Science.gov

Sample records for advanced vehicle propulsion

  1. Propulsion issues for advanced orbit transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid to late 1990s expanded capabilities for orbital transfer vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possibly men to geosynchronous orbit. Discussion and observations relative to the propulsion system issues of space basing, aeroassist compatibility, man ratability and enhanced payload delivery capability are presented. These issues will require resolution prior to the development of a propulsion system for the advanced OTV. The NASA program in support of advanced propulsion for an OTV is briefly described along with conceptual engine design characteristics.

  2. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  3. Advanced propulsion concepts for orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the United States Space Transportation System show that in the mid-to-late 1990s expanded capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and possible men to geosynchronous orbit. NASA is conducting a technology program in support of an advanced propulsion system for future OTVs. This program is briefly described with results to date of the first program element, the Conceptual Design and Technology Definition studies.

  4. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  5. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  6. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  7. Advanced gel propulsion controls for kill vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, W. K.; Olson, A.; Finato, S.

    1993-06-01

    A gel propulsion control concept for tactical applications is reviewed, and the status of the individual component technologies currently under development at the Aerojet Propulsion Division is discussed. It is concluded that a gel propellant Divert and Attitude Control Subsystem (DACS) provides a safe, insensitive munitions compliant alternative to current liquid Theater Missile Defense (TMD) DACS approaches. The gel kill vehicle (KV) control system packages a total impulse typical of a tactical weapon interceptor for the ground- or sea-based TMD systems. High density packaging makes it possible to increase firepower and to eliminate long-term high pressure gas storage associated with bipropellant systems. The integrated control subsystem technologies encompass solid propellant gas generators, insulated composite overwrapped propellant tanks, lightweight endoatmospheric thrusters, and insensitive munition gel propellants, which meet the requirements of a deployable, operationally safe KV.

  8. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Sostaric, R. R.; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-06-01

    Advanced mid-L/D entry vehicles can provide performance advantages significant to mid-term robotic and human missions. Preliminary simulations with new paradigms show transonic Mach vehicle staging possible for retro-propulsion, descent and landing.

  9. Advanced earth-to-orbit transportation vehicles and their propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the advanced transportation systems and their associated propulsion systems being considered by MSFC for near-term missions (1980-1990), future missions (1990-2000), and far-term missions (post 2000). The near-term launch-vehicle considerations center around the growth Shuttle and the Shuttle-derived Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) systems. The future and far-term considerations support the development of larger more advanced transportation systems. In such cases, the changing nature of the propulsion requirements needed by the launch vehicle are identified. The evolvement of chemical propulsion launch vehicles into the far future is prognosticated, and where applicable from a launch vehicle or propulsion viewpoint, orbit transfer vehicles are discussed.

  10. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  11. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  12. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen propulsion system concepts for electric vehicles were compared to determine the differences in components and battery pack to achieve the basic performance level. Design tradeoffs were made for selected configurations to find the optimum component characteristics required to meet all performance goals. The anticipated performance when using nickel-zinc batteries rather than the standard lead-acid batteries was also evaluated. The two systems selected for the final conceptual design studies included a system with a flywheel energy storage unit and a basic system that did not have a flywheel. The flywheel system meets the range requirement with either lead-acid or nickel-zinc batteries and also the acceleration of zero to 89 km/hr in 15 s. The basic system can also meet the required performance with a fully charged battery, but, when the battery approaches 20 to 30 percent depth of discharge, maximum acceleration capability gradually degrades. The flywheel system has an estimated life-cycle cost of $0.041/km using lead-acid batteries. The basic system has a life-cycle cost of $0.06/km. The basic system, using batteries meeting ISOA goals, would have a life-cycle cost of $0.043/km.

  13. Main propulsion system design recommendations for an advanced Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L.

    1985-01-01

    Various main propulsion system configurations of an advanced OTV are evaluated with respect to the probability of nonindependent failures, i.e., engine failures that disable the entire main propulsion system. Analysis of the life-cycle cost (LCC) indicates that LCC is sensitive to the main propulsion system reliability, vehicle dry weight, and propellant cost; it is relatively insensitive to the number of missions/overhaul, failures per mission, and EVA and IVA cost. In conclusion, two or three engines are recommended in view of their highest reliability, minimum life-cycle cost, and fail operational/fail safe capability.

  14. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  15. Dual-Fuel Propulsion in Single-Stage Advanced Manned Launch System Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit

    1995-01-01

    As part of the United States Advanced Manned Launch System study to determine a follow-on, or complement, to the Space Shuttle, a reusable single-stage-to-orbit concept utilizing dual-fuel rocket propulsion has been examined. Several dual-fuel propulsion concepts were investigated. These include: a separate-engine concept combining Russian RD-170 kerosene-fueled engines with space shuttle main engine-derivative engines: the kerosene- and hydrogen-fueled Russian RD-701 engine; and a dual-fuel, dual-expander engine. Analysis to determine vehicle weight and size characteristics was performed using conceptual-level design techniques. A response-surface methodology for multidisciplinary design was utilized to optimize the dual-fuel vehicles with respect to several important propulsion-system and vehicle design parameters, in order to achieve minimum empty weight. The tools and methods employed in the analysis process are also summarized. In comparison with a reference hydrogen- fueled single-stage vehicle, results showed that the dual-fuel vehicles were from 10 to 30% lower in empty weight for the same payload capability, with the dual-expander engine types showing the greatest potential.

  16. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  17. Study of advanced electric propulsion system concept using a flywheel for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, F. C.; Lackner, H.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion system concepts with flywheels for electric vehicles are evaluated and it is predicted that advanced systems can provide considerable performance improvement over existing electric propulsion systems with little or no cost penalty. Using components specifically designed for an integrated electric propulsion system avoids the compromises that frequently lead to a loss of efficiency and to inefficient utilization of space and weight. A propulsion system using a flywheel power energy storage device can provide excellent acceleration under adverse conditions of battery degradation due either to very low temperatures or high degrees of discharge. Both electrical and mechanical means of transfer of energy to and from the flywheel appear attractive; however, development work is required to establish the safe limits of speed and energy storage for advanced flywheel designs and to achieve the optimum efficiency of energy transfer. Brushless traction motor designs using either electronic commutation schemes or dc-to-ac inverters appear to provide a practical approach to a mass producible motor, with excellent efficiency and light weight. No comparisons were made with advanced system concepts which do not incorporate a flywheel.

  18. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  19. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    vehicle stage return, thus making ideas reality. These paradigm shifts include the technology maturation of advanced flexible thermal protection materials onto mid lift-to-drag ratio entry vehicles, the development of integrated supersonic aero-propulsive maneuvering, and the implementation of advanced asymmetric launch shrouds. These paradigms have significant overlap with launch vehicle stage return already being developed by the Air Force and several commercial space efforts. Completing the realization of these combined paradigms holds the key to a high-performing entry vehicle system capability that fully leverages multiple technology benefits to accomplish NASA's Exploration missions to atmospheric planetary destinations.

  20. Advanced space propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapointe, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been actively involved in the evaluation and development of advanced spacecraft propulsion. Recent program elements have included high energy density propellants, electrode less plasma thruster concepts, and low power laser propulsion technology. A robust advanced technology program is necessary to develop new, cost-effective methods of spacecraft propulsion, and to continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and technology.

  1. Advanced propulsion activities in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, P. W.

    Advances in propulsion system performance are necessary to meet the projected requirements of future launch vehicles, orbit transfer vehicles, satellites and planetary spacecraft. Ongoing U.S. space propulsion research programs are aggressively pursuing the development of the technology to meet these requirements. This paper reviews advanced propulsion research in the USA. Work accomplished in 1985 and future plans for ongoing research programs are discussed. Theoretical and experimental research programs and system studies of augmented hydrazine, arcjet, magnetoplasma dynamic thruster, ion thruster, metastable chemical, solar thermal, light sail, microwave and laser propulsion, nuclear fission rockets, and fusion and antimatter propulsion systems are addressed.

  2. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Hunter, Gary W.; Simon, Don; Meredith, Roger; Wrbanek, John; Woike, Mark; Tokars, Roger; Guffanti, Marianne; Lyall, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research Tests in the Vehicle Systems Safety Technologies project. This overview covers highlights of the completed VIPR I and VIPR II tests and also covers plans for the VIPR III test.

  3. Recent Advances in LOX / LH2 Propulsion System for Reusable Vehicle Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokudome, Shinichiro; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Yagishita, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Satoshi; Shida, Maki; Mori, Hatsuo; Nakamura, Takeshi

    The third-generation vehicle RVT#3 equipped with a pressure-fed engine, which had upgraded in terms of durability enhancement and a LH2 tank of composite material, successfully performed in repeated flight operation tests; and the vehicle reached its maximum flying altitude of 42m in October 2003. The next step for demonstrating entire sequence of full-scale operation is to put a turbopump-fed system into propulsion system. From a result of primary system analysis, we decided to build an expander-cycle engine by diverting a pair of turbopumps, which had built for another research program, to the present study. A combustion chamber with long cylindrical portion adapted to the engine cycle was also newly made. Two captive firing tests have been conducted with two different thrust control methods, following the component tests of combustor and turbopumps separately conducted. A considerable technical issues recognized in the tests were the robustness enhancement of shaft seal design, the adjustment of shaft stiffness, and start-up operation adapted to the specific engine system. Experimental study of GOX/GH2 RCS thrusters have also been started as a part of a conceptual study of the integration of the propulsion system associated with simplification and reliability improvement of the vehicle system.

  4. Advanced Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Leslie, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Chemical Propulsion (ACP) provides near-term incremental improvements in propulsion system performance and/or cost. It is an evolutionary approach to technology development that produces useful products along the way to meet increasingly more demanding mission requirements while focusing on improving payload mass fraction to yield greater science capability. Current activities are focused on two areas: chemical propulsion component, subsystem, and manufacturing technologies that offer measurable system level benefits; and the evaluation of high-energy storable propellants with enhanced performance for in-space application. To prioritize candidate propulsion technology alternatives, a variety of propulsion/mission analyses and trades have been conducted for SMD missions to yield sufficient data for investment planning. They include: the Advanced Chemical Propulsion Assessment; an Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Model; a LOx-LH2 small pumps conceptual design; a space storables propellant study; a spacecraft cryogenic propulsion study; an advanced pressurization and mixture ratio control study; and a pump-fed vs. pressure-fed study.

  5. Manrating orbital transfer vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expended capabilities for Orbital Transfer Vehicles (OTV) which will be needed to meet increased payload requirements for transporting materials and men to geosynchronous orbit are discussed. The requirement to provide manrating offers challenges and opportunities to the propulsion system designers. The propulsion approaches utilized in previous manned space vehicles of the United States are reviewed. The principals of reliability analysis are applied to the Orbit Transfer Vehicle. Propulsion system options are characterized in terms of the test requirements to demonstrate reliability goals and are compared to earlier vehicle approaches.

  6. Advanced subsonic transport propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Ciepluch, C. C.; Chamberlain, R.; Meleason, E. T.; Kraft, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of the current NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)) Project is presented. Included in this review are the factors that influenced the design of these turbofan engines and the advanced technology incorporated in them to reduce fuel consumption and improve environmental characteristics. In addition, factors such as the continuing spiral in fuel cost, that could influence future aircraft propulsion systems beyond those represented by the E(3) engines, are also discussed. Advanced technologies that will address these influencing factors and provide viable future propulsion systems are described. The potential importance of other propulsion system types, such as geared fans and turboshaft engines, is presented.

  7. Advanced Launch Vehicle Upper Stages Using Liquid Propulsion and Metallized Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum (Al) particles are the metal additive. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellant for volume-and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and other earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System (STS) and Space Transportation System-Cargo (STS-C) launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  8. Advanced launch vehicle upper stages using liquid propulsion and metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.

    1990-01-01

    Metallized propellants are liquid propellants with a metal additive suspended in a gelled fuel or oxidizer. Typically, aluminum particles are the metal additives. These propellants provide increase in the density and/or the specific impulse of the propulsion system. Using metallized propellants for volume- and mass-constrained upper stages can deliver modest increases in performance for Low Earth Orbit to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and other Earth orbital transfer missions. Metallized propellants, however, can enable very fast planetary missions with a single-stage upper stage system. Trade studies comparing metallized propellant stage performance with non-metallized upper stages and the Inertial Upper Stage are presented. These upper stages are both one- and two-stage vehicles that provide the added energy to send payloads to altitudes and onto trajectories that are unattainable with only the launch vehicle. The stage designs are controlled by the volume and the mass constraints of the Space Transportation System and Space Transportation System-Cargo launch vehicles. The influences of the density and specific impulse increases enabled by metallized propellants are examined for a variety of different stage and propellant combinations.

  9. Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation describes a number of advanced space propulsion technologies with the potential for meeting the need for dramatic reductions in the cost of access to space, and the need for new propulsion capabilities to enable bold new space exploration (and, ultimately, space exploitation) missions of the 21st century. For example, current Earth-to-orbit (e.g., low Earth orbit, LEO) launch costs are extremely high (ca. $10,000/kg); a factor 25 reduction (to ca. $400/kg) will be needed to produce the dramatic increases in space activities in both the civilian and government sectors identified in the Commercial Space Transportation Study (CSTS). Similarly, in the area of space exploration, all of the relatively 'easy' missions (e.g., robotic flybys, inner solar system orbiters and landers; and piloted short-duration Lunar missions) have been done. Ambitious missions of the next century (e.g., robotic outer-planet orbiters/probes, landers, rovers, sample returns; and piloted long-duration Lunar and Mars missions) will require major improvements in propulsion capability. In some cases, advanced propulsion can enable a mission by making it faster or more affordable, and in some cases, by directly enabling the mission (e.g., interstellar missions). As a general rule, advanced propulsion systems are attractive because of their low operating costs (e.g., higher specific impulse, ISD) and typically show the most benefit for relatively 'big' missions (i.e., missions with large payloads or AV, or a large overall mission model). In part, this is due to the intrinsic size of the advanced systems as compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) chemical propulsion systems. Also, advanced systems often have a large 'infrastructure' cost, either in the form of initial R&D costs or in facilities hardware costs (e.g., laser or microwave transmission ground stations for beamed energy propulsion). These costs must then be amortized over a large mission to be cost-competitive with a SOTA

  10. Advanced Chemical Propulsion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Byers, Dave; Alexander, Leslie A.; Krebsbach, Al

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed of advanced chemical propulsion technology application to space science (Code S) missions. The purpose was to begin the process of selecting chemical propulsion technology advancement activities that would provide greatest benefits to Code S missions. Several missions were selected from Code S planning data, and a range of advanced chemical propulsion options was analyzed to assess capabilities and benefits re these missions. Selected beneficial applications were found for higher-performing bipropellants, gelled propellants, and cryogenic propellants. Technology advancement recommendations included cryocoolers and small turbopump engines for cryogenic propellants; space storable propellants such as LOX-hydrazine; and advanced monopropellants. It was noted that fluorine-bearing oxidizers offer performance gains over more benign oxidizers. Potential benefits were observed for gelled propellants that could be allowed to freeze, then thawed for use.

  11. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    A variety of Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) is discussed. The focus is on those concepts that are sufficiently near-term that they could be developed for the Space Exploration Initiative. High-power (multi-megawatt) electric propulsion, solar sails, tethers, and extraterrestrial resource utilization concepts are discussed. A summary of these concepts and some general conclusions on their technology development needs are presented.

  12. Advanced electric propulsion system concept for electric vehicles. Addendum 1: Voltage considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raynard, A. E.; Forbes, F. E.

    1980-01-01

    The two electric vehicle propulsion systems that best met cost and performance goals were examined to assess the effect of battery pack voltage on system performance and cost. A voltage range of 54 to 540 V was considered for a typical battery pack capacity of 24 k W-hr. The highest battery specific energy (W-hr/kg) and the lowest cost ($/kW-hr) were obtained at the minimum voltage level. The flywheel system traction motor is a dc, mechanically commutated with shunt field control, and due to the flywheel the traction motor and the battery are not subject to extreme peaks of power demand. The basic system uses a permanent-magnet motor with electronic commutation supplied by an ac power control unit. In both systems battery cost were the major factor in system voltage selection, and a battery pack with the minimum voltage of 54 V produced the lowest life-cycle cost. The minimum life-cycle cost for the basic system with lead-acid batteries was $0.057/km and for the flywheel system was $0.037/km.

  13. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is part of the University of Tennessee-Calspan Center for Aerospace Research (CAR). It was formed in 1985 to take advantage of the extensive research faculty and staff of the University of Tennessee and Calspan Corporation. It is also one of sixteen NASA sponsored Centers established to facilitate the Commercial Development of Space. Based on investigators' qualifications in propulsion system development, and matching industries' strong intent, the Center focused its efforts in the following technical areas: advanced chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, AI/Expert systems, fluids management in microgravity, and propulsion materials processing. This annual report focuses its discussion in these technical areas.

  14. Electric Drive Dynamic Thermal System Model for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-360

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, K.

    2013-10-01

    Electric drive systems, which include electric machines and power electronics, are a key enabling technology for advanced vehicle propulsion systems that reduce the dependence of the U.S. transportation sector on petroleum. However, to penetrate the market, these electric drive technologies must enable vehicle solutions that are economically viable. The push to make critical electric drivesystems smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective brings respective challenges associated with heat removal and system efficiency. In addition, the wide application of electric drive systems to alternative propulsion technologies ranging from integrated starter generators, to hybrid electric vehicles, to full electric vehicles presents challenges in terms of sizing critical components andthermal management systems over a range of in-use operating conditions. This effort focused on developing a modular modeling methodology to enable multi-scale and multi-physics simulation capabilities leading to generic electric drive system models applicable to alternative vehicle propulsion configurations. The primary benefit for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the abilityto define operating losses with the respective impact on component sizing, temperature, and thermal management at the component, subsystem, and system level. However, the flexible nature of the model also allows other uses related to evaluating the impacts of alternative component designs or control schemes depending on the interests of other parties.

  15. Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Current interest in advanced propulsion within NASA and research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts, which include high power plasma thrusters such as lithuim-fueled Lorentz-Force-Accelerators, MEMS-scale propulsion systems, in-situ propellant utilization techniques, fusion propulsion systems and methods of using antimatter, offer the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability as compared with that of traditional chemical propulsion, or enabling ambitious new missions.

  16. Research and development of advanced lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, M. G.; Bowman, D. E.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose was to develop an advanced lead-acid battery based on the concept of forced flow of electrolyte through porous electrodes for enhanced battery performance. The objectives were: specific energy of 42 Wh/kg, energy density of 70 Wh/l, and cycle life of 100 cycles. Accomplishments were: 35 flow-through cells with reduced construction time, higher fiber content in the positive active materials (PAM) with increased strength by a factor of 3, high-density PAM for increased life without utilization losses, confirmation of solid-state relaxation theory, methods for measuring permeability, 31 cycles achieved in C-450, oxygen recombination in many test cells, electrolyte reservoir can be below the top of the cells, and completed designs for positive and negative flow-through grids and for the injection molds to produce the grid/plastic laminates.

  17. History of propulsion for SSTO and multiple stage vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-06-01

    Studies of advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles and the propulsion systems that might be used on them have continued since the Space Shuttle design was selected. This paper summarizes some of the history of those studies. Topics covered include dual-fuel propulsion, engines with both hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuels, two-stage vehicles with parallel burn, and the space transportation booster and main engine studies.

  18. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  19. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Control Model Development Roadmap and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Le, Dzu K.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Hypersonic project is directed towards fundamental research for two classes of hypersonic vehicles: highly reliable reusable launch systems (HRRLS) and high-mass Mars entry systems (HMMES). The objective of the hypersonic guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) discipline team is to develop advanced guidance and control algorithms to enable efficient and effective operation of these challenging vehicles. The ongoing work at the NASA Glenn Research Center supports the hypersonic GN&C effort in developing tools to aid the design of advanced control algorithms that specifically address the propulsion system of the HRRLSclass vehicles. These tools are being developed in conjunction with complementary research and development activities in hypersonic propulsion at Glenn and elsewhere. This report is focused on obtaining control-relevant dynamic models of an HRRLS-type hypersonic vehicle propulsion system.

  20. The NASA-JPL advanced propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts (APC) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) consists of two main areas: The first involves cooperative modeling and research activities between JPL and various universities and industry; the second involves research at universities and industry that is directly supported by JPL. The cooperative research program consists of mission studies, research and development of ion engine technology using C-60 (Buckminsterfullerene) propellant, and research and development of lithium-propellant Lorentz-force accelerator (LFA) engine technology. The university/industry- supported research includes research (modeling and proof-of-concept experiments) in advanced, long-life electric propulsion, and in fusion propulsion. These propulsion concepts were selected primarily to cover a range of applications from near-term to far-term missions. For example, the long-lived pulsed-xenon thruster research that JPL is supporting at Princeton University addresses the near-term need for efficient, long-life attitude control and station-keeping propulsion for Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The C-60-propellant ion engine has the potential for good efficiency in a relatively low specific impulse (Isp) range (10,000 - 30,000 m/s) that is optimum for relatively fast (less than 100 day) cis-lunar (LEO/GEO/Lunar) missions employing near-term, high-specific mass electric propulsion vehicles. Research and modeling on the C-60-ion engine are currently being performed by JPL (engine demonstration), Caltech (C-60 properties), MIT (plume modeling), and USC (diagnostics). The Li-propellant LFA engine also has good efficiency in the modest Isp range (40,000 - 50,000 m/s) that is optimum for near-to-mid-term megawatt-class solar- and nuclear-electric propulsion vehicles used for Mars missions transporting cargo (in support of a piloted mission). Research and modeling on the Li-LFA engine are currently being performed by JPL (cathode development), Moscow Aviation

  1. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  2. The NASA Advanced Propulsion Concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leifer, S. D.; Frisbee, R. H.; Brophy, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Research activities in advanced propulsion concepts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are reviewed. The concepts were selected for study because each offers the potential for either significantly enhancing space transportation capability or enabling bold, ambitious new missions.

  3. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  4. Spacecraft Impacts with Advanced Power and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the benefits of advanced power and electric propulsion systems for various space missions. Advanced power technologies that were considered included multiband gap and thin-film solar arrays, lithium batteries, and flywheels. Electric propulsion options included Hall effect thrusters and Ion thrusters. Several mission case studies were selected as representative of future applications for advanced power and propulsion systems. These included a low altitude Earth science satellite, a LEO communications constellation, a GEO military surveillance satellite, and a Mercury planetary mission. The study process entailed identification of overall mission performance using state-of-the-art power and propulsion technology, enhancements made possible with either power or electric propulsion advances individually, and the collective benefits realized when advanced power and electric propulsion are combined. Impacts to the overall spacecraft included increased payload, longer operational life, expanded operations and launch vehicle class step-downs.

  5. Solar electric propulsion for Mars transport vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. M.; Curtis, H. B.; Alexander, S. W.; Gilland, J. H.; Hack, K. J.; Lawrence, C.; Swartz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is an alternative to chemical and nuclear powered propulsion systems for both piloted and unpiloted Mars transport vehicles. Photovoltaic solar cell and array technologies were evaluated as components of SEP power systems. Of the systems considered, the SEP power system composed of multijunction solar cells in an ENTECH domed fresnel concentrator array had the least array mass and area. Trip times to Mars optimized for minimum propellant mass were calculated. Additionally, a preliminary vehicle concept was designed.

  6. Advanced propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The programmatic objective is to establish the feasibility of propulsion technologies for vastly expanded space activity. The technical objective is a revolutionary performance sought, such as: (1) about 1 kg/kW specific mass; (2) specific impulse tailored to mission requirements; (3) ability to use in-situ resources; (4) round-trips to Mars in months; (5) round-trips to outer planets in 1 to 2 years; and (6) the capability for robotic mission beyond the solar system.

  7. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  8. Materials Advance Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    In the future, the Planetary Science Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate hopes to use better-performing and lower-cost propulsion systems to send rovers, probes, and observers to places like Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. For such purposes, a new propulsion technology called the Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) was developed under NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) project, located at Glenn Research Center. As an advanced chemical propulsion system, AMBR uses nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer and hydrazine fuel to propel a spacecraft. Based on current research and development efforts, the technology shows great promise for increasing engine operation and engine lifespan, as well as lowering manufacturing costs. In developing AMBR, ISPT has several goals: to decrease the time it takes for a spacecraft to travel to its destination, reduce the cost of making the propulsion system, and lessen the weight of the propulsion system. If goals like these are met, it could result in greater capabilities for in-space science investigations. For example, if the amount (and weight) of propellant required on a spacecraft is reduced, more scientific instruments (and weight) could be added to the spacecraft. To achieve AMBR s maximum potential performance, the engine needed to be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures and pressure. To this end, ISPT required engine chambers made of iridium-coated rhenium (strong, high-temperature metallic elements) that allowed operation at temperatures close to 4,000 F. In addition, ISPT needed an advanced manufacturing technique for better coating methods to increase the strength of the engine chamber without increasing the costs of fabricating the chamber.

  9. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  10. The effect of technology advancements on the comparative advantages of electric versus chemical propulsion for a large cargo orbit transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehder, J. J.; Wurster, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for sizing electrically or chemically propelled orbit transfer vehicles and analyzing fleet requirements are used in a comparative analysis of the two concepts for various levels of traffic to geosynchronous orbit. The vehicle masses, fuel requirements, and fleet sizes are determined and translated into launch vehicle payload requirements. Technology projections beyond normal growth are made and their effect on the comparative advantages of the concepts is determined. A preliminary cost analysis indicates that although electric propulsion greatly reduces launch vehicle requirements substantial improvements in the cost and reusability of power systems must occur to make an electrically propelled vehicle competitive.

  11. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P.; Satterthwaite, S.; Carson, C.; Schnackel, J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the final report in a study examining the impact of launch vehicles for various boost propulsion design options. These options included: differing boost phase engines using different combinations of fuels and coolants to include RP-1, methane, propane (subcooled and normal boiling point), and hydrogen; variable and high mixture ratio hydrogen engines; translating nozzles on boost phase engines; and cross feeding propellants from the booster to second stage. Vehicles examined included a fully reusable two stage cargo vehicle and a single stage to orbit vehicle. The use of subcooled propane as a fuel generated vehicles with the lowest total vehicle dry mass. Engines with hydrogen cooling generated only slight mass reductions from the reference, all-hydrogen vehicle. Cross feeding propellants generated the most significant mass reductions from the reference two stage vehicle. The use of high mixture ratio or variable mixture ratio hydrogen engines in the boost phase of flight resulted in vehicles with total dry mass 20 percent greater than the reference hydrogen vehicle. Translating nozzles for boost phase engines generated a heavier vehicle. Also examined were the design impacts on the vehicle and ground support subsystems when subcooled propane is used as a fuel. The most significant cost difference between facilities to handle normal boiling point versus subcooled propane is 5 million dollars. Vehicle cost differences were negligible. A significant technical challenge exists for properly conditioning the vehicle propellant on the ground and in flight when subcooled propane is used as fuel.

  12. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Weber, Steven J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Rogers, James Jonathan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  13. Advanced beamed-energy and field propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific phenomena which might lead to major advances in payload, range and terminal velocity of very advanced vehicle propulsion are studied. The effort focuses heavily on advanced propulsion spinoffs enabled by current government-funded investigations in directed-energy technology: i.e., laser, microwave, and relativistic charged particle beams. Futuristic (post-year 2000) beamed-energy propulsion concepts which indicate exceptional promise are identified and analytically investigated. The concepts must be sufficiently developed to permit technical understanding of the physical processes involved, assessment of the enabling technologies, and evaluation of their merits over conventional systems. Propulsion concepts that can be used for manned and/or unmanned missions for purposes of solar system exploration, planetary landing, suborbital flight, transport to orbit, and escape are presented. Speculations are made on the chronology of milestones in beamed-energy propulsion development, such as in systems applications of defense, satellite orbit-raising, global aerospace transportation, and manned interplanetary carriers.

  14. Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

  15. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25982

  16. New propulsion components for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Improved component technology is described. This includes electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configurations, an unconventional brush commutated motor, ac induction motors, various controllers, transmissions and complete systems. One or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  17. Materials Requirements for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Cook, Mary Beth; Clinton, R. G., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's mission to "reach the Moon and Mars" will be obtained only if research begins now to develop materials with expanded capabilities to reduce mass, cost and risk to the program. Current materials cannot function satisfactorily in the deep space environments and do not meet the requirements of long term space propulsion concepts for manned missions. Directed research is needed to better understand materials behavior for optimizing their processing. This research, generating a deeper understanding of material behavior, can lead to enhanced implementation of materials for future exploration vehicles. materials providing new approaches for manufacture and new options for In response to this need for more robust materials, NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) has established a strategic research initiative dedicated to materials development supporting NASA's space propulsion needs. The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) element directs basic and applied research to understand material behavior and develop improved materials allowing propulsion systems to operate beyond their current limitations. This paper will discuss the approach used to direct the path of strategic research for advanced materials to ensure that the research is indeed supportive of NASA's future missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  18. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  19. Integrated Propulsion/Vehicle System Structurally Optimized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, James E.; McCurdy, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing research and testing are essential in the development of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion technology, and this year some positive advancement was made at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Recent work performed for GTX, a rocket-based combined-cycle, single-stage-to-orbit concept, included structural assessments of both the engine and flight vehicle. In the development of air-breathing engine technology, it is impractical to design and optimize components apart from the fully integrated system because tradeoffs must be made between performance and structural capability. Efforts were made to control the flight trajectory, for example, to minimize the aerodynamic heating effects. Structural optimization was applied to evaluate concept feasibility and was instrumental in the determination of the gross liftoff weight of the integrated system. Achieving low Earth orbit with even a small payload requires an aggressive approach to weight minimization through the use of lightweight, oxidation-resistant composite materials. Assessing the integrated system involved investigating the flight trajectory to determine where the critical load events occur in flight and then generating the corresponding environment at each of these events. Structural evaluation requires the mapping of the critical flight loads to finite element models, including the combined effects of aerodynamic, inertial, combustion, and other loads. NASA s APAS code was used to generate aerodynamic pressure and temperature profiles at each critical event. The radiation equilibrium surface temperatures from APAS were used to predict temperatures through the thickness. Heat transfer solutions using NASA's MINIVER code and the SINDA code (Cullimore & Ring Technologies, Littleton, CO) were calculated at selective points external to the integrated vehicle system and then extrapolated over the entire exposed surface. FORTRAN codes were written to expedite the finite element mapping of the aerodynamic heating

  20. Propulsion and stabilization system for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-06-29

    A propulsion and stabilization system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and stabilized by a system which includes propulsion windings mounted above and parallel to vehicle-borne suspension magnets. A linear synchronous motor is part of the vehicle guideway and is mounted above and parallel to superconducting magnets attached to the magnetically levitated vehicle.

  1. Advanced Electric Propulsion for Space Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steve

    1999-01-01

    The sun tower concept of collecting solar energy in space and beaming it down for commercial use will require very affordable in-space as well as earth-to-orbit transportation. Advanced electric propulsion using a 200 kW power and propulsion system added to the sun tower nodes can provide a factor of two reduction in the required number of launch vehicles when compared to in-space cryogenic chemical systems. In addition, the total time required to launch and deliver the complete sun tower system is of the same order of magnitude using high power electric propulsion or cryogenic chemical propulsion: around one year. Advanced electric propulsion can also be used to minimize the stationkeeping propulsion system mass for this unique space platform. 50 to 100 kW class Hall, ion, magnetoplasmadynamic, and pulsed inductive thrusters are compared. High power Hall thruster technology provides the best mix of launches saved and shortest ground to Geosynchronous Earth Orbital Environment (GEO) delivery time of all the systems, including chemical. More detailed studies comparing launch vehicle costs, transfer operations costs, and propulsion system costs and complexities must be made to down-select a technology. The concept of adding electric propulsion to the sun tower nodes was compared to a concept using re-useable electric propulsion tugs for Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) to GEO transfer. While the tug concept would reduce the total number of required propulsion systems, more launchers and notably longer LEO to GEO and complete sun tower ground to GEO times would be required. The tugs would also need more complex, longer life propulsion systems and the ability to dock with sun tower nodes.

  2. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  3. Advanced nuclear thermal propulsion concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, a Presidential directive created the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which had a goal of placing mankind on Mars in the early 21st century. The SEI was effectively terminated in 1992 with the election of a new administration. Although the initiative did not exist long enough to allow substantial technology development, it did provide a venue, for the first time in 20 years, to comprehensively evaluate advanced propulsion concepts which could enable fast, manned transits to Mars. As part of the SEI based investigations, scientists from NASA, DoE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met regularly and proceeded to examine a variety of innovative ideas. Most of the effort was directed toward developing a solid-core, nuclear thermal rocket and examining a high-power nuclear electric propulsion system. In addition, however, an Innovative Concepts committee was formed and charged with evaluating concepts that offered a much higher performance but were less technologically mature. The committee considered several concepts and eventually recommended that further work be performed in the areas of gas core fission rockets, inertial confinement fusion systems, antimatter based rockets, and gas core fission electric systems. Following the committee's recommendations, some computational modeling work has been performed at Los Alamos in certain of these areas and critical issues have been identified.

  4. Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research for the Study of Health Management Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.; Hunter, Gary W.; Woike, Mary; Tokars, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation on vehicle integrated propulsion research results and planning. This research emphasizes the testing of advanced health management sensors and diagnostics in an aircraft engine that is operated through multiple baseline and fault conditions.

  5. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviations ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe, which are envisioned as being powered by Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems.

  6. Advanced transportation system studies. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: Propulsion database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Transportation System Studies alternate propulsion subsystem concepts propulsion database interim report is presented. The objective of the database development task is to produce a propulsion database which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database is to be available on the Macintosh computer system. The task is to extend across all three years of the contract. Consequently, a significant fraction of the effort in this first year of the task was devoted to the development of the database structure to ensure a robust base for the following years' efforts. Nonetheless, significant point design propulsion system descriptions and parametric models were also produced. Each of the two propulsion databases, parametric propulsion database and propulsion system database, are described. The descriptions include a user's guide to each code, write-ups for models used, and sample output. The parametric database has models for LOX/H2 and LOX/RP liquid engines, solid rocket boosters using three different propellants, a hybrid rocket booster, and a NERVA derived nuclear thermal rocket engine.

  7. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; Hemminger, Joseph; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  8. Advanced Electric Propulsion for RLV Launched Geosynchronous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven

    1999-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion has been shown to increase a geostationary satellite's payload when launched by existing expendable launch vehicles. In the case of reusable launch vehicles or expendable launch vehicles where an upper stage is an expensive option, this methodology can be modified by using the existing on-board apogee chemical system to perform a perigee burn and then letting the electric propulsion system complete the transfer to geostationary orbit. The elimination of upper stages using on-board chemical and electric propulsion systems was thus examined for GEO spacecraft. Launch vehicle step-down from an Atlas IIAR to a Delta 7920 (no upper stage) was achieved using expanded on-board chemical tanks, 40 kW payload power for electric propulsion, and a 60 day elliptical to GEO SEP orbit insertion. Optimal combined chemical and electric trajectories were found using SEPSPOT. While Hall and ion thrusters provided launch vehicle step-down and even more payload for longer insertion times, NH3 arcjets had insufficient performance to allow launch vehicle step-down. Degradation levels were only 5% to 7% for launch step-down cases using advanced solar arrays. Results were parameterized to allow comparisons for future reusable launch vehicles. Results showed that for an 8 W/kg initial power/launch mass power density spacecraft, 50% to 100% more payload can be launched using this method.

  9. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  10. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  11. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA'S Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2000-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several aluminum and copper based Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The presentation's goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's planned and on-going activities in MMC for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike and X-34 Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's reusable launch vehicle systems and space access vehicles. Advanced MMC processing techniques such as plasma spray, centrifugal casting, pressure infiltration casting will be discussed. Development of a novel 3D printing method for low cost production of composite preform, and functional gradient MMC to enhanced rocket engine's dimensional stability will be presented.

