Science.gov

Sample records for advanced volume reduction

  1. Lung volume reduction for advanced emphysema: surgical and bronchoscopic approaches.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Sherry L; Westfall, Elizabeth; Dransfield, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States, affecting more than 24 million people. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of therapy; they improve symptoms and quality of life and reduce exacerbations. These and smoking cessation and long-term oxygen therapy for hypoxemic patients are the only medical treatments definitively demonstrated to reduce mortality. Surgical approaches include lung transplantation and lung volume reduction and the latter has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, quality of life, and survival in highly selected patients with advanced emphysema. Lung volume reduction surgery results in clinical benefits. The procedure is associated with a short-term risk of mortality and a more significant risk of cardiac and pulmonary perioperative complications. Interest has been growing in the use of noninvasive, bronchoscopic methods to address the pathological hyperinflation that drives the dyspnea and exercise intolerance that is characteristic of emphysema. In this review, the mechanism by which lung volume reduction improves pulmonary function is outlined, along with the risks and benefits of the traditional surgical approach. In addition, the emerging bronchoscopic techniques for lung volume reduction are introduced and recent clinical trials examining their efficacy are summarized. PMID:22189668

  2. Low cost biological lung volume reduction therapy for advanced emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Bakeer, Mostafa; Abdelgawad, Taha Taha; El-Metwaly, Raed; El-Morsi, Ahmed; El-Badrawy, Mohammad Khairy; El-Sharawy, Solafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR), using biological agents, is one of the new alternatives to lung volume reduction surgery. Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of biological BLVR using low cost agents including autologous blood and fibrin glue. Methods Enrolled patients were divided into two groups: group A (seven patients) in which autologous blood was used and group B (eight patients) in which fibrin glue was used. The agents were injected through a triple lumen balloon catheter via fiberoptic bronchoscope. Changes in high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) volumetry, pulmonary function tests, symptoms, and exercise capacity were evaluated at 12 weeks postprocedure as well as for complications. Results In group A, at 12 weeks postprocedure, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and residual volume/total lung capacity (% predicted) (P-value: <0.001 and 0.038, respectively). In group B, there was significant improvement in the mean value of HRCT volumetry and (residual volume/total lung capacity % predicted) (P-value: 0.005 and 0.004, respectively). All patients tolerated the procedure with no mortality. Conclusion BLVR using autologous blood and locally prepared fibrin glue is a promising method for therapy of advanced emphysema in term of efficacy, safety as well as cost effectiveness. PMID:27536091

  3. Lung volume reduction therapies for advanced emphysema: an update.

    PubMed

    Berger, Robert L; Decamp, Malcolm M; Criner, Gerard J; Celli, Bartolome R

    2010-08-01

    Observational and randomized studies provide convincing evidence that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves symptoms, lung function, exercise tolerance, and life span in well-defined subsets of patients with emphysema. Yet, in the face of an estimated 3 million patients with emphysema in the United States, < 15 LVRS operations are performed monthly under the aegis of Medicare, in part because of misleading reporting in lay and medical publications suggesting that the operation is associated with prohibitive risks and offers minimal benefits. Thus, a treatment with proven potential for palliating and prolonging life may be underutilized. In an attempt to lower risks and cost, several bronchoscopic strategies (bronchoscopic emphysema treatment [BET]) to reduce lung volume have been introduced. The following three methods have been tested in some depth: (1) unidirectional valves that allow exit but bar entry of gas to collapse targeted hyperinflated portions of the lung and reduce overall volume; (2) biologic lung volume reduction (BioLVR) that involves intrabronchial administration of a biocompatible complex to collapse, inflame, scar, and shrink the targeted emphysematous lung; and (3) airway bypass tract (ABT) or creation of stented nonanatomic pathways between hyperinflated pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree to decompress and reduce the volume of oversized lung. The results of pilot and randomized pivotal clinical trials suggest that the bronchoscopic strategies are associated with lower mortality and morbidity but are also less efficient than LVRS. Most bronchoscopic approaches improve quality-of-life measures without supportive physiologic or exercise tolerance benefits. Although there is promise of limited therapeutic influence, the available information is not sufficient to recommend use of bronchoscopic strategies for treating emphysema. PMID:20682529

  4. Advanced therapies for COPD-What's on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Michael A; Hopkins, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  5. Advanced therapies for COPD—What’s on the horizon? Progress in lung volume reduction and lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a significant cause of morbidity. Treatment options beyond conventional medical therapies are limited to a minority of patients. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) although effective in selected subgroups of patients is not commonly undertaken. Morbidity associated with the procedure has contributed to this low utilisation. In response to this, less invasive bronchoscopic lung volume techniques are being developed to attempt to mitigate some of the risks and costs associated with surgery. Of these, endobronchial valve therapy is the most comprehensively studied although the presence of collateral ventilation in a significant proportion of patients has compromised its widespread utility. Bronchial thermal vapour ablation and lung volume reduction (LVR) coils are not dependent on collateral ventilation. These techniques have shown promise in early clinical trials; ongoing work will establish whether they have a role in the management of advanced COPD. Lung transplantation, although effective in selected patients for palliation of symptoms and improving survival, is limited by donor organ availability and economic constraint. Reconditioning marginal organs previously declined for transplantation with ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is one potential strategy in improving the utilisation of donor organs. By increasing the donor pool, it is hoped lung transplantation might be more accessible for patients with advanced COPD into the future. PMID:25478204

  6. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    DeCamp, Malcolm M.; McKenna, Robert J.; Deschamps, Claude C.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is the safe, effective, and durable palliation of dyspnea in appropriately selected patients with moderate to severe emphysema. Appropriate patient selection and preoperative preparation are prerequisites for successful LVRS. An effective LVRS program requires participation by and communication between experts from pulmonary medicine, thoracic surgery, thoracic anesthesiology, critical care medicine, rehabilitation medicine, respiratory therapy, chest radiology, and nursing. The critical analysis of perioperative outcomes has influenced details of the conduct of the procedure and has established a bilateral, stapled approach as the standard of care for LVRS. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) remains the world's largest multi-center, randomized trial comparing LVRS to maximal medical therapy. NETT purposely enrolled a broad spectrum of anatomic patterns of emphysema. This, along with the prospective, audited collection of extensive demographic, physiologic, radiographic, surgical and quality-of-life data, has positioned NETT as the most robust repository of evidence to guide the refinement of patient selection criteria for LVRS, to assist surgeons in providing optimal intraoperative and postoperative care, and to establish benchmarks for survival, complication rates, return to independent living, and durability of response. This article reviews the evolution of current LVRS practice with a particular emphasis on technical aspects of the operation, including the predictors and consequences of its most common complications. PMID:18453353

  7. [ENDOSCOPIC LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION IN PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA].

