). Also, we learn from electromagnetism textbooks that a flat metallic mirror transforms an electric charge into a virtual opposite charge. Consequently, the mirror image of a magnet is another parallel virtual magnet as the mirror image changes both the charge sign and the curl handedness. Here we report the dramatic modification in the optical response of a silicon nanocavity induced by the interaction with its image through a flat metallic mirror. The system of real and virtual dipoles can be interpreted as an effective magnetic dipole responsible for a strong enhancement of the cavity scattering cross section.

  12. Toward a large lightweight mirror for AO: development of a 1m Ni coated CFRP mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Brooks, D.; Strangwood, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present our recent developments towards the construction of a large, thin, single-piece mirror for adaptive optics (AO). Our current research program aims to have completed fabrication and testing of a 1m diameter, nickel coated carbon-fibre reinforced cyanate ester resin mirror by the last quarter of 2009. This composite mirror material is being developed to provide a lightweight and robust alternative to thin glass shell mirrors, with the challenge of future large deformable mirrors such as the 2.5m M4 on the E-ELT in mind. A detailed analysis of the material properties of test mirror samples is being performed at the University of Birmingham (UK), the first results of which are discussed and presented here. We discuss the project progress achieved so far, including fabrication of the 1m flat moulds for the replication process, manufacturing and testing methods for 20 cm diameter sample mirrors and system simulations.

  13. Tandem mirrors for neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Doggett, J.N.

    1983-03-31

    Two mirror machine concepts are being studied as early-time, low-cost, neutron-producing devices for testing and demonstrating reactor-relevant fusion technology. The first of these concepts is for a new, small, driven, steady-state, D-T reactor, called the Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF). The second concept is for upgrades to the MFTF-B machine that burn tritium and run for pulse lengths of some hours. Both devices operate in the Kelley mode in order to provide high-wall loadings of 14-MeV neutrons, thereby providing a valuable test bed for reactor-relevant hardware and subsystems. Either one of these devices could be running in the early 1990's with first wall fluxes between 1.4 and 2.0 MW m/sup -2/.

  14. Mirror Modes in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Echer, E. E.; Lakhina, G. S.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2011-01-04

    Mirror mode (MM) structures are identified in the Voyager 1 heliosheath magnetic field data. Their characteristics are: (1) quasiperiodic structures with a typical scale size of {approx}57 {rho}{sub p}(proton gyroradii), (2) little or no angular changes across the structures ({approx}3 deg. longitude and {approx}3 deg. latitude), and (3) a lack of sharp boundaries at the magnetic dip edges. It is proposed that the pickup of interstellar neutrals in the upstream region of the termination shock (TS) is the likely cause of MM instability during intervals when the IMF is nearly orthogonal to the solar wind flow direction. Concomitant (quasiperpendicular) shock compression of the MM structures at the TS and additional injection of pickup ions (PUIs) throughout the heliosheath will enhance MM growth.

  15. Durable silver coating for mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A durable multilayer mirror includes reflective layers of aluminum and silver and has high reflectance over a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. An adhesion layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride is deposited on an aluminum surface, and a thin layer of silver is then deposited on the adhesion layer. The silver layer is protected by a passivation layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride and by one or more durability layers made of metal oxides and typically a first layer of metal nitride. The durability layers may include a composite silicon aluminum nitride and an oxinitride transition layer to improve bonding between nitride and oxide layers.

  16. Mirror neurons: from origin to function.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent. It is widely believed that mirror neurons are a genetic adaptation for action understanding; that they were designed by evolution to fulfill a specific socio-cognitive function. In contrast, we argue that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function. The evidence supporting this view shows that (1) mirror neurons do not consistently encode action "goals"; (2) the contingency- and context-sensitive nature of associative learning explains the full range of mirror neuron properties; (3) human infants receive enough sensorimotor experience to support associative learning of mirror neurons ("wealth of the stimulus"); and (4) mirror neurons can be changed in radical ways by sensorimotor training. The associative account implies that reliable information about the function of mirror neurons can be obtained only by research based on developmental history, system-level theory, and careful experimentation. PMID:24775147

  17. Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2014-03-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject's unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for "imaging of the unconscious". Future researches have been proposed.

  18. Large thin adaptive x-ray mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Thompson, Samantha; Brooks, David; Yao, Jun; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes the progress made in a proof of concept study and recent results of a research program into large active x-ray mirrors that is part of the UK Smart X-ray Optics project. The ultimate aim is to apply the techniques of active/adaptive optics to the next generation of nested shell astronomical X-ray space telescopes. A variety of deformable mirror technologies are currently available, the most promising of which for active X-ray mirrors are probably unimorph and bimorph piezoelectric mirrors. In this type of mirror one or more sheets of piezoelectric material are bonded to or coated with a passive reflective layer. On the back or between the piezoceramic layer/layers are series of electrodes. Application of an electric field causes the piezoelectric material to undergo local deformation thus changing the mirror shape. Starting in 2005 a proof of concept active mirror research program has been undertaken. This work included modelling and development of actively controlled thin shell mirrors. Finite element models of piezo-electric actuated mirrors have been developed and verified against experimental test systems. This has included the modelling and test of piezo-electric hexagonal unimorph segments. Various actuator types and low shrinkage conductive bonding methods have been investigated and laboratory tests of the use of piezo-electric actuators to adjust the form of an XMM-Newton space telescope engineering model mirror shell have been conducted and show that movement of the optics at the required level is achievable. Promising technological approaches have been identified including moulded piezo-ceramics and piezo-electrics fibre bundles.

  19. Mirror neurons: from origin to function.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    This article argues that mirror neurons originate in sensorimotor associative learning and therefore a new approach is needed to investigate their functions. Mirror neurons were discovered about 20 years ago in the monkey brain, and there is now evidence that they are also present in the human brain. The intriguing feature of many mirror neurons is that they fire not only when the animal is performing an action, such as grasping an object using a power grip, but also when the animal passively observes a similar action performed by another agent. It is widely believed that mirror neurons are a genetic adaptation for action understanding; that they were designed by evolution to fulfill a specific socio-cognitive function. In contrast, we argue that mirror neurons are forged by domain-general processes of associative learning in the course of individual development, and, although they may have psychological functions, they do not necessarily have a specific evolutionary purpose or adaptive function. The evidence supporting this view shows that (1) mirror neurons do not consistently encode action "goals"; (2) the contingency- and context-sensitive nature of associative learning explains the full range of mirror neuron properties; (3) human infants receive enough sensorimotor experience to support associative learning of mirror neurons ("wealth of the stimulus"); and (4) mirror neurons can be changed in radical ways by sensorimotor training. The associative account implies that reliable information about the function of mirror neurons can be obtained only by research based on developmental history, system-level theory, and careful experimentation.

  20. Archetypal-imaging and mirror-gazing.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Giovanni B

    2014-03-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one's own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject's unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for "imaging of the unconscious". Future researches have been proposed. PMID:25379264

  1. Archetypal-Imaging and Mirror-Gazing

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Giovanni B.

    2013-01-01

    Mirrors have been studied by cognitive psychology in order to understand self-recognition, self-identity, and self-consciousness. Moreover, the relevance of mirrors in spirituality, magic and arts may also suggest that mirrors can be symbols of unconscious contents. Carl G. Jung investigated mirrors in relation to the unconscious, particularly in Psychology and Alchemy. However, the relationship between the conscious behavior in front of a mirror and the unconscious meaning of mirrors has not been clarified. Recently, empirical research found that gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the perception of bodily dysmorphic illusions of strange-faces. Healthy observers usually describe huge distortions of their own faces, monstrous beings, prototypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and faces of animals. In the psychiatric population, some schizophrenics show a dramatic increase of strange-face illusions. They can also describe the perception of multiple-others that fill the mirror surface surrounding their strange-face. Schizophrenics are usually convinced that strange-face illusions are truly real and identify themselves with strange-face illusions, diversely from healthy individuals who never identify with them. On the contrary, most patients with major depression do not perceive strange-face illusions, or they perceive very faint changes of their immobile faces in the mirror, like death statues. Strange-face illusions may be the psychodynamic projection of the subject’s unconscious archetypal contents into the mirror image. Therefore, strange-face illusions might provide both an ecological setting and an experimental technique for “imaging of the unconscious”. Future researches have been proposed. PMID:25379264

  2. Impedance Matched to Vacuum, Invisible Edge, Diffraction Suppressed Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagopian, John G. (Inventor); Roman, Patrick A. (Inventor); Shiri, Sharham (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction suppressed mirrors having an invisible edge are disclosed for incident light at both targeted wavelengths and broadband incident light. The mirrors have a first having at least one discontiguous portion having a plurality of nanostructured apertures. The discontiguous mirror portion impedance matches a relatively high impedance portion of the mirror to a relatively low impedance portion of the mirror, thereby reducing the diffraction edge effect otherwise present in a conventional mirror.