  12. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  13. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  14. Advanced Propulsion Power Distribution System for Next Generation Electric/Hybrid Vehicle. Phase 1; Preliminary System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Bimal K.; Kim, Min-Huei

    1995-01-01

    The report essentially summarizes the work performed in order to satisfy the above project objective. In the beginning, different energy storage devices, such as battery, flywheel and ultra capacitor are reviewed and compared, establishing the superiority of the battery. Then, the possible power sources, such as IC engine, diesel engine, gas turbine and fuel cell are reviewed and compared, and the superiority of IC engine has been established. Different types of machines for drive motor/engine generator, such as induction machine, PM synchronous machine and switched reluctance machine are compared, and the induction machine is established as the superior candidate. Similar discussion was made for power converters and devices. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) appears to be the most superior device although Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) shows future promise. Different types of candidate distribution systems with the possible combinations of power and energy sources have been discussed and the most viable system consisting of battery, IC engine and induction machine has been identified. Then, HFAC system has been compared with the DC system establishing the superiority of the former. The detailed component sizing calculations of HFAC and DC systems reinforce the superiority of the former. A preliminary control strategy has been developed for the candidate HFAC system. Finally, modeling and simulation study have been made to validate the system performance. The study in the report demonstrates the superiority of HFAC distribution system for next generation electric/hybrid vehicle.

  15. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion for Advanced Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M. G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  16. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.

    2001-01-01

    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  17. Heavy vehicle hybrid propulsion systems R and D program plan, FY 2000-2005

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the program plan and background information for the Heavy Vehicle Hybrid Propulsion R and D Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The program is a collaboration between industry and government established for the development of advanced hybrid-electric propulsion technology for urban cycle trucks and buses. It targets specific applications to enhance potential market success. Potential end-users are also involved.

  18. Impact of propulsion system R and D on electric vehicle performance and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.; Gordan, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency, weight, and manufacturing cost of the propulsion subsystem (motor, motor controller, transmission, and differential, but excluding the battery) are major factors in the purchase price and cost of ownership of a traffic-compatible electric vehicle. The relative impact of each was studied, and the conclusions reached are that propulsion system technology advances can result in a major reduction of the sticker price of an electric vehicle and a smaller, but significant, reduction in overall cost of ownership.

  19. Impact of propulsion system R and D on electric vehicle performance and cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, H. J.; Gordan, A. L.

    1980-05-01

    The efficiency, weight, and manufacturing cost of the propulsion subsystem (motor, motor controller, transmission, and differential, but excluding the battery) are major factors in the purchase price and cost of ownership of a traffic-compatible electric vehicle. The relative impact of each was studied, and the conclusions reached are that propulsion system technology advances can result in a major reduction of the sticker price of an electric vehicle and a smaller, but significant, reduction in overall cost of ownership.

  20. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2003-11-01

    The light-duty vehicle transportation sector in the United States depends heavily on imported petroleum as a transportation fuel. The Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is testing advanced technology vehicles to help reduce this dependency, which would contribute to the economic stability and homeland security of the United States. These advanced technology test vehicles include internal combustion engine vehicles operating on 100% hydrogen (H2) and H2CNG (compressed natural gas) blended fuels, hybrid electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, and electric ground support vehicles. The AVTA tests and evaluates these vehicles with closed track and dynamometer testing methods (baseline performance testing) and accelerated reliability testing methods (accumulating lifecycle vehicle miles and operational knowledge within 1 to 1.5 years), and in normal fleet environments. The Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and H2-fueled vehicles are demonstrating the feasibility of using H2 as a transportation fuel. Hybrid, neighborhood, and urban electric test vehicles are demonstrating successful applications of electric drive vehicles in various fleet missions. The AVTA is also developing electric ground support equipment (GSE) test procedures, and GSE testing will start during the fall of 2003. All of these activities are intended to support U.S. energy independence. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the AVTA.

  1. Green Propulsion Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Rosario, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation is critical to U.S. and Global economic vitality. However, energy and climate issues challenge aviation's ability to be sustainable in the long term. Aviation must dramatically reduce fuel use and related emissions. Energy costs to U.S. airlines nearly tripled between 1995 and 2011, and continue to be the highest percentage of operating costs. The NASA Advanced Air Transports Technology Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. The presentation will highlight the NASA vision of revolutionary systems and propulsion technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals. Specifically, the primary focus is on the N+3 generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

  2. Advanced Chemical Propulsion for Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Larry

    2008-01-01

    The advanced chemical propulsion technology area of NASA's In-Space Technology Project is investing in systems and components for increased performance and reduced cost of chemical propulsion technologies applicable to near-term science missions. Presently the primary investment in the advanced chemical propulsion technology area is in the AMBR high temperature storable bipropellant rocket engine. Scheduled to be available for flight development starting in year 2008, AMBR engine shows a 60 kg payload gain in an analysis for the Titan-Enceladus orbiter mission and a 33 percent manufacturing cost reduction over its baseline, state-of-the-art counterpart. Other technologies invested include the reliable lightweight tanks for propellant and the precision propellant management and mixture ratio control. Both technologies show significant mission benefit, can be applied to any liquid propulsion system, and upon completion of the efforts described in this paper, are at least in parts ready for flight infusion. Details of the technologies are discussed.

  3. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klem, Mark D.; Smith, Timothy D.; Wadel, Mary F.; Meyer, Michael L.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    Exploration Systems Architecture Study conducted by NASA in 2005 identified the liquid oxygen (LOx)/liquid methane (LCH4) propellant combination as a prime candidate for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module propulsion and for later use for ascent stage propulsion of the lunar lander. Both the Crew Exploration Vehicle and Lunar Lander were part the Constellation architecture, which had the objective to provide global sustained lunar human exploration capability. From late 2005 through the end of 2010, NASA and industry matured advanced development designs for many components that could be employed in relatively high thrust, high delta velocity, pressure fed propulsion systems for these two applications. The major investments were in main engines, reaction control engines, and the devices needed for cryogenic fluid management such as screens, propellant management devices, thermodynamic vents, and mass gauges. Engine and thruster developments also included advanced high reliability low mass igniters. Extensive tests were successfully conducted for all of these elements. For the thrusters and engines, testing included sea level and altitude conditions. This advanced development provides a mature technology base for future liquid oxygen/liquid methane pressure fed space propulsion systems. This paper documents the design and test efforts along with resulting hardware and test results.

  4. Propulsion Integrated Vehicle Health Management Technology Experiment (PITEX) Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The Propulsion Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Technology Experiment (PITEX) is a continuing NASA effort being conducted cooperatively by the NASA Glenn Research Center, the NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Kennedy Space Center. It was a key element of a Space Launch Initiative risk-reduction task performed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation in El Segundo, California. PITEX's main objectives are the continued maturation of diagnostic technologies that are relevant to second generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV) subsystems and the assessment of the real-time performance of the PITEX diagnostic solution. The PITEX effort has considerable legacy in the NASA IVHM Technology Experiment for X-vehicles (NITEX) that was selected to fly on the X-34 subscale RLV that was being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation. NITEX, funded through the Future-X Program Office, was to advance the technology-readiness level of selected IVHM technologies within a flight environment and to begin the transition of these technologies from experimental status into RLV baseline designs. The experiment was to perform realtime fault detection and isolation and suggest potential recovery actions for the X-34 main propulsion system (MPS) during all mission phases by using a combination of system-level analysis and detailed diagnostic algorithms.

  5. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  6. Advanced Technology Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort

    2004-06-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is to increase the body of knowledge as well as the awareness and acceptance of electric drive and other advanced technology vehicles (ATV). The AVTA accomplishes this goal by testing ATVs on test tracks and dynamometers (Baseline Performance testing), as well as in real-world applications (Fleet and Accelerated Reliability testing and public demonstrations). This enables the AVTA to provide Federal and private fleet managers, as well as other potential ATV users, with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance and infrastructure needs so they can make informed decisions about acquiring and operating ATVs. The ATVs currently in testing include vehicles that burn gaseous hydrogen (H2) fuel and hydrogen/CNG (H/CNG) blended fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE), and hybrid electric (HEV), urban electric, and neighborhood electric vehicles. The AVTA is part of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  7. Aluminum air battery for electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Homsy, R.V.; Landrum, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The status of aluminum-air battery development and the use of aluminum as a recyclable electrochemical fuel are discussed. The battery combines high specific energy (above 300 Wh/kg) and specific power (150 to 200 W/kg) with the capability of rapid refueling by addition of reactants. The objective is a commercially-feasible, general-purpose electric vehicle. Progress is reported in the scale-up of aluminum-air single cells to the automotive scale (0.1 m/sup 2/-anodes) and in the development of a hydrargillite crystallizer, which is required to control electrolyte composition. Major technical problems and development strategy are discussed. The total cost and energy required to produce aluminum, and projected consumption by electric vehicles indicates that the aluminum-air powered electric vehicle is potentially competitive with advanced automobiles using synthetic liquid fuels.

  8. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  9. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle NASA Led Propulsion Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Design, development and test of a 2nd generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) is presented. This current paper discusses the following: 2nd Generation RLV Propulsion Project, Overview of NASA Led Tasks in Propulsion, Gen2 Turbo Machinery Technology Demonstrator, and Combustion Devices Test Bed, GRCop-84 Sheet For Combustion Chambers, Nozzles and Large Actively Cooled Structures

  10. Propulsion system research and development for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    An approach to propulsion subsystem technology is presented. Various tests of component reliability are described to aid in the production of better quality vehicles. component characterization work is described to provide engineering data to manufacturers on component performance and on important component propulsion system interactions.

  11. Advancing Sensor Technology for Aerospace Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC) participate in the development of technologies for propulsion testing and propulsion applications in air and space transportation. Future transportation systems and the test facilities needed to develop and sustain them are becoming increasingly complex. Sensor technology is a fundamental pillar that makes possible development of complex systems that must operate in automatic mode (closed loop systems), or even in assisted-autonomous mode (highly self-sufficient systems such as planetary exploration spacecraft). Hence, a great deal of effort is dedicated to develop new sensors and related technologies to be used in research facilities, test facilities, and in vehicles and equipment. This paper describes sensor technologies being developed and in use at SSC and GRC, including new technologies in integrated health management involving sensors, components, processes, and vehicles.

  12. Advanced Propulsion and TPS for a Rapidly-Prototyped CEV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    2005-02-01

    Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is developing for NASA the initial designs for the Crew Exploration Vehicle family, focusing on a Launch CEV for transporting NASA and civilian passengers from Earth to orbit. The t/Space methodology is rapid prototyping of major vehicle systems, and deriving detailed specifications from the resulting hardware, avoiding "written-in-advance" specs that can force the costly invention of new capabilities simply to meet such specs. A key technology shared by the CEV family is Vapor Pressurized propulsion (Vapak) for simplicity and reliability, which provides electrical power, life support gas and a heat sink in addition to propulsion. The CEV family also features active transpiration cooling of re-entry surfaces (for reusability) backed up by passive thermal protection.

  13. MSFC's Advanced Space Propulsion Formulation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Robinson, Joel W.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    In NASA s Fiscal Year 2012, a small project was undertaken to provide additional substance, depth, and activity knowledge to the technology areas identified in the In-Space Propulsion Systems Roadmap, Technology Area 02 (TA-02), as created under the auspices of the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT). This roadmap was divided into four basic groups: (1) Chemical Propulsion, (2) Non-chemical Propulsion, (3) Advanced (TRL<3) Propulsion Technologies, and (4) Supporting Technologies. The first two were grouped according to the governing physics. The third group captured technologies and physic concepts that are at a lower TRL level. The fourth group identified pertinent technical areas that are strongly coupled with these related areas which could allow significant improvements in performance. There were a total of 45 technologies identified in TA-02, and 25 of these were studied in this formulation task. The goal of this task was to provide OCT with a knowledge-base for decisionmaking on advanced space propulsion technologies and not waste money by unintentionally repeating past projects or funding the technologies with minor impacts. This formulation task developed the next level of detail for technologies described and provides context to OCT where investments should be made. The presentation will begin with the list of technologies from TA-02, how they were prioritized for this study, and details on what additional data was captured for the technologies studied. Following this, some samples of the documentation will be provided, followed by plans on how the data will be made accessible.

  14. Propulsion control of superconducting linear synchronous motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tetsuzo; Shiromizu, Tsunehiro

    1997-09-01

    The armature current of a superconducting Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) for a maglev vehicle is controlled to produce a suitable propulsion force so that the vehicle follows the reference speed signal sent from a control station. Besides the power is supplied from some inverters to the LSM armature sections where the vehicle exists. This paper shows an exact mathematical modeling of the propulsion control system to treat the system analytically, which is used for designing controllers and performance computer simulations. The calculated results include the simulations when the vehicle goes through power feeder section borders and tunnels that have a large aerodynamic drag force with taking account of an inverter failure.

  15. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.; Johnson, J.; Sabatella, J.; Sewall, T.

    1976-01-01

    The variable stream control engine is determined to be the most promising propulsion system concept for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. This concept uses variable geometry components and a unique throttle schedule for independent control of two flow streams to provide low jet noise at takeoff and high performance at both subsonic and supersonic cruise. The advanced technology offers a 25% improvement in airplane range and an 8 decibel reduction in takeoff noise, relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines.

  16. Benefits of advanced propulsion technology for the advanced supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Sabatella, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Future supersonic transports will have to provide improvement in the areas of economics, range, and emissions relative to the present generation of supersonic transports, as well as meeting or improving upon FAR 36 noise goals. This paper covers the promising propulsion systems including variable-cycle engine concepts for long-range supersonic commercial transport application. The benefits of applying advanced propulsion technology to solve the economic and environmental problems are reviewed. The advanced propulsion technologies covered are in the areas of structures, materials, cooling techniques, aerodynamics, variable engine geometry, jet noise suppressors, acoustic treatment, and low-emission burners. The results of applying the advanced propulsion technology are presented in terms of improvement in overall system takeoff gross weight and return on investment.

  17. Performance of advanced missions using fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan; Mcadams, Jim; Schulze, Norm

    1989-01-01

    A quantitive evaluation of the premise that nuclear fusion propulsion offers benefits as compared to other propulsion technologies for carrying out a program of advanced exploration of the solar system and beyond is presented. Using a simplified analytical model of trajectory performance, numerical results of mass requirements versus trip time are given for robotic missions beyond the solar system that include flyby and rendezvous with the Oort cloud of comets and with the star system Alpha Centauri. Round trip missions within the solar system, including robotic sample returns from the outer planet moons and multiple asteroid targets, and manned Mars exploration are also described.

  18. Advanced electrostatic ion thruster for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.; Macpherson, D.; Gelon, W.; Kami, S.; Poeschel, R. L.; Ward, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The suitability of the baseline 30 cm thruster for future space missions was examined. Preliminary design concepts for several advanced thrusters were developed to assess the potential practical difficulties of a new design. Useful methodologies were produced for assessing both planetary and earth orbit missions. Payload performance as a function of propulsion system technology level and cost sensitivity to propulsion system technology level are among the topics assessed. A 50 cm diameter thruster designed to operate with a beam voltage of about 2400 V is suggested to satisfy most of the requirements of future space missions.

  19. Vehicle Dynamics due to Magnetic Launch Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galaboff, Zachary J.; Jacobs, William; West, Mark E.; Montenegro, Justino (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The field of Magnetic Levitation Lind Propulsion (MagLev) has been around for over 30 years, primarily in high-speed rail service. In recent years, however, NASA has been looking closely at MagLev as a possible first stage propulsion system for spacecraft. This approach creates a variety of new problems that don't currently exist with the present MagLev trains around the world. NASA requires that a spacecraft of approximately 120,000 lbs be accelerated at two times the acceleration of gravity (2g's). This produces a greater demand on power over the normal MagLev trains that accelerate at around 0.1g. To be able to store and distribute up to 3,000 Mega Joules of energy in less than 10 seconds is a technical challenge. Another problem never addressed by the train industry and, peculiar only to NASA, is the control of a lifting body through the acceleration of and separation from the MagLev track. Very little is understood about how a lifting body will react with external forces, Such as wind gusts and ground effects, while being propelled along on soft springs such as magnetic levitators. Much study needs to be done to determine spacecraft control requirements as well as what control mechanisms and aero-surfaces should be placed on the carrier. Once the spacecraft has been propelled down the track another significant event takes place, the separation of the spacecraft from the carrier. The dynamics involved for both the carrier and the spacecraft are complex and coupled. Analysis of the reaction of the carrier after losing, a majority of its mass must be performed to insure control of the carrier is maintained and a safe separation of the spacecraft is achieved. The spacecraft angle of attack required for lift and how it will affect the carriage just prior to separation, along with the impacts of around effect and aerodynamic forces at ground level must be modeled and analyzed to define requirements on the launch vehicle design. Mechanisms, which can withstand the

  20. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  1. Volume Dynamics Propulsion System Modeling for Supersonics Vehicle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Ma, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program the Supersonics Project is working to overcome the obstacles to supersonic commercial flight. The proposed vehicles are long slim body aircraft with pronounced aero-servo-elastic modes. These modes can potentially couple with propulsion system dynamics; leading to performance challenges such as aircraft ride quality and stability. Other disturbances upstream of the engine generated from atmospheric wind gusts, angle of attack, and yaw can have similar effects. In addition, for optimal propulsion system performance, normal inlet-engine operations are required to be closer to compressor stall and inlet unstart. To study these phenomena an integrated model is needed that includes both airframe structural dynamics as well as the propulsion system dynamics. This paper covers the propulsion system component volume dynamics modeling of a turbojet engine that will be used for an integrated vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic model and for propulsion efficiency studies.

  2. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    With a mission to initiate and conduct advanced propulsion research in partnership with industry, and a goal to strengthen U.S. national capability in propulsion technology, the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion (CASP) is the only NASA Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) which focuses on propulsion and associated technologies. Meetings with industrial partners and NASA Headquarters personnel provided an assessment of the constraints placed on, and opportunities afforded commercialization projects. Proprietary information, data rights, and patent rights were some of the areas where well defined information is crucial to project success and follow-on efforts. There were five initial CASP projects. At the end of the first year there are six active, two of which are approaching the ground test phase in their development. Progress in the current six projects has met all milestones and is detailed. Working closely with the industrial counterparts it was found that the endeavors in expert systems development, computational fluid dynamics, fluid management in microgravity, and electric propulsion were well received. One project with the Saturn Corporation which dealt with expert systems application in the assembly process, was placed on hold pending further direction from Saturn. The Contamination Measurment and Analysis project was not implemented since CASP was unable to identify an industrial participant. Additional propulsion and related projects were investigated during the year. A subcontract was let to a small business, MicroCraft, Inc., to study rocket engine certification standards. The study produced valuable results; however, based on a number of factors it was decided not to pursue this project further.

  3. Seal Technology for Hypersonic Vehicle and Propulsion: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    Hypersonic vehicles and propulsion systems pose an extraordinary challenge for structures and materials. Airframes and engines require lightweight, high-temperature materials and structural configurations that can withstand the extreme environment of hypersonic flight. Some of the challenges posed include very high temperatures, heating of the whole vehicle, steady-state and transient localized heating from shock waves, high aerodynamic loads, high fluctuating pressure loads, potential for severe flutter, vibration, and acoustic loads and erosion. Correspondingly high temperature seals are required to meet these aggressive requirements. This presentation reviews relevant seal technology for both heritage (e.g. Space Shuttle, X-15, and X-38) vehicles and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic vehicle seal development. This presentation also reviews seal technology developed for the National Aerospace Plane propulsion systems and presents several seal case studies aimed at providing lessons learned for future hypersonic propulsion seal development.

  4. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  5. The propulsion system is the key to airline-like operation of ETO vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) Advanced Launch System (ALS); (2) life cycle cost/lb payload; (3) current operational cost; (4) major cost driver; (5) fully automated operations; (6) technology impacts on vehicle dry mass efficiency; (7) single stage to orbit (SSTO) approach; and (8) efficient SSTO propulsion system operations.

  6. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  7. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, W. E.; MacDowall, R. D.; Burke, A. F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. When the vehicle's battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W(center dot)h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W(center dot)h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  8. A summary of EHV propulsion technology. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    While the battery used by an electric vehicle is the primary determinant of range, and to a lesser extent of performance, the design of the vehicle's propulsion system establishes its performance level and is the greatest contributor to its purchase price. Propulsion system weight, efficiency and cost are related to the specific combination of components used. Attention is given to the development status of the U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, through which propulsion component and system design improvements have been made which promise weight savings of 35-50 percent, efficiency gains of 25 percent, and lower costs, when compared to the state of the art at the program's inception.

  9. Thermal fatigue durability for advanced propulsion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of thermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) crack initiation life prediction and cyclic constitutive modeling efforts sponsored recently by the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of advanced aeronautical propulsion research. A brief description is provided of the more significant material durability models that were created to describe TMF fatigue resistance of both isotropic and anisotropic superalloys, with and without oxidation resistant coatings. The two most significant crack initiation models are the cyclic damage accumulation model and the total strain version of strainrange partitioning. Unified viscoplastic cyclic constitutive models are also described. A troika of industry, university, and government research organizations contributed to the generation of these analytic models. Based upon current capabilities and established requirements, an attempt is made to project which TMF research activities most likely will impact future generation propulsion systems.

  10. Advanced APS impacts on vehicle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Reed, Brian D.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced auxiliary propulsion system (APS) technology has the potential to both, increase the payload capability of earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicles by reducing APS propellant mass, and simplify ground operations and logistics by reducing the number of fluids on the vehicle and eliminating toxic, corrosive propellants. The impact of integrated cryogenic APS on vehicle payloads is addressed. In this system, launch propulsion system residuals are scavenged from integral launch propulsion tanks for use in the APS. Sufficient propellant is preloaded into the APS to return to earth with margin and noncomplete scavenging assumed. No propellant conditioning is required by the APS, but ambient heat soak is accommodated. High temperature rocket materials enable the use of the unconditioned hydrogen/oxygen in the APS and are estimated to give APS rockets specific impulse of up to about 444 sec. The payload benefits are quantified and compared with an uprated monomethylhydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide system in a conservative fashion, by assuming a 25.5 percent weight growth for the hydrogen/oxygen system and a 0 percent weight growth for the uprated system. The combination of scavenging and high performance gives payload impacts which are highly mission specific. A payload benefit of 861 kg (1898 lbm) was estimated for a Space Station Freedom rendezvous mission and 2099 kg (4626 lbm) for a sortie mission, with payload impacts varying with the amount of launch propulsion residual propellants. Missions without liquid propellant scavenging were estimated to have payload penalties, however, operational benefits were still possible.

  11. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

    2000-06-19

    The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

  12. A nuclear electric propulsion vehicle for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawlik, E. V.; Phillips, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A study is currently underway at JPL to design a nuclear electric-propulsion vehicle capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer planets. Evaluation of the design indicates that it is also applicable to orbit raising. Primary emphasis is on the power subsystem. Work on the design of the power system, the mission rationale, and preliminary spacecraft design are summarized. A propulsion system at a 400-kWe power level with a specific weight goal of no more than 25-kg/kW was selected for this study. The results indicate that this goal can be realized along with compatibility with the shuttle launch-vehicle constraints.

  13. Booster propulsion/vehicle impact study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, Vincent; Dunn, Michael; Fink, Lawrence; Phillips, Dwight; Wetzel, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The use of hydrogen RP-1, propane, and methane as fuels for booster engines of launch vehicles is discussed. An automated procedure for integrated launch vehicle, engine sizing, and design optimization was used to define two stage and single stage concepts for minimum dry weight. The two stage vehicles were unmanned and used a flyback booster and partially reusable orbiter. The single stage designs were fully reusable, manned flyback vehicles. Comparisons of these vehicle designs, showing the effects of using different fuels, as well as sensitivity and trending data, are presented. In addition, the automated design technique utilized for the study is described.

  14. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. These are characterized by specific impulse, overall efficiency, input power, average thrust, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. Several important physical characteristics such as dry system mass, accelerator length, bore size and current pulse requirement are also evaluated in appropriate cases. Only the ion engine can operate at a specific impulse beyond 2000 sec. Rail gun, MPD thruster and free radical thruster are currently characterized by low efficiencies. Mass drivers have the best performance characteristics in terms of overall efficiency, power to average thrust ratio and average thrust to dry weight ratio. But, they can only operate at low specific impulses due to large power requirements and are extremely long due to limitations of driving current. Mercury ion engines have the next best performance characteristics while operating at higher specific impulses. It is concluded that, overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  15. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  16. Advances in hypersonic vehicle synthesis with application to studies of advanced thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the work entitled 'Advances in Hypersonic Vehicle Synthesis with Application to Studies of Advanced Thermal Protection Systems.' The effort was in two areas: (1) development of advanced methods of trajectory and propulsion system optimization; and (2) development of advanced methods of structural weight estimation. The majority of the effort was spent in the trajectory area.

  17. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  18. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  19. Vehicle Propulsion Systems: Introduction to Modeling and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzella, Lino; Sciarretta, Antonio

    In this book the longitudinal behavior of road vehicles is analyzed. The main emphasis is on the analysis and minimization of the fuel and energy consumption. Most approaches to this problem enhance the complexity of the vehicle system by adding components such as electrical motors or storage devices. Such a complex system can only be designed by means of mathematical models. This text gives an introduction to the modeling and optimization problems typically encountered when designing new propulsion systems for passenger cars.

  20. Catalog of components for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eissler, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    This catalog of commercially available electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion system components is intended for designers and builders of these vehicles and contains 50 categories of components. These categories include those components used between the battery terminals and the output axle hub, as well as some auxiliary equipment. An index of the components and a listing of the suppliers and their addresses and phone numbers are included.

  1. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Garetson, Thomas

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  2. Summary of booster propulsion/vehicle impact study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldon, Vincent A.; Fink, Lawrence E.; Phillips, Dwight U.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen, RP-1, propane, and methane were identified by propulsion technology studies as the most probable fuel candidates for the boost phase of future launch vehicles. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of booster engines using these fuels and coolant variations on representative future launch vehicles. An automated procedure for integrated launch vehicle, engine sizing, and design optimization was used to optimize two stage and single stage concepts for minimum dry weight. The two stage vehicles were unmanned and used a flyback booster and partially reusable orbiter. The single stage designs were fully reusable, manned flyback vehicles. Comparisons of these vehicle designs, showing the effects of using different fuels, as well as sensitivity and trending data, are presented. In addition, the automated design technique is described.

  3. Design considerations for Mars transfer vehicles using nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) utilizing nuclear propulsion will require that careful consideration be given to the nuclear radiation environment in which it will operate. The extremely high neutron and gamma fluxes characteristic of nuclear thermal propulsion systems will cause significant heating of the fluid systems in close proximity to the reactor, especially in the lower propellant tanks. Crew radiation doses are also a concern particularly late in a mission when there is less shielding from the propellant tanks. In this study, various vehicle configuration and shielding strategies were examined and the resulting time dependent radiation fields evaluated. A common cluster of three particle bed reactor (PBR) engines were used in all configurations examined. In general, it appears that long, relatively narrow vehicles perform the best from a radiation standpoint, however, good shield optimization will be critical in maintaining a low radiation environment while minimizing the shield weight penalty.

  4. The ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, S.

    1981-01-01

    A functional prototype of an electric vehicle ac propulsion system was built consisting of a 18.65 kW rated ac induction traction motor, pulse width modulated (PWM) transistorized inverter, two speed mechanically shifted automatic transmission, and an overall drive/vehicle controller. Design developmental steps, and test results of individual components and the complex system on an instrumented test frame are described. Computer models were developed for the inverter, motor and a representative vehicle. A preliminary reliability model and failure modes effects analysis are given.

  5. Propulsion of small launch vehicles using high power millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, J.; Myrabo, L.

    1994-12-31

    The use of microwave and millimeter wave beamed energy for propulsion of vehicles in the atmosphere and in space has been under study for at least 35 years. The need for improved propulsion technology is clear: chemical rockets orbit only a few percent of the liftoff mass at a cost of over $3,000/lb. The key advantage of the beamed power approach is to place the heavy and expensive components on the ground or in space, not in the vehicle. This paper, following upon the high power laser propulsion programs, uses a multi-cycle propulsion engine in which the first phase of ascent is based on the air breathing ramjet principle, a repetitive Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE) which uses a microwave-supported detonation to heat the air working fluid, i.e., propellant. The second phase is a pure beam-heated rocket. The key factor is that high peak power is essential to this pulsed engine. This paper explores this propulsion concept using millimeter waves, the most advantageous part of the spectrum. The authors find that efficient system concepts can be developed for the beam powered launch system and that, while the capital cost may be as high as the earlier orbital transfer concepts, the operating cost is much lower. The vehicle can have payload-to-mass ratios on the order of one and cost (per pound to orbit) two orders of magnitudes less than for chemical rockets. This allows the weight of microwave powered vehicles to be very small, as low as {approximately}100 kg for test devices.

  6. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  7. Ground-to-orbit laser propulsion: Advanced applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kare, Jordin T.

    1990-01-01

    Laser propulsion uses a large fixed laser to supply energy to heat an inert propellant in a rocket thruster. Such a system has two potential advantages: extreme simplicity of the thruster, and potentially high performance, particularly high exhaust velocity. By taking advantage of the simplicity of the thruster, it should be possible to launch small (10 to 1000 kg) payloads to orbit using roughly 1 MW of average laser power per kg of payload. The incremental cost of such launches would be of an order of $200/kg for the smallest systems, decreasing to essentially the cost of electricity to run the laser (a few times $10/kg) for larger systems. Although the individual payload size would be smaller, a laser launch system would be inherently high-volume, with the capacity to launch tens of thousands of payloads per year. Also, with high exhaust velocity, a laser launch system could launch payloads to high velocities - geosynchronous transfer, Earth escape, or beyond - at a relatively small premium over launches to LEO. The status of pulsed laser propulsion is briefly reviewed including proposals for advanced vehicles. Several applications appropriate to the early part of the next century and perhaps valuable well into the next millennium are discussed qualitatively: space habitat supply, deep space mission supply, nuclear waste disposal, and manned vehicle launching.

  8. Ground-to-orbit laser propulsion: Advanced applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Laser propulsion uses a large fixed laser to supply energy to heat an inert propellant in a rocket thruster. Such a system has two potential advantages: extreme simplicity of the thruster, and potentially high performance -- particularly high exhaust velocity. By taking advantage of the simplicity of the thruster, it should be possible to launch small (10--1000 kg) payloads to orbit using roughly 1 MW of average laser power per kg of payload. The incremental cost of such launches would be of order $200/kg for the smallest systems, decreasing to essentially the cost of electricity to run the laser (a few times $10/kg) for large systems. Although the individual payload size would be small, a laser launch system would be inherently high-volume, with the capacity to launch tens of thousands of payloads per year. Also, with high exhaust velocity, a laser launch system could launch payloads to high velocities -- geosynchronous transfer, Earth escape, or beyond -- at a relatively small premium over launches to LEO. In this paper, we briefly review the status of pulsed laser propulsion, including proposals for advanced vehicles. We then discuss qualitatively several unique applications appropriate to the early part of the next century, and perhaps valuable well into the next millenium: space habitat supply, deep space mission supply, nuclear waste disposal, and manned vehicle launching.

  9. Orbital refill of propulsion vehicle tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merino, F.; Risberg, J. A.; Hill, M.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for orbital refueling of space based vehicles were developed and experimental programs to verify these techniques were identified. Orbital refueling operations were developed for two cryogenic orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's) and an Earth storable low thrust liquid propellant vehicle. Refueling operations were performed assuming an orbiter tanker for near term missions and an orbital depot. Analyses were conducted using liquid hydrogen and N2O4. The influence of a pressurization system and acquisition device on operations was also considered. Analyses showed that vehicle refill operations will be more difficult with a cryogen than with an earth storable. The major elements of a successful refill with cryogens include tank prechill and fill. Propellant quantities expended for tank prechill appear to to insignificant. Techniques were identified to avoid loss of liquid or excessive tank pressures during refill. It was determined that refill operations will be similar whether or not an orbiter tanker or orbital depot is available. Modeling analyses were performed for prechill and fill tests to be conducted assuming the Spacelab as a test bed, and a 1/10 scale model OTV (with LN2 as a test fluid) as an experimental package.

  10. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. B.; Statham, G.; White, S.; Patton, B.; Thio, Y. C. F.; Alexander, R.; Fincher, S.; Polsgrove, T.; Chapman, J.; Hopkins, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the engineering of several vehicles designed for a crewed mission to the Jovian satellite Callisto. Each subsystem is discussed in detail. Mission and trajectory analysis for each mission concept is described. Crew support components are also described. Vehicles were developed using both fission powered magneto plasma dynamic (MPD) thrusters and magnetized target fusion (MTF) propulsion systems. Conclusions were drawn regarding the usefulness of these propulsion systems for crewed exploration of the outer solar system.

  11. Small low mass advanced PBR's for propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. R.; Todosow, M.; Ludewig, H.

    1993-10-01

    The advanced Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to be described in this paper is characterized by relatively low power, and low cost, while still maintaining competition values for thrust/weight, specific impulse and operating times. In order to retain competitive values for the thrust/weight ratio while reducing the reactor size, it is necessary to change the basic reactor layout, by incorporating new concepts. The new reactor design concept is termed SIRIUS (Small Lightweight Reactor Integral Propulsion System). The following modifications are proposed for the reactor design to be discussed in this paper: Pre-heater (U-235 included in Moderator); Hy-C (Hydride/De-hydride for Reactor Control); Afterburner (U-235 impregnated into Hot Frit); and Hy-S (Hydride Spike Inside Hot Frit). Each of the modifications will be briefly discussed below, with benefits, technical issues, design approach, and risk levels addressed. The paper discusses conceptual assumptions, feasibility analysis, mass estimates, and information needs.

  12. Advanced NSTS propulsion system verification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The merits of propulsion system development testing are discussed. The existing data base of technical reports and specialists is utilized in this investigation. The study encompassed a review of all available test reports of propulsion system development testing for the Saturn stages, the Titan stages, and the Space Shuttle main propulsion system. The knowledge on propulsion system development and system testing available from specialists and managers was also 'tapped' for inclusion.

  13. On-Orbit Propulsion System Performance of ISS Visiting Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Mary Regina M.; Swanson, Robert A.; Kamath, Ulhas P.; Hernandez, Francisco J.; Spencer, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents the culmination of over two decades of unprecedented global human endeavors to conceive, design, build and operate a research laboratory in space. Uninterrupted human presence in space since the inception of the ISS has been made possible by an international fleet of space vehicles facilitating crew rotation, delivery of science experiments and replenishment of propellants and supplies. On-orbit propulsion systems on both ISS and Visiting Vehicles are essential to the continuous operation of the ISS. This paper compares the ISS visiting vehicle propulsion systems by providing an overview of key design drivers, operational considerations and performance characteristics. Despite their differences in design, functionality, and purpose, all visiting vehicles must adhere to a common set of interface requirements along with safety and operational requirements. This paper addresses a wide variety of methods for satisfying these requirements and mitigating credible hazards anticipated during the on-orbit life of propulsion systems, as well as the seamless integration necessary for the continued operation of the ISS.

  14. Review of Propulsion Technologies for N+3 Subsonic Vehicle Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashcraft, Scott W.; Padron, Andres S.; Pascioni, Kyle A.; Stout, Gary W., Jr.; Huff, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set aggressive fuel burn, noise, and emission reduction goals for a new generation (N+3) of aircraft targeting concepts that could be viable in the 2035 timeframe. Several N+3 concepts have been formulated, where the term "N+3" indicate aircraft three generations later than current state-of-the-art aircraft, "N". Dramatic improvements need to be made in the airframe, propulsion systems, mission design, and the air transportation system in order to meet these N+3 goals. The propulsion system is a key element to achieving these goals due to its major role with reducing emissions, fuel burn, and noise. This report provides an in-depth description and assessment of propulsion systems and technologies considered in the N+3 subsonic vehicle concepts. Recommendations for technologies that merit further research and development are presented based upon their impact on the N+3 goals and likelihood of being operational by 2035.