    PubMed

    Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L

    2015-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented. PMID:26867305

  8. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Edward P; Wood, Douglas E; Utz, James P

    2008-05-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) produces physiological, symptomatic, and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Because it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost, nonsurgical alternatives for achieving volume reduction have been developed. Three bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) approaches have shown promise and reached later-stage clinical trials. These include the following: (1) placement of endobronchial one-way valves designed to promote atelectasis by blocking inspiratory flow; (2) formation of airway bypass tracts using a radiofrequency catheter designed to facilitate emptying of damaged lung regions with long expiratory times; and (3) instillation of biological adhesives designed to collapse and remodel hyperinflated lung. The limited clinical data currently available suggest that all three techniques are reasonably safe. However, efficacy signals have been substantially smaller and less durable than those observed after LVRS. Studies to optimize patient selection, refine treatment strategies, characterize procedural safety, elucidate mechanisms of action, and characterize short- and longer-term effectiveness of these approaches are ongoing. Results will be available over the next few years and will determine whether BLVR represents a safe and effective alternative to LVRS. PMID:18453355

  9. Advances In Librarianship. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.

    The authors of this second volume provide a composite contribution to a broader understanding of some of the major topics affecting libraries and their operation today. These contributions are in keeping with the aim of the series of providing scholarly reviews of specific topics related to the rapidly changing and advancing field of…

  10. Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

    1975-11-18

    An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

  11. Chem-nuclear's midwest volume reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loiselle, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 amendments to the Low-Level Waste Policy Act mandated volume allocation limits for nuclear utilities over a 7-yr period ending December 31, 1992. Under the provisions of the act, nonsited regions of the US, such as the Midwest, have received more stringent volume limitations than the sited regions. Restrictions, however severe, are causing all nuclear utilities to carefully examine the source and volume generation of low-level wastes at their respective plants. Nuclear utilities dry active wastes (DAW), as compared to wet wastes, amount to 50 to 75% of wastes generated. The progress in reducing DAW can now be achieved with volume reduction by supercompaction. Chem-Nuclear established and licensed its Midwest Volume Reduction Facility (MWVRF) to provide an integrated volume reduction service. Although compaction of DAW is not new, supercompaction is. Through millions of pounds-force (as compared to tens of thousands pounds-force currently available from conventional equipment) much greater volume reduction can be achieved. The results of supercompaction is a product that approaches the theoretical density of its solid constituents - a logical and ultimate end point for compaction capability and volume reduction overall. The reduction service, equipment, and the facility interfacing with other services of transportation and disposal and the generator are discussed in detail. As a result of the integrated service, significant savings in waste management and volume allocation can be achieved.

  12. Advances in drying: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Mujumdar, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include recent thoughts in modeling of drying phenomena, use of computers in rational design of drying particulates, recent advances in drying of wood, and heat/mass transfer phenomena in drying of solids. As the readers will no doubt notice, special effort is made to ensure the truly international nature of the contents of this serial publication. As existing knowledge on drying and dryers becomes more widely and readily accessible, it is expected that more and more dryers will be designed rationally rather than built solely with the benefit of empiricism.

  13. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Neder, J. Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR), bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC) < 25%, residual volume > 225% predicted) and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted) have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order) are the next logical alternatives. PMID:27445557

  14. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures.

    PubMed

    Neder, J Alberto; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2016-01-01

    There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR), bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC) < 25%, residual volume > 225% predicted) and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted) have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order) are the next logical alternatives. PMID:27445557

  15. Advances in surgery. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advancements made in surgery. The topics discussed are: Diagnostic uses of computerized tomography of abdomen; kidney surgery advancements, evaluation and management of pheochromocytomas; trauma of spleen and liver and microsurgery applications.

  16. Advances in surgery. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, G.T.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advancements made in surgery. Specifically discussed are--NMR imaging--its uses in diagnostic radiology; anal tumors and surgical therapy; aneurysms and theoretical aspects of NMR imaging.

  17. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  18. Advances in Librarianship. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Melvin J., Ed.; Harris, Michael H., Ed.

    A major theme of this volume is the issue of library accountability and evaluation of productivity. Four review papers deal directly with the topic. The first reviews the literature relating to evaluation of libraries generally with an emphasis on school libraries. The second focuses on the measurement of productivity in the academic library. It…

  19. Volume reduction in routine cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Roig, Roberto

    2010-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic progenitors for transplantation in the treatment of haematological malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies and inherited metabolic diseases. It has greatly contributed to increase the feasibility to transplantation for many patients in need. To date, more than 20,000 UCB transplants have been performed on children and adults, and more than 400,000 UCB units are available in more than 50 public CB banks. One of the most important objectives of banks is to cryopreserve and store high quality UCB units. Volume reduction is a usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages as reducing the storage space and the DMSO quantity in final product. Volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing the UCB units to a standard volume. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) sedimentation was the first method developed for this purpose by the New York Cord Blood Bank and implemented in many banks worldwide. The semi-automated top and bottom system, usually used for blood fractionation was further developed to simplify and short the process. Later, automatic devices as SEPAX and AXP have been developed in last years specifically for UCB volume reduction purpose. This review critically analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the different procedures. All of them have been used in Valencia Cord Blood Bank along 10 years. In general, automatic devices are preferred because of compliance with cGTP, closed systems, higher reproducibility and less influence of technician. PMID:20528760

  20. Advances in pediatrics. Volume 31

    SciTech Connect

    Barness, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the advances made in pediatrics. The topics discussed are--Molecular biology of thalassemia; genetic mapping of humans; technology of recombinant-DNA; DNA-sequencing and human chromosomes and etiology of hereditary diseases; acne; and T-cell abnormalities.

  1. Advances in genetics. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Caspari, E.W.; Scandalios, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents articles on genetics and the advances made in this field. Topics covered include the following: recovery, repair, and mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe; gene transfer in fungi; Y chromosome function and spermatogenesis in Drosophila hydei; recent developments in population genetics; and genetics, cytology and evolution of Gossypium.

  2. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  3. [Lung Volume Reduction Surgery - State of the Art 2016].

    PubMed

    Caviezel, C; Franzen, D; Inci, I; Weder, W

    2016-09-01

    In a number of large case series in the mid-1990s, lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) was shown to reduce dyspnoea and improve pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema. The large randomised National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) confirmed this in the early 2000s and also demonstrated that selected patients live longer after surgery. Patient selection is crucial to the success of the procedure and should be performed at a specialised experienced centre with a multidisciplinary team approach on emphysema treatment. The upper-lobe predominant heterogeneous type of emphysema is the best indication, but there are other types of emphysema morphology that are also eligible for surgery, if ideally chosen. Nowadays there is also growing evidence for positive effects after different types of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with increasing quality. These methods add to the range of multimodal emphysema treatment. PMID:27607886

  4. Advances in Education Research. Volume 2, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advances in Education Research, 1997

    1997-01-01

    "Advances in Education Research" reprints previously published journal articles reporting on research supported in whole or in part by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). The articles are selected from peer-reviewed/referred journals; the journals used are described briefy at the end of the volume. The articles in this…

  5. Hybrid mesh generation using advancing reduction technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents an extension of the application of the advancing reduction technique to the hybrid mesh generation. The proposed algorithm is based on a pre-generated rectangle mesh (RM) with a certain orientation. The intersection points between the two sets of perpendicular mesh lines in RM an...