  3. Double arch mirror study. Part 3: Fabrication and test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, D.; Hillman, D.

    1983-01-01

    A method of mounting a cryogenically cooled, lightweight, double arch, glass mirror was developed for infrared, astronomical telescopes such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A 50 cm, fused silica mirror which was previously fabricated was modified for use with a new mount configuration. This mount concept was developed. The modification of the mirror, the fabrication of the mirror mount, and the room temperature testing of the mounted mirror are reported. A design for a SIRTF class primary mirror is suggested.

  4. Achromatic and high-resolution full-field X-ray microscopy based on total-reflection mirrors.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Satoshi; Emi, Yoji; Kino, Hidetoshi; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2015-04-20

    We developed an achromatic and high-resolution full-field X-ray microscope based on advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror optics that comprises two pairs of elliptical mirrors and hyperbolic mirrors utilizing the total reflection of X-rays. Performance tests to investigate the spatial resolution and chromatic aberration were performed at SPring-8. The microscope clearly resolved the pattern with ~100-nm feature size. Imaging the pattern by changing the X-ray energy revealed achromatism in the wide energy range of 8-11 keV.

  5. Cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Macdougall, James; Mochi, Iacopo; Warwick, Tony

    2010-09-15

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in-situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. In this paper, we report an initial cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror. This cross-check provides a validation of the in-situ shearing interferometry currently under development at the ALS.

  6. Design and Analysis of an X-Ray Mirror Assembly Using the Meta-Shell Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Bonafede, Joseph; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. Past missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have achieved excellent angular resolution using a full shell mirror approach. Other missions such as Suzaku and NuSTAR have achieved lightweight mirrors using a segmented approach. This paper describes a new approach, called meta-shells, which combines the fabrication advantages of segmented optics with the alignment advantages of full shell optics. Meta-shells are built by layering overlapping mirror segments onto a central structural shell. The resulting optic has the stiffness and rotational symmetry of a full shell, but with an order of magnitude greater collecting area. Several meta-shells so constructed can be integrated into a large x-ray mirror assembly by proven methods used for Chandra and XMM-Newton. The mirror segments are mounted to the meta-shell using a novel four point semi-kinematic mount. The four point mount deterministically locates the segment in its most performance sensitive degrees of freedom. Extensive analysis has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the four point mount and meta-shell approach. A mathematical model of a meta-shell constructed with mirror segments bonded at four points and subject to launch loads has been developed to determine the optimal design parameters, namely bond size, mirror segment span, and number of layers per meta-shell. The parameters of an example 1.3 m diameter mirror assembly are given including the predicted effective area. To verify the mathematical model and support opto-mechanical analysis, a detailed finite element model of a meta-shell was created. Finite element analysis predicts low gravity distortion and low sensitivity to thermal gradients.

  7. Laser cleaning of ITER's diagnostic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A.; Doerner, R.

    2012-10-01

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We report on laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150 - 420 nm thick. A 1.06 μm Nd laser system provided 220 ns pulses at 8 kHz with typical power densities of 1-2 J/cm^2. The laser beam was fiber optically coupled to a scanner suitable for tokamak applications. The efficacy of mirror cleaning was assessed with a new technique that combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements [1]. The method is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber. Excellent restoration of reflectivity for the carbon coated Mo mirrors was observed after laser scanning under vacuum conditions. For the beryllium coated mirrors restoration of reflectivity has so far been incomplete and modeling indicates that a shorter duration laser pulse is needed. No damage of the molybdenum mirror substrates was observed.[4pt][1] C.H. Skinner et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. at press.

  8. Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models.

    PubMed

    Oztop, Erhan; Kawato, Mitsuo; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons for manipulation fire both when the animal manipulates an object in a specific way and when it sees another animal (or the experimenter) perform an action that is more or less similar. Such neurons were originally found in macaque monkeys, in the ventral premotor cortex, area F5 and later also in the inferior parietal lobule. Recent neuroimaging data indicate that the adult human brain is endowed with a "mirror neuron system," putatively containing mirror neurons and other neurons, for matching the observation and execution of actions. Mirror neurons may serve action recognition in monkeys as well as humans, whereas their putative role in imitation and language may be realized in human but not in monkey. This article shows the important role of computational models in providing sufficient and causal explanations for the observed phenomena involving mirror systems and the learning processes which form them, and underlines the need for additional circuitry to lift up the monkey mirror neuron circuit to sustain the posited cognitive functions attributed to the human mirror neuron system.

  9. Magneto-hydrodynamically stable axisymmetric mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, B. I.; Molvik, A. W.; Berk, H. L.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-09-15

    Making axisymmetric mirrors magnetohydrodynamically (MHD) stable opens up exciting opportunities for using mirror devices as neutron sources, fusion-fission hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors. This is also of interest from a general physics standpoint (as it seemingly contradicts well-established criteria of curvature-driven instabilities). The axial symmetry allows for much simpler and more reliable designs of mirror-based fusion facilities than the well-known quadrupole mirror configurations. In this tutorial, after a summary of classical results, several techniques for achieving MHD stabilization of the axisymmetric mirrors are considered, in particular: (1) employing the favorable field-line curvature in the end tanks; (2) using the line-tying effect; (3) controlling the radial potential distribution; (4) imposing a divertor configuration on the solenoidal magnetic field; and (5) affecting the plasma dynamics by the ponderomotive force. Some illuminative theoretical approaches for understanding axisymmetric mirror stability are described. The applicability of the various stabilization techniques to axisymmetric mirrors as neutron sources, hybrids, and pure-fusion reactors are discussed; and the constraints on the plasma parameters are formulated.

  10. Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.

  11. Reproduction Of William Herschel's Metallic Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, N.; Hirabayashi, S.; Isida, A.; Komori, A.; Nishitani, M.

    2006-08-01

    Following the reproduction of Cassini's open-air telescope, which took us almost three years to complete, our club decided to reproduce the metallic mirror telescope invented by William Herschel, which is a telescope of the subsequent generation. We based our design on the 7-foot telescope by which he used to discover Uranus in 1781. The metallic mirror was casted and blended copper and tin in the ratio of seven to three, exactly like the mirrors in those days. The surface of the casted mirror had many imperfections such as hollow portions and bubbles. These were removed by using the rock grinder at our school and the mirror was later polished at the Hidaka Optical Institute. The tube of the mirror was also made up of eight polygons just like the original. When we observed the stars with the metallic mirror telescope, they were a little bit dark, but it was possible to observe them well and to observe the gap between Saturn and Cassini. We also succeeded in observing Uranus with this telescope last September. Reproduction of the telescope mount is being made in a nearly the same design as the original one. We have learned through the reproduction that the unique design of the mount allows us to make observations with precise tracking accuracy in a comfortable observing position.

  12. A Deployable Primary Mirror for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Phelps, James E.; Dyer, Jack E.; Caudle, David A.; Tam, Anthony; Escobedo, Javier; Kasl, Eldon P.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Composite Optics, Inc., and Nyma/ADF have developed jointly a deployable primary mirror for space telescopes that combines over five years of research on deployment of optical-precision structures and over ten years of development of fabrication techniques for optical-precision composite mirror panels and structures. The deployable mirror is directly applicable to a broad class of non-imaging "lidar" (light direction a nd ranging) telescopes whose figure-error requirements are in the range of one to ten microns RMS. Furthermore, the mirror design can be readily modified to accommodate imaging-quality reflector panels and active panel-alignment control mechanisms for application to imaging telescopes. The present paper: 1) describes the deployable mirror concept; 2) explains the status of the mirror development; and 3) provides some technical specifications for a 2.55- m-diameter, proof-of-concept mirror. Keywords: precision deployment, hinge joint, latch joint, deployable structures, fabrication, space telescopes, optical instruments, microdynamics.