  15. Propulsion of small launch vehicles using high power millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, J.; Myrabo, L.

    1994-12-31

    High power microwaves have been proposed for propulsion of vehicles and projectiles in the atmosphere and in space. The requirements in terms of high power microwave technology have not been examined in any detail. The need for improved propulsion technology is clear: chemical rockets orbit only a few percent of the liftoff mass at a cost of about 3,000$/lb. The key advantage of any beamed power approach is in placing the heavy and expensive components on the ground or in space. The authors propose a system with uses a two-stage propulsion method in which the first phase of ascent is based on the ramjet principle, a repetitive Pulsed Detonation Engine which uses a microwave-supported detonation to heat the air fuel. The second phase is a pure rocket. This paper explores this propulsion concept using millimeter waves, the most advantageous part of the spectrum. They find that efficient system concepts can be developed: the vehicle can have payload-to-mass ratios on the order of one and cost per pound to orbit one or two orders of magnitude less that chemical rockets.

  16. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  17. Analyses of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion with seawater for underwater vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. F.; Gilbert, J. B.; Roy, G. D.

    1991-12-01

    In naval applications where the importance of reducing acoustic signature outweighs other considerations, MHD propulsion furnishes the requisite quietness due to its obviation of mechanical moving parts. Attention is presently given to the results of performance calculations for torpedo-sized and submarine-sized vehicles operating 30 m beneath the sea surface. Reasonable submarine velocity can be achieved with a magnetic field of about 5 T.

  18. Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Henderson, Edward M.; Joyner, Claude R., III; Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Advanced Space Transportation Concepts and Propulsion Technologies for a New Delivery Paradigm. It builds on the work of the previous paper "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System". The scope includes both flight and ground system elements, and focuses on their compatibility and capability to achieve a technical solution that is operationally productive and also affordable. A clear and revolutionary approach, including advanced propulsion systems (advanced LOX rich booster engine concept having independent LOX and fuel cooling systems, thrust augmentation with LOX rich boost and fuel rich operation at altitude), improved vehicle concepts (autogeneous pressurization, turbo alternator for electric power during ascent, hot gases to purge system and keep moisture out), and ground delivery systems, was examined. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on space flight system engineering methods, along with operationally efficient propulsion system concepts and technologies. This paper continues the previous work by exploring the propulsion technology aspects in more depth and how they may enable the vehicle designs from the previous paper. Subsequent papers will explore the vehicle design, the ground support system, and the operations aspects of the new delivery paradigm in greater detail.

  19. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies for Advanced Green Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Meyer, Michael L.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the Exploration Vision for returning to the Moon and beyond, NASA and its partners are developing and testing critical cryogenic fluid propellant technologies that will meet the need for high performance propellants on long-term missions. Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of tank thermal and pressure control, fluid acquisition, mass gauging, and fluid transfer. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) Project is performing experimental and analytical evaluation of several areas within Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) to enable NASA's Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the status of the PCAD CFM technology focus areas relative to the anticipated CFM requirements to enable execution of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  20. Advanced Plasma Propulsion for Human Missions to Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Benjamin B.; Pearson, J. Boise

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly identify a promising fusion plasma power source, which when coupled with a promising electric thruster technology would provide for an efficient interplanetary transfer craft suitable to a 4 year round trip mission to the Jovian system. An advanced, nearly radiation free Inertial Electrostatic Confinement scheme for containing fusion plasma was judged as offering potential for delivering the performance and operational benefits needed for such high energy human expedition missions, without requiring heavy superconducting magnets for containment of the fusion plasma. Once the Jovian transfer stage has matched the heliocentric velocity of Jupiter, the energy requirements for excursions to its outer satellites (Callisto, Ganymede and Europa) by smaller excursion craft are not prohibitive. The overall propulsion, power and thruster system is briefly described and a preliminary vehicle mass statement is presented.

  1. Advanced supersonic technology propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szeliga, R.; Allan, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study had the objectives of determining the most promising conventional and variable cycle engine types; the effect of design cruise Mach number (2.2, 2.7 and 3.2) on a commercial supersonic transport; effect of advanced engine technology on the choice of engine cycle; and effect of utilizing hydrogen as the engine fuel. The technology required for the engines was defined, and the levels of development to ensure availability of this technology in advanced aircraft propulsion systems were assessed. No clearcut best conventional or variable cycle engine was identified. The dry bypass turbojet and the duct burning turbofans were initially selected as the best conventional engines, but later results, utilizing augmentation at takeoff, added the mixed-flow augmented turbofan as a promising contender. The modulating air flow, three-rotor variable cycle engine identified the performance features desired from VCE concepts (elimination of inlet drag and reduction in afterbody drag), but was a very heavy and complex engine.

  2. Space Propulsion Technology Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. Focused program elements are: (1) transportation systems, which include earth-to-orbit propulsion, commercial vehicle propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, advanced cryogenic engines, cryogenic fluid systems, nuclear thermal propulsion, and nuclear electric propulsion; (2) space platforms, which include spacecraft on-board propulsion, and station keeping propulsion; and (3) technology flight experiments, which include cryogenic orbital N2 experiment (CONE), SEPS flight experiment, and cryogenic orbital H2 experiment (COHE).

  3. Advancements Toward Oil-Free Rotorcraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and the Army have been working for over a decade to advance the state-of-the-art (SOA) in Oil-Free Turbomachinery with an eye toward reduced emissions and maintenance, and increased performance and efficiency among other benefits. Oil-Free Turbomachinery is enabled by oil-free gas foil bearing technology and relatively new high-temperature tribological coatings. Rotorcraft propulsion is a likely candidate to apply oil-free bearing technology because the engine size class matches current SOA for foil bearings and because foil bearings offer the opportunity for higher speeds and temperatures and lower weight, all critical issues for rotorcraft engines. This paper describes an effort to demonstrate gas foil journal bearing use in the hot section of a full-scale helicopter engine core. A production engine hot-core location is selected as the candidate foil bearing application. Rotordynamic feasibility, bearing sizing, and load capability are assessed. The results of the program will help guide future analysis and design in this area by documenting the steps required and the process utilized for successful application of oil-free technology to a full-scale engine.

  4. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Design with Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey D.; Frederick, Robert A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2005-01-01

    The approach and techniques described herein define an optimization and evaluation approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system. The method uses Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, a propulsion thermo-chemical code, power series regression curves for historical data, and statistical models in order to optimize a vehicle system. The system, including parameters for engine chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, was modeled and optimized to determine the best design for seven separate design weight and cost cases by varying design and technology parameters. Significant model results show that a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Other key findings show the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology factors, and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. Each of the three key propulsion parameters; chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, are optimized in the seven design cases and results are plotted to show impacts to engine mass and overall vehicle mass.

  5. Common Lunar Lander vehicle propulsion system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, C. D.; Riccio, Joseph R.; Moore, Landon

    1993-01-01

    The Common Lunar Lander (CLL) is a concept for a small, unpiloted vehicle which would provide a low-cost capability to land any of a variety of payloads in the 200 kg class at any point on the surface of the moon. Initiated as a precursor mission for the First Lunar Outpost, it also has considerable potential for use by the scientific community at large. A series of studies has been conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center to define initial requirements and to initiate the design process. This paper describes the propulsion subsystem design as it existed at the CLL System Design Review. The propulsion subsystem design is described in detail along with the planned operations concept, including the unique concept of using pulsing of main engines for thrust modulation. Design options and trades considered and the verification process philosophy which was being planned for the program are discussed.

  6. Dynamic interactions between hypersonic vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flandro, G. A.; Roach, R. L.; Buschek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the development of a flexible simulation model for scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems. The primary goal is determination of sensitivity of the thrust vector and other system parameters to angle of attack changes of the vehicle. Such information is crucial in design and analysis of control system performance for hypersonic vehicles. The code is also intended to be a key element in carrying out dynamic interaction studies involving the influence of vehicle vibrations on propulsion system/control system coupling and flight stability. Simple models are employed to represent the various processes comprising the propulsion system. A method of characteristics (MOC) approach is used to solve the forebody and external nozzle flow fields. This results in a very fast computational algorithm capable of carrying out the vast number of simulation computations needed in guidance, stability, and control studies. The three-dimensional fore- and aft body (nozzle) geometry is characterized by the centerline profiles as represented by a series of coordinate points and body cross-section curvature. The engine module geometry is represented by an adjustable vertical grid to accommodate variations of the field parameters throughout the inlet and combustor. The scramjet inlet is modeled as a two-dimensional supersonic flow containing adjustable sidewall wedges and multiple fuel injection struts. The inlet geometry including the sidewall wedge angles, the number of injection struts, their sweepback relative to the vehicle reference line, and strut cross-section are user selectable. Combustion is currently represented by a Rayleigh line calculation including corrections for variable gas properties; improved models are being developed for this important element of the propulsion flow field. The program generates (1) variation of thrust magnitude and direction with angle of attack, (2) pitching moment and line of action of the thrust vector, (3) pressure and temperature

  7. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 3: Summary report - dual mode propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of dual-mode propulsion on cost-effective technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems is considered. Additional objectives were to determine the advantages of the best dual mode concept relative to the LO2/LH2 concept of the basic study. Normal technology requirements applicable to horizontal take-off and landing single-stage-to-orbit systems utilizing dual mode rocket propulsion were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle parametric design analysis for two different operational concepts of a dual mode propulsion system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were compared. The selected propulsion concept was evaluated to confirm the parametric trending/scaling of weights and to optimize the configuration.

  8. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  9. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  10. Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelledes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

  11. Advanced propulsion for LEO-Moon transport. 1: A method for evaluating advanced propulsion performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Martin O.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a study to evaluate the benefits of advanced propulsion technologies for transporting materials between low Earth orbit and the Moon. A relatively conventional reference transportation system, and several other systems, each of which includes one advanced technology component, are compared in terms of how well they perform a chosen mission objective. The evaluation method is based on a pairwise life-cycle cost comparison of each of the advanced systems with the reference system. Somewhat novel and economically important features of the procedure are the inclusion not only of mass payback ratios based on Earth launch costs, but also of repair and capital acquisition costs, and of adjustments in the latter to reflect the technological maturity of the advanced technologies. The required input information is developed by panels of experts. The overall scope and approach of the study are presented in the introduction. The bulk of the paper describes the evaluation method; the reference system and an advanced transportation system, including a spinning tether in an eccentric Earth orbit, are used to illustrate it.

  12. Robust control of hypersonic vehicles considering propulsive and aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschek, Harald; Calise, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of propulsion system variations and elastic fuselage behavior on the flight control system of an airbreathing hypersonic vehicle is investigated. Thrust vector magnitude and direction changes due to angle of attack variations affect the pitching moment. Low structural vibration frequencies may occur close to the rigid body modes influencing the angle of attack and lead to possible cross coupling. These effects are modeled as uncertainties in the context of a robust control study of a hypersonic vehicle model accelerating through Mach 8 using H-infinity and mu synthesis techniques. Various levels of uncertainty are introduced into the system. Both individual and simultaneous appearance of uncertainty are considered. The results indicate that the chosen design technique is suitable for this kind of problem provided that a fairly good knowledge of the effects mentioned above is available. The order of the designed controller is reduced but robust performance is lost which shows the need for fixed order design techniques.

  13. Advanced Compatibility Characterization Of AF-M315E With Spacecraft Propulsion System Materials Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Mark B.; Greene, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    All spacecraft require propulsion systems for thrust and maneuvering. Propulsion systems can be chemical, nuclear, electrical, cold gas or combinations thereof. Chemical propulsion has proven to be the most reliable technology since the deployment of launch vehicles. Performance, storability, and handling are three important aspects of liquid chemical propulsion. Bipropellant systems require a fuel and an oxidizer for propulsion, but monopropellants only require a fuel and a catalyst for propulsion and are therefore simpler and lighter. Hydrazine is the state of the art propellant for monopropellant systems, but has drawbacks because it is highly hazardous to human health, which requires extensive care in handling, complex ground ops due to safety and environmental considerations, and lengthy turnaround times for reusable spacecraft. All users of hydrazine monopropellant must contend with these issues and their associated costs. The development of a new monopropellant, intended to replace hydrazine, has been in progress for years. This project will apply advanced techniques to characterize the engineering properties of materials used in AF-M315E propulsion systems after propellant exposure. AF-M315E monopropellant has been selected HQ's Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) to replace toxic hydrazine for improved performance and reduce safety and health issues that will shorten reusable spacecraft turn-around time. In addition, this project will fundamentally strengthen JSC's core competency to evaluate, use and infuse liquid propellant systems.

  14. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  15. Electric Propulsion Upper-Stage for Launch Vehicle Capability Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, Gregory E.; Dankanich, John W.; Woodcock, Gordon R.; Wingo, Dennis R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Project Office initiated a preliminary study to evaluate the performance benefits of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) upper-stage with existing and near-term small launch vehicles. The analysis included circular and elliptical Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) transfers, and LEO to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO) applications. SEP subsystem options included state-of-the-art and near-term solar arrays and electric thrusters. In-depth evaluations of the Aerojet BPT-4000 Hall thruster and NEXT gridded ion engine were conducted to compare performance, cost and revenue potential. Preliminary results indicate that Hall thruster technology is favored for low-cost, low power SEP stages, while gridded-ion engines are favored for higher power SEP systems unfettered by transfer time constraints. A low-cost point design is presented that details one possible stage configuration and outlines system limitations, in particular fairing volume constraints. The results demonstrate mission enhancements to large and medium class launch vehicles, and mission enabling performance when SEP system upper stages are mounted to low-cost launchers such as the Minotaur and Falcon 1. Study results indicate the potential use of SEP upper stages to double GEO payload mass capability and to possibly enable launch on demand capability for GEO assets. Transition from government to commercial applications, with associated cost/benefit analysis, has also been assessed. The sensitivity of system performance to specific impulse, array power, thruster size, and component costs are also discussed.

  16. Developing Primary Propulsion for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priskos, Alex S.; Williams, Thomas L.; Ezell, Timothy G.; Burt, Rick

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. The first stage of NASA's new Ares I crew launch vehicle (Figure 1), which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into low-Earth orbit early next decade, will consist of a Space Shuttle-derived five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB); a pair of similar RSRBs also will be used on the Ares V cargo launch vehicle's core stage propulsion system. This paper will discuss the basis for choosing this particular propulsion system; describe the activities the Exploration Launch Projects (ELP) Office is engaged in at present to develop the first stage; and offer a preview of future development activities related to the first Ares l integrated test flight, which is planned for 2009.

  17. Evaluation of pulse power devices in electric vehicle propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, A.F. ); Dowgiallo, E.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The application of pulse power devices in electric vehicle propulsion systems to load level the main energy storage battery has been studied. Both high energy density capacitors (ultracapacitors) and high power density, bipolar batteries are considered. Computer simulations of vehicle operation with hybrid (two power source) powertrains indicated the energy storage capacities of the pulse power devices required to load level the main battery are 300 to 500 Wh for the capacitors and 5 to 10 Ah for the bipolar batteries can be reduced from 79 W/kg to about 40 W/kg depending on the vehicle gradeability (speed, percent grade, and length of grade) desired. Evaluation of the status of the technology for the pulse power devices indicated that for both devices, improvements in technology are needed before the devices can be used in EV applications. In the case of the ultracapacitor, the energy density of present devices are 1 to 2 Wh/kg. A minimum energy density of about 5 Wh/kg is needed for electric vehicle applications. Progress in increasing the energy density of ultracapacitors has been rapid in recent years and the prospects for meeting the 5 Wh/kg requirement for EVs appear to be good. For bipolar batteries, a minimum power density of 500 W/kg is needed and the internal resistance must be reduced by about a factor of ten from that found in present designs.

  18. Overview on NASA's Advanced Electric Propulsion Concepts Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced electric propulsion research activities are currently underway that seek to addresses feasibility issues of a wide range of advanced concepts, and may result in the development of technologies that will enable exciting new missions within our solar system and beyond. Each research activity is described in terms of the present focus and potential future applications. Topics include micro-electric thrusters, electrodynamic tethers, high power plasma thrusters and related applications in materials processing, variable specific impulse plasma thrusters, pulsed inductive thrusters, computational techniques for thruster modeling, and advanced electric propulsion missions and systems studies.

  19. Advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.; DeLuca, W.H.; Vissers, D.R. )

    1994-11-01

    The idea of battery-powered vehicles is an old one that took on new importance during the oil crisis of 1973 and after California passed laws requiring vehicles that would produce no emissions (so-called zero-emission vehicles). In this overview of battery technologies, the authors review the major existing or near-term systems as well as advanced systems being developed for electric vehicle (EV) applications. However, this overview does not cover all the advanced batteries being developed currently throughout the world. Comparative characteristics for the following batteries are given: lead-acid; nickel/cadmium; nickel/iron; nickel/metal hydride; zinc/bromine; sodium/sulfur; sodium/nickel chloride; zinc/air; lithium/iron sulfide; and lithium-polymer.

  20. Concept for a shuttle-tended reusable interplanetary transport vehicle using nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, R. Y.; Elliot, J. C.; Spilker, T. R.; Grayson, C. M.

    2003-01-01

    NASA has placed new emphasis on the development of advanced propulsion technologies including Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). This technology would provide multiple benefits including high delta-V capability and high power for long duration spacecraft operations.

  1. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  2. Benefits of Power and Propulsion Technology for a Piloted Electric Vehicle to an Asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Pencil, Eric J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mason, Lee S.; Bury, Kristen M.; Manzella, David H.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Brophy, John P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goal for human spaceflight is to expand permanent human presence beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). NASA is identifying potential missions and technologies needed to achieve this goal. Mission options include crewed destinations to LEO and the International Space Station; high Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit; cis-lunar space, lunar orbit, and the surface of the Moon; near-Earth objects; and the moons of Mars, Mars orbit, and the surface of Mars. NASA generated a series of design reference missions to drive out required functions and capabilities for these destinations, focusing first on a piloted mission to a near-Earth asteroid. One conclusion from this exercise was that a solar electric propulsion stage could reduce mission cost by reducing the required number of heavy lift launches and could increase mission reliability by providing a robust architecture for the long-duration crewed mission. Similarly, solar electric vehicles were identified as critical for missions to Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on its surface, and visiting its moons. This paper describes the parameterized assessment of power and propulsion technologies for a piloted solar electric vehicle to a near-Earth asteroid. The objective of the assessment was to determine technology drivers to advance the state of the art of electric propulsion systems for human exploration. Sensitivity analyses on the performance characteristics of the propulsion and power systems were done to determine potential system-level impacts of improved technology. Starting with a "reasonable vehicle configuration" bounded by an assumed launch date, we introduced technology improvements to determine the system-level benefits (if any) that those technologies might provide. The results of this assessment are discussed and recommendations for future work are described.

  3. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  4. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  5. Advanced small launch vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reins, G. E.; Alvis, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to determine the most economical (lowest cost/launch) approach for the development of an advanced small launch vehicle (ASLV) for use over the next decade. The ASLV design objective was to place a 340 kg (750 lb) payload into a 556 km (300 n.mi.) circular orbit when launched due east from Wallops Island, Virginia. The investigation encompassed improvements to the current Scout launch vehicle; use of existing military and NASA launch vehicle stages; and new, optionally staged vehicles. Staging analyses included use of liquid, solid, and hybrid propellants. Improvements in guidance, controls, interstages, telemetry, and payload shroud were also considered. It was concluded that the most economical approach is to progressively improve the Scout launch vehicle in three phased steps which are discussed.

  6. Halley comet rendezvous with a SEPS vehicle. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the performance of a Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS) vehicle rendezvousing with Halley's comet just prior to its Frebruary 1986 perihelion is described. A calculus of variations mathematical formulation is used to maximize Halley arrival mass while giving effect to the influence of solar array size, launch date, arrival date, and insertion hyperbolic excess velocity. Numerical sensitivity relief, thrust system modeling, trajectory characteristics and ion engine operating conditions are discussed and illustrated. Results indicate a rendezvous is feasible with a minimal advance in solar cell and ion engine technology.

  7. Advanced Ceramics for Use as Fuel Element Materials in Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Allen, Lee R.; Shapiro, Alan P.

    2012-01-01

    With the recent start (October 2011) of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Program, there is renewed interest in developing advanced ceramics for use as fuel element materials in nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) systems. Three classes of fuel element materials are being considered under the NCPS Program: (a) graphite composites - consisting of coated graphite elements containing uranium carbide (or mixed carbide), (b) cermets (ceramic/metallic composites) - consisting of refractory metal elements containing uranium oxide, and (c) advanced carbides consisting of ceramic elements fabricated from uranium carbide and one or more refractory metal carbides [1]. The current development effort aims to advance the technology originally developed and demonstrated under Project Rover (1955-1973) for the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) [2].

  8. Space Experiments to Advance Beamed Energy Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2010-05-01

    High power microwave sources are now available and usable, with modification, or beamed energy propulsion experiments in space. As output windows and vacuum seals are not needed space is a natural environment for high power vacuum tubes. Application to space therefore improves reliability and performance but complicates testing and qualification. Low power communications satellite devices (TWT, etc) have already been through the adapt-to-space design cycle and this history is a useful pathway for high power devices such as gyrotrons. In this paper, space experiments are described for low earth orbit (LEO) and lunar environment. These experiments are precursors to space application for beamed energy propulsion using high power microwaves. Power generation and storage using cryogenic systems are important elements of BEP systems and also have an important role as part of BEP experiments in the space environment.

  9. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  10. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.H.; Yi, A.C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize `waverider` aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight. 5 refs.

  11. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  12. A systematic collaborative process for assessing launch vehicle propulsion technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Pat R.

    1999-01-01

    A systematic, collaborative process for prioritizing candidate investments in space transportation systems technologies has been developed for the NASA Space Transportation Programs Office. The purpose of the process is to provide a repeatable and auditable basis for selecting technology investments to enable achievement of NASA's strategic space transportation objectives. The paper describes the current multilevel process and supporting software tool that has been developed. Technologies are prioritized across system applications to produce integrated portfolios for recommended funding. An example application of the process to the assessment of launch vehicle propulsion technologies is described and illustrated. The methodologies discussed in the paper are expected to help NASA and industry ensure maximum returns from technology investments under constrained budgets.

  13. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1998 Through March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OIT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOX and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulate. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OIT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1,2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  14. The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mitchell, Doyce P.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Clement, Steven; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John; Power, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation NTP system could provide high thrust at a specific impulse (Isp) above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of a first generation NTP in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation systems.

  15. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  16. Advanced propulsion concepts study: Comparative study of solar electric propulsion and laser electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) and laser electric propulsion (LEP) was compared. The LEP system configuration consists of an 80 kW visible laser source on earth, transmitting via an 8 m diameter adaptively controlled phased array through the atmosphere to a 4 m diameter synchronous relay mirror that tracks the LEP spacecraft. The only significant change in the SEP spacecraft for an LEP mission is the replacement of the two 3.7 m by 33.5 m solar cell arrays with a single 8 m diameter laser photovoltaic array. The solar cell array weight is decreased from 320 kg to 120 kg for an increase in payload of 200 kg and a decrease in specific mass of the power system from 20.5 kg/kW to 7.8 kg/kW.

  17. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  18. Power Systems Evaluated for Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2000-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range NASA missions including the robotic exploration of the outer planets in the next decade and the human exploration of Mars within the next 2 decades. SEP enables architectures that are very mass efficient with reasonable power levels (1-MW class) aerobrake and cryogenic upper-stage transportation technologies are utilized. In this architecture, the efficient SEP stage transfers the payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) High Energy Elliptical Parking Orbit (HEEPO) within a period of 6 to 12 months. highthrust, cryogenic upper stage and payload then separate from the SEP vehicle for injection to the planetary target, allowing for fast heliocentric trip times. This mission architecture offers a potential reduction in mass to LEO in comparison to alternative all-chemical nuclear propulsion schemes. Mass reductions may allow launch vehicle downsizing enable missions that would have been grounded because of cost constraints. The preceding figure illustrates a conceptual SEP stage design for a human Mars mission. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed conceptual SEP vehicle, conceived the mission architecture to use this vehicle, and analyzed the vehicle s performance. This SEP stage has a dry mass of 35 metric tons (MT), 40 MT of xenon propellant, and a photovoltaic array that spans 110 m, providing power to a cluster of eight 100-kW Hall thrusters. The stage can transfer an 80-MT payload and upper stage to the desired HEEPO. Preliminary packaging studies show this space-station-class SEP vehicle meets the proposed "Magnum" launch vehicle and volume requirements with considerable margin. An SEP vehicle for outer planetary missions, such as the Europa Mapper Mission, would be dramatically smaller than human Mars mission SEP stage. In this mission architecture, the SEP power system with the payload to provide spacecraft power throughout the mission. Several

  19. Solar Electric Propulsion Technologies Being Designed for Orbit Transfer Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Falck, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in employing Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) for new missions requiring transfer from low Earth orbit to the Earth-Moon Lagrange point, L1. Mission architecture plans place the Gateway Habitat at L1 in the 2011 to 2016 timeframe. The Gateway Habitat is envisioned to be used for Lunar exploration, space telescopes, and planetary mission staging. In these scenarios, an SEP stage, or "tug," is used to transport payloads to L1--such as the habitat module, lunar excursion and return vehicles, and chemical propellant for return crew trips. SEP tugs are attractive because they are able to efficiently transport large (less than 10,000 kg) payloads while minimizing propellant requirements. To meet the needs of these missions, a preliminary conceptual design for a general-purpose SEP tug was developed that incorporates several of the advanced space power and in-space propulsion technologies (such as high-power gridded ion and Hall thrusters, high-performance thin-film photovoltaics, lithium-ion batteries, and advanced high-voltage power processing) being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A spreadsheet-based vehicle system model was developed for component sizing and is currently being used for mission planning. This model incorporates a low-thrust orbit transfer algorithm to make preliminary determinations of transfer times and propellant requirements. Results from this combined tug mass estimation and orbit transfer model will be used in a higher fidelity trajectory model to refine the analysis.

  20. A Survey of Emerging Materials for Revolutionary Aerospace Vehicle Structures and Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Shuart, Mark J.; Gray, Hugh R.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Strategic Plan identifies the long-term goal of providing safe and affordable space access, orbital transfer, and interplanetary transportation capabilities to enable scientific research, human, and robotic exploration, and the commercial development of space. Numerous scientific and engineering breakthroughs will be required to develop the technology required to achieve this goal. Critical technologies include advanced vehicle primary and secondary structure, radiation protection, propulsion and power systems, fuel storage, electronics and devices, sensors and science instruments, and medical diagnostics and treatment. Advanced materials with revolutionary new capabilities are an essential element of each of these technologies. A survey of emerging materials with applications to aerospace vehicle structures and propulsion systems was conducted to assist in long-term Agency mission planning. The comprehensive survey identified materials already under development that could be available in 5 to 10 years and those that are still in the early research phase and may not be available for another 20 to 30 years. The survey includes typical properties, a description of the material and processing methods, the current development status, and the critical issues that must be overcome to achieve commercial viability.

  1. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for April 2000 Through September 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, DR

    2000-12-11

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advantages LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOx and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and

  2. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  3. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  4. Antiproton Trapping for Advanced Space Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1998-01-01

    The Summary of Research parallels the Statement of Work (Appendix I) submitted with the proposal, and funded effective Feb. 1, 1997 for one year. A proposal was submitted to CERN in October, 1996 to carry out an experiment on the synthesis and study of fundamental properties of atomic antihydrogen. Since confined atomic antihydrogen is potentially the most powerful and elegant source of propulsion energy known, its confinement and properties are of great interest to the space propulsion community. Appendix II includes an article published in the technical magazine Compressed Air, June 1997, which describes CERN antiproton facilities, and ATHENA. During the period of this grant, Prof. Michael Holzscheiter served as spokesman for ATHENA and, in collaboration with Prof. Gerald Smith, worked on the development of the antiproton confinement trap, which is an important part of the ATHENA experiment. Appendix III includes a progress report submitted to CERN on March 12, 1997 concerning development of the ATHENA detector. Section 4.1 reviews technical responsibilities within the ATHENA collaboration, including the Antiproton System, headed by Prof. Holzscheiter. The collaboration was advised (see Appendix IV) on June 13, 1997 that the CERN Research Board had approved ATHENA for operation at the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD), presently under construction. First antiproton beams are expected to be delivered to experiments in about one year. Progress toward assembly of the ATHENA detector and initial testing expected in 1999 has been excellent. Appendix V includes a copy of the minutes of the most recently documented collaboration meeting held at CERN of October 24, 1997, which provides more information on development of systems, including the antiproton trapping apparatus. On February 10, 1998 Prof. Smith gave a 3 hour lecture on the Physics of Antimatter, as part of the Physics for the Third Millennium Lecture Series held at MSFC. Included in Appendix VI are notes and

  5. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-01

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies—IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute—RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO2 TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO2 TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  6. An Overview of Brazilian Developments in Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion and Vehicle Performance Control

    SciTech Connect

    Minucci, M. A. S.

    2008-04-28

    Beamed energy propulsion and beamed energy vehicle performance control concepts are equally promising and challenging. In Brazil, the two concepts are being currently investigated at the Prof Henry T Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, of the Institute for Advanced Studies--IEAv, in collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute--RPI, Troy, NY, and the United States Air force Research Laboratory-AFRL. Until recently, only laser energy addition for hypersonic flow control was being investigated at the Laboratory using a 0.3 m nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T2, and two 7 joule CO{sub 2} TEA lasers. Flow visualization, model pressure and heat flux measurements of the laser energy addition perturbed flow around a model were produced as a result of this joint IEAv-RPI investigation. Presently, with the participation of AFRL and the newly commissioned 0.6 m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel, T3, a more ambitious project is underway. Two 400 Joule Lumonics 620 CO{sub 2} TEA lasers will deliver a 20 cm X 25 cm propulsive laser beam to a complete laser propelled air breather/rocket hypersonic engine, located inside T3 test section. Schlieren photographs of the flow inside de engine as well as surface and heat flux measurements will be performed for free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25. The present paper discusses past, present and future Brazilian activities on beamed energy propulsion and related technologies.

  7. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seiel, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report

  8. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling of the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle for AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the lowboom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.

  9. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  10. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  11. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, Donald M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  12. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of figure 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the figure 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  13. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  14. Advanced Space Propulsion System Flowfield Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Sheldon

    1998-01-01

    Solar thermal upper stage propulsion systems currently under development utilize small low chamber pressure/high area ratio nozzles. Consequently, the resulting flow in the nozzle is highly viscous, with the boundary layer flow comprising a significant fraction of the total nozzle flow area. Conventional uncoupled flow methods which treat the nozzle boundary layer and inviscid flowfield separately by combining the two calculations via the influence of the boundary layer displacement thickness on the inviscid flowfield are not accurate enough to adequately treat highly viscous nozzles. Navier Stokes models such as VNAP2 can treat these flowfields but cannot perform a vacuum plume expansion for applications where the exhaust plume produces induced environments on adjacent structures. This study is built upon recently developed artificial intelligence methods and user interface methodologies to couple the VNAP2 model for treating viscous nozzle flowfields with a vacuum plume flowfield model (RAMP2) that is currently a part of the Plume Environment Prediction (PEP) Model. This study integrated the VNAP2 code into the PEP model to produce an accurate, practical and user friendly tool for calculating highly viscous nozzle and exhaust plume flowfields.

  15. Advanced Filter Technology For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillon, Erick

    2015-01-01

    The Scrubber System focuses on using HEPA filters and carbon filtration to purify the exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion engine of its aerosols and radioactive particles; however, new technology may lend itself to alternate filtration options, which may lead to reduction in cost while at the same time have the same filtering, if not greater, filtering capabilities, as its predecessors. Extensive research on various types of filtration methods was conducted with only four showing real promise: ionization, cyclonic separation, classic filtration, and host molecules. With the four methods defined, more research was needed to find the devices suitable for each method. Each filtration option was matched with a device: cyclonic separators for the method of the same name, electrostatic separators for ionization, HEGA filters, and carcerands for the host molecule method. Through many hours of research, the best alternative for aerosol filtration was determined to be the electrostatic precipitator because of its high durability against flow rate and its ability to cleanse up to 99.99% of contaminants as small as 0.001 micron. Carcerands, which are the only alternative to filtering radioactive particles, were found to be non-existent commercially because of their status as a "work in progress" at research institutions. Nevertheless, the conclusions after the research were that HEPA filters is recommended as the best option for filtering aerosols and carbon filtration is best for filtering radioactive particles.

  16. Propulsion technology needs for advanced space transportation systems. [orbit maneuvering engine (space shuttle), space shuttle boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Plans are formulated for chemical propulsion technology programs to meet the needs of advanced space transportation systems from 1980 to the year 2000. The many possible vehicle applications are reviewed and cataloged to isolate the common threads of primary propulsion technology that satisfies near term requirements in the first decade and at the same time establish the technology groundwork for various potential far term applications in the second decade. Thrust classes of primary propulsion engines that are apparent include: (1) 5,000 to 30,000 pounds thrust for upper stages and space maneuvering; and (2) large booster engines of over 250,000 pounds thrust. Major classes of propulsion systems and the important subdivisions of each class are identified. The relative importance of each class is discussed in terms of the number of potential applications, the likelihood of that application materializing, and the criticality of the technology needed. Specific technology programs are described and scheduled to fulfill the anticipated primary propulsion technology requirements.

  17. The Economics of Advanced In-Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangalore, Manju; Dankanich, John

    2016-01-01

    The cost of access to space is the single biggest driver is commercial space sector. NASA continues to invest in both launch technology and in-space propulsion. Low-cost launch systems combined with advanced in-space propulsion offer the greatest potential market capture. Launch market capture is critical to national security and has a significant impact on domestic space sector revenue. NASA typically focuses on pushing the limits on performance. However, the commercial market is driven by maximum net revenue (profits). In order to maximum the infusion of NASA investments, the impact on net revenue must be known. As demonstrated by Boeing's dual launch, the Falcon 9 combined with all Electric Propulsion (EP) can dramatically shift the launch market from foreign to domestic providers.

  18. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  19. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J. D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M. K.; Whisler, D. J.

    1980-02-01

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The engine and fuel systems of a representative five passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were (1) an Al-air battery only electric vehicle; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  20. Advanced hybrid nuclear propulsion Mars mission performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Noffsinger, K.E.; Segna, D.R.

    1992-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), compared with chemical and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), can effectively deliver the same mass to Mars using much less propellant, consequently requiring less mass delivered to Earth orbit. The lower thrust of NEP requires a spiral trajectory near planetary bodies, which significantly increases the travel time. Although the total travel time is long, the portion of the flight time spent during interplanetary transfer is shorter, because the vehicle is thrusting for much longer periods of time. This has led to the supposition that NEP, although very attractive for cargo missions, is not suitable for piloted missions to Mars. However, with the application of a hybrid approach to propulsion, the benefits of NEP can be utilized while drastically reducing the overall travel time required. Development of a dual-mode system, which utilizes high-thrust NTP to propel the spacecraft from the planetary gravitational influence and low-thrust NEP to accelerate in interplanetary space, eliminates the spiral trajectory and results in a much faster transit time than could be obtained by either NEP or NTP alone. This results in a mission profile with a lower initial mass in low Earth orbit. In addition, the propulsion system would have the capability to provide electrical power for mission applications.