  6. Advances in Space Environment Research - Volume I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, A. C.-L.

    2003-10-01

    Advances in Space Environment Research - Volume I contains the proceedings of two international workshops, the World Space Environment Forum (WSEF2002) and the High Performance Computing in Space Environment Research (HPC2002), organized by the World Institute for Space Environment Research (WISER) from 22 July to 2 August 2002 in Adelaide, Australia. The articles in this volume review the state-of-the-art of the theoretical, computational and observational studies of the physical processes of Sun-Earth connections and Space Environment. They cover six topical areas: Sun/Heliosphere, Magnetosphere/Bow Shock, Ionosphere/Atmosphere, Space Weather/Space Climate, Space Plasma Physics/Astrophysics, and Complex/Intelligent Systems. The authors are leading space physicists from 20 countries/regions, representing the WISER international network of research and training centers of excellence dedicated to promote cooperation in cutting-edge space environment research and training of first-rate space scientists, and to link nations for the peaceful use of the space environment. This volume is useful for space physicists, astrophysicists and plasma physicists; and can be adopted as a reference book for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1278-0

  7. Advanced CO2 Removal and Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alptekin, Gokhan; Dubovik, Margarita; Copeland, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    An advanced system for removing CO2 and H2O from cabin air, reducing the CO2, and returning the resulting O2 to the air is less massive than is a prior system that includes two assemblies . one for removal and one for reduction. Also, in this system, unlike in the prior system, there is no need to compress and temporarily store CO2. In this present system, removal and reduction take place within a single assembly, wherein removal is effected by use of an alkali sorbent and reduction is effected using a supply of H2 and Ru catalyst, by means of the Sabatier reaction, which is CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + O2. The assembly contains two fixed-bed reactors operating in alternation: At first, air is blown through the first bed, which absorbs CO2 and H2O. Once the first bed is saturated with CO2 and H2O, the flow of air is diverted through the second bed and the first bed is regenerated by supplying it with H2 for the Sabatier reaction. Initially, the H2 is heated to provide heat for the regeneration reaction, which is endothermic. In the later stages of regeneration, the Sabatier reaction, which is exothermic, supplies the heat for regeneration.

  8. Data volume reduction for imaging radar polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebker, Howard A. (Inventor); Held, Daniel N. (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Dubois, Pascale C. (Inventor); Norikane, Lynne (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Two alternative methods are presented for digital reduction of synthetic aperture multipolarized radar data using scattering matrices, or using Stokes matrices, of four consecutive along-track pixels to produce averaged data for generating a synthetic polarization image.

  9. Disc Volume Reduction with Percutaneous Nucleoplasty in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kasch, Richard; Mensel, Birger; Schmidt, Florian; Ruetten, Sebastian; Barz, Thomas; Froehlich, Susanne; Seipel, Rebecca; Merk, Harry R.; Kayser, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Study Design We assessed volume following nucleoplasty disc decompression in lower lumbar spines from cadaveric pigs using 7.1Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose To investigate coblation-induced volume reductions as a possible mechanism underlying nucleoplasty. Methods We assessed volume following nucleoplastic disc decompression in pig spines using 7.1-Tesla MRI. Volumetry was performed in lumbar discs of 21 postmortem pigs. A preoperative image data set was obtained, volume was determined, and either disc decompression or placebo therapy was performed in a randomized manner. Group 1 (nucleoplasty group) was treated according to the usual nucleoplasty protocol with coblation current applied to 6 channels for 10 seconds each in an application field of 360°; in group 2 (placebo group) the same procedure was performed but without coblation current. After the procedure, a second data set was generated and volumes calculated and matched with the preoperative measurements in a blinded manner. To analyze the effectiveness of nucleoplasty, volumes between treatment and placebo groups were compared. Results The average preoperative nucleus volume was 0.994 ml (SD: 0.298 ml). In the nucleoplasty group (n = 21) volume was reduced by an average of 0.087 ml (SD: 0.110 ml) or 7.14%. In the placebo group (n = 21) volume was increased by an average of 0.075 ml (SD: 0.075 ml) or 8.94%. The average nucleoplasty-induced volume reduction was 0.162 ml (SD: 0.124 ml) or 16.08%. Volume reduction in lumbar discs was significant in favor of the nucleoplasty group (p<0.0001). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that nucleoplasty has a volume-reducing effect on the lumbar nucleus pulposus in an animal model. Furthermore, we show the volume reduction to be a coblation effect of nucleoplasty in porcine discs. PMID:23209677

  10. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  11. EPA RREL'S MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT -- APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The volume reduction unit (VRU) is a pilot-scale, mobile soil washing system designed to remove organic contaminants from the soil through particle size separation and solubilization. The VRU removes contaminants by suspending them in a wash solution and by reducing the volume of...

  12. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 2: Subsystems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 2 (Subsystems Assessment) is part of a five-volume report entitled Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Volume 2 presents the projected performance capabilities and cost characteristics of applicable subsystems, considering an additional decade of development. Subsystems of interest include energy storage and conversion devices as well as the necessary powertrain components and vehicle subsystems. Volume 2 also includes updated battery information based on the assessment of an independent battery review board (with the aid of subcontractor reports on advanced battery characteristics).

  13. Melting metal waste for volume reduction and decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, G.L.; Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Melt-slagging was investigated as a technique for volume reduction and decontamination of radioactively contaminated scrap metals. Experiments were conducted using several metals and slags in which the partitioning of the contaminant U or Pu to the slag was measured. Concentrations of U or Pu in the metal product of about 1 ppM were achieved for many metals. A volume reduction of 30:1 was achieved for a typical batch of mixed metal scrap. Additionally, the production of granular products was demonstrated with metal shot and crushed slag.