  13. Mirror matter, mirror gravity and galactic rotational curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhiani, Zurab; Pilo, Luigi; Rossi, Nicola

    2010-11-01

    We discuss astrophysical implications of the modified gravity model in which the two matter components, ordinary and dark, couple to separate gravitational fields that mix to each other through small mass terms. There are two spin-2 eigenstates: the massless graviton, which induces universal Newtonian attraction, and the massive one, which gives rise to the Yukawa-like potential which is repulsive between the ordinary and dark bodies. As a result for distances much smaller than the Yukawa radius r m the gravitation strength between the two types of matter becomes vanishing. If r m ˜10 kpc, the typical size of a galaxy, there are interesting implications for the nature of dark matter. In particular, one can avoid the problem of the cusp that is typical for the cold dark matter halos. Interestingly, the flat shape of the rotational curves can be explained even in the case of the collisional and dissipative dark matter (as e.g. mirror matter), which cannot give the extended halos but instead must form galactic discs similarly to the visible matter. The observed rotational curves for the large, medium-size and dwarf galaxies can be nicely reproduced. We also briefly discuss possible implications for the direct search of dark matter.

  14. Thermo-optically driven adaptive mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Felix; Lüthy, Willy

    2006-02-01

    The ideal adaptive optical mirror combines large aperture with high spatial and temporal resolution and a phase shift of at least 2π. Further, a simple low-cost solution is preferred. No adaptive system can perfectly fulfill all these requirements. We present a system that has the potential to reach this goal with the exception of high temporal resolution. But even with a moderate temporal resolution of one second such a system can find practical applications. For example as a laser resonator mirror that allows to modify the intensity distribution of the emission, or to correct slowly varying aberrations of optical systems. Two possible mechanisms can be used to change the optical path length of the adaptive mirror: thermal expansion of the mirror substrate or the thermally induced change of the refractive index (thermal dispersion) of a medium in front of the mirror. Both mechanisms have been shown to lead to promising results. In both cases heating was performed by irradiation of light in the active medium. The thermal dispersion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a liquid in front of a mirror. To allow a modification of the refractive index by irradiation with a diode laser at 808 nm, a suitable absorber is dissolved in the water. With chopped irradiation a resolution of 3.8 Hz at 30 % contrast is measured. This mirror has been used in a laser resonator to modify the output distribution of the laser. The thermal expansion based adaptive mirror is built with a thin layer of a silicon elastomer with a gold coated front side. We present a preparation method to produce thin films of Sylgard on sapphire. With an irradiated intensity of only 370 mW/cm2 surface modulations of up to 350 nm are obtained. With a test pattern a resolution of 1.6 line-pairs per millimeter at 30 % contrast is measured. The temporal resolution is better than one second.

  15. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  16. What we know currently about mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Kilner, J M; Lemon, R N

    2013-12-01

    Mirror neurons were discovered over twenty years ago in the ventral premotor region F5 of the macaque monkey. Since their discovery much has been written about these neurons, both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. They have been proposed to be the neuronal substrate underlying a vast array of different functions. Indeed so much has been written about mirror neurons that last year they were referred to, rightly or wrongly, as "The most hyped concept in neuroscience". Here we try to cut through some of this hyperbole and review what is currently known (and not known) about mirror neurons.

  17. Particle Deconfinement in a Bent Magnetic Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud Gueroult and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-09-06

    Coils misalignment in a magnetic mirror can produce additional particle transport. The magnetic field non axi-symmetry is responsible for radial and longitudinal drifts in a way much similar to the neo-classical transport in a tandem mirror cell distorted by end plugs. Accordingly, a regime exhibiting large radial displacements - similar to the resonant regime in tandem mirrors - can be obtained by confining ions azimuthally, for example by means of a properly tuned radial electric field. Because of the mass dependence of the magnetic field non-homogeneity drift velocities, the azimuthal trapping is mass specific, allowing in principle the filtering of a specific species based on its mass.

  18. Affect regulation: holding, containing and mirroring.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Gergely and colleagues' state that their "Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring" can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretization and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts. PMID:25351730

  19. Fine alignment of a large segmented mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, Thomas William (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for aligning a segmented mirror includes a source of radiation directed along a first axis to the segmented mirror and a beamsplitter removably inserted along the first axis for redirecting radiation from the first axis to a second axis, substantially perpendicular to the first axis. An imaging array is positioned along the second axis for imaging the redirected radiation, and a knife-edge configured for cutting the redirected radiation is serially positioned to occlude and not occlude the redirected radiation, effectively providing a variable radiation pattern detected by the imaging array for aligning the segmented mirror.

  20. Atom-mirror entanglement via cavity dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingchao; Hu, Xiangming; Rao, Shi; Xu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    We present a cavity dissipation scheme to prepare a hybrid system of an atomic ensemble and a moving mirror in squeezed and entangled states. This scheme is based on four-wave mixing in the atoms and radiation pressure on the mirror, both of which combine to lead to Bogoliubov interactions of the atoms and the mirror with the cavity fields. Under adiabatic conditions, the cavity fields cause the hybrid Bogoliubov modes to evolve into the vacuum states, which correspond to the two-mode squeezed and entangled states. The dependence of the hybrid entanglement on the system parameters is also presented in and beyond the Bogoliubov interactions.

  1. HCN laser with an adaptive output mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenev, Yu E; Masalov, S A; Filimonova, A A

    2006-09-30

    A device for optimal coupling between a laser resonator and the external medium, having the form of one-dimensional wire grating conjugated with a plane mirror with an aperture, is proposed, developed and tested experimentally. The dependences of the output laser power on the separation between the grating and the mirror, diameter of the aperture in the plane mirror, and the grating period, are studied. The obtained results not only confirm the possibility of using such a coupling device, but also point towards the ways and principles of its application. (lasers)

  2. Particle deconfinement in a bent magnetic mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2012-11-15

    Coils misalignment in a magnetic mirror can produce additional particle transport. The magnetic field non axi-symmetry is responsible for radial and longitudinal drifts in a way much similar to the neo-classical transport in a tandem mirror cell distorted by end plugs. Accordingly, a regime exhibiting large radial displacements--similar to the resonant regime in tandem mirrors--can be obtained by confining ions azimuthally, for example by means of a properly tuned radial electric field. Because of the mass dependence of the magnetic field non-homogeneity drift velocities, the azimuthal trapping is mass specific, allowing, in principle, the filtering of a specific species based on its mass.

  3. Adaptive PVDF piezoelectric deformable mirror system.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Ishida, H; Ikeda, O

    1980-05-01

    An adaptive mirror system whose surface deforms smoothly according to the desired curve has been made of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film and laminar glass plate. One surface of the glass plate was evaporated with silver, and this side was used as the mirror surface. A PVDF film, whose shape was determined by the deformation curve, was pasted tightly on the other surface. The mirror deforms smoothly along this curve with the application of a single voltage to the film. Holographic filter and feedback were lso considered to improve the static and dynamic characteristics. Typically, deformation along ax(2)+bx(3) was obtained. PMID:20221054

  4. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  5. The ontogenetic origins of mirror neurons: evidence from 'tool-use' and 'audiovisual' mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard

    2012-10-23

    Since their discovery, mirror neurons--units in the macaque brain that discharge both during action observation and execution--have attracted considerable interest. Whether mirror neurons are an innate endowment or acquire their sensorimotor matching properties ontogenetically has been the subject of intense debate. It is widely believed that these units are an innate trait; that we are born with a set of mature mirror neurons because their matching properties conveyed upon our ancestors an evolutionary advantage. However, an alternative view is that mirror neurons acquire their matching properties during ontogeny, through correlated experience of observing and performing actions. The present article re-examines frequently overlooked neurophysiological reports of 'tool-use' and 'audiovisual' mirror neurons within the context of this debate. It is argued that these findings represent compelling evidence that mirror neurons are a product of sensorimotor experience, and not an innate endowment.

  6. A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gühr, Markus

    2015-02-01

    We describe a flexible, simple to build, low-cost, and computer-controlled optical mirror actuator system, developed for undergraduate research laboratories. Geared motors for hobby robotics are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller in combination with an H bridge to finely position mirror mount actuators. We present a graphical user interface based on the Python script language. The price of the fully controlled actuator system is only a small fraction of the price of a commercial system. It can be quickly implemented due to the use of open-hardware electronics. We discuss the performance of the system and give an outlook for future expansions and use in advanced optical setups.

  7. Scaling laws for light weight optics, studies of light weight mirrors mounting and dynamic mirror stress, and light weight mirror and mount designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Richard, Ralph M.; Valente, Tina M.; Cho, Myung K.