  1. Hybrid propulsion for launch vehicle boosters: A program status update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. L.; Boardman, T. A.; Claflin, S. E.; Harwell, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Results obtained in studying the origin and suppression of large-amplitude pressure oscillations in a 24 in. diameter hybrid motor using a liquid oxygen/hydroxylterminated polybutadiene/polycyclopentadiene propellant system are discussed. Tests conducted with liquid oxygen flow rates varying from 10 to 40 lbm/sec were designed to gauge the effectiveness of various vaporization chamber flow fields, injector designs, and levels of heat addition in suppressing high-frequency longitudinal mode oscillations. Longitudinal acoustic modes did not arise in any tests. However, initial testing revealed the presence of high-amplitude, sinusoidal, nonacoustic oscillations persisting throughout the burn durations. Analysis showed this to be analogous to chug mode instability in liquid rocket engines brought about by a coupling of motor combustion processes and the liquid oxygen feed system. Analytical models were developed and verified by test data to predict the amplitude and frequency of feed-system-coupled combustion pressure oscillations. Subsequent testing showed that increasing the feed system impedance eliminated the bulk mode instability. This paper documents the work completed to date in performance of the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters Program (NAS8-39942) sponsored by NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

  2. Mission and space vehicle sizing data for a chemical propulsion/aerobraking option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, John; Brothers, Bobby

    1986-01-01

    Sizing data is presented for various combinations of Mars missions and chemical-propulsion/aerobraking vehicles. Data is compared for vehicles utilizing opposition (2-year mission) and conjunction (3-year mission) trajectories for 1999 and 2001 opportunities, for various sizes of vehicles. Payload capabilities for manned and unmanned missions vehicles and for propulsive-braking and aerobraking cases are shown. The effect of scaling up a reference vehicle is compared to the case of utilizing two identical vehicles, for growth in payload capability. The rate of cumulative build up of weight on the surface of Mars is examined for various mission/vehicle combinations, and is compared to the landed-weight requirements for sortie missions, moving-base missions, and fixed-base missions. Also, the required buildup of weight in low Earth orbit (LEO) for various mission/vehicle combinations is presented and discussed.

  3. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Parameter Design Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    2004-01-01

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for

  4. Launch vehicle propulsion parameter design multiple selection criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for

  5. Thirteenth Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. W. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    This conference publication includes various abstracts and presentations given at the 13th Workshop for Computational Fluid Dynamic Applications in Rocket Propulsion and Launch Vehicle Technology held at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center April 25-27 1995. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss experimental and computational fluid dynamic activities in rocket propulsion and launch vehicles. The workshop was an open meeting for government, industry, and academia. A broad number of topics were discussed including computational fluid dynamic methodology, liquid and solid rocket propulsion, turbomachinery, combustion, heat transfer, and grid generation.

  6. Small Low Mass Advanced PBR's for Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. R.; Todosow, M.; Ludewig, H.

    1994-07-01

    The advanced Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) to be described in this paper is characterized by relatively low power, and low cost, while still maintaining competition values for thrust/weight, specific impulse and operating times. The mission parameter which this reactor attempts to satisfy are: Thrust (N) = 6.8 (4); Specific Impulse (S) = 875; Total Full Thrust Time (S) = 1500; Thrust/Weight (unshielded) = 20 These requirements imply the following reactor design goals: Power (MW) = 400; Mixed Mean Outlet Temperature (K) = 3000; Chamber Pressure (Mpa) = 7 The following discussion will cover concept feasibility analyses, mass estimates, and a conclusion.

  7. Development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, William H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'Development of Sensors for Ceramics Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems' program was divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objectives of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. A summary report of the Phase 2 effort, together with conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated, has been submitted to NASA. Emittance tests were performed on six materials furnished by NASA Lewis Research Center. Measurements were made of various surfaces at high temperature using a Thermogage emissometer. This report describes the emittance test program and presents a summary of the results.

  8. Progress on advanced dc and ac induction drives for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of complete electric vehicle propulsion systems, and the results of tests on the Road Load Simulator of two such systems representative of advanced dc and ac drive technology are presented. One is the system used in the DOE's ETV-1 integrated test vehicle which consists of a shunt wound dc traction motor under microprocessor control using a transistorized controller. The motor drives the vehicle through a fixed ratio transmission. The second system uses an ac induction motor controlled by transistorized pulse width modulated inverter which drives through a two speed automatically shifted transmission. The inverter and transmission both operate under the control of a microprocessor. The characteristics of these systems are also compared with the propulsion system technology available in vehicles being manufactured at the inception of the DOE program and with an advanced, highly integrated propulsion system upon which technology development was recently initiated.

  9. Advanced ignition and propulsion technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenborg, R.; Early, J.; Lester, C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Reliable engine re-ignition plays a crucial role in enabling commercial and military aircraft to fly safely at high altitudes. This project addressed research elements critical to the optimization of laser-based igniter. The effort initially involved a collaborative research and development agreement with B.F. Goodrich Aerospace and Laser Fare, Inc. The work involved integrated experiments with theoretical modeling to provide a basic understanding of the chemistry and physics controlling the laser-induced ignition of fuel aerosols produced by turbojet engine injectors. In addition, the authors defined advanced laser igniter configurations that minimize laser packaging size, weight, complexity and power consumption. These innovative ignition concepts were shown to reliably ignite jet fuel aerosols over a broad range of fuel/air mixture and a t fuel temperatures as low as -40 deg F. The demonstrated fuel ignition performance was highly superior to that obtained by the state-of-the-art, laser-spark ignition method utilizing comparable laser energy. The authors also developed a laser-based method that effectively removes optically opaque deposits of fuel hydrocarbon combustion residues from laser window surfaces. Seven patents have been either issued or are pending that resulted from the technology developments within this project.

  10. Towards Run-time Assurance of Advanced Propulsion Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Schierman, John D.; Schlapkohl, Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This paper covers the motivation and rationale for investigating the application of run-time assurance methods as a potential means of providing safety assurance for advanced propulsion control systems. Certification is becoming increasingly infeasible for such systems using current verification practices. Run-time assurance systems hold the promise of certifying these advanced systems by continuously monitoring the state of the feedback system during operation and reverting to a simpler, certified system if anomalous behavior is detected. The discussion will also cover initial efforts underway to apply a run-time assurance framework to NASA's model-based engine control approach. Preliminary experimental results are presented and discussed.

  11. Research needed for more compact intermittent combustion propulsion systems for army combat vehicles. Volume 1. Executive summary and main body. Interim report, February 1993-November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Because of the unique performance requirements of combat vehicles, it is not possible to achieve the required propulsion system power density by adaptation of commercial engines; the Army must ensure that the research and development required to achieve the needed propulsion system power density is accomplished. To assist TACOM in identifying the research and development needed in the next decade for intermittent combustion combat engines, a BRC was established. Assuming the BRC recommended research is successfully accomplished, propulsion system volume could be reduced for the same power output, or for the same system volume, vehicle power could be markedly increased. The BRC identified hp/ton as a significant vehicle performance factor. By inserting advanced propulsion systems AIPS, or BRC, in the existing system volume of five different vehicles, the BRC study shows that hp/ton increases are dramatic. For example, if development of the AIPS were completed, hp/ton for the AGT15OO hp M1 would increase from 22.2 hp/ton to 35 hp/ton using AIPS technology; use of BRC technology would result in 43.3 hp/ton. For new vehicles, again assuming completion of AIPS development, a weight decrease of 7 tons from a nominal 60-ton AGT15OO vehicle could be achieved; an additional 3 tons could be achieved using BRC technology. Combustion, Vehicle performance, Combat vehicle - survivability, Propulsion systems, Specific power, Mobility systems, Intermittent combustion engines, Fuels and lubricants, Electric drive, Engine subsystems, Combat vehicle - performance, Mechanical transmissions, Propulsion system power density.

  12. Propulsion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air and Space, 1978

    1978-01-01

    An introductory discussion of aircraft propulsion is included along with diagrams and pictures of piston, turbojet, turboprop, turbofan, and jet engines. Also, a table on chemical propulsion is included. (MDR)

  13. Advanced Hall Electric Propulsion for Future In-space Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Sankovic, John M.

    2001-01-01

    The Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device used for multiple in-space applications including orbit raising, on-orbit maneuvers, and de-orbit functions. These in-space propulsion functions are currently performed by toxic hydrazine monopropellant or hydrazine derivative/nitrogen tetroxide bi-propellant thrusters. The Hall thruster operates nominally in the 1500 sec specific impulse regime. It provides greater thrust to power than conventional gridded ion engines, thus reducing trip times and operational life when compared to that technology in Earth orbit applications. The technology in the far term, by adding a second acceleration stage, has shown promise of providing over 4000s Isp, the regime of the gridded ion engine and necessary for deep space applications. The Hall thruster system consists of three parts, the thruster, the power processor, and the propellant system. The technology is operational and commercially available at the 1.5 kW power level and 5 kW application is underway. NASA is looking toward 10 kW and eventually 50 kW-class engines for ambitious space transportation applications. The former allows launch vehicle step-down for GEO missions and demanding planetary missions such as Europa Lander, while the latter allows quick all-electric propulsion LEO to GEO transfers and non-nuclear transportation human Mars missions.

  14. Advanced ac powertrain for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Slicker, J.M.; Kalns, L.

    1985-01-01

    The design of an ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle includes a three-phase induction motor, transistorized PWM inverter/battery charger, microprocessor-based controller, and two-speed automatic transaxle. This system was built and installed in a Mercury Lynx test bed vehicle as part of a Department of Energy propulsion system development program. An integral part of the inverter is a 4-kw battery charger which utilizes one of the bridge transistors. The overall inverter strategy for this configuration is discussed. The function of the microprocessor-based controller is described. Typical test results of the total vehicle and each of its major components are given, including system efficiencies and test track performance results.

  15. An advanced optical system for laser ablation propulsion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstue, Grant; Fork, Richard; Reardon, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel space-based ablation driven propulsion engine concept utilizing transmitted energy in the form of a series of ultra-short optical pulses. Key differences are generating the pulses at the transmitting spacecraft and the safe delivery of that energy to the receiving spacecraft for propulsion. By expanding the beam diameter during transmission in space, the energy can propagate at relatively low intensity and then be refocused and redistributed to create an array of ablation sites at the receiver. The ablation array strategy allows greater control over flight dynamics and eases thermal management. Research efforts for this transmission and reception of ultra-short optical pulses include: (1) optical system design; (2) electrical system requirements; (3) thermal management; (4) structured energy transmission safety. Research has also been focused on developing an optical switch concept for the multiplexing of the ultra-short pulses. This optical switch strategy implements multiple reflectors polished into a rotating momentum wheel device to combine the pulses from different laser sources. The optical system design must minimize the thermal load on any one optical element. Initial specifications and modeling for the optical system are being produced using geometrical ray-tracing software to give a better understanding of the optical requirements. In regards to safety, we have advanced the retro-reflective beam locking strategy to include look-ahead capabilities for long propagation distances. Additional applications and missions utilizing multiplexed pulse transmission are also presented. Because the research is in early development, it provides an opportunity for new and valuable advances in the area of transmitted energy for propulsion as well as encourages joint international efforts. Researchers from different countries can cooperate in order to find constructive and safe uses of ordered pulse transmission for propulsion in future space

  16. High Temperature Propulsion System Structural Seals for Future Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; DeMange, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    High temperature, dynamic structural seals are required in advanced hypersonic engines to seal the perimeters of movable engine ramps for efficient, safe operation in high heat flux environments at temperatures from 2000 to 2500 F. NASA GRC became involved in the development of high temperature structural seals in the late 1980 s and early 1990 s during the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) program. Researchers at GRC carried out an in-house program to develop seals for the NASP hypersonic engine and oversaw industry efforts for airframe and propulsion system seal development for this vehicle. The figure shows one of the seal locations in the NASP engine. Seals were needed along the edges of movable panels in the engine to seal gaps between the panels and adjacent engine sidewalls. Seals developed during the NASP program met many requirements but fell short of leakage, durability, and resiliency goals. Due to program termination the seals could not be adequately matured. To overcome these shortfalls, GRC is currently developing advanced seals and seal preloading devices for the hypersonic engines of future space vehicles as part of NASA s Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program.

  17. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  18. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-Electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  19. A study of the compatibility of science instruments with the solar electric propulsion space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. H.; Ajello, J. M.; Bratenahl, A.; Clay, D. R.; Tsurutani, B.

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference and field-of-view constraints are identified as the areas of most concern to science on solar electric propulsion space vehicles. Several areas are indicated which more detailed data on the space vehicle environment are needed. In addition, possible means to attain or demonstrate science/space vehicle compatibility are recommended for further iteration between space vehicle design and science payload considerations. The space vehicle design developed by the solar electric propulsion system integration technology effort is used. Two payload sets for comet Encke missions (a slow flyby and a rendezvous), as well as several instruments which are not included in the two payload sets, are analyzed to determine requirements on the space vehicle imposed by the instruments in order to meet their objectives. Environmental requirements for the sets of instruments are developed and compared to both the SEPSIT design criteria and the environment as it is presently understood.

  20. Efficiency and Loss Models for Key Electronic Components of Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles' Electrical Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, J.; Bharathan, D.; Emadi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are widely used in power electronic applications including electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs). The trend towards more electric vehicles (MEVs) has demanded the need for power electronic devices capable of handling power in the range of 10-100 kW. However, the converter losses in this power range are of critical importance. Therefore, thermal management of the power electronic devices/converters is crucial for the reliability and longevity of the advanced vehicles. To aid the design of heat exchangers for the IGBT modules used in propulsion motor drives, a loss model for the IGBTs is necessary. The loss model of the IGBTs will help in the process of developing new heat exchangers and advanced thermal interface materials by reducing cost and time. This paper deals with the detailed loss modeling of IGBTs for advanced electrical propulsion systems. An experimental based loss model is proposed. The proposed loss calculation method utilizes the experimental data to reconstruct the loss surface of the power electronic devices by means of curve fitting and linear extrapolating. This enables the calculation of thermal losses in different voltage, current, and temperature conditions of operation. To verify the calculation method, an experimental test set-up was designed and built. The experimental set-up is an IGBT based bi-directional DC/DC converter. In addition, simulation results are presented to verify the proposed calculation method.

  1. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret G.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  2. A Combined Solar Electric and Storable Chemical Propulsion Vehicle for Piloted Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Oleson, Steven R.; Drake, Bret

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 explored a piloted Mars mission in the 2030 timeframe, focusing on architecture and technology choices. The DRA 5.0 focused on nuclear thermal and cryogenic chemical propulsion system options for the mission. Follow-on work explored both nuclear and solar electric options. One enticing option that was found in a NASA Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design study used a combination of a 1-MW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) system combined with storable chemical systems derived from the planned Orion crew vehicle. It was found that by using each propulsion system at the appropriate phase of the mission, the entire SEP stage and habitat could be placed into orbit with just two planned Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift launch vehicles assuming the crew would meet up at the Earth-Moon (E-M) L2 point on a separate heavy-lift launch. These appropriate phases use high-thrust chemical propulsion only in gravity wells when the vehicle is piloted and solar electric propulsion for every other phase. Thus the SEP system performs the spiral of the unmanned vehicle from low Earth orbit (LEO) to E-M L2 where the vehicle meets up with the multi-purpose crew vehicle. From here SEP is used to place the vehicle on a trajectory to Mars. With SEP providing a large portion of the required capture and departure changes in velocity (delta V) at Mars, the delta V provided by the chemical propulsion is reduced by a factor of five from what would be needed with chemical propulsion alone at Mars. This trajectory also allows the SEP and habitat vehicle to arrive in the highly elliptic 1-sol parking orbit compatible with envisioned Mars landing concepts. This paper explores mission options using between SEP and chemical propulsion, the design of the SEP system including the solar array and electric propulsion systems, and packaging in the SLS shroud. Design trades of stay time, power level

  3. Recent Advances in Solar Sail Propulsion at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy M.; Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing solar sail propulsion for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Solar sail propulsion will provide longer on-station operation, increased scientific payload mass fraction, and access to previously inaccessible orbits for multiple potential science missions. Two different 20-meter solar sail systems were produced and successfully completed functional vacuum testing last year in NASA Glenn's Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. These sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. This sail designs are robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment, and are scalable to much larger solar sails-perhaps as much as 150 meters on a side. In addition, computation modeling and analytical simulations have been performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes (>150 meters) required for first generation solar sails missions. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials are also nearly complete. This paper will summarize recent technology advancements in solar sails and their successful ambient and vacuum testing.

  4. Recent Advances in Solar Sail Propulsion Systems at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les

    2006-01-01

    Supporting NASA's Science Mission Directorate, the In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing solar sail propulsion for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Solar sail propulsion has the potential to provide longer on-station operation, increased scientific payload mass fraction, and access to previously inaccessible orbits for multiple potential science missions. Two different 20-meter solar sail systems were produced and successfully completed functional vacuum testing last year in NASA Glenn s Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L'Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. The sail designs are robust enough for deployments in a one atmosphere, one gravity environment and are scalable to much larger solar sails - perhaps as large as 150 meters on a side. In addition, computational modeling and analytical simulations have been performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes (150 meters) required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials are also nearly complete. This paper will summarize recent technology advancements in solar sails and their successful ambient and vacuum environment testing.

  5. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); German, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This final report addresses the following topics: Market Impact Analysis (1) assessment of general aviation, including commuter/regional, aircraft market impact due to incorporation of advanced technology propulsion system on acquisition and operating costs, job creation and/or manpower demand, and future fleet size; (2) selecting an aircraft and engine for the study by focusing on the next generation 19-passenger commuter and the Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine growth. Propulsion System Analysis Conducted mission analysis studies and engine cycle analysis to define a new commuter mission and required engine performance, define acquisition and operating costs and, select engine configuration and initiated preliminary design for hardware modifications required. Propulsion System Benefits (1) assessed and defined engine emissions improvements, (2) assessed and defined noise reduction potential and, (3) conducted a cost analysis impact study. Review of Relevant NASA Programs Conducted literature searches using NERAC and NASA RECON services for related technology in the emissions and acoustics area. Preliminary Technology Development Plans Defined plan to incorporate technology improvements for an FJ44-2 growth engine in performance, emissions, and noise suppression.

  6. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  7. Advanced instrumentation for next-generation aerospace propulsion control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhoudarian, S.; Cross, G. S.; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-06-01

    New control concepts for the next generation of advanced air-breathing and rocket engines and hypersonic combined-cycle propulsion systems are analyzed. The analysis provides a database on the instrumentation technologies for advanced control systems and cross matches the available technologies for each type of engine to the control needs and applications of the other two types of engines. Measurement technologies that are considered to be ready for implementation include optical surface temperature sensors, an isotope wear detector, a brushless torquemeter, a fiberoptic deflectometer, an optical absorption leak detector, the nonintrusive speed sensor, and an ultrasonic triducer. It is concluded that all 30 advanced instrumentation technologies considered can be recommended for further development to meet need of the next generation of jet-, rocket-, and hypersonic-engine control systems.

  8. Factors Influencing Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Payload Delivery for Outer Planet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael; Green, Shaun; Coverstone, Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Systems analyses were performed for missions utilizing solar electric propulsion systems to deliver payloads to outer-planet destinations. A range of mission and systems factors and their affect on the delivery capability of the solar electric propulsion system was examined. The effect of varying the destination, the trip time, the launch vehicle, and gravity-assist boundary conditions was investigated. In addition, the affects of selecting propulsion system and power systems characteristics (including primary array power variation, number of thrusters, thruster throttling mode, and thruster Isp) on delivered payload was examined.

  9. Propulsion System Dynamic Modeling for the NASA Supersonic Concept Vehicle: AeroPropulsoServoElasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph; Seidel, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A summary of the propulsion system modeling under NASA's High Speed Project (HSP) AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) task is provided with a focus on the propulsion system for the low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. This summary includes details on the effort to date to develop computational models for the various propulsion system components. The objective of this paper is to summarize the model development effort in this task, while providing more detail in the modeling areas that have not been previously published. The purpose of the propulsion system modeling and the overall APSE effort is to develop an integrated dynamic vehicle model to conduct appropriate unsteady analysis of supersonic vehicle performance. This integrated APSE system model concept includes the propulsion system model, and the vehicle structural-aerodynamics model. The development to date of such a preliminary integrated model will also be summarized in this report.propulsion system dynamics, the structural dynamics, and aerodynamics.

  10. Perspective of Launch Vehicle Size and Weight Based on Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of the propulsion system concept, and its intrinsic oxidizer to fuel ratio, with the geometric concept of the flight vehicle are such that their final configurations are interdependent. From an all rocket, to a PDE to a combined cycle propulsion system the there is a family of propulsion system/vehicle geometry that yield the smallest lightest system. The interactions define a valid design space for each propulsion system/vehicle concepts that clearly points the parameter value for minimum size and weight. The process also identifies a development path that builds on the previous propulsion system hardware developments so that the next, new system utilizes the previous propulsion system in its entirety. This greatly reduces development risk and cost as the degraded performance system is the previously proven system. Using historical aircraft maintenance analyses, it can be shown that systems designed to operate as maintained systems, not reusable disposable systems, the operating costs can be reduced and the flight frequency increased. The analysis systematically and incrementally spans all rockets to airbreathing combined cycle systems that achieve Mach 18.

  11. Advanced Models for Aeroelastic Analysis of Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mahajan, Aparajit

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an integrated, multidisciplinary simulation capability for aeroelastic analysis and optimization of advanced propulsion systems. This research is intended to improve engine development, acquisition, and maintenance costs. One of the proposed simulations is aeroelasticity of blades, cowls, and struts in an ultra-high bypass fan. These ducted fans are expected to have significant performance, fuel, and noise improvements over existing engines. An interface program was written to use modal information from COBSTAN and NASTRAN blade models in aeroelastic analysis with a single rotation ducted fan aerodynamic code.

  12. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  13. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  14. Hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (heavy) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program to simulate hybrid and electric advanced vehicle systems (HEAVY) is described. It is intended for use early in the design process: concept evaluation, alternative comparison, preliminary design, control and management strategy development, component sizing, and sensitivity studies. It allows the designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict the performance of a proposed drive train. The user defines the system to be simulated using a library of predefined component models that may be connected to represent a wide variety of propulsion systems. The development of three models are discussed as examples.

  15. Overview of European and other non-US/USSR/Japan launch vehicle and propulsion technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Eric E.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: majority of propulsion technology development work is directly related to the ESA's Ariane 5 program and heavily involves SEP (Societe Europeenne de Propulsion) in all areas; Hermes; advanced work on magnetic bearings for turbomachinery; electric propulsion using Cs and Xe propellants done by SEP in France, MBB ERNO in West Germany, and by Culham Lab in UK; successfully tested fired H/O composite nozzle exit cone on 3rd stage of Ariane; turbine blades made of composites to allow increase in gas temperature and improvement in efficiency; combined cycle (turboramjet-rocket) engine analysis work done by Hyperspace; and ESA advanced program studies.

  16. Development of actively cooled panels for advanced propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, Brett K.

    1998-01-01

    Development of actively cooled flowpath panels for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) propulsion system was a critical task in the development plan of the air vehicle system. This task encompassed development of design requirements and loads, and component design and testing. In the early 90's the effort focused on six cooled panel designs based in five different materials (NARloy-Z, Haynes 188, MoRe, IN909, C/C and C/SiC), each satisfying requirements in a different area of the propulsion flowpath. Eventually, three of these designs were fabricated and tested. For these tests, two primary facilities were used. The first was a radiant heating facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), and the second, a vitiated air heater at General Applied Science Laboratories (GASL) Inc. In these facilities, tests were run to validate thermal and mechanical models and to demonstrate coating durability and effectiveness. Additional tests to assess the damage tolerance of these designs were planned but never run. These tests ultimately exposed strengths and weaknesses in the designs and the analysis methods.

  17. Space vehicle design and operation for efficient use of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, Mike L.; Hodge, John R.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a high-leverage, and possibly enabling, propulsion choice for sending humans to Mars. Important performance gains are expected for NTP Mars transfer vehicle over their counterparts, the conventional chemical systems. These gains come in spite of vehicle unique requirements for NTP engine development and operations: expected higher development costs, prelaunch and in-space handing safeguards, extra propellant for reactor cool-down after engine burns, and safe, managed disposal of spent NTP engines. Prior studies have also shown that these NTP engines and stages, sized for Mars missions, could increase delivered payloads for some piloted lunar mission as well.

  18. An advanced arrangement of the combined propulsion, levitation and guidance system of superconducting Maglev

    SciTech Connect

    Fujie, Junji

    1999-09-01

    The PLG (combined Propulsion, Levitation and Guidance) method was proposed for a more favorable Maglev ground coil system, combining the functions of propulsion, levitation, and guidance of the vehicle into one coil. Research and development is currently being conducted on this method. In this paper, the characteristics of a newly-structured system for the PLG method is examined. The discussed characteristics include propulsion, levitation-guidance, vehicle dynamics in the cases of problems with the superconducting magnets, and the magnetic field on board the vehicle.

  19. Effect of aeroelastic-propulsive interactions on flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    The desire to achieve orbit-on-demand access to space with rapid turn-around capability and aircraft-like processing operations has given rise to numerous hypersonic aerospace plane design concepts which would take off horizontally from a conventional runway and employ air-breathing scramjet propulsion systems for acceleration to orbital speeds. Most of these air-breathing hypersonic vehicle concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody to act as the aerodynamic compression surface for a scramjet combustor module. This type of airframe-integrated scramjet propulsion system tends to be highly sensitive to inlet conditions and angle-of-attack perturbations. Furthermore, the basic configuration of the fuselage, with its elongated and tapered forebody, produces relatively low frequency elastic modes which will cause perturbations in the combustor inlet conditions due to the oscillation of the forebody compression surface. The flexibility of the forebody compression surface, together with sensitivity of scramjet propulsion systems to inlet conditions, creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aeroelastic-propulsive interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the longitudinal flight dynamics and/or excite the elastic modes. These propulsive force and moment variations may have an appreciable impact on the performance, guidance, and control of a hypersonic aerospace plane. The objectives of this research are to quantify the magnitudes of propulsive force and moment perturbations resulting from elastic deformation of a representative hypersonic vehicle, and to assess the potential impact of these perturbations on the vehicle's longitudinal flight dynamics.

  20. Intersociety Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference and Exhibit, Arlington, VA, June 5-7, 1989, Technical Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on advanced marine vehicles discusses advancements in surface-effect ship (SES) technologies, small waterplane-area twin-hull (SWATH) ship operations, advanced marine vehicle concepts, ocean systems and subsurface vehicles, air-cushion vehicle (ACV) concepts, seaplane technologies, advanced hull hydrodynamics, wing-in-ground effect (WIGE) aircraft, competition-craft aerodynamics, and marine propulsion. Attention is given to military applications of the 'NES 200' SES platform, experiences over 16 years of SWATH ship operations, hydrofoil catamarans for military and civilian applications, SES passenger ferries for the N.Y.C. metropolitan area, advanced submarine concepts, parametric studies in SWATH ship design, ACV experience in Antarctica, the CL-215 seaplane, large-scale WIGE vehicles, an ocean spacecraft-launch facility, an ACV Arctic icebreaker, and 'marinizing' methods for gas turbine engines.

  1. A beam-powered electric orbital transfer vehicle: The advantages of nuclear electric propulsion without the concerns of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Coomes, E.P.; Dagle, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The advantages of using electric propulsion systems are well-known in the aerospace community with the most common being its high specific impulse, lower propellant requirements, and lower system mass when compared to conventional chemical propulsion systems. But these advantages may not be enough to overcome the disadvantage of the added mass of the nuclear electric power source. In the past, the lack of suitable electric power systems has been a major drawback to electric propulsion. Current programs will have nuclear electric power systems available by the turn of the century. Coupling this with the resurgence of interest in free space electromagnetic transmission of energy (power beaming) and the advances in energy beam technology, a whole new approach to the use of electric propulsion for an orbital transport vehicle (OTV) is possible. Power beaming allows the on-board nuclear electric power source, the most massive component of the OTV, to be removed from the spacecraft and replaced with a lightweight energy receptor. An OTV based on power beaming could have a pay load fraction in excess of 80% and provide delivery times to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) as low as 120 days and require only 200 kWe. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Comparison of road load simulator test results with track tests on electric vehicle propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    A special-purpose dynamometer, the road load simulator (RLS), is being used at NASA's Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the RLS and track tests, similar tests were conducted on the same propulsion system on the RLS and on a test track. These tests are compared in this report. Battery current to maintain a constant vehicle speed with a fixed throttle was used for the comparison. Scatter in the data was greater in the track test results. This is attributable to variations in tire rolling resistance and wind effects in the track data. It also appeared that the RLS road load, determined by coastdown tests on the track, was lower than that of the vehicle on the track. These differences may be due to differences in tire temperature.

  3. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Posture Stability of Laser Propulsion Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-11-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamics code coupling equation of motion of a rigid body for analyzing posture stability of laser propulsion vehicle through numerical simulations of flowfield interacting with unsteady motion of the vehicle. Asymmetric energy distribution is initially added around the focal spot (ring) in order to examine posture stability against an asymmetric blast wave resulting from a laser offset for a lightcraft-type vehicle. The vehicle moves to cancel out the offset from initial offset. However, the Euler angle grows and never returns to zero in a time scale of laser pulse. Also, we found that the vehicle moves to cancel tipping angle when the laser is irradiated to the vehicle with initial tipping angle over the wide angle range, through the vehicle cannot get sufficient restoring force in particular angle, and the tipping angle does not decrease from the initial value for that case.

  4. A propulsion system for the Mars rover vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The vehicle control electronics for the Mars rover vehicle is described. A functional description of the electronics and its place in the entire system is given. The hardware involved is described from a user's point of view. Changes and additions to the software are included.

  5. Comparative analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.; Kong, M.K.; Whisler, D.J.

    1980-02-29

    Three electric propulsion systems using an aluminum-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal-combustion-engine (ICE) vehicle. The analysis used projected battery characteristics extrapolated from laboratory measurements which were obtained in late 1979 and early 1980. In the analysis, the engine and fuel systems of a representative five-passenger highway vehicle were replaced conceptually by each of the three electric propulsion systems. The electrical vehicles were constrained by the computer simulation to be equivalent to the ICE vehicle in range and acceleration performance. The vehicle masses and aluminum consumption rates were then calculated for the electric vehicles and these data were used as figures of merit. The Al-air vehicles analyzed were: (1) an Al-air battery-only electric vehicle, (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling and regenerative braking, and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel for power leveling and regenerative braking. Projected Al-air battery power density, energy density, mass, and volume characteristics were based on recent experimental results of the Al-air battery development program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. All three electric systems compared favorably with the ICE vehicle.

  6. Analysis of aluminum-air battery propulsion systems for passenger vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, J.D.; Behrin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The performance characteristics of three electric-propulsion systems based on the Al-air battery were analyzed and compared to the internal combustion engine (ICE). Battery characteristics projected from late 1979 and early 1980 experimental results were used in the analysis. In this comparison, the engine and fuel systems of a current five-passenger vehicle were conceptually replaced by three Al-air systems: (1) an Al-air battery-only system; (2) an Al-air battery combined with a nickel-zinc secondary battery for power leveling; and (3) an Al-air battery combined with a flywheel power leveler. The resultant vehicles were constrained to have range and acceleration performance equivalent to the ICE-powered vehicle. Performance characteristics such as the average consumption rate of Al metal for the selected drive cycle, vehicle mass, and power system mass were determined for each Al-air propulsion system. Estimates of initial-vehicle and life-cycle costs of Al-air battery-only vehicles indicate that all three systems can achieve performance and operation costs comparable to an ICE vehicle, and that the initial cost of Al-air battery-only vehicles can approach the cost of ICE vehicles but at reduced power levels.

  7. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  8. Advanced Technology and Breakthrough Physics for 2025 and 2050 Military Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David; Czysz, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the development of military aerospace planes that would embody advanced technology and break-through physics to revolutionize the capability of the US Air Force to respond in a timely manner to hostile threats facing the United States and its Allies. One plane concept embodied science and technology advances deemed developable by 2025. These advances included: MHD airbreathing propulsion, aneutronic fusion propulsion and light weight and high-strength airframe and propulsion materials-to accomplish Air Force aerospace missions from the ground up to geostationary orbit. The other plane embodied the further advancements in science and technology that were deemed possible by 2050. These advancements included: augmentation of MHD and fusion power with power from the zero-point energies of the quantum vacuum, and augmentation of vehicle jet propulsion with field propulsion to increase vehicle delta V by a factor of more than 2, thereby extending Air Force protective operations beyond earth orbit-into cislunar space. This paper has been approved for public release by the USAF.

  9. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Activities in a program to develop a Ni/Zn battery for electric vehicle propulsion are reported. Aspects discussed include battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and basic electrochemistry. A number of engineering drawings are supplied. 61 figures, 11 tables. (RWR)

  10. A methodology for fostering commercialization of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thollot, P. A.; Musial, N. T.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale behind, and a proposed approach for, application of government assistance to accelerate the process of moving a new electric vehicle propulsion system product from technological readiness to profitable marketplace acceptance and utilization are described. Emphasis is on strategy, applicable incentives, and an implementation process.

  11. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL. Junior Reserve Office Training Corps.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles." It provides guidelines for each chapter. The guide includes objectives, behavioral objectives, suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching,…

  12. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: A Multidisciplinary Design System for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John K.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze ma or propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of design process and to provide the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), a multidisciplinary system of analysis tools that is focussed on extending the simulation capability from components to the full system. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.

  13. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  14. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 2. [propulsion system performance, design analysis and technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A continuation of the NASA/P and WA study to evaluate various types of propulsion systems for advanced commercial supersonic transports has resulted in the identification of two very promising engine concepts. They are the Variable Stream Control Engine which provides independent temperature and velocity control for two coannular exhaust streams, and a derivative of this engine, a Variable Cycle Engine that employs a rear flow-inverter valve to vary the bypass ratio of the cycle. Both concepts are based on advanced engine technology and have the potential for significant improvements in jet noise, exhaust emissions and economic characteristics relative to current technology supersonic engines. Extensive research and technology programs are required in several critical areas that are unique to these supersonic Variable Cycle Engines to realize these potential improvements. Parametric cycle and integration studies of conventional and Variable Cycle Engines are reviewed, features of the two most promising engine concepts are described, and critical technology requirements and required programs are summarized.

  15. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  16. Technology Roadmap for Dual-Mode Scramjet Propulsion to Support Space-Access Vision Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Guy, R. Wayne; McClinton, Charles R.; Welch, Sharon S.

    2002-01-01

    Third-generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems are envisioned that utilize airbreathing and combined-cycle propulsion to take advantage of potential performance benefits over conventional rocket propulsion and address goals of reducing the cost and enhancing the safety of systems to reach earth orbit. The dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) forms the core of combined-cycle or combination-cycle propulsion systems for single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles and provides most of the orbital ascent energy. These concepts are also relevant to two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) systems with an airbreathing first or second stage. Foundation technology investments in scramjet propulsion are driven by the goal to develop efficient Mach 3-15 concepts with sufficient performance and operability to meet operational system goals. A brief historical review of NASA scramjet development is presented along with a summary of current technology efforts and a proposed roadmap. The technology addresses hydrogen-fueled combustor development, hypervelocity scramjets, multi-speed flowpath performance and operability, propulsion-airframe integration, and analysis and diagnostic tools.

  17. Advanced core technology: Key to subsonic propulsion benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the potential performance benefits and key technology drivers associated with advanced cores for subsonic high bypass turbofan engines. Investigated first were the individual sensitivities of varying compressor efficiency, pressure ratio and bleed (turbine cooling); combustor pressure recovery; and turbine efficiency and inlet temperature on thermal efficiency and core specific power output. Then, engine cycle and mission performance benefits were determined for systems incorporating all potentially achievable technology advancements. The individual thermodynamic sensitivities are shown over a range of turbine temperatures (at cruise) from 2900 to 3500 R and for both constant (current technology) and optimum (maximum thermal efficiency) overall pressure ratios. It is seen that no single parameter alone will provide a large increase in core thermal efficiency, which is the thermodynamic parameter of most concern for transport propulsion. However, when all potentially achievable advancements are considered, there occurs a synergism that produces significant cycle and mission performance benefits. The nature of these benefits are presented along with the technology challenges.