  14. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    SciTech Connect

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Insular Volume Reduction in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Akiko; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Kan, Hirohito; Arai, Nobuyuki; Shiraishi, Nao; Hashimoto, Nobuhiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent, there have been only a few structural imaging studies. Moreover, most of them reported about a volume reduction in amygdale, which plays a key role in the neural function of SAD. Insula is another region of interest. Its hyperactivity in regard to processing negative emotional information or interoceptive awareness has been detected in patients with SAD. Referring to these studies, we hypothesized that insular volumes might reduce in patients with SAD and made a comparison of insular volumes between 13 patients with SAD and 18 healthy controls with matched age and gender using voxel-based morphometry. As a result, we found a significant volume reduction in insula in the SAD group. Our results suggest that the patients with SAD might have an insular volume reduction apart from amygdala. Since insula plays a critical role in the pathology of SAD, more attention should be paid not only to functional study but also morphometrical study of insula. PMID:26834652

  16. Lung volume reduction surgery: results of a Canadian pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Malthaner, Richard A.; Miller, John D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To present preliminary experience with lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) before the institution of the Canadian LVRS trial. Design A prospective case series between December 1995 and January 1997. Setting University hospitals in London and Hamilton, Ont. Patients Forty-nine patients who had disabling dyspnea or emphysema with hyperinflation, able to participate in respiratory rehabilitation. Twenty-three patients were excluded because of comorbid conditions precluding surgery, pulmonary hypertension, excessive steroid dependence, malnutrition, obesity, previous thoracotomy, large solitary bullae, concurrent malignant disease, chronic bronchitis, hypercapnia or psychiatric illness. Interventions Preoperative respiratory rehabilitation followed by LVRS via median sternotomy. Main outcome measures Impairment, disability and handicap were assessed before and 12 months after LVRS. Impairment was assessed by changes in pulmonary function test results and blood gas measurements, disability by the 6-minute walk test and cardiopulmonary exercise test, and handicap by the disease-specific chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRQ), the generic medical outcomes survey short form 36 (SF-36) and the generic health utilities index mark III (HUI-III). Results Two patients died of respiratory failure while in rehabilitation. Twenty-four patients (17 men, 7 women) successfully completed rehabilitation and underwent LVRS. The mean age was 63 years (range from 49 to 78 years) and the median length of hospital stay was 12.5 days (range from 7 to 90 days). Two patients (8%) died in the early postoperative period (within 30 days) of pneumonia. One patient died of respiratory failure 8 months after LVRS after a difficult 90-day postoperative hospital stay. There were 27 major complications. There was a 36% relative increase in the mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (p = 0.01) and a 10% relative increase in the 6-minute walk test (p = 0.06). The mean CRQ

  17. Advances in engineering science, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Proceedings from a conference on engineering advances are presented, including materials science, fracture mechanics, and impact and vibration testing. The tensile strength and moisture transport of laminates are also discussed.

  18. Advances in Library Administration and Organization. Volume 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garten, Edward D., Ed.; Williams, Delmus E., Ed.

    This volume of the "Advances in Library Administration and Organization" offers 11 perspectives to practitioners trying to make sense of the issues that must daily be confronted by library administrators in an environment of ongoing change. This 20th volume includes: "Choice, Responsibility and Work: Rhetoric in a University Library…

  19. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  20. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  1. Advances in Serials Management. Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepfer, Cindy, Ed.; Gammon, Julia, Ed.; Malinowski, Teresa, Ed.

    In order to further discussion and support constructive change, this volume presents the following eight papers on various dimensions of serials management: (1) "CD-ROMs, Surveys, and Sales: The OSA [Optical Society of America] Experience" (Frank E. Harris and Alan Tourtlotte); (2) "Management and Integration of Electronic Journals into the…

  2. Particle size separation via soil washing to obtain volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Rasor, E; Van Ryn, F

    1999-04-23

    A pilot-plant study was performed using a soil washing pilot plant originally designed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate scale-up and potential full-scale remediation. This pilot plant named VORCE (Volume Reduction/Chemical Extraction) was modified to meet the specific requirements for treatment of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and a Department of Energy site soils. After a series of tests on clean soils to develop operating parameters and system performance, the machine was used to treat soils, one contaminated with Thorium-232 and the other with Cesium-137. All indicate that soil washing is very promising for volume reduction treatment. In addition, cost data was generated and is given herein. PMID:10379032

  3. Advances in internal medicine. Volume 33

    SciTech Connect

    Stollerman, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: B-Lymphoid Neoplasms: Immunoglobulin Genes as Molecular Determinants of Clonality, Lineage, Differentiations, and Translocation; Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes; Advances in AIDS and HIV Infection; Displacement Bone Marrow Transplantation and Immunoprophylaxis for Genetic Diseases; and When to Treat Hyperlipidemia.

  4. Advances in internal medicine. Volume 30

    SciTech Connect

    Stollerman, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances made in medicine. Topics discussed are--pathogenesis of T-cell Leukemia Virus; Immunosuppression; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)--organs affected and etiology; molecular biology of bacterial infections; pneumonia; patterns of aspergillosillosis infections; leukotrienes; cardiovascular action of beta-blockers; toxicity of drugs and biological effects of metals; and carcinogenesis of various carcinogens.

  5. Advanced missions safety. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Three separate studies were performed under the general category of advanced missions safety. Each dealt with a separate issue, was a self-contained effort, and was independent of the other two studies. The studies are titled: (1) space shuttle rescue capability, (2) experiment safety, and (3) emergency crew transfer. A separate discussion of each study is presented.

  6. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  8. Advanced Energetics for Aeronautical Applications. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David S.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has identified water vapor emission into the upper atmosphere from commercial transport aircraft, particularly as it relates to the formation of persistent contrails, as a potential environmental problem. Since 1999, MSE has been working with NASA-LaRC to investigate the concept of a transport-size emissionless aircraft fueled with liquid hydrogen combined with other possible breakthrough technologies. The goal of the project is to significantly advance air transportation in the next decade and beyond. The power and propulsion (P/P) system currently being studied would be based on hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs) powering electric motors, which drive fans for propulsion. The liquid water reaction product is retained onboard the aircraft until a flight mission is completed. As of now, NASA-LaRC and MSE have identified P/P system components that, according to the high-level analysis conducted to date, are light enough to make the emissionless aircraft concept feasible. Calculated maximum aircraft ranges (within a maximum weight constraint) and other performance predictions are included in this report. This report also includes current information on advanced energy-related technologies, which are still being researched, as well as breakthrough physics concepts that may be applicable for advanced energetics and aerospace propulsion in the future.

  9. Evaluation of technologies for volume reduction of plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Papelis, C.; Jacobson, R.L.; Miller, F.L.; Shaulis, L.K.