    1990-01-01

    Scaling laws for light-weight optical systems are examined. A cubic relationship between mirror diameter and weight has been suggested and used by many designers of optical systems as the best description for all light-weight mirrors. A survey of existing light-weight systems in the open literature was made to clarify this issue. Fifty existing optical systems were surveyed with all varieties of light-weight mirrors including glass and beryllium structured mirrors, contoured mirrors, and very thin solid mirrors. These mirrors were then categorized and weight to diameter ratio was plotted to find a best curve for each case. A best fitting curve program tests nineteen different equations and ranks a goodness-to-fit for each of these equations. The resulting relationship found for each light-weight mirror category helps to quantify light-weight optical systems and methods of fabrication and provides comparisons between mirror types.

  8. Neutron diagnostics for mirror hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Kaellne, Jan; Noack, Klaus; Agren, Olov; Gorini, Giuseppe; Tardocchi, Marco; Grosso, Giovanni

    2012-06-19

    Fusion-fission (FuFi) hybrids will need instrumentation to diagnose the deuteriumtritium plasma, whose 14-MeV neutron emission is the driver of the sub-critical fission core. While the fission neutron yield rate (Y{sub fi} and hence power P{sub fi}) can be monitored with standard instrumentation, fusion plasmas in hybrids require special diagnostics where the determination of Y{sub th} ({proportional_to}P{sub fu}) is a challenge. Information on Y{sub fu} is essential for assessing the fusion plasma performance which together with Y{sub fi} allows for the validation of the neutron multiplication factor (k) of the subcritical fission core. Diagnostics for hybrid plasmas are heuristically discussed with special reference to straight field line mirror (SFLM). Relevant DT plasma experience from JET and plans for ITER in the main line of fusion research were used as input. It is shown that essential SFLM plasma information can potentially be obtained with proposed instrumentation, but the state of the hybrid plasma must be predictably robust as derived from fully diagnosed dedicated experiments without interface restrictions of the hybrid application.

  9. Evaluation of segmented and brazed mirror assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bath, David A.; Spain, David; Ness, Eric; Williams, Steve; Bougoin, Michel

    2005-08-01

    Direct Sintered Silicon Carbide (SSiC) is a promising material for mirror optics due to its low density, high stiffness and high thermal stability. In order to make large mirror optics (over 1 meter diameter), processing limitations to create monolithic structures of this size class require that smaller segments need to be fabricated and then joined in a post sintering operation. Fabrication of segmented nullset 300mm lightweighted concave mirrors to demonstrate different fabrication methods is presented here. The mirrors are comprised of 6 radial segments joined by means of silicon braze technology and are coated with a SSiC Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) layer for improved surface finish to reduce straylight scatter. Evaluation of conventional pitch lap polishing of brazed and coated optic surfaces has shown no degradation to surface figure and surface roughness.

  10. The mirror mechanism: recent findings and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fogassi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a specific type of visuomotor neuron that discharge both when a monkey executes a motor act and when it observes a similar motor act performed by another individual. In this article, we review first the basic properties of these neurons. We then describe visual features recently investigated which indicate that, besides encoding the goal of motor acts, mirror neurons are modulated by location in space of the observed motor acts, by the perspective from which the others' motor acts are seen, and by the value associated with the object on which others' motor acts are performed. In the last part of this article, we discuss the role of the mirror mechanism in planning actions and in understanding the intention underlying the others' motor acts. We also review some human studies suggesting that motor intention in humans may rely, as in the monkey, on the mirror mechanism.

  11. Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lotto, Andrew J; Hickok, Gregory S; Holt, Lori L

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons, a class of neurons that respond when a monkey performs an action and also when the monkey observes others producing the same action, has promoted a renaissance for the Motor Theory (MT) of speech perception. This is because mirror neurons seem to accomplish the same kind of one to one mapping between perception and action that MT theorizes to be the basis of human speech communication. However, this seeming correspondence is superficial, and there are theoretical and empirical reasons to temper enthusiasm about the explanatory role mirror neurons might have for speech perception. In fact, rather than providing support for MT, mirror neurons are actually inconsistent with the central tenets of MT.

  12. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  13. Reflective Properties of a Parabolic Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    1991-01-01

    An incident light ray parallel to the optical axis of a parabolic mirror will be reflected at the focal point and vice versa. Presents a mathematical proof that uses calculus, algebra, and geometry to prove this reflective property. (MDH)

  14. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd

    2014-09-26

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror.

  15. Wind responses of the LSST secondary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myung K.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Sebag, Jacques; Neill, Douglas R.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) optical design calls for a large annular 3.4 m diameter meniscus convex aspheric Secondary Mirror (M2). The M2 has a mass of approximately 1.5 metric tons and the optimized mirror support system consists of 72 axial actuators, mounted at the mirror back surface, and 6 tangent link lateral supports mounted around the outer edge. A fully integrated M2 Finite Element Model (FEM) including the mirror and the support systems has been developed to investigate the performance of the M2 assembly and to determine the image degradation due to dynamic wind loading. Detailed wind response analysis was performed based on the input from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Image quality calculations of the time history responses and Power Spectrum Density (PSD) are addressed.

  16. Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.; Kozman, T.A.; Bulmer, R.H.; Ng, D.S.

    1981-09-11

    In 1979, R.H. Bulmer of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) discussed a proposed tandem-mirror magnet system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at the 8th symposium on Engineering Problems in Fusion Research. Since then, Congress has voted funds for expanding LLNL's MFTF to a tandem-mirror facility (designated MFTF-B). The new facility, scheduled for completion by 1985, will seek to achieve two goals: (1) Energy break-even capability (Q or the ratio of fusion energy to plasma heating energy = 1) of mirror fusion, (2) Engineering feasibility of reactor-scale machines. Briefly stated, 22 superconducting magnets contained in a 11-m-diam by 65-m-long vacuum vessel will confine a fusion plasma fueled by 80 axial streaming-plasma guns and over 40 radial neutral beams. We have already completed a preliminary design of this magnet system.

  17. Applied physics: Optical trapping for space mirrors.

    PubMed

    McGloin, David

    2014-02-27

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

  18. Authors’ response: mirror neurons: tests and testability.

    PubMed

    Catmur, Caroline; Press, Clare; Cook, Richard; Bird, Geoffrey; Heyes, Cecilia

    2014-04-01

    Commentators have tended to focus on the conceptual framework of our article, the contrast between genetic and associative accounts of mirror neurons, and to challenge it with additional possibilities rather than empirical data. This makes the empirically focused comments especially valuable. The mirror neuron debate is replete with ideas; what it needs now are system-level theories and careful experiments – tests and testability.

  19. Primary mirror segment fabrication for CELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    2000-07-01

    The primary mirror of the proposed California Extremely Large Telescope is a 30-meter diameter mosaic of hexagonal segments. An initial design calls for about a thousand segments with a hexagon side length of 0.5 meters, a primary-mirror focal ratio of 1.5, and a segment surface quality of about 20 nanometers rms. We describe concepts for fabricating these segments.

  20. Testing the first neutron mirror flipper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshanov, N. K.; Syromyatnikov, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The first neutron mirror flipper built as a magnetic Co70Fe30 (71.1 nm) layer on a non-magnetic periodic multilayer {NiMo(6.96 nm)/Ti(6.17 nm)}×20 was tested. Its efficiency at the Bragg peak was found to exceed 0.966. Thus, the possibility of producing neutron mirror spin turners, including π/2- and π-turners (flippers), was experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Anesthetic management of maternal Mirror syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tayler, E; DeSimone, C

    2014-11-01

    Mirror syndrome (Ballantyne syndrome, triple edema, maternal hydrops, pseudotoxemia) is a rarely diagnosed condition associated with pregnancy that can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. There is limited literature on its pathogenesis and anesthetic management, making prevention and treatment complex. The duration of pregnancy and severity of maternal or fetal presentation often determines outcome. We describe the anesthetic considerations of a morbidly obese parturient with Mirror syndrome. PMID:25066819

  2. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  3. Grazing Optical Polishing: a Fast and Efficient Technique for Making Lightweight Sub- Arc-Second X-ray Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, William

    -ray images. The existence and availability of these mirrors will stimulate competition and collaboration in our community to develop corresponding alignment and integration techniques. The combination of the excellent mirrors and an integration process, together with good detector technology, will extend the current golden age of x-ray astronomy and advance it into the 2020’s and beyond.

  4. The Dizzying Depths of the Cylindrical Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeerd, Alan J.; Hill, S. Eric

    2005-02-01

    A typical introduction to geometrical optics treats plane and spherical mirrors. At first glance, it may be surprising that texts seldom mention the cylindrical mirror, except for the occasional reference to use in fun houses and to viewing anamorphic art.1,2 However, even a cursory treatment reveals its complexity. Holzberlein used an extended object to qualitatively illustrate that images are produced both before and behind a concave cylindrical mirror.3 He also speculated on how this extreme astigmatism results in an observer's dizziness. By considering a simple point object, we make a more detailed analysis of the cylindrical mirror and the dizziness it induces. First, we illustrate how rays from a point object reflect to form not one point image but two line images. Next, we describe how an observer perceives a likeness of the object. Finally, we suggest how confusing depth cues induce dizziness. Although we focus on the concave cylindrical mirror, the discussion is easy to generalize to the convex cylindrical mirror.