  18. Advanced core technology - Key to subsonic propulsion benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Arthur J.; Snyder, Christopher A.; Knip, Gerald, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the potential performance benefits and key technology drivers associated with advanced cores for subsonic high bypass turbofan engines. Investigated first were the individual sensitivities of varying compressor efficiency, pressure ratio and bleed (turbine cooling); combustor pressure recovery; and turbine efficiency and inlet temperature on thermal efficiency and core specific power output. Then, engine cycle and mission performance benefits were determined for systems incorporating all potentially achievable technology advancements. The individual thermodynamic sensitivities are shown over a range of turbine temperatures (at cruise) from 2900 to 3500 R and for both constant (current technology) and optimum (maximum thermal efficiency) overall pressure ratios. It is seen that no single parameter alone will provide a large increase in core thermal efficiency, which is the thermodynamic parameter of most concern for transport propulsion. However, when all potentially achievable advancements are considered, there occurs a synergism that produces significant cycle and mission performance benefits. The nature of these benefits are presented along with the technology challenges.

  19. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Design Study for Cargo Transfer to Earth-moon L1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Falck, Robert D.; Dudzinski, Leonard J.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2002-01-01

    A design study for a cargo transfer vehicle using solar electric propulsion was performed for NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts program. Targeted for 2016, the solar electric propulsion (SEP) transfer vehicle is required to deliver a propellant supply module with a mass of approximately 36 metric tons from Low Earth Orbit to the first Earth-Moon libration point (LL1) within 270 days. Following an examination of propulsion and power technology options, a SEP transfer vehicle design was selected that incorporated large-area (approx. 2700 sq m) thin film solar arrays and a clustered engine configuration of eight 50 kW gridded ion thrusters mounted on an articulated boom. Refinement of the SEP vehicle design was performed iteratively to properly estimate the required xenon propellant load for the out-bound orbit transfer. The SEP vehicle performance, including the xenon propellant estimation, was verified via the SNAP trajectory code. Further efforts are underway to extend this system model to other orbit transfer missions.

  20. Preliminary results of steady state characterization of near term electric vehicle breadboard propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.

    1980-01-01

    The steady state test results on a breadboard version of the General Electric Near Term Electric Vehicle (ETV-1) are discussed. The breadboard was built using exact duplicate vehicle propulsion system components with few exceptions. Full instrumentation was provided to measure individual component efficiencies. Tests were conducted on a 50 hp dynamometer in a road load simulator facility. Characterization of the propulsion system over the lower half of the speed-torque operating range has shown the system efficiency to be composed of a predominant motor loss plus a speed dependent transaxle loss. At the lower speeds with normal road loads the armature chopper loss is also a significant factor. At the conditions corresponding to a cycle for which the vehicle system was specifically designed, the efficiencies are near optimum.

  1. NASA/MSFC Interest in Advanced Propulsion and Power Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John W.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of research being conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Conventional propulsion systems are at near peak performance levels but will not enable the science and exploration deep space missions NASA envisions. Energetic propulsion technologies can make these missions possible but only if the fundamental problems of energy storage density and energy to energy thrust conversion efficiency are solved. Topics covered include: research rationale, limits of thermal propulsion systems, need for propulsion energetics research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, and potential research opportunities.

  2. The design and performance estimates for the propulsion module for the booster of a TSTO vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1991-09-01

    A NASA study of propulsion systems for possible low-risk replacements for the Space Shuttle is presented. Results of preliminary studies to define the USAF two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) concept to deliver 10,000 pounds to low polar orbit are described. The booster engine module consists of an over/under turbine bypass engines/ramjet engine design for acceleration from takeoff to the staging point of Mach 6.5 and approximately 100,000 feet altitude. Propulsion system performance and weight are presented with preliminary mission study results of vehicle size.

  3. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  4. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries) were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  5. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Life Cycle Cost Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review lessons learned for space transportation systems from the viewpoint of the NASA, Industry and academia Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST). The paper provides the basic idea and history of "lessons learned". Recommendations that are extremely relevant to NASA's future investments in research, program development and operations are"'provided. Lastly, a novel and useful approach to documenting lessons learned is recommended, so as to most effectively guide future NASA investments. Applying lessons learned can significantly improve access to space for cargo or people by focusing limited funds on the right areas and needs for improvement. Many NASA human space flight initiatives have faltered, been re-directed or been outright canceled since the birth of the Space Shuttle program. The reasons given at the time have been seemingly unique. It will be shown that there are common threads as lessons learned in many a past initiative.

  6. Propulsion IVHM Extreme Environment Instrumentation Power IVHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents propulsion and instrumentation power for integrated vehicle health management technologies. The topics include: 1) Propulsion IVHM Capabilities Research; 2) Projects: X-33 Post-Test Diagnostic System; 3) X-34 NITEX; 4) Advanced Health Monitoring Systems; 5) Active Vibration Monitoring System; 6) Smart Self Healing Propulsion Systems; 7) Extreme Environment Sensors; and 8) Systems Engineering and Integration.

  7. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-06-15

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles' exhaust momentum can be used directly to produce high Isp thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p-11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  8. Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the methodology proposed for conversion of light elements into energy via fusion has made steady progress. Scientific studies and engineering efforts in advanced fusion systems designs have introduced some new concepts with unique aspects including consideration of Aneutronic fuels. The plant parameters for harnessing aneutronic fusion appear more exigent than those required for the conventional fusion fuel cycle. However aneutronic fusion propulsion plants for Space deployment will ultimately offer the possibility of enhanced performance from nuclear gain as compared to existing ionic engines as well as providing a clean solution to Planetary Protection considerations and requirements. Proton triggered 11Boron fuel (p- 11B) will produce abundant ion kinetic energy for In-Space vectored thrust. Thus energetic alpha particles "exhaust" momentum can be used directly to produce high ISP thrust and also offer possibility of power conversion into electricity. p- 11B is an advanced fusion plant fuel with well understood reaction kinematics but will require some new conceptual thinking as to the most effective implementation.

  9. Advanced Single-Aisle Transport Propulsion Design Options Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Future propulsion options for advanced single-aisle transports have been investigated in a number of previous studies by the authors. These studies have examined the system level characteristics of aircraft incorporating ultra-high bypass ratio (UHB) turbofans (direct drive and geared) and open rotor engines. During the course of these prior studies, a number of potential refinements and enhancements to the analysis methodology and assumptions were identified. This paper revisits a previously conducted UHB turbofan fan pressure ratio trade study using updated analysis methodology and assumptions. The changes incorporated have decreased the optimum fan pressure ratio for minimum fuel consumption and reduced the engine design trade-offs between minimizing noise and minimizing fuel consumption. Nacelle drag and engine weight are found to be key drivers in determining the optimum fan pressure ratio from a fuel efficiency perspective. The revised noise analysis results in the study aircraft being 2 to 4 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter due to a variety of reasons explained in the paper. With equal core technology assumed, the geared engine architecture is found to be as good as or better than the direct drive architecture for most parameters investigated. However, the engine ultimately selected for a future advanced single-aisle aircraft will depend on factors beyond those considered here.

  10. Propulsion alternatives for an undersea autonomous vehicle. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.L.

    1987-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine suitable energy systems for small undersea autonomous vehicles. The two main goals of this study were: (1) to evaluate energy systems able to provide 16 kW-hr for a vehicle of specified dimensions, and; (2) to evaluate energy systems that may be used in the future for longer-duration, higher-speed missions. It was concluded that silver-zinc secondary batteries are satisfactory for the low-energy requirement. There is some uncertainty about the most-suitable energy source for the higher-energy mission. There are no fully developed systems completely safe, reliable, and readily available for use. Lithium thionyl chloride batteries, and lithium sulfur hexafluoride thermal power plants are the main contenders and have comparable energy densities. There are concerns, however, about the safety and availability of each of these systems.

  11. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Brooks, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This report provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles

  12. Executive Summary of Propulsion on the Orion Abort Flight-Test Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Barnes, Marvin W.; McCauley, Rachel J.; Wall, Terry M.; Reed, Brian D.; Duncan, C. Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Orion Flight Test Office was tasked with conducting a series of flight tests in several launch abort scenarios to certify that the Orion Launch Abort System is capable of delivering astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment, away from a failed booster. The first of this series was the Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle, which was successfully flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This paper provides a brief overview of the three propulsive subsystems used on the Pad Abort 1 Flight-Test Vehicle. An overview of the propulsive systems originally planned for future flight-test vehicles is also provided, which also includes the cold gas Reaction Control System within the Crew Module, and the Peacekeeper first stage rocket motor encased within the Abort Test Booster aeroshell. Although the Constellation program has been cancelled and the operational role of the Orion spacecraft has significantly evolved, lessons learned from Pad Abort 1 and the other flight-test vehicles could certainly contribute to the vehicle architecture of many future human-rated space launch vehicles.

  13. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  14. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  15. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-iron batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron battery program is to develop a nickel-iron battery for use in the propulsion of electric and electric-hybrid vehicles. To date, the program has concentrated on the characterization, fabrication and testing of the required electrodes, the fabrication and testing of full-scale cells, and finally, the fabrication and testing of full-scale (270 AH) six (6) volt modules. Electrodes of the final configuration have now exceeded 1880 cycles and are showing minimal capacity decline. Full-scale cells have presently exceeded 600 cycles and are tracking the individual electrode tests almost identically. Six volt module tests have exceeded 500 cycles, with a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg. Results to date indicate the nickel-iron battery is beginning to demonstrate the performance required for electric vehicle propulsion.

  16. Propulsion system advances that enable a reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX/kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  17. Propulsion System Advances that Enable a Reusable Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Edward L.; Rothschild, William J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the booster propulsion system for the Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB). This includes, system requirements, design approach, concept of operations, reliability, safety and cost assumptions. The paper summarizes the findings of the Boeing propulsion team that has been studying the LFBB feasibility as a booster replacement for the Space Shuttle. This paper will discuss recent advances including a new generation of kerosene and oxygen rich pre-burner staged combustion cycle main rocket engines. The engine reliability and safety is expected to be much higher than current standards by adding extra operating margins into the design and normally operating the engines at 75% of engine rated power. This allows for engine out capability. The new generation of main engines operates at significantly higher chamber pressure than the prior generation of gas generator cycle engines. The oxygen rich pre-burner engine cycle, unlike the fuel rich gas generator cycle, results in internally self-cleaning firings which facilitates reusability. Maintenance is further enhanced with integrated health monitoring to improve safety and turn-around efficiency. The maintainability of the LFBB LOX / kerosene engines is being improved by designing the vehicle/engine interfaces for easy access to key engine components.

  18. Modeling, Simulation, and Control of a Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle in Near-Earth Vicinity Including Solar Array Degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin (Inventor); Hojnicki, Jeffery (Inventor); Manzella, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and control software that integrates the complexities of solar array models, a space environment, and an electric propulsion system into a rigid body vehicle simulation and control model is provided. A rigid body vehicle simulation of a solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicle may be created using at least one solar array model, at least one model of a space environment, and at least one model of a SEP propulsion system. Power availability and thrust profiles may be determined based on the rigid body vehicle simulation as the SEP vehicle transitions from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a higher orbit or trajectory. The power availability and thrust profiles may be displayed such that a user can use the displayed power availability and thrust profiles to determine design parameters for an SEP vehicle mission.

  19. Propulsion System Airframe Integration Issues and Aerodynamic Database Development for the Hyper-X Flight Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelund, Walter C.; Holland, Scott D.; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.; Bittner, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Hyper-X Research Vehicle will provide a unique opportunity to obtain data on an operational airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system at true flight conditions. The airframe integrated nature of the scramjet engine with the Hyper-X vehicle results in a strong coupling effect between the propulsion system operation and the airframe s basic aerodynamic characteristics. Comments on general airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system effects on vehicle aerodynamic performance, stability, and control are provided, followed by examples specific to the Hyper-X research vehicle. An overview is provided of the current activities associated with the development of the Hyper-X aerodynamic database, including wind tunnel test activities and parallel CFD analysis efforts. A brief summary of the Hyper-X aerodynamic characteristics is provided, including the direct and indirect effects of the airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system operation on the basic airframe stability and control characteristics.

  20. Dynamics sensor validation for reusable launch vehicle propulsion.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, J. P.

    1998-05-27

    Expert Microsystems teamed with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a DOE contractor, to develop an innovative dynamics sensor validation system under a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I contract with NASA. The project improves launch vehicle mission safety and system dependability by enabling rapid development and cost effective maintenance of embeddable real-time software to reliably detect process-critical sensor failures. The project focused on verifying the feasibility of two innovative software methods developed by ANL to provide high fidelity sensor data validation for nuclear power generating stations, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) algorithm and the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) algorithm, as core elements of a commercial Dynamics Sensor Validation System (DSVS). The research verified that ANL algorithms enable highly reliable data validation for high frequency Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) dynamics sensors, such as accelerometers and strain gauges. Phase I culminated in production of a prototype run-time module which validates SSME flight accelerometer data with very high reliability. The resulting sensor validation development system is widely applicable to reusable launch vehicle (RLV) and ground support control and monitoring systems.

  1. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

  2. Applications of advanced upper surface blowing propulsive-lift technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Riddle, D. W.; Youth, S.

    1982-01-01

    The success of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft led to studies of this technology for a business jet and a Short-Haul Transport. The studies showed that the Short-Haul Transport could operate from a 762.0-m runway with 95 passengers at low noise levels. Design range was 500 n. mi. but with maximum fuel load the runway length is only increased to 883.9 m while the range is increased to more than 1000 n. mi. Two business jet designs were studied; one design was based on a 457.2-m field length and the other was designed for a 760.0-m field length. The business jet designed for a 457.2-m field length can also be loaded to maximum fuel capacity. In this case the range increases from 500 n. mi. to 1400 n. mi. while the runway length increases from 457.2 m to 632.5 m. The business jet studies showed that the application of advanced propulsive-lift technology to this class aircraft can result in payload-range-speed performance comparable to current aircraft with about one-half the runway length requirement.

  3. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  4. Cost and Economics for Advanced Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Market sensitivity and weight-based cost estimating relationships are key drivers in determining the financial viability of advanced space launch vehicle designs. Due to decreasing space transportation budgets and increasing foreign competition, it has become essential for financial assessments of prospective launch vehicles to be performed during the conceptual design phase. As part of this financial assessment, it is imperative to understand the relationship between market volatility, the uncertainty of weight estimates, and the economic viability of an advanced space launch vehicle program. This paper reports the results of a study that evaluated the economic risk inherent in market variability and the uncertainty of developing weight estimates for an advanced space launch vehicle program. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a business case for advanced space flight design with respect to the changing nature of market conditions and the complexity of determining accurate weight estimations during the conceptual design phase. The expected uncertainty associated with these two factors drives the economic risk of the overall program. The study incorporates Monte Carlo simulation techniques to determine the probability of attaining specific levels of economic performance when the market and weight parameters are allowed to vary. This structured approach toward uncertainties allows for the assessment of risks associated with a launch vehicle program's economic performance. This results in the determination of the value of the additional risk placed on the project by these two factors.

  5. Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment - Propulsion Related Module Development and Vehicle Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the work performed during the period from May 2011 - October 2012 on the Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment. IDEA is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML). This report will focus on describing the work done in the areas of: (1) Integrating propulsion data (turbines, rockets, and scramjets) in the system, and using the data to perform trajectory analysis; (2) Developing a parametric packaging strategy for a hypersonic air breathing vehicles allowing for tank resizing when multiple fuels and/or oxidizer are part of the configuration; and (3) Vehicle scaling and closure strategies.

  6. Advanced Propulsion for Geostationary Orbit Insertion and North-South Station Keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.; Kluever, Craig A.; Riehl, John P.; Curran, Francis M.

    1995-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is currently being used for geostationary satellite station keeping to increase payload mass. Analyses show that advanced electric propulsion technologies can be used to obtain additional increases in payload mass by using these same technologies to perform part of the orbit transfer. In this work three electric propulsion technologies are examined at two power levels for an Atlas 2AS class spacecraft. The on-board chemical propulsion apogee engine fuel is reduced to allow the use of electric propulsion. A numerical optimizer is used to determine the chemical burns which will minimize the electric propulsion transfer time. Results show that for a 1550 kg Atlas 2AS class payload, increases in net mass (geostationary satellite mass less wet propulsion system mass) of 150 to 800 kg are possible using electric propulsion for station keeping, advanced chemical engines for part of the transfer, and electric propulsion for the remainder of the transfer. Trip times are between one and four months.

  7. Ramjet propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of single stage earth-to-orbit transportation is studied with respect to existing and projected ramjet technology. Four types of ramjet are analyzed: fan ejector, fan ramjet, supersonic combustion ramjet, and fan ramjet with turbojet boosters. A fan ramjet with a removable fan, with separate rockets for the non-air-breathing flight phase, is considered superior to an ejector ramjet, for both ease of orbit insertion and payload boost capability. Vehicle design is also discussed in terms of trajectory integration and optimization, aerodynamic trim and stability, and complete mass estimation. Graphs are presented showing Mach number for air-breathing and non-air-breathing flight, specific impulse from various ramjet engines, and orbital-insertion parameters.

  8. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  9. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  10. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  11. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  12. 10 CFR 611.3 - Advanced technology vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advanced technology vehicle. 611.3 Section 611.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM General § 611.3 Advanced technology vehicle. In order to demonstrate that a vehicle is...

  13. Frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates can be high, bit rates are low, and data is unique precious.

  14. Permanent magnets for vehicle-propulsion motors: Cost/availability

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.; Simpson-Clark, R.

    1996-12-31

    Alternating-current induction motors have been used for fuel-pumping and air-conditioning in airplanes. Series and shunt dc motors have propelled vehicles. The power received by motors goes into producing output torque and magnetic fields. Today these fields can be produced with rare-earth permanent magnets which do not consume input power. Dramatic improvements in motor efficiency can result. Furthermore, with efficient variable-speed controllers using MOSFET and IGBT semiconductors, electric motors can replace the hydraulic actuators that move aircraft surfaces and retract landing gear. The 1993 cost for the magnets in a 100 kW motor was $1,500. Improved production processes are expected to drop this cost to around $400. However, today`s rare-earth magnet-materials are by-products of mines that produce other metals and minerals. The authors explore the effect on cost of increased demand for the pertinent rare-earth elements, neodymium, cobalt, and samarium. A higher price will cause more elements to be extracted from existing mines. The opening of new rare-earth-element mines is another possibility. In 1993 the $250-per-kg cost for neodymium-iron-boron magnets included $190 for processing. Processing cost can drop to $30 per kg of magnet when production reaches 60 tons per month. The cost of the raw material for the magnets will be affected by man factors in a complex scenario.

  15. Advanced manned earth-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    1986-10-01

    Advanced manned launch vehicle concepts which are designed to meet the space transportation architecture and mission needs for the early 21st century are described. Concepts are described which are based both on modest (evolutionary) and revolutionary advancements in performance technologies but with emphasis on defining operations cost. Design options feature fully reusable, vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, rocket-powered concepts and include a variety of possible staging arrangements depending on the desired mission emphasis and the available technologies.

  16. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    In this period of performance a conference (The 1994 Conference on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology) was organized and implemented by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and held May 15-17 to assemble and disseminate the current information on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology. The results were assembled for publication as NASA-CP-3282, Volume 1 and 2 and NASA-CP-3287.

  17. Pluto/Kuiper Missions with Advanced Electric Propulsion and Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, S. R.; Patterson, M. J.; Schrieber, J.; Gefert, L. P.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a request by NASA Code SD Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research center performed a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power system was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class (EELV) as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow launch in any year and arrival in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With the nearly constant power available from the radioisotope power source such small ion propelled spacecraft could explore many of the outer planetary targets. Such studies are already underway. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Outer Planet Exploration with Advanced Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey; Benson, Scott; McAdams, Jim; Ostdiek, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In response to a request by the NASA Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power systems was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow a launch slip and still flyby in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With this promising result the study was expanded to use a radioisotope power source for small electrically propelled orbiter spacecraft for outer planet targets such as Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

  19. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume V. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report, which is divided into five volumes, documents the evaluation of advanced electric and hybrid vehicles for potential development by the early 1990s. The primary objective of the assessment is to recommend subsystem research priorities based on a comparison of alternatives as part of complete vehicle systems with equivalent performance. The assessment includes evaluations of candidate technologies as well as technical and economic comparisons of vehicle systems for specified missions. The availability of nonpetroleum fuel is also addressed, and preference analyses are used to assist in the evaluation of the relative merits of competing systems. Volume V, the Appendices, includes reports on battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs, and battery discharge models.

  20. Composite armored vehicle advanced technology demonstator

    SciTech Connect

    Ostberg, D.T.; Dunfee, R.S.; Thomas, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Composite structures are a key technology needed to develop future lightweight combat vehicles that are both deployable and survivable. The Composite Armored Vehicle Advanced Technology Demonstrator Program that started in fiscal year 1994 will continue through 1998 to verily that composite structures are a viable solution for ground combat vehicles. Testing thus far includes material characterization, structural component tests and full scale quarter section tests. Material and manufacturing considerations, tests, results and changes, and the status of the program will be described. The structural component tests have been completed successfully, and quarter section testing is in progress. Upon completion of the critical design review, the vehicle demonstrator will be Fabricated and undergo government testing.

  1. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  2. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  3. Recent advances in low-thrust propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA low-thrust propulsion technology program is aimed at providing high performance options to a broad class of near-term and future missions. Major emphases of the program are on storable and hydrogen/oxygen low-thrust chemical, low-power (auxiliary) electrothermal, and high-power electric propulsion. This paper represents the major accomplishments of the program and discusses their impact.

  4. High-pressure propulsion - advanced concepts for cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoerman, Leonard

    The state-of-the-art liquid propellant cooled combustion chambers utilized in the space shuttle are third-generation designs which have evolved from a continuing demand for higher operating pressure and aircraft-type reusability. History has shown that major advances in cooling occur in approximately ten-year cycles, with each cycle providing a nominal 400% increase in operating pressure and/or a higher degree of reusability. The previous technologies include the first-generation double-wall steel jackets used in the 220 psi V-2 and Aerobee, and the second generation wire-wrapped double tapered tubular assemblies typical of the 800 psi Titan I, II, and III, and 1000 psi F-1 engines. The third-generation designs utilize milled slot, high thermal conductivity liners and electrodeposited nickel closures. The space shuttle main engine operating at 3200 psia is adequate for individual flights; however, the desired goal of 55 service-free missions has yet to be realized. Future single-stage-to-orbit propulsion concepts can benefit from a further increase in operating pressures to 6000 to 10,000 psi combined with engine reuse capabilities in excess of the 55 flight goals of the space shuttle. A fourth-generation approach will be required to attain these more ambitious goals. These new designs will require a combination of cooling processes, including regenerative and transpiration, combined with improved high-temperature materials and new fabrication techniques. The limitations of the third-generation designs, the impact of propellant/coolant selection, and the approaches for the coming fourth-generation cooling technologies are discussed.

  5. Manned Mars Explorer project: Guidelines for a manned mission to the vicinity of Mars using Phobos as a staging outpost; schematic vehicle designs considering chemical and nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, Sean; Neubek, Deb; Baxmann, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Manned Mars Explorer (MME) project responds to the fundamental problems of sending human beings to Mars in a mission scenario and schematic vehicle designs. The mission scenario targets an opposition class Venus inbound swingby for its trajectory with concentration on Phobos and/or Deimos as a staging base for initial and future Mars vicinity operations. Optional vehicles are presented as a comparison using nuclear electric power/propulsion technology. A Manned Planetary Vehicle and Crew Command Vehicle are used to accomplish the targeted mission. The Manned Planetary Vehicle utilizes the mature technology of chemical propulsion combined with an advanced aerobrake, tether and pressurized environment system. The Crew Command Vehicle is the workhorse of the mission performing many different functions including a manned Mars landing, and Phobos rendezvous.

  6. Selection and Prioritization of Advanced Propulsion Technologies for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberle, Bill; Farris, Bob; Johnson, Les; Jones, Jonathan; Kos, Larry; Woodcock, Gordon; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system will require spacecraft with much greater capability than spacecraft which have been launched in the past. This is particularly true for exploration of the outer planets. Outer planet exploration requires shorter trip times, increased payload mass, and ability to orbit or land on outer planets. Increased capability requires better propulsion systems, including increased specific impulse. Chemical propulsion systems are not capable of delivering the performance required for exploration of the solar system. Future propulsion systems will be applied to a wide variety of missions with a diverse set of mission requirements. Many candidate propulsion technologies have been proposed but NASA resources do not permit development of a] of them. Therefore, we need to rationally select a few propulsion technologies for advancement, for application to future space missions. An effort was initiated to select and prioritize candidate propulsion technologies for development investment. The results of the study identified Aerocapture, 5 - 10 KW Solar Electric Ion, and Nuclear Electric Propulsion as high priority technologies. Solar Sails, 100 Kw Solar Electric Hall Thrusters, Electric Propulsion, and Advanced Chemical were identified as medium priority technologies. Plasma sails, momentum exchange tethers, and low density solar sails were identified as high risk/high payoff technologies.

  7. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  8. Advanced aeroservoelastic stabilization techniques for hypersonic flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Samuel Y.; Cheng, Peter Y.; Myers, Thomas T.; Klyde, David H.; Magdaleno, Raymond E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced high performance vehicles, including Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) hypersonic flight vehicles, that are statically unstable, require higher bandwidth flight control systems to compensate for the instability resulting in interactions between the flight control system, the engine/propulsion dynamics, and the low frequency structural modes. Military specifications, such as MIL-F-9490D and MIL-F-87242, tend to limit treatment of structural modes to conventional gain stabilization techniques. The conventional gain stabilization techniques, however, introduce low frequency effective time delays which can be troublesome from a flying qualities standpoint. These time delays can be alleviated by appropriate blending of gain and phase stabilization techniques (referred to as Hybrid Phase Stabilization or HPS) for the low frequency structural modes. The potential of using HPS for compensating structural mode interaction was previously explored. It was shown that effective time delay was significantly reduced with the use of HPS; however, the HPS design was seen to have greater residual response than a conventional gain stablized design. Additional work performed to advance and refine the HPS design procedure, to further develop residual response metrics as a basis for alternative structural stability specifications, and to develop strategies for validating HPS design and specification concepts in manned simulation is presented. Stabilization design sensitivity to structural uncertainties and aircraft-centered requirements are also assessed.

  9. Initial Noise Assessment of an Embedded-wing-propulsion Concept Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.

    2008-01-01

    Vehicle acoustic requirements are considered for a Cruise-Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) vehicle concept using an Embedded-Wing-Propulsion (EWP) system based on a review of the literature. Successful development of such vehicles would enable more efficient use of existing airports in accommodating the anticipated growth in air traffic while at the same time reducing the noise impact on the community around the airport. A noise prediction capability for CESTOL-EWP aircraft is developed, based largely on NASA's FOOTPR code and other published methods, with new relations for high aspect ratio slot nozzles and wing shielding. The predictive model is applied to a preliminary concept developed by Boeing for NASA GRC. Significant noise reduction for such an aircraft relative to the current state-of-the-art is predicted, and technology issues are identified which should be addressed to assure that the potential of this design concept is fully achieved with minimum technical risk.

  10. Trade Studies for a Manned High-Power Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael; Hull, Patrick V.; Irwin, Ryan W.; TInker, Michael L.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate vehicles must be identified through trade studies for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combines analysis codes for NEP subsystems with genetic algorithm-based optimization. Trade studies for a NEP reference mission to the asteroids were conducted to identify important trends, and to determine the effects of various technologies and subsystems on vehicle performance. It was found that the electric thruster type and thruster performance have a major impact on the achievable system performance, and that significant effort in thruster research and development is merited.

  11. Advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Markus; Dickmanns, Ernst D.

    1997-06-01

    An advanced control architecture for autonomous vehicles is presented. The hierarchical architecture consists of four levels: a vehicle level, a control level, a rule-based level and a knowledge-based level. A special focus is on forms of internal representation, which have to be chosen adequately for each level. The control scheme is applied to VaMP, a Mercedes passenger car which autonomously performs missions on German freeways. VaMP perceives the environment with its sense of vision and conventional sensors. It controls its actuators for locomotion and attention focusing. Modules for perception, cognition and action are discussed.

  12. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  13. Nuclear powered Mars cargo transport mission utilizing advanced ion propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Galecki, D.L.; Patterson, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear-powered ion propulsion technology was combined with detailed trajectory analysis to determine propulsion system and trajectory options for an unmanned cargo mission to Mars in support of manned Mars missions. A total of 96 mission scenarios were identified by combining two power levels, two propellants, four values of specific impulse per propellant, three starting altitudes, and two starting velocities. Sixty of these scenarios were selected for a detailed trajectory analysis; a complete propulsion system study was then conducted for 20 of these trajectories. Trip times ranged from 344 days for a xenon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from lunar orbit with escape velocity, to 770 days for an argon propulsion system operating at 300 kW total power and starting from nuclear start orbit with circular velocity. Trip times for the 3 MW cases studied ranged from 356 to 413 days. Payload masses ranged from 5700 to 12,300 kg for the 300 kW power level, and from 72,200 to 81,500 kg for the 3 MW power level.

  14. Advances in computational design and analysis of airbreathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of commercial and military aircraft depends, to a large extent, on engine manufacturers being able to achieve significant increases in propulsion capability through improved component aerodynamics, materials, and structures. The recent history of propulsion has been marked by efforts to develop computational techniques that can speed up the propulsion design process and produce superior designs. The availability of powerful supercomputers, such as the NASA Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator, and the potential for even higher performance offered by parallel computer architectures, have opened the door to the use of multi-dimensional simulations to study complex physical phenomena in propulsion systems that have previously defied analysis or experimental observation. An overview of several NASA Lewis research efforts is provided that are contributing toward the long-range goal of a numerical test-cell for the integrated, multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization of propulsion systems. Specific examples in Internal Computational Fluid Mechanics, Computational Structural Mechanics, Computational Materials Science, and High Performance Computing are cited and described in terms of current capabilities, technical challenges, and future research directions.

  15. Steady-state and dynamic evaluation of the electric propulsion system test bed vehicle on a road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1983-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Lewis Research Center's electric propulsion system test bed vehicle was tested on the road load simulator under the DOE Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. This propulsion system, consisting of a series-wound dc motor controlled by an infinitely variable SCR chopper and an 84-V battery pack, is typical of those used in electric vehicles made in 1976. Steady-state tests were conducted over a wide range of differential output torques and vehicle speeds. Efficiencies of all of the components were determined. Effects of temperature and voltage variations on the motor and the effect of voltage changes on the controller were examined. Energy consumption and energy efficiency for the system were determined over the B and C driving schedules of the SAE J227a test procedure.

  16. Launch Vehicle Performance for Bipropellant Propulsion Using Atomic Propellants With Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    Atomic propellants for bipropellant launch vehicles using atomic boron, carbon, and hydrogen were analyzed. The gross liftoff weights (GLOW) and dry masses of the vehicles were estimated, and the 'best' design points for atomic propellants were identified. Engine performance was estimated for a wide range of oxidizer to fuel (O/F) ratios, atom loadings in the solid hydrogen particles, and amounts of helium carrier fluid. Rocket vehicle GLOW was minimized by operating at an O/F ratio of 1.0 to 3.0 for the atomic boron and carbon cases. For the atomic hydrogen cases, a minimum GLOW occurred when using the fuel as a monopropellant (O/F = 0.0). The atomic vehicle dry masses are also presented, and these data exhibit minimum values at the same or similar O/F ratios as those for the vehicle GLOW. A technology assessment of atomic propellants has shown that atomic boron and carbon rocket analyses are considered to be much more near term options than the atomic hydrogen rockets. The technology for storing atomic boron and carbon has shown significant progress, while atomic hydrogen is not able to be stored at the high densities needed for effective propulsion. The GLOW and dry mass data can be used to estimate the cost of future vehicles and their atomic propellant production facilities. The lower the propellant's mass, the lower the overall investment for the specially manufactured atomic propellants.

  17. Finite-thrust optimization of interplanetary transfers of space vehicle with bimodal nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharytonov, Oleksii M.; Kiforenko, Boris M.

    2011-08-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion is one of the leading promising technologies for primary space propulsion for manned exploration of the solar system due to its high specific impulse capability and sufficiently high thrust-to-weight ratio. Another benefit of NTR is its possible bimodal design, when nuclear reactor is used for generation of a jet thrust in a high-thrust mode and (with an appropriate power conversion system) as a source of electric power to supply the payload and the electric engines in a low-thrust mode. The model of the NTR thrust control was developed considering high-thrust NTR as a propulsion system of limited power and exhaust velocity. For the proposed model the control of the thrust value is accomplished by the regulation of reactor thermal power and propellant mass flow rate. The problem of joint optimization of the combination of high- and low-thrust arcs and the parameters of bimodal NTR (BNTR) propulsion system is considered for the interplanetary transfers. The interplanetary trajectory of the space vehicle is formed by the high-thrust NTR burns, which define planet-centric maneuvers and by the low-thrust heliocentric arcs where the nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is used. The high-thrust arcs are analyzed using finite-thrust approach. The motion of the corresponding dynamical system is realized in three phase spaces concerning the departure planet-centric maneuver by means of high-thrust NTR propulsion, the low-thrust NEP heliocentric maneuver and the approach high-thrust NTR planet-centric maneuver. The phase coordinates are related at the time instants of the change of the phase spaces due to the relations between the space vehicle masses. The optimal control analysis is performed using Pontryagin's maximum principle. The numerical results are analyzed for Earth-Mars "sprint" transfer. The optimal values of the parameters that define the masses of NTR and NEP subsystems have been evaluated. It is shown that the low

  18. Effect of reactor coolant radioactivity upon configuration feasibility for a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffer, L.; Wright, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis was carried out for a conceptual nuclear electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport payloads from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. The vehicle employed a thermionic nuclear reactor operating at 1575 kilowatts and generated 120 kilowatts of electricity for a round-trip mission time of 2000 hours. Propulsion was via axially directed ion engines employing 3300 pounds of mercury as a propellant. The vehicle configuration permitted a reactor shadow shield geometry using LiH and the mercury propellant for shielding. However, much of the radioactive NaK reactor coolant was unshielded and in close proximity to the power conditioning electronics. An estimate of the radioactivity of the NaK coolant was made and its unshielded dose rate to the power conditioning equipment calculated. It was found that the activated NaK contributed about three-fourths of the gamma dose constraint. The NaK dose was considered a sufficiently high fraction of the allowable gamma dose to necessitate modifications in configuration.

  19. NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), as NASA's lead center for aeropropulsion, is responding to the challenge of reducing the cost of space transportation through the integration of air-breathing propulsion into launch vehicles. Air- breathing launch vehicle (ABLV) propulsion requires a marked departure from traditional propulsion applications. and stretches the technology of both rocket and air-breathing propulsion. In addition, the demands of the space launch mission require an unprecedented level of integration of propulsion and vehicle systems. GRC is responding with a program with rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion technology as its main focus. RBCC offers the potential for simplicity, robustness, and performance that may enable low-cost single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) transportation. Other technologies, notably turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion, offer benefits such as increased robustness and greater mission flexibility, and are being advanced, at a slower pace, as part of GRC's program in hypersonics.

  20. Advanced research and technology programs for advanced high-pressure oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsik, S. J.; Morea, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    A research and technology program for advanced high pressure, oxygen-hydrogen rocket propulsion technology is presently being pursued by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the basic discipline technologies, develop the analytical tools, and establish the data base necessary for an orderly evolution of the staged combustion reusable rocket engine. The need for the program is based on the premise that the USA will depend on the Shuttle and its derivative versions as its principal Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the next 20 to 30 yr. The program is focused in three principal areas of enhancement: (1) life extension, (2) performance, and (3) operations and diagnosis. Within the technological disciplines the efforts include: rotordynamics, structural dynamics, fluid and gas dynamics, materials fatigue/fracture/life, turbomachinery fluid mechanics, ignition/combustion processes, manufacturing/producibility/nondestructive evaluation methods and materials development/evaluation. An overview of the Advanced High Pressure Oxygen-Hydrogen Rocket Propulsion Technology Program Structure and Working Groups objectives are presented with highlights of several significant achievements.