    1996-06-01

    Nuclear testing at and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) resulted in plutonium (Pu) contamination of the soil over an area of several thousands of acres. The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential of five different processes to reduce the volume of Pu-contaminated soil from three different areas, namely Areas 11, 13, and 52. Volume reduction was to be accomplished by concentrating the Pu into a small but highly contaminated soil fraction, thereby greatly reducing the volume of soil requiring disposal. The processes tested were proposed by Paramag Corp. (PARAMAG), Advanced Processing Technologies Inc. (APT), Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (LESAT), Nuclear Remediation Technologies (NRT), and Scientific Ecology Group (SEG). Because of time and budgetary restraints, the NRT and SEG processes were tested with soil from Area 11 only. These processes typically included a preliminary soil conditioning step (e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), followed by a more advanced process designed to separate Pu from the soil, based on physiochemical properties of Pu compounds (e.g., magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity). Analysis of the soil indicates that a substantial fraction of the total Pu contamination is typically confined in a relatively narrow and small particle size range. Processes which were able to separate this highly contaminated soil fraction (using physical methods, e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), from the rest of the soil achieved volume (mass) reductions on the order of 70%. The advanced, more complex processes tested did not enhance volume reduction. The primary reason why processes that rely on the dependence of settling velocity on density differences failed was the very fine grain size of the Pu-rich particles.

  10. Advanced composites wing study program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, S. T.; Michaelson, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    The study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures was conducted as a part of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program to establish, by the mid-1980s, the technology for the design of a subsonic commercial transport aircraft leading to a 40% fuel savings. The study objective was to develop a plan to define the effort needed to support a production commitment for the extensive use of composite materials in wings of new generation aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Identification and analysis of what was needed to meet the above plan requirements resulted in a program plan consisting of three key development areas: (1) technology development; (2) production capability development; and (3) integration and validation by designing, building, and testing major development hardware.

  11. Blood volume reduction counteracts fluid shifts in water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, Karl E.; Bernauer, Edmund

    1993-01-01

    Six healthy men were bled by 15 percent of their total blood volume (TBV) before 7 h of seated water immersion, to test the hypothesis that some of the major physiological responses to an expansion of central blood volume can be counteracted by prior reduction of TBV. Subjects were their own controls under two conditions: seated dry in air and seated immersed to the suprasternal notch in water. Immersion without prior reduction of TBV Wet Control (WC) caused a statistically significant 22-percent increase in cardiac output (CO), 368-percent increase in urine production, and 200-percent increase in sodium excretion relative to dry control (DC) sessions. When TBV was reduced before immersion, CO was the same as during DC sessions; however there were significant increases above DC in urine flow (+73 percent) and sodium excretion (+120 percent), although they were significantly reduced from WC values. Potassium excretion was similar during DC and WC sessions, but was significantly increased (+75 percent) when subjects were immersed after 15-percent reduction of TBV.

  12. Biodrying for municipal solid waste: volume and weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Melayib; Tulun, Şevket

    2015-01-01

    Biodrying is a variation of aerobic decomposition used for the mechanical-biological treatment organic substances to dry and partially stabilize residual municipal waste. This study focuses on the volume and weight reduction biodegradation of the biodrying process using municipal solid waste and the appearance of a stable, final product. The materials were placed in a reactor with invariant airflow rates of 50 L/h and initial moisture contents of 48.49-50.00%. The laboratory-scale experiments were implemented using a 36-L biodrying reactor equipped with an air supply system, a biomass temperature sensor and air sensors. To determine the effect of temperature on biodrying, the process was repeated at various temperatures between 30 °C and 50 °C. The results obtained indicated that after 13 days, biodrying reduced the volume content of waste by 32% and the final product had a high calorific value (4680 kcal/kg). PMID:25571768

  13. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 4: Supporting analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    Volume 4 (Supporting Analyses) is part of a five-volume report, Advanced Vehicle Systems Assessment. Thirty-nine individuals, knowledgeable in advanced technology, were interviewed to obtain their preferences. Rankings were calculated for the eight groups they represented, using multiplicative and additive utility models. The four topics for consideration were: (1) preferred range for various battery technologies; (2) preferred battery technology for each of a variety of travel ranges; (3) most promising battery technology, vehicle range combination; and (4) comparison of the most preferred electric vehicle with the methanol-fuled, spark-ignition engine vehicle and with the most preferred of the hybrid vehicles.

  14. Pyrolysis of ion exchange resins for volume reduction and inertisation

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, L.; Hesboel, R.

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive ion exchange resins are produced in water cleaning systems in nuclear power plants. Studsvik RadWaste AB and GNS have developed a pyrolysis process for the treatment of resins with the goal of an optimal volume reduction and a transformation of the ion exchange resins into a biological and chemical inert state. The degradation products arising from the pyrolysis are char, tar and gas. In the pyrolysis process used by Studsvik RadWaste and GNS about 1/3 char, 1/3 water and tar and 1/3 gas are produced. The char is supercompacted in order to receive a volume reduction of about 10:1 and a better product for final storage. Ion exchange resins with a specific {beta}/{gamma} activity of 1E12 Bq/m{sup 3} with 50% of Co-60 can be handled. The retention of the activity has been 0.5E6:1. By processing a total of 100 kg ion exchange resins with a total activity of IE9 Bq only some hundred becquerel have been monitored outside the pyrolyzing unit. This means that the products leaving the pyrolyzing unit, in this case tar, water and gas could be handled as non radioactive material in a conventional waste treatment facility.

  15. Data Processing (Advanced Business Programming) Volume II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litecky, Charles R.; Lamkin, Tim

    This curriculum guide for an advanced course in data processing is for use as a companion publication to a textbook or textbooks; references to appropriate textbooks are given in most units. Student completion of assignments in Volume I, available separately (see ED 220 604), is a prerequisite. Topics covered in the 18 units are introduction,…

  16. Advances in Library Administration and Organization Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garten, Edward D., Ed.; Williams, Delmus E., Ed.

    Long regarded as the premier monographic series in its area of coverage, "Advances in Library Administration and Organization" offers research perspectives that are both timely and lively. This 18th volume continues the series' long practice of bringing to its professional and academic readership an eclectic mix of scholarship and longish essays.…

  17. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.

    Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities are considered in this 10-chapter volume. Contents include: "Developmental Language Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" (Cynthia A. Riccio and George W. Hynd); "Self-Regulated Strategy Development: A Theoretical and Practical Perspective" (Lisa P. Case et al.); "Mapping the…

  18. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. The technology has previously been developed for astronautical applications. The report is organized in four volumes, each focused as much as possible on the needs of a particular audience. Volume 1 contains Part A, the Executive Summary. This Executive Summary describes the accomplishments of the Program in brief, but assumes the reader's familiarity with the thermionic process and the technical issues associated with the Program. For this reason, Volume 1 also contains Part B, a minimally technical overview of the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program. Volume 2 (Part C) concentrates on the progress made in developing and fabricating the ''current generation'' of chemical vapor deposited hot shell thermionic converters and is addressed to those primarily concerned with today's capabilities in terrestrial thermionic technology. Volume 3 (Part D) contains the results of systems studies of primary interest to those involved in identifying and evaluating applications for thermionics. Volume 4 (Part E) is a highly technical discussion of the attempts made by the program to push the state-of-the-art beyond the current generation of converters and is directed toward potential researchers engaged in this same task. These technical discussions are complemented with Appendices where appropriate.