  5. Development of Nanolaminate Thin Shell Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, G S; Lih, S S; Barbee, T

    2002-08-09

    The space science community has identified a need for ultra-light weight, large aperture optical systems that are capable of producing high-resolution images of low contrast. Current mirror technologies are limited due either to not being scalable to larger sizes at reasonable masses, or to lack of surface finish, dimensional stability in a space environment or long fabrication times. This paper will discuss the development of thin-shell, nano-laminate mirror substrates that are capable of being electro-actively figured. This technology has the potential to substantially reduce the cost of space based optics by allowing replication of ultra-lightweight primary mirrors from a master precision tool. Precision master tools have been shown to be used multiple times with repeatable surface quality results with less than one week fabrication times for the primary optical mirror substrate. Current development has developed a series of 0.25 and 0.5 meter spherical nanolaminate mirrors that are less than 0.5 kg/m{sup 2} areal density before electroactive components are mounted, and a target of less than 2.0 kg/m with control elements. This paper will provide an overview of nanolaminate materials for optical mirrors, modeling of their behavior under figure control and experiments conducted to validate precision control.

  6. Mirror thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shanti Raja

    2003-12-01

    The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) project has begun its search for gravitational waves, and efforts are being made to improve its ability to detect these. The LIGO observatories are long, Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometers, where the interferometer mirrors are also the gravitational wave test masses. LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in spacetime caused by cataclysmic astrophysical events, with a target gravitational wave minimum strain sensitivity of 4 × 10-22 [7] around 100 Hz. The Advanced LIGO concept [57] calls for an order of magnitude improvement in strain sensitivity, with a better signal to noise ratio to increase the rate of detection of events. Some of Advanced LIGO's major requirements are improvements over the LIGO design for thermal noise in the test mass substrates and reflective coatings [57]. Thermal noise in the interferometer mirrors is a significant challenge in LIGO's development. This thesis reviews the theory of test mass thermal noise and reports on several experiments conducted to understand this theory. Experiments to measure the thermal expansion of mirror substrates and coatings use the photothermal effect in a cross-polarized Fabry-Perot interferometer, with displacement sensitivity of 10-15m/rHz. Data are presented from 10 Hz to 4 kHz on solid aluminum, and on sapphire, BK7, and fused silica, with and without commercial TiO2/SiO2 dielectric mirror coatings. The substrate contribution to thermal expansion is compared to theories by Cerdonio et al. [32] and Braginsky, Vyatchanin, and Gorodetsky [22]. New theoretical models are presented for estimating the coating contribution to the thermal expansion. These results can also provide insight into how heat flows between coatings and substrates relevant to predicting coating thermoelastic noise [26, 108]. The Thermal Noise Interferometer (TNI) project is a interferometer built specifically to study thermal noise, and this thesis describes its

  7. Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J. S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barclay, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Behnke, B.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Benacquista, M.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Bose, Sukanta; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchman, S.; Buikema, A.; Buonanno, A.; Cadonati, L.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chen, Y.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Collette, C.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, C.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Dartez, L.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; D´ıaz, M.; Di Palma, I.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferreira, E. C.; Fisher, R. P.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fuentes-Tapia, S.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J. R.; Gaonkar, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gergely, L. Á.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Hee, S.; Heintze, M.; Heinzel, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; Jang, H.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Le, J.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lormand, M.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Miller, A.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moore, B.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A. H.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Pai, S.; Palashov, O.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Post, A.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Pürrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Reula, O.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V.; Romano, J. D.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sawadsky, A.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sutton, P. J.; Szczepanczyk, M.; Szeifert, G.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Tellez, G.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Tshilumba, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Xie, S.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, Q.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry-Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.

  8. Short focal length Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-11-15

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx}64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85x95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  9. Short Focal Length Kirkpatrick-Baez Mirrors for a Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Assoufid, Lahsen; Macrander, Albert T.

    2005-01-01

    We describe progress in the fabrication of short-focal-length total-external-reflection Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray mirrors with ultralow figure errors. The short focal length optics produce nanoscale beams (<100 nm) on conventional ({approx} 64 m long) beamlines at third generation synchrotron sources. The total-external reflection optics are inherently achromatic and efficiently focus a white (polychromatic) or a tunable monochromatic spectrum of x rays. The ability to focus independent of wavelength allows novel new experimental capabilities. Mirrors have been fabricated both by computer assisted profiling (differential polishing) and by profile coating (coating through a mask onto ultra-smooth surfaces). A doubly focused 85 x 95 nm{sup 2} hard x-ray nanobeam has been obtained on the UNICAT beamline 34-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. The performance of the mirrors, techniques for characterizing the spot size, and factors limiting focusing performance are discussed.

  10. A novel collinear optical system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye

    2008-12-01

    This paper focus on a novel collinear lens system with annulus mirrors for holographic disc driver, both information beam and reference beam are use same laser beam. The expanded and parallel laser beam, center part of it as the information beam then through Fourier transform lens, the beam around center part as a reference beam. On this axis, the ring reference beam reflected by two annulus shaped mirrors, then became a convergent beam, together with the information beam which through the first Fourier transform lens then produce holographic pattern to be write into the holographic disc behind of them, this lens system with two mirrors made the angle between information beam and reference beam more wide, can improved the multiplex level of holographic storage. Pair of Fourier transform lens with advance performance is designed in this paper.

  11. Review of Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zelnick, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice by Paulina Kernberg, Bernadette Buhl-Nielsen, and Lina Normandin (see record 2007-00911-000). This modestly presented volume overflows with insight and new ways of looking at the mirroring experience for children and adolescents. Kernberg and her collaborators present the rich history of the image, metaphor, and pervasive role of the mirror in human experience; they carefully describe the "subjective experience of wonder, admiration, and an objective dimension of truth" in the mirror paradigm (2006, p. xv). For the psychotherapist, Kernberg's work provides a rich resource; the review of past and current research and theorizing about the mirroring function of mothers and primary caregivers is thorough and up-to-date with the most recent advances in neuroscience, attachment theory, and infant research. From Freud to Lacan, from Winnicott to Stern, and from Schore to Gergely, Kernberg presents a sweeping exposition of the various images of the mirror. This volume is worthwhile if only for its presentation of this body of recent research. But there is so much more to be found here. While this is not the first time that Kernberg has presented us with her work with mirror observation and interviews (Kernberg, 1984, 1987), this volume integrates the research about early mother- child experience, and the mirroring paradigm in the psychoanalytic theories about child development, with the phenomenology of child and adolescent psychotherapy. The clinician will find a useful application of the theory to clinical practice and diagnosis that is hard to find in the literature. Beebe and Lachmann (2002) have accomplished this integration between infant research and adult treatment, but Kernberg's application of her research and the demonstrated correlation between the findings of mirror experience, attachment histories, and clinical experience is a rare and welcome addition to the

  12. Review of Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zelnick, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Reviews the book, Beyond the reflection: The role of the mirror paradigm in clinical practice by Paulina Kernberg, Bernadette Buhl-Nielsen, and Lina Normandin (see record 2007-00911-000). This modestly presented volume overflows with insight and new ways of looking at the mirroring experience for children and adolescents. Kernberg and her collaborators present the rich history of the image, metaphor, and pervasive role of the mirror in human experience; they carefully describe the "subjective experience of wonder, admiration, and an objective dimension of truth" in the mirror paradigm (2006, p. xv). For the psychotherapist, Kernberg's work provides a rich resource; the review of past and current research and theorizing about the mirroring function of mothers and primary caregivers is thorough and up-to-date with the most recent advances in neuroscience, attachment theory, and infant research. From Freud to Lacan, from Winnicott to Stern, and from Schore to Gergely, Kernberg presents a sweeping exposition of the various images of the mirror. This volume is worthwhile if only for its presentation of this body of recent research. But there is so much more to be found here. While this is not the first time that Kernberg has presented us with her work with mirror observation and interviews (Kernberg, 1984, 1987), this volume integrates the research about early mother- child experience, and the mirroring paradigm in the psychoanalytic theories about child development, with the phenomenology of child and adolescent psychotherapy. The clinician will find a useful application of the theory to clinical practice and diagnosis that is hard to find in the literature. Beebe and Lachmann (2002) have accomplished this integration between infant research and adult treatment, but Kernberg's application of her research and the demonstrated correlation between the findings of mirror experience, attachment histories, and clinical experience is a rare and welcome addition to the

  13. Advanced Adaptive Optics Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2001-09-18

    The NSF Center for Adaptive Optics (CfAO) is supporting research on advanced adaptive optics technologies. CfAO research activities include development and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) technology, as well as development and characterization of high-resolution adaptive optics systems using liquid crystal (LC) spatial light modulator (SLM) technology. This paper presents an overview of the CfAO advanced adaptive optics technology development activities including current status and future plans.