  1. Electric Propulsion Applications and Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Frank M.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Most space missions require on-board propulsion systems and these systems are often dominant spacecraft mass drivers. Presently, on-board systems account for more than half the injected mass for commercial communications systems and even greater mass fractions for ambitious planetary missions. Anticipated trends toward the use of both smaller spacecraft and launch vehicles will likely increase pressure on the performance of on-board propulsion systems. The acceptance of arcjet thrusters for operational use on commercial communications satellites ushered in a new era in on-board propulsion and exponential growth of electric propulsion across a broad spectrum of missions is anticipated. NASA recognizes the benefits of advanced propulsion and NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology supports an aggressive On-Board Propulsion program, including a strong electric propulsion element, to assure the availability of high performance propulsion systems to meet the goals of the ambitious missions envisioned in the next two decades. The program scope ranges from fundamental research for future generation systems through specific insertion efforts aimed at near term technology transfer. The On-Board propulsion program is committed to carrying technologies to levels required for customer acceptance and emphasizes direct interactions with the user community and the development of commercial sources. This paper provides a discussion of anticipated missions, propulsion functions, and electric propulsion impacts followed by an overview of the electric propulsion element of the NASA On-Board Propulsion program.

  2. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  3. Advances in NASA's Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peecook, Keith M.; Stone, James R.

    1993-01-01

    The status of the Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project for space exploration and the future plans for NTP technology are discussed. Current activities in the framework of the NTP project deal with nonnuclear material tests; instrumentation, controls, and health management; turbopumps; nozzles and nozzle extension; and an exhaust plume.

  4. Advances in adaptive structures at Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Ben K.; Garba, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Future proposed NASA missions with the need for large deployable or erectable precision structures will require solutions to many technical problems. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is developing new technologies in Adaptive Structures to meet these challenges. The technology requirements, approaches to meet the requirements using Adaptive Structures, and the recent JPL research results in Adaptive Structures are described.

  5. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    A conference was held at MSFC in May 1992 describing the research achievements of the NASA-wide research and technology programs dealing with advanced oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon earth-to-orbit propulsion. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for the timely dissemination to the propulsion community of the results emerging from this program with particular emphasis on the transfer of information from the scientific/research to the designer.

  6. Study and review of permanent magnets for electric vehicle propulsion motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strnat, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of permanent magnets (PM) was performed in support of the DOE/NASA electric and hybrid vehicle program. PM requirements for electric propulsion motors are analyzed, design principles and relevant properties of magnets are discussed. Available PM types are reviewed. For the needed high-grade magnets, design data, commercial varieties and sources are tabulated, based on a survey of vendors. Economic factors such as raw material availability, production capability and cost are analyzed, especially for cobalt and the rare earths. Extruded Mn-Al-C magnets from Japan were experimentally characterized. Dynamic magnetic data for the range -50 deg to +150 deg C and some mechanical properties are reported. The state of development of the important PM material families is reviewed. Feasible improvements or new developments of magnets for electric vehicle motors are identified.

  7. Mars Sample Return Using Commercial Capabilities: Propulsive Entry, Descent, and Landing of a Capsule Form Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Huynh, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a critical portion of the work that has been done at NASA, Ames Research Center regarding the use of the commercially developed Dragon capsule as a delivery vehicle for the elements of a high priority Mars Sample Return mission. The objective of the investigation was to determine entry and landed mass capabilities that cover anticipated mission conditions. The "Red Dragon", Mars configuration, uses supersonic retro-propulsion, with no required parachute system, to perform Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) maneuvers. The propulsive system proposed for use is the same system that will perform an abort, if necessary, for a human rated version of the Dragon capsule. Standard trajectory analysis tools are applied to publically available information about Dragon and other legacy capsule forms in order to perform the investigation. Trajectory simulation parameters include entry velocity, flight path angle, lift to drag Ratio (L/D), landing site elevation, atmosphere density, and total entry mass, in addition engineering assumptions for the performance of the propulsion system are stated. Mass estimates for major elements of the overall proposed architecture are coupled to this EDL analysis to close the overall architecture. Three synodic launch opportunities, beginning with the 2022 opportunity, define the arrival conditions. Results state the relations between the analysis parameters as well as sensitivities to those parameters. The EDL performance envelope includes landing altitudes between 0 and -4 km referenced to the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter datum as well as minimum and maximum atmosphere density. Total entry masses between 7 and 10 mt are considered with architecture closure occurring between 9.0 and 10 mt. Propellant mass fractions for each major phase of the EDL - Entry, Terminal Descent, and Hazard Avoidance - have been derived. An assessment of the effect of the entry conditions on the Thermal Protection System (TPS) currently in use for

  8. Advancements in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) for Space Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Robert; Yang Yang; Miley, G.H.; Mead, F.B.

    2005-02-06

    The development of a dense plasma focus (DPF) propulsion device using p-11B is described. A propulsion system of this type is attractive because of its high thrust-to-weight ratio capabilities at high specific impulses. From a fuel standpoint, p-11B is advantageous because of the aneutronic nature of the reaction, which is favorable for the production of thrust since the charged particles can be channeled by a magnetic field. Different fusion mechanisms are investigated and their implication to the p-11B reaction is explored. Three main requirements must be satisfied to reach breakeven for DPF fusion: a high Ti/Te ratio ({approx}20), an order of magnitude higher pinch lifetime, and the reflection and absorption of at least 50% radiation. Moreover, a power re-circulation method with high efficiency must be available for the relatively low Q value of the DPF fusion reactor. A possible direct energy conversion scheme using magnetic field compression is discussed. DPF parameters are estimated for thrust levels of 1000 kN and 500 kN, and possible propulsion applications are discussed, along with developmental issues.

  9. Advanced Supersonic Technology Study: Engine Program Summary. Supersonic Propulsion: 1971 to 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    Sustained supersonic cruise propulsion systems for military applications are studied. The J79-5 in the Mach 2 B-58; YJ93 in the Mach 3.0 B-70 and the current F101 in the B-1, are all examples of military propulsion systems and airplanes operated at sustained supersonic cruise speeds. The Mach 2.7 B2707 transport powered by GE4 turbojet engines was the only non-military, sustained supersonic cruise vehicle intended for commercial passenger service.

  10. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  11. Advancing Transportation through Vehicle Electrification - PHEV

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzi, Abdullah; Barnhart, Steven

    2014-12-31

    FCA US LLC viewed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as an historic opportunity to learn about and develop PHEV technologies and create the FCA US LLC engineering center for Electrified Powertrains. The ARRA funding supported FCA US LLC’s light-duty electric drive vehicle and charging infrastructure-testing activities and enabled FCA US LLC to utilize the funding on advancing Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technologies for production on future programs. FCA US LLC intended to develop the next-generations of electric drive and energy batteries through a properly paced convergence of standards, technology, components and common modules. To support the development of a strong, commercially viable supplier base, FCA US LLC also utilized this opportunity to evaluate various designated component and sub-system suppliers. The original proposal of this project was submitted in May 2009 and selected in August 2009. The project ended in December 2014.

  12. Predicting Production Costs for Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.; Weston, R. P.

    2002-01-01

    For early design concepts, the conventional approach to cost is normally some kind of parametric weight-based cost model. There is now ample evidence that this approach can be misleading and inaccurate. By the nature of its development, a parametric cost model requires historical data and is valid only if the new design is analogous to those for which the model was derived. Advanced aerospace vehicles have no historical production data and are nowhere near the vehicles of the past. Using an existing weight-based cost model would only lead to errors and distortions of the true production cost. This paper outlines the development of a process-based cost model in which the physical elements of the vehicle are soared according to a first-order dynamics model. This theoretical cost model, first advocated by early work at MIT, has been expanded to cover the basic structures of an advanced aerospace vehicle. Elemental costs based on the geometry of the design can be summed up to provide an overall estimation of the total production cost for a design configuration. This capability to directly link any design configuration to realistic cost estimation is a key requirement for high payoff MDO problems. Another important consideration in this paper is the handling of part or product complexity. Here the concept of cost modulus is introduced to take into account variability due to different materials, sizes, shapes, precision of fabrication, and equipment requirements. The most important implication of the development of the proposed process-based cost model is that different design configurations can now be quickly related to their cost estimates in a seamless calculation process easily implemented on any spreadsheet tool.

  13. Launch Vehicle Sizing Benefits Utilizing Main Propulsion System Crossfeed and Project Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Frank; Scheiern, M.; Champion, R.; Mazurkivich, P.; Lyles, Garry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To meet the goals for a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), a unique propulsion feed system concept was identified using crossfeed between the booster and orbiter stages that could reduce the Two-Stage-to-Orbit (TSTO) vehicle weight and Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) costs by approximately 25%, while increasing safety and reliability. The Main Propulsion System (MPS) crossfeed water demonstration test program addresses all activities required to reduce the risks for the MPS crossfeed system from a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 2 to 4 by the completion of testing and analysis by June 2003. During the initial period, that ended in March 2002, a subscale water flow test article was defined. Procurement of a subscale crossfeed check valve was initiated and the specifications for the various components were developed. The fluid transient and pressurization analytical models were developed separately and successfully integrated. The test matrix for the water flow test was developed to correlate the integrated model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the crossfeed check valve was developed to assess flow disturbances and internal flow dynamics. Based on the results, the passive crossfeed system concept was very feasible and offered a safe system to be used in an RLV architecture. A water flow test article was designed to accommodate a wide range of flows simulating a number of different types of propellant systems. During the follow-on period, the crossfeed system model will be further refined, the test article will be completed, the water flow test will be performed, and finally the crossfeed system model will be correlated with the test data. This validated computer model will be used to predict the full-scale vehicle crossfeed system performance.

  14. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  15. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. Advanced Deuterium Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Excluding speculations about future breakthrough discoveries in physics, it is shown that with what is at present known, and also what is technically feasible, manned space flight to the limits of the solar system and beyond deep into the Oort cloud is quite possible. Using deuterium as the rocket fuel of choice, abundantly available on the comets of the Oort cloud, rockets driven by deuterium fusion can there be refuelled. To obtain a high thrust with high specific impulse favours the propulsion by deuterium micro-bombs, and it is shown that the ignition of deuterium micro-bombs is possible by intense GeV proton beams, generated in space by using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated billion volt capacitor. The cost to develop this kind of a propulsion system in space would be very high, but it can also be developed on Earth by a magnetically insulated Super Marx Generator. Since the ignition of deuterium is theoretically possible with the Super Marx Generator, making obsolete the ignition of deuterium-tritium with a laser, where 80% of the energy goes into neutrons, this would also mean a breakthrough in fusion research, and therefore would justify the large development costs.

  18. Prospects for utilization of air liquefaction and enrichment system (ALES) propulsion in fully reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, earth to orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high speed acceleration, both using LH2 fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90 percent pure LOX that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to Mach 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. The paper shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using ALES propulsion in a SSTO vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  19. System Design of Propulsion Systems for Moon or Planetary Descent Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peukert, M.; Riehle, M.

    Future planetary exploration missions will require the landing of larger payloads more softly and precisely than recently performed. The paper considers several future missions, the landing requirements produce different thrust level needed for the landing vehicle but are similar in many other repects. To fulfil the mission needs of these planetary lander studies, preferably with a common chemical propulsion subsystem concept for all these studies to use as much commonalities as possible, a trade- off has been performed comparing the most promising concepts. These are the concept of a throttable turbo pump engine, of main and assist engines and the clustered/plug nozzle concept. There the propulsion concept of a clustered/plug nozzle is proposed. A discussion is given which shows the advantages of this concept. One of its major advantages is the scalability to different mission, spacecraft mass und thrust requirements. Once the clustered/plug nozzle concept is developed it can easily be adapted to different thrust needs. Therefore just the thruster forming the primary nozzle of the plug nozzle has to be exchanged; the conceptual layout of the propulsion subsystem remains unchanged. The wide variety of the Astrium in-house monopropellant and bi-propellant thruster portfolio supports this scalability. Additional benefits of this concept like stepwise thrust variation or the possibility to incorporate thrust vector steering make this concept even more attractive. The develop- ment risk and the costs of the proposed clustered/plug nozzle concept are expected to be significantly lower than that of a dedicated single main engine.

  20. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-01

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  1. Reusable launch vehicles, enabling technology for the development of advanced upper stages and payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, John D.

    1998-01-15

    In the near future there will be classes of upper stages and payloads that will require initial operation at a high-earth orbit to reduce the probability of an inadvertent reentry that could result in a detrimental impact on humans and the biosphere. A nuclear propulsion system, such as was being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program, is an example of such a potential payload. This paper uses the results of a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) study to demonstrate the potential importance of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to test and implement an advanced upper stage (AUS) or payload in a safe orbit and in a cost effective and reliable manner. The RLV is a horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing (HTHL), two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle. The results of the study shows that an HTHL is cost effective because it implements airplane-like operation, infrastructure, and flight operations. The first stage of the TSTO is powered by Rocket-Based-Combined-Cycle (RBCC) engines, the second stage is powered by a LOX/LH rocket engine. The TSTO is used since it most effectively utilizes the capability of the RBCC engine. The analysis uses the NASA code POST (Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories) to determine trajectories and weight in high-earth orbit for AUS/advanced payloads. Cost and reliability of an RLV versus current generation expandable launch vehicles are presented.

  2. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  3. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  4. Advanced Propulsion System Studies in High Speed Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zola, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    Propulsion for acceptable supersonic passenger transport aircraft is primarily impacted by the very high jet noise characteristics of otherwise attractive engines. The mixed flow turbofan, when equipped with a special ejector nozzle seems to be the best candidate engine for this task of combining low jet noise with acceptable flight performance. Design, performance, and operation aspects of mixed flow turbofans are discussed. If the special silencing nozzle is too large, too heavy, or not as effective as expected, alternative concepts in mixed flow engines should be examined. Presented herein is a brief summary of efforts performed under cooperative agreement NCC3-193. Three alternative engine concepts, conceived during this study effort, are herein presented and their limitations and potentials are described. These three concepts intentionally avoid the use of special silencing nozzles and achieve low jet noise by airflow augmentation of the engine cycle.

  5. Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1994-01-01

    The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

  6. Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2005-02-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

  7. Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2005-02-06

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

  8. Propulsion system for a motor vehicle using a bidirectional energy converter

    DOEpatents

    Tamor, Michael Alan; Gale, Allan Roy

    1999-01-01

    A motor vehicle propulsion system includes an electrical energy source and a traction motor coupled to receive electrical energy from the electrical energy source. The system also has a first bus provided electrical energy by the electrical energy source and a second bus of relatively lower voltage than the first bus. In addition, the system includes an electrically-driven source of reaction gas for the electrical energy source, the source of reaction gas coupled to receive electrical energy from the first bus. Also, the system has an electrical storage device coupled to the second bus for storing electrical energy at the lower voltage. The system also includes a bidirectional energy converter coupled to convert electrical energy from the first bus to the second bus and from the second bus to the first bus.

  9. Preliminary Design of a Manned Nuclear Electric Propulsion Vehicle Using Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Ryan W.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicles will be needed for future manned missions to Mars and beyond. Candidate designs must be identified for further detailed design from a large array of possibilities. Genetic algorithms have proven their utility in conceptual design studies by effectively searching a large design space to pinpoint unique optimal designs. This research combined analysis codes for NEP subsystems with a genetic algorithm. The use of penalty functions with scaling ratios was investigated to increase computational efficiency. Also, the selection of design variables for optimization was considered to reduce computation time without losing beneficial design search space. Finally, trend analysis of a reference mission to the asteroids yielded a group of candidate designs for further analysis.

  10. Feasibility of Large High-Powered Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles: Issues and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capadona, Lynn A.; Woytach, Jeffrey M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Manzella, David H.; Christie, Robert J.; Hickman, Tyler A.; Schneidegger, Robert J.; Hoffman, David J.; Klem, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require the use of enabling technologies that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as an option to achieve human exploration missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) because of its favorable mass efficiency as compared to traditional chemical systems. This paper describes the unique challenges and technology hurdles associated with developing a large high-power SEP vehicle. A subsystem level breakdown of factors contributing to the feasibility of SEP as a platform for future exploration missions to NEOs is presented including overall mission feasibility, trip time variables, propellant management issues, solar array power generation, array structure issues, and other areas that warrant investment in additional technology or engineering development.

  11. Solar-electric-propulsion cargo vehicles for split/sprint Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Christopher E.; Crowe, Michael D.; Swis, Matthew J.; Mickney, Marcus R.; Montgomery, C. Keith; Walters, Robert; Thoden, Scott

    1991-01-01

    In support of the proposed exploration of Mars, an unmanned cargo ferry SEMM1 (Solar Electric Mars Mission) was designed. The vehicle is based on solar electric propulsion, and required to transport a cargo of 61,000 kg. The trajectory is a combination of spirals; first, out from LEO, then around the sun, then spiral down to low Mars orbit. The spacecraft produces 3.03 MWe power using photovoltaic flexible blanket arrays. Ion thrusters using argon as a propellant were selected to drive the ship, providing about 60 Newtons of thrust in low Earth orbit. The configuration is based on two long truss beams to which the 24 individual, self-deployable, solar arrays are attached. The main body module supports the two beams and houses the computers, electrical, and control equipment. The thruster module is attached to the rear of the main body, and the cargo to the front.

  12. Laboratory Demonstrations for PDE and Metals Combustion at NASA MSFC's Advanced Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Report provides status reporting on activities under order no. H-30549 for the period December 1 through December 31, 1999. Details the activities of the contract in the coordination of planned conduct of experiments at the MSFC Advanced Propulsion Laboratory in pulse detonation MHD power production and metals combustion.

  13. Precious bits: frame synchronization in Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS) system processes data received from deep-space spacecraft, where error rates are high, bit rates are low, and every bit is precious. Frame synchronization and data extraction as performed by AMMOS enhanced data acquisition and reliability for maximum data return and validity.

  14. Overview of Advanced Space Propulsion Activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David; Carruth, Ralph; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Kamenetzky, Rachel; Gray, Perry

    2000-01-01

    Exploration of our solar system, and beyond, requires spacecraft velocities beyond our current technological level. Technologies addressing this limitation are numerous. The Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is focused on three discipline areas of advanced propulsion; Tethers, Beamed Energy, and Plasma. This presentation will give an overview of advanced propulsion related activities in the Space Environmental Effects Team at MSFC. Advancements in the application of tethers for spacecraft propulsion were made while developing the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS). New tether materials were developed to meet the specifications of the ProSEDS mission and new techniques had to be developed to test and characterize these tethers. Plasma contactors were developed, tested and modified to meet new requirements. Follow-on activities in tether propulsion include the Air-SEDS activity. Beamed energy activities initiated with an experimental investigation to quantify the momentum transfer subsequent to high power, 5J, ablative laser interaction with materials. The next step with this experimental investigation is to quantify non-ablative photon momentum transfer. This step was started last year and will be used to characterize the efficiency of solar sail materials before and after exposure to Space Environmental Effects (SEE). Our focus with plasma, for propulsion, concentrates on optimizing energy deposition into a magnetically confined plasma and integration of measurement techniques for determining plasma parameters. Plasma confinement is accomplished with the Marshall Magnetic Mirror (M3) device. Initial energy coupling experiments will consist of injecting a 50 amp electron beam into a target plasma. Measurements of plasma temperature and density will be used to determine the effect of changes in magnetic field structure, beam current, and gas species. Experimental observations will be compared to

  15. Simulation of an advanced techniques of ion propulsion Rocket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ion propulsion rocket system is expected to become popular with the development of Deuterium,Argon gas and Hexagonal shape Magneto hydrodynamic(MHD) techniques because of the stimulation indirectly generated the power from ionization chamber,design of thrust range is 1.2 N with 40 KW of electric power and high efficiency.The proposed work is the study of MHD power generation through ionization level of Deuterium gas and combination of two gaseous ions(Deuterium gas ions + Argon gas ions) at acceleration stage.IPR consists of three parts 1.Hexagonal shape MHD based power generator through ionization chamber 2.ion accelerator 3.Exhaust of Nozzle.Initially the required energy around 1312 KJ/mol is carrying out the purpose of deuterium gas which is changed to ionization level.The ionized Deuterium gas comes out from RF ionization chamber to nozzle through MHD generator with enhanced velocity then after voltage is generated across the two pairs of electrode in MHD.it will produce thrust value with the help of mixing of Deuterium ion and Argon ion at acceleration position.The simulation of the IPR system has been carried out by MATLAB.By comparing the simulation results with the theoretical and previous results,if reaches that the proposed method is achieved of thrust value with 40KW power for simulating the IPR system.

  16. OTV Propulsion Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The statistical technology needs of aero-assist maneuvering, propulsion, and usage of cryogenic fluids were presented. Industry panels discussed the servicing of reusable space based vehicles and propulsion-vehicle interation.

  17. Rediscovering the potential of solid rocket propulsion systems for low cost launch vehicle and upper stage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, James S. B.

    1992-08-01

    Solid propulsion component technologies for future space systems must not only meet current upper stage and launch vehicle performance requirements, but must have significantly lower system life cycle costs. Innovative system concepts and component technologies must be developed to meet these goals. An in-house Phillips Laboratory, Propulsion Directorate program is working toward this goal. This in-house program is investigating and developing innovative technologies for all the major components in a solid rocket motor. In addition, work is being conducted to better understand the design, development and fabrication processes for conventional solid rocket motor components. Life cycle cost reduction technologies for these components are also being investigated.

  18. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

  19. Development and Testing of Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Lekki, John D.; Simon, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    An Integrated Vehicle Health Management system aims to maintain vehicle health through detection, diagnostics, state awareness, prognostics, and lastly, mitigation of detrimental situations for each of the vehicle subsystems and throughout the vehicle as a whole. This paper discusses efforts to advance Propulsion Health Management technology for in-flight applications to provide improved propulsion sensors measuring a range of parameters, improve ease of propulsion sensor implementation, and to assess and manage the health of gas turbine engine flow-path components. This combined work is intended to enable real-time propulsion state assessments to accurately determine the vehicle health, reduce loss of control, and to improve operator situational awareness. A unique aspect of this work is demonstration of these maturing technologies on an operational engine.

  20. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  1. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems: Summary report. [single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-state-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability beginning in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts were evaluated as well as the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  2. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  3. Advanced vehicles: Costs, energy use, and macroeconomic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guihua

    Advanced vehicles and alternative fuels could play an important role in reducing oil use and changing the economy structure. We developed the Costs for Advanced Vehicles and Energy (CAVE) model to investigate a vehicle portfolio scenario in California during 2010-2030. Then we employed a computable general equilibrium model to estimate macroeconomic impacts of the advanced vehicle scenario on the economy of California. Results indicate that, due to slow fleet turnover, conventional vehicles are expected to continue to dominate the on-road fleet and gasoline is the major transportation fuel over the next two decades. However, alternative fuels could play an increasingly important role in gasoline displacement. Advanced vehicle costs are expected to decrease dramatically with production volume and technological progress; e.g., incremental costs for fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen could break even with gasoline savings in 2028. Overall, the vehicle portfolio scenario is estimated to have a slightly negative influence on California's economy, because advanced vehicles are very costly and, therefore, the resulting gasoline savings generally cannot offset the high incremental expenditure on vehicles and alternative fuels. Sensitivity analysis shows that an increase in gasoline price or a drop in alternative fuel prices could offset a portion of the negative impact.

  4. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. For future high performance engines, the development of advanced ceramic barrier coating systems will allow these coatings to be used to simultaneously increase engine operating temperature and reduce cooling requirements, thereby leading to significant improvements in engine power density and efficiency. In order to meet future engine performance and reliability requirements, the coating systems must be designed with increased high temperature stability, lower thermal conductivity, and improved thermal stress and erosion resistance. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for high temperature and high-heat-flux engine applications in hot corrosion and oxidation, erosion, and combustion water vapor environments. Further coating performance and life improvements will be expected by utilizing advanced coating architecture design, composition optimization, and improved processing techniques, in conjunction with modeling and design tools.

  5. Propulsion and navigation within the advancing monolayer sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Zhou, Enhua H.; Park, Chan Young; Sadati, Monirosadat; Park, Jin-Ah; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Gweon, Bomi; Millet, Emil; Butler, James P.; Trepat, Xavier; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2013-09-01

    As a wound heals, or a body plan forms, or a tumour invades, observed cellular motions within the advancing cell swarm are thought to stem from yet to be observed physical stresses that act in some direct and causal mechanical fashion. Here we show that such a relationship between motion and stress is far from direct. Using monolayer stress microscopy, we probed migration velocities, cellular tractions and intercellular stresses in an epithelial cell sheet advancing towards an island on which cells cannot adhere. We found that cells located near the island exert tractions that pull systematically towards this island regardless of whether the cells approach the island, migrate tangentially along its edge, or paradoxically, recede from it. This unanticipated cell-patterning motif, which we call kenotaxis, represents the robust and systematic mechanical drive of the cellular collective to fill unfilled space.

  6. Potential benefits of propulsion and flight control integration for supersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    Typical airframe/propulsion interactions such as Mach/altitude excursions and inlet unstarts are reviewed. The improvements in airplane performance and flight control that can be achieved by improving the interfaces between propulsion and flight control are estimated. A research program to determine the feasibility of integrating propulsion and flight control is described. This program includes analytical studies and YF-12 flight tests.

  7. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 5: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    An appendix to the systems assessment for the electric hybrid vehicle project is presented. Included are battery design, battery cost, aluminum vehicle construction, IBM PC computer programs and battery discharge models.

  8. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  9. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  10. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Development for Advanced Propulsion Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) are used in gas turbine engines to protect engine hot-section components in the harsh combustion environments, and extend component lifetimes. Advanced TEBCs that have significantly lower thermal conductivity, better thermal stability and higher toughness than current coatings will be beneficial for future low emission and high performance propulsion engine systems. In this paper, ceramic coating design and testing considerations will be described for turbine engine high temperature and high-heat-flux applications. Thermal barrier coatings for metallic turbine airfoils and thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components for future supersonic aircraft propulsion engines will be emphasized. Further coating capability and durability improvements for the engine hot-section component applications can be expected by utilizing advanced modeling and design tools.

  11. Development of Sensors for Ceramic Components in Advanced Propulsion Systems. Phase 2; Temperature Sensor Systems Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The 'development of sensors for ceramic components in advanced propulsion systems' program is divided into two phases. The objectives of Phase 1 were to analyze, evaluate and recommend sensor concepts for the measurement of surface temperature, strain and heat flux on ceramic components for advanced propulsion systems. The results of this effort were previously published in NASA CR-182111. As a result of Phase 1, three approaches were recommended for further development: pyrometry, thin-film sensors, and thermographic phosphors. The objective of Phase 2 were to fabricate and conduct laboratory demonstration tests of these systems. Six materials, mutually agreed upon by NASA and Pratt & Whitney, were investigated under this program. This report summarizes the Phase 2 effort and provides conclusions and recommendations for each of the categories evaluated.

  12. Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Sources and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Dankanich, John; Colozza, Anthony; Schmitz, Paul; Khan, Omair; Drexler, Jon; Fittje, James

    2011-01-01

    A joint NASA GRC/JPL design study was performed for the NASA Radioisotope Power Systems Office to explore the use of radioisotope electric propulsion for flagship class missions. The Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter is a flagship class mission concept projected for launch in the 2030 timeframe. Due to the large size of a flagship class science mission larger radioisotope power system building blocks were conceptualized to provide the roughly 4 kW of power needed by the NEXT ion propulsion system and the spacecraft. Using REP the spacecraft is able to rendezvous with and orbit a Kuiper Belt object in 16 years using either eleven (no spare) 420 W advanced RTGs or nine (with a spare) 550 W advanced Stirling Radioisotope systems. The design study evaluated integrating either system and estimated impacts on cost as well as required General Purpose Heat Source requirements.

  13. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  14. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  15. Heating rates in a High-Energy Propulsion System (HEPS) Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). Final report, June-August 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1989-10-01

    Rocket-propulsion systems that use nuclear-energy sources present unique challenges to the design, safety, and reliability of the concept. Since the vehicle and its components must operate in high radiation fields, nuclear heating and radiation effects must be determined and factored into the system design. This report analyzes the nuclear heating in a High-Energy Propulsion System (HEPS) Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) nozzle. Using the FEMP2D (Finite Element, Multigroup, Pn, 2-Dimensional) code for an aluminum and carbon-carbon nozzle, it was determined that the heating contribution was found to be the significant source of heating for both materials. The overall heating rate in the aluminum nozzle (approx. 12 W/cc) was significantly higher than that found in the carbon-carbon nozzle (approx. 8 W/cc).

  16. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  17. An Integrated Approach to Modeling Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles During Long Duration, Near-Earth Orbit Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Sjauw, Waldy K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in utilizing solar electronic propulsion (SEP) technology to transfer payloads, e.g. from low-Earth orbit (LEO) to higher energy geostationary-Earth orbit (GEO) or to Earth escape, has necessitated the development of high fidelity SEP vehicle models and simulations. These models and simulations need to be capable of capturing vehicle dynamics and sub-system interactions experienced during the transfer trajectories which are typically accomplished with continuous-burn (potentially interrupted by solar eclipse), long duration "spiral out" maneuvers taking several months or more to complete. This paper presents details of an integrated simulation approach achieved by combining a high fidelity vehicle simulation code with a detailed solar array model. The combined simulation tool gives researchers the functionality to study the integrated effects of various vehicle sub-systems (e.g. vehicle guidance, navigation and control (GN&C), electric propulsion system (EP)) with time varying power production. Results from a simulation model of a vehicle with a 50 kW class SEP system using the integrated tool are presented and compared to the results from another simulation model employing a 50 kW end-of-life (EOL) fixed power level assumption. These models simulate a vehicle under three degree of freedom dynamics (i.e. translational dynamics only) and include the effects of a targeting guidance algorithm (providing a "near optimal" transfer) during a LEO to near Earth escape (C (sub 3) = -2.0 km (sup 2) / sec (sup -2) spiral trajectory. The presented results include the impact of the fully integrated, time-varying solar array model (e.g. cumulative array degradation from traversing the Van Allen belts, impact of solar eclipses on the vehicle and the related temperature responses in the solar arrays due to operating in the Earth's thermal environment, high fidelity array power module, etc.); these are used to assess the impact on vehicle performance (i

  18. Intelligent neuroprocessors for in-situ launch vehicle propulsion systems health management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulati, S.; Tawel, R.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    Efficacy of existing on-board propulsion systems health management systems (HMS) are severely impacted by computational limitations (e.g., low sampling rates); paradigmatic limitations (e.g., low-fidelity logic/parameter redlining only, false alarms due to noisy/corrupted sensor signatures, preprogrammed diagnostics only); and telemetry bandwidth limitations on space/ground interactions. Ultra-compact/light, adaptive neural networks with massively parallel, asynchronous, fast reconfigurable and fault-tolerant information processing properties have already demonstrated significant potential for inflight diagnostic analyses and resource allocation with reduced ground dependence. In particular, they can automatically exploit correlation effects across multiple sensor streams (plume analyzer, flow meters, vibration detectors, etc.) so as to detect anomaly signatures that cannot be determined from the exploitation of single sensor. Furthermore, neural networks have already demonstrated the potential for impacting real-time fault recovery in vehicle subsystems by adaptively regulating combustion mixture/power subsystems and optimizing resource utilization under degraded conditions. A class of high-performance neuroprocessors, developed at JPL, that have demonstrated potential for next-generation HMS for a family of space transportation vehicles envisioned for the next few decades, including HLLV, NLS, and space shuttle is presented. Of fundamental interest are intelligent neuroprocessors for real-time plume analysis, optimizing combustion mixture-ratio, and feedback to hydraulic, pneumatic control systems. This class includes concurrently asynchronous reprogrammable, nonvolatile, analog neural processors with high speed, high bandwidth electronic/optical I/O interfaced, with special emphasis on NASA's unique requirements in terms of performance, reliability, ultra-high density ultra-compactness, ultra-light weight devices, radiation hardened devices, power stringency

  19. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  20. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support project (HVTE-TS): Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This final technical report was prepared by Rolls-Royce Allison summarizing the multiyear activities of the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP) and the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine Technology Support (HVTE-TS) project. The ATTAP program was initiated in October 1987 and continued through 1993 under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Propulsion Systems, Advanced Propulsion Division. ATTAP was intended to advance the technological readiness of the automotive ceramic gas turbine engine. The target application was the prime power unit coupled to conventional transmissions and powertrains. During the early 1990s, hybrid electric powered automotive propulsion systems became the focus of development and demonstration efforts by the US auto industry and the Department of energy. Thus in 1994, the original ATTAP technology focus was redirected to meet the needs of advanced gas turbine electric generator sets. As a result, the program was restructured to provide the required hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support and the project renamed HVTE-TS. The overall objective of the combined ATTAP and HVTE-TS projects was to develop and demonstrate structural ceramic components that have the potential for competitive automotive engine life cycle cost and for operating 3,500 hr in an advanced high temperature turbine engine environment. This report describes materials characterization and ceramic component development, ceramic components, hot gasifier rig testing, test-bed engine testing, combustion development, insulation development, and regenerator system development. 130 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Application of CART3D to Complex Propulsion-Airframe Integration with Vehicle Sketch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP) is an easy-to-use modeler used to generate aircraft geometries for use in conceptual design and analysis. It has been used in the past to generate metageometries for aerodynamic analyses ranging from handbook methods to Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As desirable as it is to bring high order analyses, such as CFD, into the conceptual design process, this has been difficult and time consuming in practice due to the manual nature of both surface and volume grid generation. Over the last couple of years, VSP has had a major upgrade of its surface triangulation and export capability. This has enhanced its ability to work with Cart3D, an inviscid, three dimensional fluid flow toolset. The combination of VSP and Cart3D allows performing inviscid CFD on complex geometries with relatively high productivity. This paper will illustrate the use of VSP with Cart3D through an example case of a complex propulsion-airframe integration (PAI) of an over-wing nacelle (OWN) airliner configuration.

  2. Improved transistor-controlled and commutated brushless DC motors for electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Miller, R. H.; Nehl, T. W.; Nyamusa, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The development, design, construction, and testing processes of two electronically (transistor) controlled and commutated permanent magnet brushless dc machine systems, for propulsion of electric vehicles are detailed. One machine system was designed and constructed using samarium cobalt for permanent magnets, which supply the rotor (field) excitation. Meanwhile, the other machine system was designed and constructed with strontium ferrite permanent magnets as the source of rotor (field) excitation. These machine systems were designed for continuous rated power output of 15 hp (11.2 kw), and a peak one minute rated power output of 35 hp (26.1 kw). Both power ratings are for a rated voltage of 115 volts dc, assuming a voltage drop in the source (battery) of about 5 volts. That is, an internal source voltage of 120 volts dc. Machine-power conditioner system computer-aided simulations were used extensively in the design process. These simulations relied heavily on the magnetic field analysis in these machines using the method of finite elements, as well as methods of modeling of the machine power conditioner system dynamic interaction. These simulation processes are detailed. Testing revealed that typical machine system efficiencies at 15 hp (11.2 kw) were about 88% and 84% for the samarium cobalt and strontium ferrite based machine systems, respectively. Both systems met the peak one minute rating of 35 hp.

  3. On parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, J. Y.; Gonzalez, L. F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a review of existing and current developments and the analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems (HEPS) for small fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Efficient energy utilisation on an UAV is essential to its functioning, often to achieve the operational goals of range, endurance and other specific mission requirements. Due to the limitations of the space available and the mass budget on the UAV, it is often a delicate balance between the onboard energy available (i.e. fuel) and achieving the operational goals. One technology with potential in this area is with the use of HEPS. In this paper, information on the state-of-art technology in this field of research is provided. A description and simulation of a parallel HEPS for a small fixed-wing UAV by incorporating an Ideal Operating Line (IOL) control strategy is described. Simulation models of the components in a HEPS were designed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. An IOL analysis of an UAV piston engine was used to determine the most efficient points of operation for this engine. The results show that an UAV equipped with this HEPS configuration is capable of achieving a fuel saving of 6.5%, compared to the engine-only configuration.