  19. SRB ascent aerodynamic heating design criteria reduction study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, W. K.; Frost, C. L.; Engel, C. D.

    1989-01-01

    An independent set of solid rocket booster (SRB) convective ascent design environments were produced which would serve as a check on the Rockwell IVBC-3 environments used to design the ascent phase of flight. In addition, support was provided for lowering the design environments such that Thermal Protection System (TPS), based on conservative estimates, could be removed leading to a reduction in SRB refurbishment time and cost. Ascent convective heating rates and loads were generated at locations in the SRB where lowering the thermal environment would impact the TPS design. The ascent thermal environments are documented along with the wind tunnel/flight test data base used as well as the trajectory and environment generation methodology. Methodology, as well as, environment summaries compared to the 1980 Design and Rockwell IVBC-3 Design Environment are presented in this volume, 1.

  20. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

  1. Advanced vehicle systems assessment. Volume 3: Systems assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K.

    1985-01-01

    The systems analyses integrate the advanced component and vehicle characteristics into conceptual vehicles with identical performance (for a given application) and evaluates the vehicles in typical use patterns. Initial and life-cycle costs are estimated and compared to conventional reference vehicles with comparable technological advances, assuming the vehicles will be in competition in the early 1990s. Electric vans, commuter vehicles, and full-size vehicles, in addition to electric/heat-engine hybrid and fuel-cell powered vehicles, are addressed in terms of performance and economics. System and subsystem recommendations for vans and two-passenger commuter vehicles are based on the economic analyses in this volume.

  2. Oxidation-Reduction Resistance of Advanced Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor); Thomas-Ogbuji, L.; Humphrey, D. L.; Setlock, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to oxidation and blanching is a key issue for advanced copper alloys under development for NASA's next generation of reusable launch vehicles. Candidate alloys, including dispersion-strengthened Cu-Cr-Nb, solution-strengthened Cu-Ag-Zr, and ODS Cu-Al2O3, are being evaluated for oxidation resistance by static TGA exposures in low-p(O2) and cyclic oxidation in air, and by cyclic oxidation-reduction exposures (using air for oxidation and CO/CO2 or H2/Ar for reduction) to simulate expected service environments. The test protocol and results are presented.

  3. 20. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ADVANCED SIZE REDUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR OF THE ADVANCED SIZE REDUCTION FACILITY USED TO CUT PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED GLOVE BOXES AND MISCELLANEOUS LARGE EQUIPMENT DOWN TO AN EASILY PACKAGED SIZE FOR DISPOSAL. ROUTINE OPERATIONS WERE PERFORMED REMOTELY, USING HOISTS, MANIPULATOR ARMS, AND GLOVE PORTS TO REDUCE BOTH INTENSITY AND TIME OF RADIATION EXPOSURE TO THE OPERATOR. (11/6/86) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Quality of Life and Volume Reduction in Women with Secondary Lymphoedema Related to Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Marcus; Bergmann, Anke; Ferreira, Maria Giseli da Costa Leite; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Dias, Ricardo de Almeida; Abrahão, Karen de Souza; Paltrinieri, Ester M; Allende, Ruy G Martínez; de Andrade, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the quality of life (QOL) as a predictor of volume reduction in women undergoing complex physical therapy (CPT) for lymphoedema following breast cancer. Methods. Clinical trial in 57 women undergoing CPT. Results. At baseline, in measuring quality of life for the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire subscale of functionality, the worst scores for emotional function (55 points) and better social function (89 points) were observed. The symptom scales showed the worst pain averaged (66 points). The overall quality of life showed a low score (40 points). In the BR 23 module, low scores were observed in the field of future perspective (47 points). After treatment of lymphoedema, absolute reduction of excess volume between the upper limbs of 282 mL was observed, representing a reduction of 15%. No association was observed between the domains of quality of life and response to treatment of lymphoedema. Conclusion. This study included 57 women with advanced and chronic lymphoedema in early treatment with CPT and low scores for quality of life. The lymphoedema therapeutic response was not influenced by the QOL at the beginning of treatment. PMID:26843988

  5. Quality of Life and Volume Reduction in Women with Secondary Lymphoedema Related to Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Marcus; Bergmann, Anke; Ferreira, Maria Giseli da Costa Leite; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Dias, Ricardo de Almeida; Abrahão, Karen de Souza; Paltrinieri, Ester M.; Allende, Ruy G. Martínez; de Andrade, Mauro Figueiredo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the quality of life (QOL) as a predictor of volume reduction in women undergoing complex physical therapy (CPT) for lymphoedema following breast cancer. Methods. Clinical trial in 57 women undergoing CPT. Results. At baseline, in measuring quality of life for the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire subscale of functionality, the worst scores for emotional function (55 points) and better social function (89 points) were observed. The symptom scales showed the worst pain averaged (66 points). The overall quality of life showed a low score (40 points). In the BR 23 module, low scores were observed in the field of future perspective (47 points). After treatment of lymphoedema, absolute reduction of excess volume between the upper limbs of 282 mL was observed, representing a reduction of 15%. No association was observed between the domains of quality of life and response to treatment of lymphoedema. Conclusion. This study included 57 women with advanced and chronic lymphoedema in early treatment with CPT and low scores for quality of life. The lymphoedema therapeutic response was not influenced by the QOL at the beginning of treatment. PMID:26843988

  6. Perfusion Scintigraphy and Patient Selection for Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Reilly, John J.; Washko, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Objectives: To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. Methods: We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non–high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Measurements and Main Results: Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Conclusions: Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung. PMID:20538961

  7. Recent Advances in Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Shao, Minhua; Chang, Qiaowan; Dodelet, Jean-Pol; Chenitz, Regis

    2016-03-23

    The recent advances in electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are thoroughly reviewed. This comprehensive Review focuses on the low- and non-platinum electrocatalysts including advanced platinum alloys, core-shell structures, palladium-based catalysts, metal oxides and chalcogenides, carbon-based non-noble metal catalysts, and metal-free catalysts. The recent development of ORR electrocatalysts with novel structures and compositions is highlighted. The understandings of the correlation between the activity and the shape, size, composition, and synthesis method are summarized. For the carbon-based materials, their performance and stability in fuel cells and comparisons with those of platinum are documented. The research directions as well as perspectives on the further development of more active and less expensive electrocatalysts are provided. PMID:26886420

  8. Fluid Mechanics, Drag Reduction and Advanced Configuration Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses Advanced Aircraft configurational approaches across the speed range, which are either enabled, or greatly enhanced, by clever Flow Control. Configurations considered include Channel Wings with circulation control for VTOL (but non-hovering) operation with high cruise speed, strut-braced CTOL transports with wingtip engines and extensive ('natural') laminar flow control, a midwing double fuselage CTOL approach utilizing several synergistic methods for drag-due-to-lift reduction, a supersonic strut-braced configuration with order of twice the L/D of current approaches and a very advanced, highly engine flow-path-integrated hypersonic cruise machine. This paper indicates both the promise of synergistic flow control approaches as enablers for 'Revolutions' in aircraft performance and fluid mechanic 'areas of ignorance' which impede their realization and provide 'target-rich' opportunities for Fluids Research.