  14. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  15. Surface analysis of commercially made mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T. M.; Pitts, J. R.; Czanderna, A. W.

    Most commercially made mirrors, consisting of a multilayer stack of glass/Ag/Cu/paint, are made using a wet electroless process. AES, XPS and SIMS have been used for compositional analysis during profiling to reach the Ag/glass, Ag/Cu, and Cu/paint interfaces as well as to analyze for impurities present in each layer of the mirror. A five-ligand coordinated tin complex is proposed as the initial configuration of tin on the glass surface prior to silver plating. This model is consistent with data from this work as well as from the literature. Surface analysis results from studies of complete mirror stacks and of partially made mirrors prepared in our laboratory reveal that some sensitizer and Ag reducer solution components are trapped during mirror formation at the Ag/glass interface and Cu reducer solution components are trapped at the Cu/paint interface. After real-time and accelerated life testing of completed mirrors, chloride was identified in copious amounts at the Cu/paint interface, and most probably originates from the paint over-layer. Results from samples aged for six months and one year suggest that iron from the glass segregates to the Ag/glass interface, Cu penetrates into the Ag layer, and oxygen penetrates into the Cu layer from the Cu/paint interface and/or Cu/air interface. Emphasis in the discussion is placed upon the chemistry at the Ag/glass interface and possible corrosion induced by impurities trapped at the Ag/glass and Cu/paint interfaces during mirror fabrication.

  16. Dual-use bimorph deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, M. S.; Laycock, L. C.; Bagshaw, J. M.; Rowe, D.

    2005-11-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is a critical underpinning technology for future optical countermeasures, laser delivery, target illumination and imaging systems. It measures and compensates for optical distortion caused by transmission through the atmosphere, resulting in the ability to deploy smaller lasers and identify targets at greater ranges. AO is also well established in ground based astronomy, and is finding applications in free space optical communications and ophthalmology. One of the key components in an AO system is the wavefront modifier, which acts on the incoming or outgoing beam to counter the effects of the atmosphere. BAE SYSTEMS ATC is developing multi-element Deformable Bimorph Mirrors (DBMs) for such applications. A traditional bimorph deformable mirror uses a set of edge electrodes outside the active area in order to meet the required boundary conditions for the active aperture. This inflicts a significant penalty in terms of bandwidth, which is inversely proportional to the square of the full mirror diameter. We have devised a number of novel mounting arrangements that reduce dead space and thus provide a much improved trade-off between bandwidth and stroke. These schemes include a novel method for providing vertical displacement at the periphery of the aperture, a method for providing a continuous compliant support underneath the bimorph mirror, and a method for providing a three point support underneath the bimorph. In all three cases, there is no requirement for edge electrodes to provide the boundary conditions, resulting in devices of much higher bandwidth. The target is to broaden the use of these types of mirror beyond the current limits of either low order/low bandwidth, to address the high order, high bandwidth systems required by long range, horizontal path applications. This paper will discuss the different mirror designs, and present experimental results for the most recently assembled mirrors.

  17. Primary mirror assemblies for large space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    In this report are considered the basic problems which relate to developemnt, manufacture, experimental trying out, and usage of primary mirrors (PM) of the large space telescopes intended to perform distant sounding of the Earth. Attention is concentrated on development of weight-reduced passive mirrors which ensure more reliable operation of the telescope as a whole. In the report we expressed the opinion that it is quite possible to manufacture a passive weight-reduced PM if its diameter is equal approximately to 3 m. Materials which may be used for the manufacturing of PM are beryllium and silicon carbide, physical and mechanical parameters of which are the most preferable ones. But it should be taken into consideration that this is the glass ceramic of CO115M brand which has been mastered by the industry of Russia in the greatest extent. It was confirmed that parameters of this material remain unchanged during a long period of time. Constructions of the PM, made of glass ceramic, as well as constructions of holders intended to fix the mirror, are presented in this report. A holder is used first of all to prevent lowering of a PM surface quality after a mirror has been removed from a machine and fixed in a primary mirror assembly (PMA). At present two-layer construction of a PM is preferable. This construction consists of thick base including weight reduction structure, which is in a radius which is optimum from the standpoint of deformation of a mirror operating surface. In the process of manufacture a mirror is deprived of its weight with the use of special pneumatic off-loading elements. PMA is erected in vertical plane by means of using an interferometric inspection system. In the end of this report we expressed the views on an approach to engineering of a PM by taking into account potentialities both of space ships and of carrier rockets.

  18. ERP adaptation provides direct evidence for early mirror neuron activation in the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Nicole; Brandt, Emily S L; Mohr, Bettina; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Mirror neuron systems are frequently investigated by assessing overlapping brain activity during observation and execution of actions; however, distinct neuronal subpopulations may be activated that fall below the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. This shortfall can be resolved using repetition suppression paradigms that identify physiological adaptation processes caused by repeated activation of identical neuronal circuits. Here, event-related potentials were used to investigate the time course of mirror neuron circuit activation using repetition suppression within and across action observation and action execution modalities. In a lip-reading and speech production paradigm, the N170 component indexed stimulus repetition by adapting to both cross-modal and intra-modal repetitions in the left hemisphere. Neuronal source localization revealed activation of the left inferior parietal lobule during cross-modal relative to intra-modal trials. These results provide support for the position that the same neuronal circuits are activated in perceiving and performing articulatory actions. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that inferior parietal lobule mirror neurons are activated relatively early in time, which indicates partly automatic processes of linguistic perception and mirroring. Repetition suppression paradigms therefore help to elucidate neuronal correlates of different cognitive processes and may serve as a starting point for advanced electrophysiological research on mirror neurons.

  19. ERP adaptation provides direct evidence for early mirror neuron activation in the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Möhring, Nicole; Brandt, Emily S L; Mohr, Bettina; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Mirror neuron systems are frequently investigated by assessing overlapping brain activity during observation and execution of actions; however, distinct neuronal subpopulations may be activated that fall below the spatial resolution of magnetic resonance techniques. This shortfall can be resolved using repetition suppression paradigms that identify physiological adaptation processes caused by repeated activation of identical neuronal circuits. Here, event-related potentials were used to investigate the time course of mirror neuron circuit activation using repetition suppression within and across action observation and action execution modalities. In a lip-reading and speech production paradigm, the N170 component indexed stimulus repetition by adapting to both cross-modal and intra-modal repetitions in the left hemisphere. Neuronal source localization revealed activation of the left inferior parietal lobule during cross-modal relative to intra-modal trials. These results provide support for the position that the same neuronal circuits are activated in perceiving and performing articulatory actions. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that inferior parietal lobule mirror neurons are activated relatively early in time, which indicates partly automatic processes of linguistic perception and mirroring. Repetition suppression paradigms therefore help to elucidate neuronal correlates of different cognitive processes and may serve as a starting point for advanced electrophysiological research on mirror neurons. PMID:25017963

  20. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Kawal; Laundy, David; Dhamgaye, Vishal; Pape, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  1. Is that me in the mirror? Depersonalisation modulates tactile mirroring mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adler, Julia; Schabinger, Nadine; Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Gillmeister, Helge

    2016-05-01

    Our sense of self is thought to develop through sensory-motor contingencies provided, not only by observing one's own body, but also by mirroring interactions with others. This suggests that there is a strong link between mirroring mechanisms and the bodily self. The present study tested whether this link is expressed at early, implicit stages of the mirroring process or at later, more cognitive stages. We also provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of how inter-individual differences in our sense of bodily self may affect mirroring mechanisms. We used somatosensory event-related potentials (SEPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of mirroring highly self-related information (viewed touch on one's own face) compared to other-related information (viewed touch on a stranger's face), in individuals with low and high levels of depersonalisation, a mental condition characterised by feeling detached or estranged from one's self and body. For the low-depersonalisation group, mirroring for self-related events (P45) preceded mirroring for other-related events (N80). At later stages (P200), mirroring was stronger for other-related than self-related events. This shows that early, implicit and later, more cognitive processes play different relative roles in mirroring self- and other-related bodily events. Critically, mirroring differed in the high-depersonalisation group, specifically for self-related events. An absence of early, implicit mirroring for self-related events over P45 suggests that the associated processes may be the neural correlates of the disembodiment experienced in depersonalisation. A lack of differential mirroring for self- and other-related events over P200 may reflect compensatory mechanisms that redress deficiencies in mirroring at earlier stages, which may break down to give rise to symptoms of depersonalisation. Alternatively, or in addition, they may represent an attenuation of processes related to self-other distinction

  2. Flute instability and the associated radial transport in the tandem mirror with a divertor mirror cell

    SciTech Connect

    Katanuma, I.; Yagi, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Ichioka, N.; Masaki, S.; Ichimura, M.; Imai, T.