  4. Battery Systems for X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) and Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric

    1998-01-01

    A 28V 32 Ah cell Li/MnO2 and a 28V NiMH battery systems for the Deorbit Propulsion Stage (DPS) and the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) are developed in Friwo-Silforkraft, Germany with the following objectives and approach: Provide safe battery designs for lowest volume and cost, and within schedule; Take advantage of less complex requests for V201 vs OPS CRV to simplify design and reduce cost; Use only existing commercial cell designs as building blocks for larger battery; Derive battery designs from the ASTRO-SPAS design which is the largest lithium battery design with Shuttle flight experience; Place maximum amount of battery energy on DPS; DPS battery is non rechargeable; and CRV batteries are rechargeable. This paper contains the following sections: a brief introduction on CRV requirements, CRV advantages over Soyuz, and X-38 programs; Battery objectives and approach; Battery requirements and groundrules (performance, on-orbit operation, etc); Design trades, solutions, redundancy plan, and margins; Envelope, size, and mass; Interfaces (structural, electrical & thermal); and Deviation from OPS CRV.

  5. Advanced Propulsion Systems Study for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study defines a family of advanced technology Stratified Charge Rotary Engines (SCRE) appropriate for the enablement of the development of a new generation of general aviation aircraft. High commonality, affordability, and environmental compatibility are considerations influencing the family composition and ratings. The SCRE family is comprised of three engines in the 70 Series (40 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e. one, two, and four rotor and two engines in the 170 Series (105 cu in. displacement per rotor), i.e., two and four rotor. The two rotor engines are considered the primary engines in each series. A wide power range is considered covering 125 to 2500 HP through growth and compounding/dual pac considerations. Mission requirements, TBO, FAA Certification, engine development cycles, and costs are examined. Comparisons to current and projected reciprocating and turbine engine configurations in the 125 to 1000 HP class are provided. Market impact, estimated sales, and U.S. job creation (R&D, manufacturing and infractures) are examined.

  6. Environmental statement for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science, launch vehicle and propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA OSS Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs are responsible for the launch of approximately 20 automated science and applications spacecraft per year. These launches are for NASA programs and those of other U. S. government agencies, private organizations, such as the Comsat Corporation, foreign countries, and international organizations. Launches occur from Cape Kennedy, Florida; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; Wallops Island, Virginia; and the San Marco Platform in the Indian Ocean off Kenya. Spacecraft launched by this program contribute in a variety of ways to the control of and betterment of the environment. Environmental effects caused by the launch vehicles are limited in extent, duration, and intensity and are considered insignificant.

  7. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  8. Characterization of the near-term electric vehicle (ETV-1) breadboard propulsion system over the SAE J227a driving schedule D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, N. B.; Dustin, M. O.

    1981-01-01

    The electric test vehicle one (ETV-1) was built from the ground up with present state of the art technology. Two vehicles were built and are presently being evaluated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A duplicate set of propulsion system components was built, mounted on a breadboard, and delivered to NASA's Lewis Research Center for testing on the road load simulator (RLS). Driving cycle tests completed on the system are described.

  9. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project, 1977-1984: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, D.; Roan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The JPL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project was established in the spring of 1977. Originally administered by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and later by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace. The ERDA/DOE Program structure was divided into two major elements: (1) technology research and system development and (2) field demonstration and market development. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been one of several field centers supporting the former Program element. In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: (1) Vehicle system developments (2) System integration and test (3) Supporting subsystem development (4) System assessments (5) Simulation tool development.

  10. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  11. Advanced chemical propulsion at NASA Lewis: Metallized and high energy density propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1991-01-01

    Two of the programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center investigating advanced systems for future space missions are the Metallized Propellant Program and the Advanced Concepts Program. Each program includes both experimental and theoretical studies of future propellants and the associated vehicle impacts and significant payload benefits for many types of space transportation. These programs are described.

  12. Initial Assessment of Open Rotor Propulsion Applied to an Advanced Single-Aisle Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.; Haller, William J.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to subsonic transport aircraft received significant attention and research in the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Recent volatility in fuel prices and concern for aviation s environmental impact have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion, and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Unfortunately, in the two decades that have passed since open rotor concepts were thoroughly investigated, NASA has lost experience and expertise in this technology area. This paper describes initial efforts to re-establish NASA s capability to assess aircraft designs with open rotor propulsion. Specifically, methodologies for aircraft-level sizing, performance analysis, and system-level noise analysis are described. Propulsion modeling techniques have been described in a previous paper. Initial results from application of these methods to an advanced single-aisle aircraft using open rotor engines based on historical blade designs are presented. These results indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide large reductions in fuel consumption and emissions. Initial noise analysis indicates that current noise regulations can be met with old blade designs and modern, noiseoptimized blade designs are expected to result in even lower noise levels. Although an initial capability has been established and initial results obtained, additional development work is necessary to make NASA s open rotor system analysis capability on par with existing turbofan analysis capabilities.

  13. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  14. Space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  15. Space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  16. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2002-12-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (1sp is approximately 850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power

  17. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Tools (AFAVT), AFDC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Web site offers a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  18. Advanced technologies for rocket single-stage-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhite, Alan W.; Bush, Lance B.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Morris, W. Douglas; Stanley, Douglas O.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    1991-01-01

    A single-stage-to-orbit vertical takeoff/horizontal landing rocket vehicle was studied to determine the benefits of advanced technology. Advanced technologies that were included in the study were variable mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen rocket engines and materials, structures, and subsystem technologies currently being developed in the National Aero-Space Plane Program. The application of advanced technology results in an 85 percent reduction in vehicle dry weight. With advanced materials, an external thermal protection system, like the Space Shuttle tiles, was not required. Compared to an all-airbreathing horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing vehicle using the same advanced technologies and mission requirements, the rocket vehicle is lighter in dry weight and has fewer subsystems. To increase reliability and safety, operational features were included in the rocket vehicle-robust subsystems, 5 percent additional margin, no slush hydrogen, fail-operational with an engine out, and a crew escape module. The resulting vehicle grew in dry weight and was still lower in dry weight than the airbreathing vehicle.

  19. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  20. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  1. Space Technology: Propulsion, Control and Guidance of Space Vehicles. Aerospace Education III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.; Mackin, T. E.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education III, includes a discussion of the essentials of propulsion, control, and guidance and the conditions of space travel. Chapter 1 provides a brief account of basic laws of celestial mechanics. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are devoted to the chemical principles of propulsion. Included are the basics of…

  2. Vehicle and Mission Design Options for the Human Exploration of Mars/Phobos Using "Bimodal" NTR and LANTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human missions to Mars because of its high specific impulse (Isp-850-1000 s) capability and its attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately equal 3-10). To stay within the available mass and payload volume limits of a "Magnum" heavy lift vehicle, a high performance propulsion system is required for trans-Mars injection (TMI). An expendable TMI stage, powered by three 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NTR engines is currently under consideration by NASA for its Design Reference Mission (DRM). However, because of the miniscule burnup of enriched uranium-235 during the Earth departure phase (approximately 10 grams out of 33 kilograms in each NTR core), disposal of the TMI stage and its engines after a single use is a costly and inefficient use of this high performance stage. By reconfiguring the engines for both propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as "bimodal" operation), a robust, multiple burn, "power-rich" stage with propulsive Mars capture and reuse capability is possible, A family of modular "bimodal" NTR (BNTR) vehicles are described which utilize a common "core" stage powered by three 15 klbf BNTRs that produce 50 kWe of total electrical power for crew life support, an active refrigeration / reliquification system for long term, "zero-boiloff" liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage, and high data rate communications. An innovative, spine-like "saddle truss" design connects the core stage and payload element and is open underneath to allow supplemental "in-line" propellant tanks and contingency crew consumables to be easily jettisoned to improve vehicle performance. A "modified" DRM using BNTR transfer vehicles requires fewer transportation system elements, reduces IMLEO and mission risk, and simplifies space operations. By taking the next logical step--use of the BNTR for propulsive capture of all payload elements into Mars orbit--the power available in

  3. Three-dimensional modeling of an ideal nozzle for advanced propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillo, Kevin

    Advanced propulsion systems such as pulsed fission and fusion rockets hold the potential for opening up the solar system in ways few other propulsion technologies can. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is exploring one such concept in the form of pulsed z-pinch fusion propulsion. One of the technical hurdles to utilizing any pulsed fusion concept is the conversion from an isotropic expansion of a plasma into directed motion to produce thrust. This thesis investigates three dimensional modeling of pulsed nozzle performance in which the initial gas is a cylindrical gas column, emulating the initial conditions found in pulsed plasma discharges common in fusion experiments. Two nozzle geometries were investigated, a pusher plate and a hemispherical nozzle. Simulations of these systems were conducted using SPFMax, a recently developed smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPH). The SPH method was chosen because it is naturally adaptive and accurate for resolving the vacuum/gas boundary which always exists in pulsed fusion systems. Argon plasma was used to compare the two systems to determine which offers better performance. The plasma was also subjected to a wide variety of shapes and initial conditions to determine what would offer higher performance for the two systems.

  4. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  5. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  6. Investigation of advanced propulsion technologies: The RAM accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Knowlen, C.; Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1992-01-01

    The two principal areas of advanced propulsion investigated are the ram accelerator and the flowing gas radiation heater. The concept of the ram accelerator is presented as a hypervelocity launcher for large-scale aeroballistic range applications in hypersonics and aerothermodynamics research. The ram accelerator is an in-bore ramjet device in which a projectile shaped like the centerbody of a supersonic ramjet is propelled in a stationary tube filled with a tailored combustible gas mixture. Combustion on and behind the projectile generates thrust which accelerates it to very high velocities. The acceleration can be tailored for the 'soft launch' of instrumented models. The distinctive reacting flow phenomena that have been observed in the ram accelerator are relevant to the aerothermodynamic processes in airbreathing hypersonic propulsion systems and are useful for validating sophisticated CFD codes. The recently demonstrated scalability of the device and the ability to control the rate of acceleration offer unique opportunities for the use of the ram accelerator as a large-scale hypersonic ground test facility. The flowing gas radiation receiver is a novel concept for using solar energy to heat a working fluid for space power or propulsion. Focused solar radiation is absorbed directly in a working gas, rather than by heat transfer through a solid surface. Previous theoretical analysis had demonstrated that radiation trapping reduces energy loss compared to that of blackbody receivers, and enables higher efficiencies and higher peak temperatures. An experiment was carried out to measure the temperature profile of an infrared-active gas and demonstrate the effect of radiation trapping. The success of this effort validates analytical models of heat transfer in this receiver, and confirms the potential of this approach for achieving high efficiency space power and propulsion.

  7. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  8. Consumer Views on Transportation and Advanced Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, U.S. Department of Energy laboratories, universities, private researchers, and organizations from countries around the globe are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce gasoline and diesel consumption. This report details study findings of broad American public sentiments toward issues surrounding advanced vehicle technologies and is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, increase mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability. Understanding and tracking consumer sentiments can influence the prioritization of development efforts by identifying barriers to and opportunities for broad acceptance of new technologies. Predicting consumer behavior toward developing technologies and products is inherently inexact. A person's stated preference given in an interview about a hypothetical setting may not match the preference that is demonstrated in an actual situation. This difference makes tracking actual consumer actions ultimately more valuable in understanding potential behavior. However, when developing technologies are not yet available and actual behaviors cannot be tracked, stated preferences provide some insight into how consumers may react in new circumstances. In this context this report provides an additional source to validate data and a new resource when no data are available. This report covers study data captured from December 2005 through June 2015 relevant to VTO research efforts at the time of the studies. Broadly the report covers respondent sentiments about vehicle fuel economy, future vehicle technology alternatives, ethanol as a vehicle fuel, plug-in electric vehicles, and willingness to pay for vehicle efficiency. This report represents a renewed effort to publicize study findings and make consumer sentiment data available to

  9. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phases 3 and 4. [variable cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, R. D.; Joy, W.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of various advanced propulsion concepts for supersonic cruise aircraft resulted in the identification of the double-bypass variable cycle engine as the most promising concept. This engine design utilizes special variable geometry components and an annular exhaust nozzle to provide high take-off thrust and low jet noise. The engine also provides good performance at both supersonic cruise and subsonic cruise. Emission characteristics are excellent. The advanced technology double-bypass variable cycle engine offers an improvement in aircraft range performance relative to earlier supersonic jet engine designs and yet at a lower level of engine noise. Research and technology programs required in certain design areas for this engine concept to realize its potential benefits include refined parametric analysis of selected variable cycle engines, screening of additional unconventional concepts, and engine preliminary design studies. Required critical technology programs are summarized.

  10. Prospects for advanced rocket-powered launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, C. H.; Talay, T. A.

    1986-10-01

    The potential for advanced rocket-powered launch vehicles to meet the challenging cost, operational, and performance demands of space transportation in the early 21st century is examined. Space transportation requirements from recent studies underscoring the need for growth in capacity in support of an increasing diversity of space activities and the need for significant reductions in operational and life-cycle costs are reviewed. Fully reusable rocket powered concepts based on moderate levels of evolutionary advanced technology are described. These vehicles provide a broad range of attractive concept alternatives with the potential to meet demanding operational and cost goals and the flexibility to satisfy a variety of vehicle architecture, mission, vehicle concept, and technology options.

  11. Prospects for advanced rocket-powered launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.; Talay, Theodore A.

    The potential for advanced rocket-powered launch vehicles to meet the challenging cost, operational, and performance demands of space transportation in the early 21st century is examined. Space transportation requirements from recent studies underscoring the need for growth in capacity in support of an increasing diversity of space activities and the need for significant reductions in operational and life-cycle costs are reviewed. Fully reusable rocket powered concepts based on moderate levels of evolutionary advanced technology are described. These vehicles provide a broad range of attractive concept alternatives with the potential to meet demanding operational and cost goals and the flexibility to satisfy a variety of vehicle architecture, mission, vehicle concept, and technology options.

  12. Continuously variable transmission: Assessment of applicability to advance electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical account of the evolution of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for automotive use is given. The CVT concepts which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles are discussed. The arrangement and function of several CVT concepts are cited along with their current developmental status. The results of preliminary design studies conducted on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are discussed.

  13. Space transfer vehicle avionics advanced development needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of preliminary transportation program options for the exploration initiative is underway. The exploration initiative for the Moon and Mars is outlined by mission phases. A typical lunar/Mars outpost technology/advanced development schedule is provided. An aggressive and focused technology development program is needed as early as possible to successfully support these new initiatives. The avionics advanced development needs, plans, laboratory facilities, and benefits from an early start are described.

  14. Feasibility of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) for transit buses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    In the course of developing automated vehicle-roadway systems, opportunities to deploy vehicle control systems art intermediate stages of development may emerge. Some of these systems may provide a significant efficiency or safety enhancement to existing operations with manually driven vehicles. Under certain circumstances, transit buses provide an ideal testbed for such systems. The work presented here represents a feasibility study for the application of advanced vehicle control systems (AVCS) to transit bus operations. The paper explores past and present research relevant to automatic control for buses and recommends specific operations which could be better performed by AVCS- assisted or controlled vehicles. A survey of feasible technologies for the guidance and control of the buses is also presented.

  15. Advanced continuously variable transmissions for electric and hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A brief survey of past and present continuously variable transmissions (CVT) which are potentially suitable for application with electric and hybrid vehicles is presented. Discussion of general transmission requirements and benefits attainable with a CVT for electric vehicle use is given. The arrangement and function of several specific CVT concepts are cited along with their current development status. Lastly, the results of preliminary design studies conducted under a NASA contract for DOE on four CVT concepts for use in advanced electric vehicles are reviewed.

  16. Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)

  17. Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion IVHM Technology Experiment (PITEX) successfully demonstrated real-time fault detection and isolation of a virtual reusable launch vehicle (RLV) main propulsion system (MPS). Specifically, the PITEX research project developed and applied a model-based diagnostic system for the MPS of the X-34 RLV, a space-launch technology demonstrator. The demonstration was simulation-based using detailed models of the propulsion subsystem to generate nominal and failure scenarios during captive carry, which is the most safety-critical portion of the X-34 flight. Since no system-level testing of the X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) was performed, these simulated data were used to verify and validate the software system. Advanced diagnostic and signal processing algorithms were developed and tested in real time on flight-like hardware. In an attempt to expose potential performance problems, the PITEX diagnostic system was subjected to numerous realistic effects in the simulated data including noise, sensor resolution, command/valve talkback information, and nominal build variations. In all cases, the PITEX system performed as required. The research demonstrated potential benefits of model-based diagnostics, defined performance metrics required to evaluate the diagnostic system, and studied the impact of real-world challenges encountered when monitoring propulsion subsystems.

  18. Nuclear concepts/propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion systems will enable and/or enhance important space exploration missions to the moon and Mars. Current efforts are addressing certain research areas, although NASA and DOE still have much work yet to do. Relative to chemical systems, nuclear thermal propulsion offers the potential of reduced vehicle weight, wider launch windows. and shorter transit times, even without aerobrakes. This would improve crew safety by reducing their exposure to cosmic radiation. Advanced materials and structures will be an important resource in responding to the challenges posed by safety and test facility requirements, environmental concerns, high temperature fuels and the high radiation, hot hydrogen environment within nuclear thermal propulsion systems. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) has its own distinct set of advantages relative to chemical systems. These include low resupply mass, the availability of large amounts of onboard electric power for other uses besides propulsion, improved launch windows, and the ability to share technology with surface power systems. Development efforts for NEP reactors will emphasize long life operation of compact designs. This will require designs that provide high fuel burnup and high temperature operation along with personnel and environmental safety.

  19. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Choi, Jachoon; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    High- and low-frequency methods to analyze various radiation elements located on aerospace vehicles with combinations of conducting, nonconducting, and energy absorbing surfaces and interfaces. The focus was on developing fundamental concepts, techniques, and algorithms which would remove some of the present limitations in predicting radiation characteristics of antennas on complex aerospace vehicles. In order to accomplish this, the following subjects were examined: (1) the development of techniques for rigorous analysis of surface discontinuities of metallic and nonmetallic surfaces using the equivalent surface impedance concept and Green's function; (2) the effects of anisotropic material on antenna radiation patterns through the use of an equivalent surface impedance concept which is incorporated into the existing numerical electromagnetics computer codes; and (3) the fundamental concepts of precipitation static (P-Static), such as formulations and analytical models. A computer code was used to model the P-Static process on a simple structure. Measurement techniques were also developed to characterized the electrical properties at microwave frequencies. Samples of typical materials used in airframes were tested and the results are included.

  20. Electric Remotely Piloted Vehicle (ERPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. O.; Sherman, M. L.

    1983-09-01

    Electric propulsion offers significant advantages over the present gasoline engine propulsion system on a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV). The advantages are the result of technical advances in batteries, power transistors, permanent magnets and control methods. This report covers the ground and flight test of an RPV using a lithium thionyl chloride battery powering a samarium cobalt brushless dc motor.

  1. Propulsion Simulations Using Advanced Turbulence Models with the Unstructured Grid CFD Tool, TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.; Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohangna J.

    2004-01-01

    A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of TetrUSS for exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study (1) an axisymmetric supersonic jet, (2) a transonic axisymmetric boattail with solid sting operated at different Reynolds number and Mach number, and (3) an isolated non-axisymmetric nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing experimental data provided a means for measuring the ability of TetrUSS for simulating complex nozzle flows. The main objective of this paper is to validate the implementation of advanced two-equation turbulence models in the unstructured-grid CFD code USM3D for propulsion flow cases. USM3D is the flow solver of the TetrUSS system. Three different turbulence models, namely, Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), basic k epsilon, and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) are used in the present study. The results are generally in agreement with other implementations of these models in structured-grid CFD codes. Results indicate that USM3D provides accurate simulations for complex aerodynamic configurations with propulsion integration.

  2. Aerodynamics of the advanced launch system (ALS) propulsion and avionics (P/A) module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Stan; Savage, Dick

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of candidate Advanced Launch System (ALS) Propulsion and Avionics (P/A) Module configurations. The P/A Module is a key element of future launch systems because it is essential to the recovery and reuse of high-value propulsion and avionics hardware. The ALS approach involves landing of first stage (booster) and/or second stage (core) P/A modules near the launch site to minimize logistics and refurbishment cost. The key issue addressed herein is the aerodynamic design of the P/A module, including the stability characteristics and the lift-to-drag (L/D) performance required to achieve the necessary landing guidance accuracy. The reference P/A module configuration was found to be statically stable for the desired flight regime, to provide adequate L/D for targeting, and to have effective modulation of the L/D performance using a body flap. The hypersonic aerodynamic trends for nose corner radius, boattail angle and body flap deflections were consistent with pretest predictions. However, the levels for the L/D and axial force for hypersonic Mach numbers were overpredicted by impact theories.

  3. Electric propulsion, circa 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, W. R.; Finke, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the future of electric propulsion, circa 2000. Starting with the first generation Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technology as the first step toward the next century's advanced propulsion systems, the current status and future trends of other systems such as the magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator, the mass driver, the laser propulsion system, and the rail gun are described.

  4. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology program overview: Impact of civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Propulsion Technology Program is dedicated to advancing rocket engine technologies for the development of fully reusable engine systems that will enable space transportation systems to achieve low cost, routine access to space. The program addresses technology advancements in the areas of engine life extension/prediction, performance enhancements, reduced ground operations costs, and in-flight fault tolerant engine operations. The primary objective is to acquire increased knowledge and understanding of rocket engine chemical and physical processes in order to evolve more realistic analytical simulations of engine internal environments, to derive more accurate predictions of steady and unsteady loads, and using improved structural analyses, to more accurately predict component life and performance, and finally to identify and verify more durable advanced design concepts. In addition, efforts were focused on engine diagnostic needs and advances that would allow integrated health monitoring systems to be developed for enhanced maintainability, automated servicing, inspection, and checkout, and ultimately, in-flight fault tolerant engine operations.

  5. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  6. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program continues its research on variety of main topics identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities center on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. While most of the topics are a continuation of previous works, special effort has been focused on some of the areas due to recommendations from the last annual conference. The main topics addressed in this report are: composite materials, and antenna technology. The area of composite materials continues getting special attention in this period. The research has focused on: (1) measurements of the electrical properties of low-conductivity materials; (2) modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on the scattering patterns; (3) preliminary analysis on interaction of electromagnetic fields with multi-layered graphite fiberglass plates; and (4) finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling of fields penetration through composite panels of a helicopter.

  7. Hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle performance testing by the US Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and vehicle development programs. The AVTA has tested full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting baseline performance, battery benchmark and fleet tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 2.5 million test miles. Testing is currently incorporating PHEVs from four different vehicle converters. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory.

  8. Advances in Engine Test Capabilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter M.; Panek, Joseph W.; Dicki, Dennis J.; Piendl, Barry R.; Lizanich, Paul J.; Klann, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center is one of the premier U.S. facilities for research on advanced aeropropulsion systems. The facility can simulate a wide range of altitude and Mach number conditions while supplying the aeropropulsion system with all the support services necessary to operate at those conditions. Test data are recorded on a combination of steady-state and highspeed data-acquisition systems. Recently a number of upgrades were made to the facility to meet demanding new requirements for the latest aeropropulsion concepts and to improve operational efficiency. Improvements were made to data-acquisition systems, facility and engine-control systems, test-condition simulation systems, video capture and display capabilities, and personnel training procedures. This paper discusses the facility s capabilities, recent upgrades, and planned future improvements.

  9. Advanced Vehicle Concepts and Implications for NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matt; Smith, Jim; Wright, Ken; Mediavilla Ricky; Kirby, Michelle; Pfaender, Holger; Clarke, John-Paul; Volovoi, Vitali; Dorbian, Christopher; Ashok, Akshay; Reynolds, Tom; Waitz, Ian; Hileman, James; Arunachalam, Sarav; Hedrick, Matt; Vempati, Lakshmi; Laroza, Ryan; denBraven, Wim; Henderson, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the results of a major NASA study of advanced vehicle concepts and their implications for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Comprising the efforts of dozens of researchers at multiple institutions, the analyses presented here cover a broad range of topics including business-case development, vehicle design, avionics, procedure design, delay, safety, environmental impacts, and metrics. The study focuses on the following five new vehicle types: Cruise-efficient short takeoff and landing (CESTOL) vehicles Large commercial tiltrotor aircraft (LCTRs) Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) Very light jets (VLJs) Supersonic transports (SST). The timeframe of the study spans the years 2025-2040, although some analyses are also presented for a 3X scenario that has roughly three times the number of flights as today. Full implementation of NextGen is assumed.

  10. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  11. Laser Propulsion for LOTV Space Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Rezunkov, Yuri A.

    2004-03-30

    Advanced Space Propulsion-Investigation Committee (ASPIC) of the Japan Society for Aeronautics and Space Sciences (JSASS) selected the Laser Orbital Transfer Vehicle (LOTV) project for development of non-chemical space propulsion systems that have a capability to sustain expanded human space activities in the 21st century. This talk is presenting an analysis of the laser propulsion researches made within the frames of the ISTC Project no. 1801 as applied to the LOTV Project. The study includes the development of techniques for low-thrust maneuvers of the spacecraft to achieve geostationary orbits.

  12. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Hashemi-Yeganeh, Shahrokh; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics is centered on issues that advance technology related to helicopter electromagnetics. Progress was made on three major topics: composite materials; precipitation static corona discharge; and antenna technology. In composite materials, the research has focused on the measurements of their electrical properties, and the modeling of material discontinuities and their effect on the radiation pattern of antennas mounted on or near material surfaces. The electrical properties were used to model antenna performance when mounted on composite materials. Since helicopter platforms include several antenna systems at VHF and UHF bands, measuring techniques are being explored that can be used to measure the properties at these bands. The effort on corona discharge and precipitation static was directed toward the development of a new two dimensional Voltage Finite Difference Time Domain computer program. Results indicate the feasibility of using potentials for simulating electromagnetic problems in the cases where potentials become primary sources. In antenna technology the focus was on Polarization Diverse Conformal Microstrip Antennas, Cavity Backed Slot Antennas, and Varactor Tuned Circular Patch Antennas. Numerical codes were developed for the analysis of two probe fed rectangular and circular microstrip patch antennas fed by resistive and reactive power divider networks.

  13. Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite for modeling advanced flight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Nicholas J.

    This work extends existing Galerkin CFD solvers for use in a multi-disciplinary suite. The suite is proposed as a means of modeling advanced flight vehicles, which exhibit strong coupling between aerodynamics, structural dynamics, controls, rigid body motion, propulsion, and heat transfer. Such applications include aeroelastics, aeroacoustics, stability and control, and other highly coupled applications. The suite uses NASA STARS for modeling structural dynamics and heat transfer. Aerodynamics, propulsion, and rigid body dynamics are modeled in one of the five CFD solvers below. Euler2D and Euler3D are Galerkin CFD solvers created at OSU by Cowan (2003). These solvers are capable of modeling compressible inviscid aerodynamics with modal elastics and rigid body motion. This work reorganized these solvers to improve efficiency during editing and at run time. Simple and efficient propulsion models were added, including rocket, turbojet, and scramjet engines. Viscous terms were added to the previous solvers to create NS2D and NS3D. The viscous contributions were demonstrated in the inertial and non-inertial frames. Variable viscosity (Sutherland's equation) and heat transfer boundary conditions were added to both solvers but not verified in this work. Two turbulence models were implemented in NS2D and NS3D: Spalart-Allmarus (SA) model of Deck, et al. (2002) and Menter's SST model (1994). A rotation correction term (Shur, et al., 2000) was added to the production of turbulence. Local time stepping and artificial dissipation were adapted to each model. CFDsol is a Taylor-Galerkin solver with an SA turbulence model. This work improved the time accuracy, far field stability, viscous terms, Sutherland?s equation, and SA model with NS3D as a guideline and added the propulsion models from Euler3D to CFDsol. Simple geometries were demonstrated to utilize current meshing and processing capabilities. Air-breathing hypersonic flight vehicles (AHFVs) represent the ultimate

  14. An advanced unmanned vehicle for remote applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Sackos, J.

    1998-03-01

    An autonomous mobile robotic capability is critical to developing remote work applications for hazardous environments. A few potential applications include humanitarian demining and ordnance neutralization, extraterrestrial science exploration, and hazardous waste cleanup. The ability of the remote platform to sense and maneuver within its environment is a basic technology requirement which is currently lacking. This enabling technology will open the door for force multiplication and cost effective solutions to remote operations. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a mobile robotic platform that can identify and avoid local obstacles as it traverses from its current location to a specified destination. This goal directed autonomous navigation scheme uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to identify the robot`s current coordinates in space and neural network processing of LADAR range images for local obstacle detection and avoidance. The initial year funding provided by this LDRD project has developed a small exterior mobile robotic development platform and a fieldable version of Sandia`s Scannerless Range Imager (SRI) system. The robotic testbed platform is based on the Surveillance And Reconnaissance ground Equipment (SARGE) robotic vehicle design recently developed for the US DoD. Contingent upon follow-on funding, future enhancements will develop neural network processing of the range map data to traverse unstructured exterior terrain while avoiding obstacles. The SRI will provide real-time range images to a neural network for autonomous guidance. Neural network processing of the range map data will allow real-time operation on a Pentium based embedded processor board.

  15. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  16. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  17. Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project - N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concepts Study and Conceptual Design of Subscale Test Vehicle (STV) Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonet, John T.; Schellenger, Harvey G.; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Elmer, Kevin R.; Wakayama, Sean R.; Brown, Derrell L.; Guo, Yueping

    2011-01-01

    NASA has set demanding goals for technology developments to meet national needs to improve fuel efficiency concurrent with improving the environment to enable air transportation growth. A figure shows NASA's subsonic transport system metrics. The results of Boeing ERA N+2 Advanced Vehicle Concept Study show that the Blended Wing Body (BWB) vehicle, with ultra high bypass propulsion systems have the potential to meet the combined NASA ERA N+2 goals. This study had 3 main activities. 1) The development of an advanced vehicle concepts that can meet the NASA system level metrics. 2) Identification of key enabling technologies and the development of technology roadmaps and maturation plans. 3) The development of a subscale test vehicle that can demonstrate and mature the key enabling technologies needed to meet the NASA system level metrics. Technology maturation plans are presented and include key performance parameters and technical performance measures. The plans describe the risks that will be reduced with technology development and the expected progression of technical maturity.

  18. Control definition study for advanced vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Martorella, R. P.; Klein, R. W.; Meyer, R. C.; Sturm, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The low speed, high angle of attack flight mechanics of an advanced, canard-configured, supersonic tactical aircraft designed with moderate longitudinal relaxed static stability (Static Margin, SM = 16% C sub W at M = 0.4) was investigated. Control laws were developed for the longitudinal axis (""G'' or maneuver and angle of attack command systems) and for the lateral/directional axes. The performance of these control laws was examined in engineering simulation. A canard deflection/rate requirement study was performed as part of the ""G'' command law evaluation at low angles of attack. Simulated coupled maneuvers revealed the need for command limiters in all three aircraft axes to prevent departure from controlled flight. When modified with command/maneuver limiters, the control laws were shown to be adequate to prevent aircraft departure during aggressive air combat maneuvering.

  19. Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicle Demonstration to Support Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Nazario, Margaret L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.

    2012-01-01

    Human and robotic exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable, and reliable. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is highly advantageous because of its favorable in-space mass transfer efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. The NASA studies have demonstrated that this advantage becomes highly significant as missions progress beyond Earth orbit. Recent studies of human exploration missions and architectures evaluated the capabilities needed to perform a variety of human exploration missions including missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The studies demonstrated that SEP stages have potential to be the most cost effective solution to perform beyond LEO transfers of high mass cargoes for human missions. Recognizing that these missions require power levels more than 10X greater than current electric propulsion systems, NASA embarked upon a progressive pathway to identify critical technologies needed and a plan for an incremental demonstration mission. The NASA studies identified a 30kW class demonstration mission that can serve as a meaningful demonstration of the technologies, operational challenges, and provide the appropriate scaling and modularity required. This paper describes the planning options for a representative demonstration 30kW class SEP mission.

  20. Hybrid propulsion systems for motor vehicles with predominantly intermittent modes of operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartsch, H.; Helling, J.; Schreck, H.

    1977-01-01

    A small delivery vehicle was equipped with a flywheel-hybrid drive and compared in test stand and driving tests with a conventional drive vehicle. It turned out that with the hybrid drive, energy can be saved and exhaust emissions can be reduced.

  1. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's history with nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) technology goes back to the earliest days of the Agency. The Manned Lunar Rover Vehicle and the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications p...

  2. Recycling readiness of advanced batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jungst, R.G.

    1997-09-01

    Maximizing the reclamation/recycle of electric-vehicle (EV) batteries is considered to be essential for the successful commercialization of this technology. Since the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy has sponsored the ad hoc advanced battery readiness working group to review this and other possible barriers to the widespread use of EVs, such as battery shipping and in-vehicle safety. Regulation is currently the main force for growth in EV numbers and projections for the states that have zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) programs indicate about 200,000 of these vehicles would be offered to the public in 2003 to meet those requirements. The ad hoc Advanced Battery Readiness Working Group has identified a matrix of battery technologies that could see use in EVs and has been tracking the state of readiness of recycling processes for each of them. Lead-acid, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion are the three EV battery technologies proposed by the major automotive manufacturers affected by ZEV requirements. Recycling approaches for the two advanced battery systems on this list are partly defined, but could be modified to recover more value from end-of-life batteries. The processes being used or planned to treat these batteries are reviewed, as well as those being considered for other longer-term technologies in the battery recycling readiness matrix. Development efforts needed to prepare for recycling the batteries from a much larger EV population than exists today are identified.

  3. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  4. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has continuously progressed with its research effort focused on subjects identified and recommended by the Advisory Task Force of the program. The research activities in this reporting period have been steered toward practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antenna problems and antenna efficiencies, recommended by the AHE members at the annual conference held at Arizona State University on 28-29 Oct. 1992 and the last biannual meeting held at the Boeing Helicopter on 19-20 May 1993. The main topics addressed include the following: Composite Materials and Antenna Technology. The research work on each topic is closely tied with the AHE Consortium members' interests. Significant progress in each subject is reported. Special attention in the area of Composite Materials has been given to the following: modeling of material discontinuity and their effects on towel-bar antenna patterns; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; measurements of towel-bar antennas grounded with a partially material-coated plate; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; FDTD modeling of horn antennas with composite E-plane walls; and antenna efficiency analysis for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  5. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  6. Advanced electromagnetic methods for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balanis, Constantine A.; Sun, Weimin; El-Sharawy, El-Budawy; Aberle, James T.; Birtcher, Craig R.; Peng, Jian; Tirkas, Panayiotis A.; Andrew, William V.; Kokotoff, David; Zavosh, Frank

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Helicopter Electromagnetics (AHE) Industrial Associates Program has fruitfully completed its fourth year. Under the support of the AHE members and the joint effort of the research team, new and significant progress has been achieved in the year. Following the recommendations by the Advisory Task Force, the research effort is placed on more practical helicopter electromagnetic problems, such as HF antennas, composite materials, and antenna efficiencies. In this annual report, the main topics to be addressed include composite materials and antenna technology. The research work on each topic has been driven by the AHE consortium members' interests and needs. The remarkable achievements and progresses in each subject is reported respectively in individual sections of the report. The work in the area of composite materials includes: modeling of low conductivity composite materials by using Green's function approach; guidelines for composite material modeling by using the Green's function approach in the NEC code; development of 3-D volume mesh generator for modeling thick and volumetric dielectrics by using FD-TD method; modeling antenna elements mounted on a composite Comanche tail stabilizer; and antenna pattern control and efficiency estimate for a horn antenna loaded with composite dielectric materials.