  9. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. Sodium and Volume Disorders in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sana; Floris, Matteo; Pani, Antonello; Rosner, Mitchell H

    2016-07-01

    The kidney has a remarkable ability to modulate sodium and water excretion to maintain homeostasis despite a widely varying dietary intake. However, as glomerular filtration rate falls to less than 30 mL/min, this ability can be compromised leading to an increased risk for disorders of serum sodium and extracellular volume. In all cases, these disorders are associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Management strategies to both prevent and treat these conditions are available but requiring special attention to the unique circumstance of advanced CKD to maximize therapeutic response and prevent complications. PMID:27324677

  11. Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology Conference, volume 1, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Conference. The ACT Program is a major multi-year research initiative to achieve a national goal of technology readiness before the end of the decade. Conference papers recorded results of research in the ACT Program in the specific areas of automated fiber placement, resin transfer molding, textile preforms, and stitching as these processes influence design, performance, and cost of composites in aircraft structures. Papers sponsored by the Department of Defense on the Design and Manufacturing of Low Cost Composites (DMLCC) are also included in Volume 2 of this document.

  12. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. The technology has previously been developed for astronautical applications. Volume 2 (Part C) concentrates on the progress made in developing and fabricating the ''current generation'' of chemical vapor deposited hot shell thermionic converters and is addressed to those primarily concerned with today's capabilities in terrestrial thermionic technology. 30 refs., 83 figs.

  13. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. Volume 4 (Part E) is a highly technical discussion of the attempts made by the Program to push the state-of-the-art beyond the current generation of converters and is directed toward potential researchers engaged in this same task. These technical discussions are complemented with Appendices where appropriate.

  14. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 1: Pratt and Whitney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 1 of these reports describes the studies performed by Pratt & Whitney.

  15. Advanced controls for airbreathing engines, volume 3: Allison gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bough, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to airbreathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for airbreathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two-phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 3 of these reports describes the studies performed by the Allison Gas Turbine Division.

  16. Fluoride Induces a Volume Reduction in CA1 Hippocampal Slices Via MAP Kinase Pathway Through Volume Regulated Anion Channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaekwang; Han, Young-Eun; Favorov, Oleg; Tommerdahl, Mark; Whitsel, Barry; Lee, C Justin

    2016-04-01

    Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicity. It has been also described that sodium fluoride (NaF), a recognized G-protein activator and protein phosphatase inhibitor, leads to a significant MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells. However, NaF's effect in volume regulation in the brain is not known yet. Here, we investigated the mechanism of NaF-induced volume change in rat and mouse hippocampal slices using intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recording, in which we measured relative changes in intracellular and extracellular volume as changes in light transmittance through brain slices. We found that NaF (1~5 mM) application induced a reduction in light transmittance (decreased volume) in CA1 hippocampus, which was completely reversed by MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 (10 µM). We also observed that NaF-induced volume reduction was blocked by anion channel blockers, suggesting that NaF-induced volume reduction could be mediated by VRAC. Overall, our results propose a novel molecular mechanism of NaF-induced volume reduction via MAP kinase signaling pathway by activation of VRAC. PMID:27122993

  17. Fluoride Induces a Volume Reduction in CA1 Hippocampal Slices Via MAP Kinase Pathway Through Volume Regulated Anion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaekwang; Han, Young-Eun; Favorov, Oleg; Tommerdahl, Mark; Whitsel, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicity. It has been also described that sodium fluoride (NaF), a recognized G-protein activator and protein phosphatase inhibitor, leads to a significant MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells. However, NaF's effect in volume regulation in the brain is not known yet. Here, we investigated the mechanism of NaF-induced volume change in rat and mouse hippocampal slices using intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recording, in which we measured relative changes in intracellular and extracellular volume as changes in light transmittance through brain slices. We found that NaF (1~5 mM) application induced a reduction in light transmittance (decreased volume) in CA1 hippocampus, which was completely reversed by MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 (10 µM). We also observed that NaF-induced volume reduction was blocked by anion channel blockers, suggesting that NaF-induced volume reduction could be mediated by VRAC. Overall, our results propose a novel molecular mechanism of NaF-induced volume reduction via MAP kinase signaling pathway by activation of VRAC. PMID:27122993

  18. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  19. Lung Volume Reduction After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors: Potential Application to Emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, Michael S.; Shrager, Joseph B.; Leung, Ann N.; Popat, Rita; Trakul, Nicholas; Atwood, Todd F.; Chaudhuri, Aadel; Maxim, Peter G.; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves dyspnea and other outcomes in selected patients with severe emphysema, but many have excessive surgical risk for LVRS. We analyzed the dose-volume relationship for lobar volume reduction after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) of lung tumors, hypothesizing that SABR could achieve therapeutic volume reduction if applied in emphysema. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients treated from 2007 to 2011 who had SABR for 1 lung tumor, pre-SABR pulmonary function testing, and ≥6 months computed tomographic (CT) imaging follow-up. We contoured the treated lobe and untreated adjacent lobe(s) on CT before and after SABR and calculated their volume changes relative to the contoured total (bilateral) lung volume (TLV). We correlated lobar volume reduction with the volume receiving high biologically effective doses (BED, α/β = 3). Results: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria, with a median CT follow-up time of 14 months. There was no grade ≥3 toxicity. The median volume reduction of the treated lobe was 4.4% of TLV (range, −0.4%-10.8%); the median expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe was 2.6% of TLV (range, −3.9%-11.6%). The volume reduction of the treated lobe was positively correlated with the volume receiving BED ≥60 Gy (r{sup 2}=0.45, P=.0001). This persisted in subgroups determined by high versus low pre-SABR forced expiratory volume in 1 second, treated lobe CT emphysema score, number of fractions, follow-up CT time, central versus peripheral location, and upper versus lower lobe location, with no significant differences in effect size between subgroups. Volume expansion of the untreated adjacent lobe(s) was positively correlated with volume reduction of the treated lobe (r{sup 2}=0.47, P<.0001). Conclusions: We identified a dose-volume response for treated lobe volume reduction and adjacent lobe compensatory expansion after lung tumor SABR, consistent across

  20. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  1. Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

    1999-07-01

    ``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

  2. Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology Conference, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John G., Jr. (Compiler); Bohon, Herman L. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document is a compilation of papers presented at the Third NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Conference held at Long Beach, California, 8-11 June 1992. The ACT Program is a major multi-year research initiative to achieve a national goal of technology readiness before the end of the decade. Conference papers recorded results of research in the ACT Program in the specific areas of automated fiber placement, resin transfer molding, textile preforms, and stitching as these processes influence design, performance, and cost of composites in aircraft structures. Papers sponsored by the Department of Defense on the Design and Manufacturing of Low Cost Composites (DMLCC) are also included in Volume 2 of this document.