    2010-11-15

    The flute instability and the associated radial transport are investigated in the tandem mirror with a divertor mirror cell (the GAMMA10 A-divertor) with help of computer simulation, where GAMMA10 is introduced [Inutake et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985)]. The basic equations used in the simulation were derived on the assumption of an axisymmetric magnetic field. So the high plasma pressure in a nonaxisymmetric minimum-B anchor mirror cell, which is important for the flute mode stability, is taken into account by redefining the specific volume of a magnetic field line. It is found that the flute modes are stabilized by the minimum-B magnetic field even with a divertor mirror although its stabilizing effects are weaker than that without the divertor mirror. The flute instability enhances the radial transport by intermittently repeating the growing up and down of the Fourier amplitude of the flute instability in time.

  3. Tape-Drive Based Plasma Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    We present experimental results on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used for a compact coupling of a laser beam into a staged laser driven electron accelerator. This novel kind of plasma mirror is suitable for high repetition rates and for high number of laser shots. In order to design a compact, staged laser plasma based accelerator or collider [1], the coupling of the laser beam into the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters (cf. Fig 1). The fluence of the laser pulse several centimeters away from the acceleration stage (focus) exceeds the damage threshold of any available mirror coating. Therefore, in reference [2] a plasma mirror was suggested for this purpose. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage. Plasma mirrors composed of antireflection coated glass substrates are usually used to improve the temporal laser contrast of laser pulses by several orders of magnitudes [3,4]. This is particularly important for laser interaction with solid matter, such as ion acceleration [5,6] and high harmonic generation on surfaces [7]. Therefore, the laser pulse is weekly focused onto a substrate. The main pulse generates a plasma and is reflected at the critical surface, whereas the low intensity pre-pulse (mainly the Amplified Spontaneous Emission pedestal) will be transmitted through the substrate before the mirror has been triggered. Several publications [3,4] demonstrate a conservation of the spatial beam quality and a reflectivity of about 70 %. The drawback of this technique is the limited repetition rate since for every shot a fresh surface has to be provided. In the past years several novel approaches for high repetition rate plasma mirrors have been developed [2, 8

  4. "Pocket" Deformable Mirror for an Integrated On-Mirror Adaptive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, L.; Voronstov, M.; Wangsness, P.

    Existing HEL beam control architectures are extremely complicated because they require installation and alignment of a large number of optical elements, resulting in substantial increase of the entire HEL system size, weight and cost. There is a strong interest in designing new robust beam control capabilities integrated directly to a beam director system. The discussed technical effort is focused on development and demonstration of a new adaptive beam director (ABD) consisting of a beam forming telescope with wavefront compensation integrated solely on its ultra-lightweight primary mirror. This on-mirror AO system will be controlled using a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) controller specifically designed for target-in-the-loop (TIL) operation. The key component of the on-mirror AO system is its primary mirror. This mirror contains an array of pockets machined on its backside, called a pocket-mirror. A special dielectric layer deposited on the front surface of the pocket-mirror is highly reflective for the HEL wavelength ???HEL, and semi-transparent for the laser illuminator wavelength ?ILL. Thus the wave ?ILL scattered by the target surface enters inside the mirror pockets, while the outgoing HEL beam with wavelength ?HEL is totally reflected. The pockets of the ABD pocket-mirror include opto-electronic components that can provide local (inside pocket-window) wavefront correction and sensing. Wavefront correction at each pocket aperture is performed using electrically sectioned piezo-ceramic annular rings made from thin (~0.3 mm) bimorph discs glued to the pocket bottoms. Control voltages applied to these electrodes result in mechanical deformation of the pocket-window front surface thus providing compensation of low-order aberrations at each pocket-window. Packaging the pockets with a high fill factor allows high resolution control of the beam director primary mirror shape. Preliminary analysis has shown that surface stroke near 3 microns with

  5. Demonstration of Flying Mirror with Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Kando, Masaki; Fukuda, Yuji; Chen Liming; Daito, Izuru; Ogura, Koichi; Homma, Takayuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Sagisaka, Akito; Mori, Michiaki; Koga, James K.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Kawase, Keigo; Kameshima, Takashi; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2009-07-25

    A strongly nonlinear wake wave driven by an intense laser pulse can act as a partially reflecting relativistic mirror (the flying mirror)[S. V. Bulanov, et al., Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, No. 6, 9 (1991); S. V. Bulanov, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001 (2003)]. Upon reflection from such mirror, a counter-propagating optical-frequency laser pulse is directly converted into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor approx4gamma{sup 2}(the double Doppler effect). We present the results of recent experiment in which the photon number in the reflected radiation was at least several thousand times larger than in our proof-of-principle experiment [M. Kando, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135001 (2007); A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 123106 (2007)]. The flying mirror holds promise of generating intense coherent ultrashort XUV and x-ray pulses that inherit their temporal shape and polarization from the original optical-frequency (laser) pulses. Furthermore, the reflected radiation bears important information about the reflecting wake wave itself, which can be used for its diagnostics.

  6. EUV multilayer mirrors with tailored spectral reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Thomas; Yulin, Sergey A.; Feigl, Torsten; Kaiser, Norbert

    2002-12-01

    EUV multilayer mirrors with as well an increased as a reduced bandwidth in their spectral and angular reflectance have been designed and deposited with a commercial magnetron sputtering system. Concerning the broadband mirrors, a non-periodic multilayer design based on the thickness optimization of each layer by a stochastic method is compared to a design that consists of 3 different stacks. In addition, narrowband multilayer mirrors with a significantly reduced bandwidth based on high order reflection have been designed and fabricated. The EUV reflection of the samples was investigated with synchrotron radiation at the reflectometer of the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) at BESSY II in Berlin. A reflectivity of more than 15% was reached in the whole wavelength range from 13 nm to 15 nm and a reflectivity of more than 30% was obtained for incidence angles from 0° to 20° with both designs. Both the increase and the reduction of the reflection bandwidth are unavoidably connected with a decrease of peak reflectivity. Therefore, the application of such mirrors involves areas where a maximum peak reflectivity is not required, e.g. in EUV spectroscopy and for the metrology for EUV sources. Furthermore, the use of such mirrors in combination with a broadband plasma source will result in a higher integral reflectivity.

  7. The VST active primary mirror support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, Pietro; Capaccioli, Massimo; D'Orsi, Sergio; Ferragina, Luigi; Marty, Laurent; Molfese, Cesare; Perrotta, Francesco; De Paris, Giacinto; Fierro, Davide; Tomelleri, Raffaele; Rossettini, Pierfrancesco; Perina, Francesco; Recchia, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio

    2010-07-01

    The 2.6-m primary mirror of the VST telescope is equipped with an active optics system in order to correct low-order aberrations, constantly monitoring the optical quality of the image and controlling the relative position and the shape of the optical elements. Periodically an image analyser calculates the deviation of the image from the best quality. VST is equipped with both a Shack-Hartmann in the probe system and a curvature sensor embedded in the OmegaCAM instrument. The telescope control software decomposes the deviation into single optical contributions and calculates the force correction that each active element has to perform to achieve the optimal quality. The set of correction forces, one for each axial actuator, is computed by the telescope central computer and transmitted to the local control unit of the primary mirror system for execution. The most important element of the VST active optics is the primary mirror, with its active support system located within the primary mirror cell structure. The primary mirror support system is composed by an axial and a lateral independent systems and includes an earthquake safety system. The system is described and the results of the qualification test campaign are discussed.

  8. Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.