  7. An economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. L.; Williams, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used and the results of an economic study of an advanced technology supersonic cruise vehicle. This vehicle was designed for a maximum range of 4000 n.mi. at a cruise speed of Mach 2.7 and carrying 292 passengers. The economic study includes the estimation of aircraft unit cost, operating cost, and idealized cash flow and discounted cash flow return on investment. In addition, it includes a sensitivity study on the effects of unit cost, manufacturing cost, production quantity, average trip length, fuel cost, load factor, and fare on the aircraft's economic feasibility.

  8. Adaptive Modeling, Engineering Analysis and Design of Advanced Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Hsu, Su-Yuen; Mason, Brian H.; Hicks, Mike D.; Jones, William T.; Sleight, David W.; Chun, Julio; Spangler, Jan L.; Kamhawi, Hilmi; Dahl, Jorgen L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes initial progress towards the development and enhancement of a set of software tools for rapid adaptive modeling, and conceptual design of advanced aerospace vehicle concepts. With demanding structural and aerodynamic performance requirements, these high fidelity geometry based modeling tools are essential for rapid and accurate engineering analysis at the early concept development stage. This adaptive modeling tool was used for generating vehicle parametric geometry, outer mold line and detailed internal structural layout of wing, fuselage, skin, spars, ribs, control surfaces, frames, bulkheads, floors, etc., that facilitated rapid finite element analysis, sizing study and weight optimization. The high quality outer mold line enabled rapid aerodynamic analysis in order to provide reliable design data at critical flight conditions. Example application for structural design of a conventional aircraft and a high altitude long endurance vehicle configuration are presented. This work was performed under the Conceptual Design Shop sub-project within the Efficient Aerodynamic Shape and Integration project, under the former Vehicle Systems Program. The project objective was to design and assess unconventional atmospheric vehicle concepts efficiently and confidently. The implementation may also dramatically facilitate physics-based systems analysis for the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Mission. In addition to providing technology for design and development of unconventional aircraft, the techniques for generation of accurate geometry and internal sub-structure and the automated interface with the high fidelity analysis codes could also be applied towards the design of vehicles for the NASA Exploration and Space Science Mission projects.

  9. An evaluation of composite propulsion for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles designed for horizontal take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Composite propulsion was analyzed for single-stage-to-orbit vehicles designed for horizontal take-off. Trajectory, geometric, and mass analyses were performed to establish the orbital payload capability of six engines. The results indicated that none of the engines performed adequately to deliver payloads to orbit as analyzed. The single-stage turbine and oxidizer-rich gas generator resulted in a low engine specific impulse, and the performance increment of the ejector subsystem was less than that of a separate rocket system with a high combustion pressure. There was a benefit from incorporating a fan into the engine, and removal of the fan from the airstream during the ramjet mode increased the orbital payload capability.

  10. Propulsion Technology Needs for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of currently planned exploration efforts, as well as those further in the future, require significant advancements in propulsion technologies. The current Lunar exploration architecture has set goals and mission objectives that necessitate the use of new systems and the extension of existing technologies beyond present applications. In the near term, the majority of these technologies are the result of a need to apply high performing cryogenic propulsion systems to long duration in-space applications. Advancement of cryogenic propulsion to these applications is crucial to provide higher performing propulsion systems that reduce the vehicle masses; enhance the safety of vehicle systems and ground operations; and provide a path for In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU).Use of a LOX/LH2 main propulsion system for Lunar Lander Descent is a top priority because more conventional storable propellants are far from meeting the performance needs of the current architecture. While LOX/LH2 pump feed engines have been used in flight applications for many years, these engines have limited throttle capabilities. Engines that are capable of much greater throttling while still meeting high performance goals are a necessity to achieving exploration goals. Applications of LOX/CH4 propulsion to Lander ascent propulsion systems and reaction control systems are also if interest because of desirable performance and operations improvements over conventional storable systems while being more suitable for use of in-situ produced propellants. Within the current lunar architecture, use of cryogenic propulsion for the Earth Departure Stage and Lunar Lander elements also necessitate the need for advanced Cryogenic Fluid Management technologies. These technologies include long duration propellant storage/distribution, low-gravity propellant management, cryogenic couplings and disconnects, light weight composite tanks and support structure, and subsystem integration. In addition to

  11. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Bog; Delventhal, Rex; Frye, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Recently, there has been significant interest within the aerospace community to develop space based nuclear power conversion technologies especially for exploring the outer planets of our solar system where the solar energy density is very low. To investigate these technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC).The investigation performed included BPCS (Brayton Power Conversion System) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to be capable of operation in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments surrounding Jupiter. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NEP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future missions with a sound technology plan for technology readiness level (TRL) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature approx. 100 C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues and related development tasks identified. Analyses and evaluations of six different HRS (heat rejection system) designs and three primary power management and distribution (PMAD) configurations will be discussed in the paper.

  12. Brayton Power Conversion System Study to Advance Technology Readiness for Nuclear Electric Propulsion - Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Patrick E.; Allen, Robert; Delventhal, Rex

    2005-02-06

    To investigate and mature space based nuclear power conversion technologies NASA awarded several contracts under Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program. The studies described in this paper were performed under one of those contracts, which was to investigate the use of a nuclear power conversion system based on the closed Brayton cycle (CBC). The conceptual design effort performed included BPCS (Brayton power conversion system) trade studies to minimize system weight and radiator area and advance the state of the art of BPCS technology. The primary requirements for studies were a power level of 100 kWe (to the PPU), a low overall power system mass (with a target of less than 3000 kg), and a lifetime of 15 years (10 years full power). For the radiation environment, the system was to operate in the generic space environment and withstand the extreme environments within the Jovian system. The studies defined a BPCS design traceable to NBP (Nuclear Electric Propulsion) requirements and suitable for future potential missions with a sound technology plan for TRL (Technical Readiness Level) advancement identified. The studies assumed a turbine inlet temperature {approx} 100C above the current the state of the art capabilities with materials issues identified and an approach for resolution developed. Analyses and evaluations of six HRS (heat rejection subsystem) concepts and PMAD (Power Management and Distribution) architecture trades will be discussed in the paper.

  13. Propulsion/airframe integration considerations for high altitude hypersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the implications of top-mounted inlet nacelles on propulsion performance and cruise range. The top-mounted nacelle would be less visible from ground-based radar below and ahead of the aircraft. For this study, the nacelle is integrated with a high altitude Mach 5 turbojet/ramjet-powered airplane concept requiring a large nacelle. Results of the study suggest nacelle installation advantages and improved inlet mass flow ratio for the top-mounted nacelle, but at the expense of a higher installed drag at transonic and supersonic speeds.

  14. Advanced Development of a Compact 5-15 lbf Lox/Methane Thruster for an Integrated Reaction Control and Main Engine Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; McManamen, John Patrick; Sooknanen, Josh; Studak, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced development and testing of a compact 5 to 15 lbf LOX/LCH4 thruster for a pressure-fed integrated main engine and RCS propulsion system to be used on a spacecraft "vertical" test bed (VTB). The ability of the RCS thruster and the main engine to operate off the same propellant supply in zero-g reduces mass and improves mission flexibility. This compact RCS engine incorporates several features to dramatically reduce mass and parts count, to ease manufacturing, and to maintain acceptable performance given that specific impulse (Isp) is not the driver. For example, radial injection holes placed on the chamber body for easier drilling, and high temperature Haynes 230 were selected for the chamber over other more expensive options. The valve inlets are rotatable before welding allowing different orientations for vehicle integration. In addition, the engine design effort selected a coil-on-plug ignition system which integrates a relay and coil with the plug electrode, and moves some exciter electronics to avionics driver board. The engine injector design has small dribble volumes to target minimum pulse widths of 20 msec. and an efficient minimum impulse bit of less than 0.05 lbf-sec. The propellants, oxygen and methane, were chosen because together they are a non-toxic, Mars-forward, high density, space storable, and high performance propellant combination that is capable of pressure-fed and pump-fed configurations and integration with life support and power subsystems. This paper will present the results of the advanced development testing to date of the RCS thruster and the integration with a vehicle propulsion system.

  15. The Status of Spacecraft Bus and Platform Technology Development under the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David; Pencil, Eric J.; Glaab, Louis; Falck, Robert D.; Dankanich, John

    2013-01-01

    NASA's In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing technologies for lowering the cost of planetary science missions. The technology areas include electric propulsion technologies, spacecraft bus technologies, entry vehicle technologies, and design tools for systems analysis and mission trajectories. The electric propulsion technologies include critical components of both gridded and non-gridded ion propulsion systems. The spacecraft bus technologies under development include an ultra-lightweight tank (ULTT) and advanced xenon feed system (AXFS). The entry vehicle technologies include the development of a multi-mission entry vehicle, mission design tools and aerocapture. The design tools under development include system analysis tools and mission trajectory design tools.

  16. A Review of Past Insights by Robert Forward and Current Advanced Propulsion Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Tony; Norley, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    A review of various technologies discussed by Dr. Robert Forward is done as a tribute to Dr. Forward, and is based on selections from his writings. These speculations and predictions by Dr. Forward are used as a basis for discussing expected propulsion technology work over the next twenty years. Among the technologies to be discussed are antimatter propulsion, space elevators and tethers, and laser propulsion.

  17. Environmentally Responsible Aviation N plus 2 Advanced Vehicle Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Harris, Christopher A.; Komadina, Steven C.; Wang, Donny P.; Bender, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    This is the Northrop Grumman final report for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) N+2 Advanced Vehicle Study performed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Northrop Grumman developed advanced vehicle concepts and associated enabling technologies with a high potential for simultaneously achieving significant reductions in emissions, airport area noise, and fuel consumption for transport aircraft entering service in 2025. A Preferred System Concept (PSC) conceptual design has been completed showing a 42% reduction in fuel burn compared to 1998 technology, and noise 75dB below Stage 4 for a 224- passenger, 8,000 nm cruise transport aircraft. Roadmaps have been developed for the necessary technology maturation to support the PSC. A conceptual design for a 55%-scale demonstrator aircraft to reduce development risk for the PSC has been completed.

  18. Advanced Computing Technologies for Rocket Engine Propulsion Systems: Object-Oriented Design with C++

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekele, Gete

    2002-01-01

    This document explores the use of advanced computer technologies with an emphasis on object-oriented design to be applied in the development of software for a rocket engine to improve vehicle safety and reliability. The primary focus is on phase one of this project, the smart start sequence module. The objectives are: 1) To use current sound software engineering practices, object-orientation; 2) To improve on software development time, maintenance, execution and management; 3) To provide an alternate design choice for control, implementation, and performance.

  19. Advanced Power and Propulsion: Insuring Human Survival and Productivity in Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Chang-Diaz gave an intriguing presentation of his research in advanced rocket propulsion and its relevance for planning and executing crewed deep space explorations. Though not necessarily exclusively Martian, his thrust looks critically at future Mars missions. Initially Dr. Chang-Diaz showed the time constraints of Mars missions due to orbital mechanics and our present chemically powered rocket technology. Since essentially all the energy required to place current generation spacecraft into a Martian trajectory must be expended in the early minutes of a flight, most of such a mission is spent in free-fall drift, captive to the gravitational forces among Earth, the Sun, and Mars. The simple physics of such chemically powered missions requires nearly a year in transit for each direction of a Mars mission. And the optimal orientations of Earth and Mars for rendezvous require further time on or around Mars to await return. These extensions of mission duration place any crew under a three-fold jeopardy: (1) physiological deconditioning (which in some aspects is still unknown and unpreventable), (2) psychological stress, and (3) ionizing radiation. This latter risk is due to exposure of crew members for extended time to the highly unpredictable and potentially lethal radiations of open space. Any gains in shortening mission duration would reap equivalent or greater benefits for these crew concerns. Dr. Chang-Diaz has applied his training and expertise (Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in applied plasma physics) toward development of continuous rocket propulsion which would offer great time advantages in travel, and also more launch options than are now available. He clearly explained the enormous gains from a relatively low thrust accelerative force applied essentially continuously versus the high, but short-lived propulsion of present chemical rockets. In fact, such spacecraft could be powered throughout the mission, accelerating to approximately

  20. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  1. Lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and other applications. Progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Shimotake, H.

    1980-08-01

    The research and development activities of the program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on lithium/iron sulfide batteries during the period October 1979-March 1980 is described. Although the major emphasis is currently on batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion, stationary energy-storage applications are also under investigation. The individual battery cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with two or more positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The ANL program consists of cell chemistry studies, materials engineering, and component and auxiliary systems development. Important elements of this program are studies of the effects of design modifications on cell performance and post-test examinations of cells. During the reporting period, cell and battery development work has been aimed primarily at the first phase of the Mark II electric-vehicle battery program, which consists of an effort to develop high-reliability cells having boron nitride felt separators. Later in the Mark II program, the cells will be tested in 10-cell modules. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted mainly of conceptual design studies. 23 figures, 9 tables.

  2. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Piloted and Robotic Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. H.; Borowski, S. K.; Dudzinski, L. A.; Juhasz, A. J.

    1999-11-01

    A conceptual space vehicle concept to support NASA's 21^st century requirements was designed to enable human, multi-month travel throughout the outer solar system. The design was predicated on an ignited, spherical torus fusion reactor (R=2.5 m; a=1.25 m) burning spin polarized D^3He fuel and operating at high beta (30%). Peaked plasma temperature (50 keV) and number density (5×10^20 m-3) profiles were used. Engineering design was performed on all major vehicle systems including fusion reactor, fast wave plasma heating, power conversion, magnetic nozzle (for direct plasma propulsion), tankage and others, with emphasis on 1D fusion power balance, operation physics, first wall, toroidal field coils, and heat transfer. Two related proof-of-concept experiments at OSU, LANL, and PPPL are discussed. Results showed a 108 mt crew habitat payload could be delivered to Saturn rendezvous in 214 days using 6,145 MW of plasma jet power.

  3. Mission and system optimization of nuclear electric propulsion vehicles for lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed mission and system optimization of low thrust electric propulsion missions is a complex, iterative process involving interaction between orbital mechanics and system performance. Through the use of appropriate approximations, initial system optimization and analysis can be performed for a range of missions. The intent of these calculations is to provide system and mission designers with simple methods to assess system design without requiring access or detailed knowledge of numerical calculus of variations optimizations codes and methods. Approximations for the mission/system optimization of Earth orbital transfer and Mars mission have been derived. Analyses include the variation of thruster efficiency with specific impulse. Optimum specific impulse, payload fraction, and power/payload ratios are calculated. The accuracy of these methods is tested and found to be reasonable for initial scoping studies. Results of optimization for Space Exploration Initiative lunar cargo and Mars missions are presented for a range of power system and thruster options.

  4. Advanced single permanent magnet axipolar ironless stator ac motor for electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beauchamp, E. D.; Hadfield, J. R.; Wuertz, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted to design and develop an advanced-concept motor specifically created for propulsion of electric vehicles with increased range, reduced energy consumption, and reduced life-cycle costs in comparison with conventional systems. The motor developed is a brushless, dc, rare-earth cobalt, permanent magnet, axial air gap inductor machine that uses an ironless stator. Air cooling is inherent provided by the centrifugal-fan action of the rotor poles. An extensive design phase was conducted, which included analysis of the system performance versus the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle. A proof-of-principle model was developed and tested, and a functional model was developed and tested. Full generator-level testing was conducted on the functional model, recording electromagnetic, thermal, aerodynamic, and acoustic noise data. The machine demonstrated 20.3 kW output at 1466 rad/s and 160 dc. The novel ironless stator demonstated the capability to continuously operate at peak current. The projected system performance based on the use of a transistor inverter is 23.6 kW output power at 1466 rad/s and 83.3 percent efficiency. Design areas of concern regarding electric vehicle applications include the inherently high windage loss and rotor inertia.

  5. Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aero-Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the development and application of ceramic matrix composites consisting of silicon carbide (SiC) based matrices reinforced by small-diameter continuous-length SiC-based fibers. For example, these SiC/SiC composites are now in the early stages of implementation into hot-section components of civil aero-propulsion gas turbine engines, where in comparison to current metallic components they offer multiple advantages due to their lighter weight and higher temperature structural capability. For current production-ready SiC/SiC, this temperature capability for long time structural applications is 1250 degC, which is better than 1100 degC for the best metallic superalloys. Foreseeing that even higher structural reliability and temperature capability would continue to increase the advantages of SiC/SiC composites, progress in recent years has also been made at NASA toward improving the properties of SiC/SiC composites by optimizing the various constituent materials and geometries within composite microstructures. The primary objective of this chapter is to detail this latter progress, both fundamentally and practically, with particular emphasis on recent advancements in the materials and processes for the fiber, fiber coating, fiber architecture, and matrix, and in the design methods for incorporating these constituents into SiC/SiC microstructures with improved thermo-structural performance.

  6. Development of Thin Film Thermocouples on Ceramic Materials for Advanced Propulsion System Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, R.

    1992-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples have been developed for use on metal parts in jet engines to 1000 c. However, advanced propulsion systems are being developed that will use ceramic materials and reach higher temperatures. The purpose of this work is to develop thin film thermocouples for use on ceramic materials. The new thin film thermocouples are Pt13Rh/Pt fabricated by the sputtering process. Lead wires are attached using the parallel-gap welding process. The ceramic materials tested are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mullite. Both steady state and thermal cycling furnace tests were performed in the temperature range to 1500 C. High-heating-rate tests were performed in an arc lamp heat-flux-calibration facility. The fabrication of the thin film thermocouples is described. The thin film thermocouple output was compared to a reference wire thermocouple. Drift of the thin film thermocouples was determined, and causes of drift are discussed. The results of high heating rate tests up to 2500 C/sec are presented. The stability of the ceramic materials is examined. It is concluded that Pt13Rh/Pt thin film thermocouples are capable of meeting lifetime goals of 50 hours or more up to temperature of 1500 C depending on the stability of the particular ceramic substrate.

  7. Development of thin film thermocouples on ceramic materials for advanced propulsion system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holanda, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples were developed for use on metal parts in jet engines to 1000 C. However, advanced propulsion systems are being developed that will use ceramic materials and reach higher temperatures. The purpose is to develop thin film thermocouples for use on ceramic materials. The new thin film thermocouples are Pt13Rh/Pt fabricated by the sputtering process. Lead wires are attached using the parallel-gap welding process. The ceramic materials tested are silicon nitride, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and mullite. Both steady state and thermal cycling furnace tests were performed in the temperature range to 1500 C. High-heating-rate tests were performed in an arc lamp heat-flux-calibration facility. The fabrication of the thin film thermocouples is described. The thin film thermocouple output was compared to a reference wire thermocouple. Drift of the thin film thermocouples was determined, and causes of drift are discussed. The results of high heating rate tests up to 2500 C/sec are presented. The stability of the ceramic materials is examined. It is concluded that Pt13Rh/Pt thin film thermocouples are capable of meeting lifetime goals of 50 hr or more up to temperatures of 1500 C depending on the stability of the particular ceramic substrate.

  8. Overview of Advanced Electromagnetic Propulsion Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Kamhawi, Hani; Gilland, James H.; Arrington, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center s Very High Power Electric Propulsion task is sponsored by the Energetics Heritage Project. Electric propulsion technologies currently being investigated under this program include pulsed electromagnetic plasma thrusters, magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, helicon plasma sources as well as the systems models for high power electromagnetic propulsion devices. An investigation and evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic plasma thruster performance at energy levels up to 700 Joules is underway. On-going magnetoplasmadynamic thruster experiments will investigate applied-field performance characteristics of gas-fed MPDs. Plasma characterization of helicon plasma sources will provide additional insights into the operation of this novel propulsion concept. Systems models have been developed for high power electromagnetic propulsion concepts, such as pulsed inductive thrusters and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters to enable an evaluation of mission-optimized designs.

  9. Propulsion Technology Development for Sample Return Missions Under NASA's ISPT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil, Eric J.; Vento, Daniel; Dankanich, John W.; Munk, Michelle M.; Hahne, David

    2011-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program was tasked in 2009 to start development of propulsion technologies that would enable future sample return missions. Sample return missions could be quite varied, from collecting and bringing back samples of comets or asteroids, to soil, rocks, or atmosphere from planets or moons. The paper will describe the ISPT Program s propulsion technology development activities relevant to future sample return missions. The sample return propulsion technology development areas for ISPT are: 1) Sample Return Propulsion (SRP), 2) Planetary Ascent Vehicles (PAV), 3) Entry Vehicle Technologies (EVT), and 4) Systems/mission analysis and tools that focuses on sample return propulsion. The Sample Return Propulsion area is subdivided into: a) Electric propulsion for sample return and low cost Discovery-class missions, b) Propulsion systems for Earth Return Vehicles (ERV) including transfer stages to the destination, and c) Low TRL advanced propulsion technologies. The SRP effort will continue work on HIVHAC thruster development in FY2011 and then transitions into developing a HIVHAC system under future Electric Propulsion for sample return (ERV and transfer stages) and low-cost missions. Previous work on the lightweight propellant-tanks will continue under advanced propulsion technologies for sample return with direct applicability to a Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission and with general applicability to all future planetary spacecraft. A major effort under the EVT area is multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV), which will leverage and build upon previous work related to Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV). The major effort under the PAV area is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The MAV is a new development area to ISPT, and builds upon and leverages the past MAV analysis and technology developments from the Mars Technology Program (MTP) and previous MSR studies.

  10. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  11. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  12. Particle bed reactor propulsion vehicle performance and characteristics as an orbital transfer rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Lazareth, O.W.

    1986-01-01

    The particle bed reactor designed for 100 to 300 MW power output using hydrogen as a coolant is capable of specific impulses up to 1000 seconds as a nuclear rocket. A single space shuttle compatible vehicle can perform extensive missions from LEO to 3 times GEO and return with multi-ton payloads. The use of hydrogen to directly cool particulate reactor fuel results in a compact, lightweight rocket vehicle, whose duration of usefulness is dependent only upon hydrogen resupply availability. The LEO to GEO mission had a payload capability of 15.4 metric tons with 3.4 meters of shuttle bay. To increase the volume limitation of the shuttle bay, the use of ammonia in the initial boost phase from LEO is used to give greater payload volume with a small decrease in payload mass, 8.7 meters and 12.7 m-tons. 5 refs., 15 figs.

  13. A spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor space propulsion vehicle concept for fast interplanetary travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a>5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including diverter and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, and component design.

  14. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.

    1998-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  15. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  16. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle, Derek J.

    The development and application of a first-principles-derived reduced-order model called MASIV (Michigan/AFRL Scramjet In Vehicle) for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is discussed. Several significant and previously unreported aspects of hypersonic flight are investigated. A fortunate coupling between increasing Mach number and decreasing angle of attack is shown to extend the range of operating conditions for a class of supersonic inlets. Detailed maps of isolator unstart and ram-to-scram transition are shown on the flight corridor map for the first time. In scram mode the airflow remains supersonic throughout the engine, while in ram mode there is a region of subsonic flow. Accurately predicting the transition between these two modes requires models for complex shock interactions, finite-rate chemistry, fuel-air mixing, pre-combustion shock trains, and thermal choking, which are incorporated into a unified framework here. Isolator unstart occurs when the pre-combustion shock train is longer than the isolator, which blocks airflow from entering the engine. Finally, cooptimization of the vehicle design and trajectory is discussed. An optimal control technique is introduced that greatly reduces the number of computations required to optimize the simulated trajectory.

  17. Project Argo: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Project Argo is the design of a manned Space Transportation Vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between LEO (altitude lying between 278 to 500 km above the Earth) and GEO (altitude is approximately 35,800 km above the Earth) and would be refueled and refurbished at the Space Station Freedom. Argo would be man's first space-based manned vehicle and would provide a crucial link to geosynchronous orbit where the vast majority of satellites are located. The vehicle could be built and launched shortly after the space station and give invaluable space experience while serving as a workhorse to deliver and repair satellites. Eventually, if a manned space station is established in GEO, then Argo could serve as the transport between the Space Station Freedom and a Geostation. If necessary, modifications could be made to allow the vehicle to reach the moon or possibly Mars. Project Argo is unique in that it consists of the design and comparison of two different concepts to accomplish the same mission. The first is an all-propulsive vehicle which uses chemical propulsion for all of its major maneuvers between LEO and GEO. The second is a vehicle that uses aeroassisted braking during its return from GEO to LEO by passing through the upper portions of the atmosphere.

  18. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  19. Solar Electric and Chemical Propulsion Technology Applications to a Titan Orbiter/Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cupples, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion technology options were assessed for a conceptual Titan Orbiter/Lander mission. For convenience of presentation, the mission was broken into two phases: interplanetary and Titan capture. The interplanetary phase of the mission was evaluated for an advanced Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), while the Titan capture phase was evaluated for state-of-art chemical propulsion (NTO/Hydrazine), three advanced chemical propulsion options (LOX/Hydrazine, Fluorine/Hydrazine, high Isp mono-propellant), and advanced tank technologies. Hence, this study was referred to as a SEPS/Chemical based option. The SEPS/Chemical study results were briefly compared to a 2002 NASA study that included two general propulsion options for the same conceptual mission: an all propulsive based mission and a SEPS/Aerocapture based mission. The SEP/Chemical study assumed identical science payload as the 2002 NASA study science payload. The SEPS/Chemical study results indicated that the Titan mission was feasible for a medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 8 years, an advanced SEPS (30 kW), and current chemical engine technology (yet with advanced tanks) for the Titan capture. The 2002 NASA study showed the feasibility of the mission based on a somewhat smaller medium launch vehicle, an interplanetary transfer time of approximately 5.9 years, an advanced SEPS (24 kW), and advanced Aerocapture based propulsion technology for the Titan capture. Further comparisons and study results were presented for the advanced chemical and advanced tank technologies.

  20. Propellant Technologies: A Persuasive Wave of Future Propulsion Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Ianovski, Leonid S.; Carrick, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Rocket propellant and propulsion technology improvements can be used to reduce the development time and operational costs of new space vehicle programs. Advanced propellant technologies can make the space vehicles safer, more operable, and higher performing. Five technology areas are described: Monopropellants, Alternative Hydrocarbons, Gelled Hydrogen, Metallized Gelled Propellants, and High Energy Density Materials. These propellants' benefits for future vehicles are outlined using mission study results and the technologies are briefly discussed.

  1. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  2. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  3. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  4. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  5. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program. DOE may issue, under the Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program, 10 CFR part 611, subpart C, awards for eligible projects. ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  6. Z-Pinch Pulsed Plasma Propulsion Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Fabisinski, Leo; Fincher, Sharon; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie; Percy, Tom; Statham, Geoff; Turner, Matt; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Santarius, John

    2010-01-01

    Fusion-based propulsion can enable fast interplanetary transportation. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is an approach which has been shown to potentially lead to a low cost, small reactor for fusion break even. The Z-Pinch/dense plasma focus method is an MIF concept in which a column of gas is compressed to thermonuclear conditions by an axial current (I approximates 100 MA). Recent advancements in experiments and the theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield as I(sup 4). This document presents a conceptual design of a Z-Pinch fusion propulsion system and a vehicle for human exploration. The purpose of this study is to apply Z-Pinch fusion principles to the design of a propulsion system for an interplanetary spacecraft. This study took four steps in service of that objective; these steps are identified below. 1. Z-Pinch Modeling and Analysis: There is a wealth of literature characterizing Z-Pinch physics and existing Z-Pinch physics models. In order to be useful in engineering analysis, simplified Z-Pinch fusion thermodynamic models are required to give propulsion engineers the quantity of plasma, plasma temperature, rate of expansion, etc. The study team developed these models in this study. 2. Propulsion Modeling and Analysis: While the Z-Pinch models characterize the fusion process itself, propulsion models calculate the parameters that characterize the propulsion system (thrust, specific impulse, etc.) The study team developed a Z-Pinch propulsion model and used it to determine the best values for pulse rate, amount of propellant per pulse, and mixture ratio of the D-T and liner materials as well as the resulting thrust and specific impulse of the system. 3. Mission Analysis: Several potential missions were studied. Trajectory analysis using data from the propulsion model was used to determine the duration of the propulsion burns, the amount of propellant expended to complete each mission considered. 4

  7. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (~1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. This, in effect, allows for beneficial explora-tion to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Re-search (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO. The proposed radioisotope-based system would leverage the high specific energies [J/kg] associated with radioisotope materials and enhance their inherent low specific powers [W/g]. This is accomplished by accumulating thermal energy from nuclear decay within a central core over time. This allows for significant amounts of power to be transferred to a flowing gas over short periods of time. In the proposed configuration the stored energy can be utilized in two ways: (1) with direct propellant injection to the core, the energy can be converted into thrust through the use of a converging-diverging nozzle and (2) by flowing a working fluid through the core and subsequent Brayton engine, energy within the core can be converted to electrical energy. The first scenario achieves moderate ranges of thrust, but at a higher Isp than traditional chemical

  8. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [70 W/lb

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This second annual report under Contract No. 31-109-39-4200 covers the period July 1, 1978 through August 31, 1979. The program demonstrates the feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel-zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal management. A Quality Assurance Program has also been established. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge (100% DOD) applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. A methodology has been generated with the resulting hierarchy: cycle life cost, volumetric energy density, peak power at 80% DOD, gravimetric energy density, and sustained power. Generation I design full-sized 400-Ah cells have yielded in excess of 70 W/lb at 80% DOD. Extensive testing of cells, modules, and batteries is done in a minicomputer-based testing facility. The best life attained with electric vehicle-size cell components is 315 cycles at 100% DOD (1.0V cutoff voltage), while four-cell (approx. 6V) module performance has been limited to about 145 deep discharge cycles. The scale-up of processes for production of components and cells has progressed to facilitate component production rates of thousands per month. Progress in the area of thermal management has been significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation. For the balance of the program, cycle life of > 500 has to be demonstrated in modules and full-sized batteries. 40 figures, 19 tables. (RWR)

  9. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  10. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

  11. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  12. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 5: Nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) concept design developed in support of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study is presented. The evolution of the NEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines, and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities and costs.

  13. Enhanced Monopropellant Fuel Decomposition by High Aspect Ratio, Catalytic CNT Structures for Propulsion of Small Scale Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Kevin; Claussen, Jonathan; Iverson, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Both maneuverability and efficiency for reagent-based propulsion systems of small-scale exploratory devices, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), is largely dependent on their maximum fuel decomposition rate. Reagent-based systems, however, require large catalyst surface area to fuel volume ratios in order to achieve the fuel decomposition rates necessary for locomotion. This work demonstrates the utility of platinum-coated, carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffolds as high surface area catalysts for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a flowing environment. Usage of these functionalized microchannels ensures that both the maximum distance between fuel and catalyst is only half the microchannel diameter, and that the fuel concentration gradient increases due to boundary-layer thinning. These conditions facilitate intimate contact between fuel and catalyst and, therefore, faster decomposition rates. Electrochemical testing revealed that electroactive surface area to volume ratios of approximately 61.4 cm-1 can be achieved for samples fabricated using a static Pt deposition scheme. Thrust measurements were taken using a small-scale submersible which indicated a maximum thrust of 0.114 N using 50 weight percent H2O2 exposed to eight inline 2.867 cm2 Pt-CNT scaffolds.

  14. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Patrick B.; Schutte, Carol L.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Materials Technology actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of the Vehicle Technologies Program by developing advanced materials that enable development of higher efficiency powertrains for ground transportation. Propulsion Materials works closely with the other disciplines within the VT Program to identify the materials properties essential for the development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light duty powertrains.

  15. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  16. Aeronautical technology 2000: A projection of advanced vehicle concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB) of the National Research Council conducted a Workshop on Aeronautical Technology: a Projection to the Year 2000 (Aerotech 2000 Workshop). The panels were asked to project advances in aeronautical technologies that could be available by the year 2000. As the workshop was drawing to a close, it became evident that a more comprehensive investigation of advanced air vehicle concepts than was possible in the limited time available at the workshop would be valuable. Thus, a special panel on vehicle applications was organized. In the course of two meetings, the panel identified and described representative types of aircraft judged possible with the workshop's technology projections. These representative aircraft types include: military aircraft; transport aircraft; rotorcraft; extremely high altitude aircraft; and transatmospheric aircraft. Improvements in performance, efficiency, and operational characteristics possible through the application of the workshop's year 2000 technology projections were discussed. The subgroups also identified the technologies considered essential and enhancing or supporting to achieve the projected aircraft improvements.

  17. NASA Propulsion Investments for Exploration and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Bryan K.; Free, James M.; Klem, Mark D.; Priskos, Alex S.; Kynard, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests in chemical and electric propulsion systems to achieve future mission objectives for both human exploration and robotic science. Propulsion system requirements for human missions are derived from the exploration architecture being implemented in the Constellation Program. The Constellation Program first develops a system consisting of the Ares I launch vehicle and Orion spacecraft to access the Space Station, then builds on this initial system with the heavy-lift Ares V launch vehicle, Earth departure stage, and lunar module to enable missions to the lunar surface. A variety of chemical engines for all mission phases including primary propulsion, reaction control, abort, lunar ascent, and lunar descent are under development or are in early risk reduction to meet the specific requirements of the Ares I and V launch vehicles, Orion crew and service modules, and Altair lunar module. Exploration propulsion systems draw from Apollo, space shuttle, and commercial heritage and are applied across the Constellation architecture vehicles. Selection of these launch systems and engines is driven by numerous factors including development cost, existing infrastructure, operations cost, and reliability. Incorporation of green systems for sustained operations and extensibility into future systems is an additional consideration for system design. Science missions will directly benefit from the development of Constellation launch systems, and are making advancements in electric and chemical propulsion systems for challenging deep space, rendezvous, and sample return missions. Both Hall effect and ion electric propulsion systems are in development or qualification to address the range of NASA s Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics mission requirements. These address the spectrum of potential requirements from cost-capped missions to enabling challenging high delta-v, long-life missions. Additionally, a high

  18. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  19. NASA In-Space Propulsion Technologies and Their Infusion Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Pencil,Eric J.; Peterson, Todd; Vento, Daniel; Munk, Michelle M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Dankanich, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) program has been developing in-space propulsion technologies that will enable or enhance NASA robotic science missions. The ISPT program is currently developing technology in four areas that include Propulsion System Technologies (Electric and Chemical), Entry Vehicle Technologies (Aerocapture and Earth entry vehicles), Spacecraft Bus and Sample Return Propulsion Technologies (components and ascent vehicles), and Systems/Mission Analysis. Three technologies are ready for flight infusion: 1) the high-temperature Advanced Material Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine providing higher performance; 2) NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, a 0.6-7 kW throttle-able gridded ion system; and 3) Aerocapture technology development with investments in a family of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and structures; guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) models of blunt-body rigid aeroshells; and aerothermal effect models. Two component technologies that will be ready for flight infusion in the near future will be Advanced Xenon Flow Control System, and ultra-lightweight propellant tank technologies. Future focuses for ISPT are sample return missions and other spacecraft bus technologies like: 1) Mars Ascent Vehicles (MAV); 2) multi-mission technologies for Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEV) for sample return missions; and 3) electric propulsion for sample return and low cost missions. These technologies are more vehicle-focused, and present a different set of technology infusion challenges. While the Systems/Mission Analysis area is focused on developing tools and assessing the application of propulsion technologies to a wide variety of mission concepts. These in-space propulsion technologies are applicable, and potentially enabling for future NASA Discovery, New Frontiers, and sample return missions currently under consideration, as well as having broad applicability to potential Flagship missions. This paper

  20. OTV propulsion tecnology programmatic overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced orbit transfer vehicles (OTV) which will be an integral part of the national space transportation system to carry men and cargo between low Earth orbit and geosynchronous orbit will perform planetary transfers and deliver large acceleration limited space structures to high Earth orbits is reviewed. The establishment of an advanced propulsion technology base for an OTV for the mid 1990's is outlined. The program supports technology for three unique engine concepts. Work is conducted to generic technologies which benefit all three concepts and specific technology which benefits only one of the concepts. Concept and technology definitions to identify propulsion innovations, and subcomponent research to explore and validate their potential benefits are included.