    1987-08-25

    Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, and losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma fetures are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong r.f. heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong r.f. heating and collisions. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Microinstabilities in the Gasdynamic Mirror Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2005-01-01

    The gasdynamic mirror has been proposed as a concept which could form the basis of a highly efficient fusion rocket engine. Gasdynamic mirrors differ from most other mirror type plasma confinement schemes in that they have much larger aspect ratios and operate at somewhat higher plasma densities. There are several types of instabilities which are known to plague mirror type confinement schemes. These instabilities fall into two general classes. One class of instability is the Magnetohdrodynamic or MHD instability which induces gross distortions in the plasma geometry. The other class of instability is the "loss cone" microinstability which leads to general plasma turbulence. The "loss cone" microinstability is caused by velocity space asymmetries resulting from the loss of plasma having constituent particle velocities within the angle of the magnetic mirror "loss cone." These instabilities generally manifest themselves in high temperature, moderately dense plasmas. The present study indicates that a GDM configured as a rocket engine might operate in a plasma regine where microinstabilities could potentially be significant.

  10. Microinstabilities in the Gasdynamic Mirror Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William

    2005-01-01

    The gasdynamic mirror has been proposed as a concept which could form the basis of a highly efficient fusion rocket engine. Gasdynamic mirrors differ from most other mirror type plasma confinement schemes in that they have much larger aspect ratios and operate at somewhat higher plasma densities. There are several types of instabilities which are known to plague mirror type confinement schemes. These instabilities fall into two general classes. One class of instability is the Magnetohydrodynamic or MHD instability which induces gross distortions in the plasma geometry. The other class of instability is the "loss cone" microinstability which leads to general plasma turbulence. The "loss cone" microinstability is caused by velocity space asymmetries resulting from the loss of plasma having constituent particle velocities within the angle of the magnetic mirror "loss cone." These instabilities generally manifest themselves in high temperature, moderately dense plasmas. The present study indicates that a GDM configured as a rocket engine might operate in a plasma regime where microinstabilities could potentially be significant.

  11. On the decoupling of mirror fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Giedt, Joel; Poppitz, Erich

    2013-04-01

    An approach to the formulation of chiral gauge theories on the lattice is to start with a vector-like theory, but decouple one chirality (the "mirror" fermions) using strong Yukawa interactions with a chirally coupled "Higgs" field. While this is an attractive idea, its viability needs to be tested with nonperturbative studies. The model that we study here, the so-called "3-4-5" model, is anomaly free and the presence of massless states in the mirror sector is not required by anomaly matching arguments, in contrast to the "1-0" model that was studied previously. We have computed the polarization tensor in this theory and find a directional discontinuity that appears to be nonzero in the limit of an infinite lattice, which is equivalent to the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. We show that a similar behavior occurs for the free massless Ginsparg-Wilson fermion, where the polarization tensor is known to have a directional discontinuity in the continuum limit. We thus find support for the conclusion that in the continuum limit of the 3-4-5 model, there are massless charged modes in the mirror sector so that it does not decouple from the light sector. The value of the discontinuity we obtain allows for two interpretations: either a chiral gauge theory does not emerge and mirror-sector fermions in a chiral anomaly free representation remain massless, or a massless vectorlike mirror fermion appears. We end by discussing some questions for future study.

  12. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Simon J; Jeong, Hwan J; Shafer, David R

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  13. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students.

    PubMed

    Hodgin, Katie L; Graham, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one's personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their "transportation choices" at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants' choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99), those

  14. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hodgin, Katie L.; Graham, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair–elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their “transportation choices” at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants’ choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14–0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13–0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0

  15. Enhanced Fluoride Over-Coated Al Mirrors for FUV Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; DelHoyo, Javier; Rice, Steve; Threat, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral region are some of the more challenging due to the very distant and faint objects that are typically searched for in cosmic origin studies such as origin of large scale structure, the formation, evolution, and age of galaxies and the origin of stellar and planetary systems. These challenges are driving the need to improve the performance of optical coatings over a wide spectral range that would increase reflectance in mirrors and reduced absorption in dielectric filters used in optical telescope for FUV observations. This paper will present recent advances in reflectance performance for Al+MgF2 mirrors optimized for Lyman-alpha wavelength by performing the deposition of the MgF2 overcoat at elevated substrate temperatures. We will also present optical characterization of little studied rare-earth fluorides such as GdF3 and LuF3 that exhibit low-absorption over a wide wavelength range and could therefore be used as high refractive index alternatives for dielectric coatings at FUV wavelengths.

  16. The inverse problem of bimorph mirror tuning on a beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Rong

    2013-03-07

    One of the challenges of tuning bimorph mirrors with many electrodes is that the calculated focusing voltages can be different by more than the safety limit (such as 500 V for the mirrors used at 17-ID at the Advanced Photon Source) between adjacent electrodes. A study of this problem at 17-ID revealed that the inverse problem of the tuning in situ, using X-rays, became ill-conditioned when the number of electrodes was large and the calculated focusing voltages were contaminated with measurement errors. Increasing the number of beamlets during the tuning could reduce the matrix condition number in the problem, but obtaining voltages with variation below the safety limit was still not always guaranteed and multiple iterations of tuning were often required. Applying Tikhonov regularization and using the L-curve criterion for the determination of the regularization parameter made it straightforward to obtain focusing voltages with well behaved variations. Some characteristics of the tuning results obtained using Tikhonov regularization are given in this paper.

  17. Performance Optimization of the Gasdynamic Mirror Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Kammash, Terry

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be a most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. Engines such as these would effectively open up the solar system to human exploration and would virtually eliminate launch window restrictions. A preliminary vehicle sizing and mission study was performed based on the conceptual design of a Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion system. This study indicated that the potential specific impulse for this engine is approximately 142,000 sec. with about 22,100 N of thrust using a deuterium-tritium fuel cycle. The engine weight inclusive of the power conversion system was optimized around an allowable engine mass of 1500 Mg assuming advanced superconducting magnets and a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) end plug at the mirrors. The vehicle habitat, lander, and structural weights are based on a NASA Mars mission study which assumes the use of nuclear thermal propulsion' Several manned missions to various planets were analyzed to determine fuel requirements and launch windows. For all fusion propulsion cases studied, the fuel weight remained a minor component of the total system weight regardless of when the missions commenced. In other words, the use of fusion propulsion virtually eliminates all mission window constraints and effectively allows unlimited manned exploration of the entire solar system. It also mitigates the need to have a large space infrastructure which would be required to support the transfer of massive amounts of fuel and supplies to lower a performing spacecraft.

  18. Casimir effect with uniformly moving mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Bordag, M.; Dittes, F.; Robaschik, D.

    1986-06-01

    We study a simple example of quantum electrodynamics with nonstationary boundary conditions in (3+1) dimensions: the problem of two parallel mirrors moving relative to each other with constant speed v. The Green functions are constructed using the reflection principle. The behavior of physical quantities like the Casimir force and the vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor are discussed. If the motion of an arbitrary point between the mirrors is described by a straight world line, then in the local rest frame at the point in question the energy-momentum tensor has the same structure as in the standard Casimir problem with stationary mirrors. In particular, all physical quantities are smooth functions of v, so that the limit v..-->..0 leads to the expected results.

  19. Deformable mirror for high power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrň; a, Libor; Sarbort, Martin; Hola, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    The modern trend in high power laser applications such as welding, cutting and surface hardening lies in the use of solid-state lasers. The output beam of these lasers is characterized by a Gaussian intensity distribution. However, the laser beams with different intensity distributions, e.g. top-hat, are preferable in various applications. In this paper we present a new type of deformable mirror suitable for the corresponding laser beam shaping. The deformation of the mirror is achieved by an underlying array of actuators and a pressurized coolant that also provides the necessary cooling. We describe the results of the surface shape measurement using a 3D scanner for different settings of actuators. Further, we show the achieved intensity distributions measured by a beam profiler for a low power laser beam reflected from the mirror.

  20. Distributed control system for active mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Williams, Mark R.; Castro, Javier; Cruz, A.; Gonzalez, Juan C.; Mack, Brian; Martin, Carlos; Pescador, German; Sanchez, Vicente; Sosa, Nicolas A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the IAC (Instituto de Astrofisica de Canaries, Spain) proposal of a distributed control system intended for the active support of a 8 m mirror. The system incorporates a large number of compact `smart' force actuators, six force definers, and a mirror support computer (MSC) for interfacing with the telescope control system and for general housekeeping. We propose the use of a network for the interconnection of the actuators, definers and the MSC, which will minimize the physical complexity of the interface between the mirror support system and the MSC. The force actuator control electronics are described in detail, as is the system software architecture of the actuator and the MSC. As the network is a key point for the system, we also detail the evaluation of three candidates, before electing the CAN bus.