  3. USAF advanced terrestrial energy study. Volume 2: Technology handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E. J.; Yudow, B. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the results of the USAF Advanced Terrestrial Energy Study. The objective of that study was to develop a data base of key parameters of selected energy conversion and energy storage technologies. The data base includes present and expected (through 2000) performance goals of the systems. The data base was established through an extensive literature search, surveys of manufacturers and researchers, and statistical and qualitative analyses of the available input data. The results of the study are reported in four documents: (1) Project Summary; (2) Technology Handbook; (3) Parameter Survey; (4) Analysis, Data, Bibliography. Contents (Volume II): Diesels, Gas Turbines, Stirlings, Organic Rankine Cycle, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaic Energy Conversion System, Wind Turbines, Batteries, Thermal Energy Storage System.

  4. Extensive Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Valerie M; Goldstein, Meghan E; Kydd, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia are treatment-resistant and some do not achieve remission with clozapine, the gold-standard antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This study compared global and regional brain volumes between treatment-respondent and treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, including a group of patients who were clozapine-resistant. Methods: T1-weighted brain MRIs were obtained on a 3T scanner in 20 controls and 52 people with schizophrenia who were selected based on their symptomatic responses to antipsychotic medication: 18 responded well to first-line atypical antipsychotics (FLR), 19 were treatment-resistant but responsive to clozapine monotherapy (TR), and 15 were ultra-treatment-resistant and did not respond to clozapine (UTR). Treatment groups were matched for disease duration and current psychopathology. SIENAX and FSL-VBM were used to investigate differences in the global brain, gray matter (GM), white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volumes, and regional GM volumes. Results: GM volume was significantly reduced in the TR and UTR groups compared with controls and the FLR group (p < 0.05). GM volume was significantly reduced in TR patients compared with FLRs in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, pre- and post-central gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, and right lateral occipital cortex. UTR patients showed reduced GM compared with FLRs in their right parietal operculum and left cerebellum. No significant volume differences were observed between TR and UTR groups. Conclusions: These differences are unlikely to be solely due to medication effects, and reduced GM volume in treatment-resistant schizophrenia may represent an accelerated disease course or a different underlying pathology. PMID:25716781

  5. Gender difference in hippocampal volume reduction among abstinent methamphetamine users

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N.; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Yet little is known about the possible gender difference. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent male and female MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. Methods 27 abstinent MA users (19 males and 8 females) with average 5.75 months of duration and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18 to 45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p=0.002). Female patients showed significantly less volume compared with female healthy controls; there was no significant difference in volume between male patients and male healthy controls. Within female patients, there were significant negative relationships between right hippocampal volume and average dose of MA use (p=0.001), as well as the total error scores on the Continuous Paired Association Learning Task (CPAL) in CSB-C (p=0.013). Conclusions There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume and cognitive function in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  6. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  7. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  8. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  9. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the advanced boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the advanced boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit (BEO), opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable advanced booster that meets the SLS performance requirements

  10. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) formally initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) development in September 2011, with the approval of the program s acquisition plan, which engages the current workforce and infrastructure to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) SLS capability in 2017, while using planned block upgrades to evolve to a full 130 t capability after 2021. A key component of the acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first stage boosters. The first phase is to complete the development of the Ares and Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters for initial exploration missions in 2017 and 2021. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Risk Reduction and/or Engineering Demonstration NASA Research Announcement (NRA), which was recently awarded after a full and open competition. The NRA was released to industry on February 9, 2012, and its stated intent was to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster and to enable competition. The third and final phase will be a full and open competition for Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E) of the Advanced Boosters. There are no existing boosters that can meet the performance requirements for the 130 t class SLS. The expected thrust class of the Advanced Boosters is potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability. These new boosters will enable the flexible path approach to space exploration beyond Earth orbit, opening up vast opportunities including near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. This evolved capability offers large volume for science missions and payloads, will be modular and flexible, and will be right-sized for mission requirements. NASA developed the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction NRA to seek industry participation in reducing risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the SLS performance requirements. Demonstrations and

  11. Volume reduction of spent fuel elements for direct disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserfuhr, I.C.

    1995-12-31

    The method of direct disposal of spent fuel elements provides the placing of fuel and non-fuel elements into the POLLUX final disposal casks. It is, however, necessary to disassemble the fuel elements into fuel rods and structural parts. While the fuel rods are condensed, the remaining structure is treated further with a 500-t skeleton press to minimize the volume.

  12. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. VOLUME 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents results of shredder tests using raw municipal solid waste, air-classified light fraction, and screened light fraction. The tests simulated single- and multiple-stage size reduction, using a 10-ton per hour swing hammermill and a small, high-speed fixed hammer...

  13. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    SciTech Connect

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  14. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R.; Mollock, J.

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  15. Advanced Reduction Processes: A New Class of Treatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash; Batchelor, Bill; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new class of treatment processes called advanced reduction processes (ARPs) is proposed. ARPs combine activation methods and reducing agents to form highly reactive reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. Batch screening experiments were conducted to identify effective ARPs by applying several combinations of activation methods (ultraviolet light, ultrasound, electron beam, and microwaves) and reducing agents (dithionite, sulfite, ferrous iron, and sulfide) to degradation of four target contaminants (perchlorate, nitrate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and 2,4 dichlorophenol) at three pH-levels (2.4, 7.0, and 11.2). These experiments identified the combination of sulfite activated by ultraviolet light produced by a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (UV-L) as an effective ARP. More detailed kinetic experiments were conducted with nitrate and perchlorate as target compounds, and nitrate was found to degrade more rapidly than perchlorate. Effectiveness of the UV-L/sulfite treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate. We present the theory behind ARPs, identify potential ARPs, demonstrate their effectiveness against a wide range of contaminants, and provide basic experimental evidence in support of the fundamental hypothesis for ARP, namely, that activation methods can be applied to reductants to form reducing radicals that degrade oxidized contaminants. This article provides an introduction to ARPs along with sufficient data to identify potentially effective ARPs and the target compounds these ARPs will be most effective in destroying. Further research will provide a detailed analysis of degradation kinetics and the mechanisms of contaminant destruction in an ARP. PMID:23840160

  16. Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project: Advanced Clothing Ground Study Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Vicky; Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini

    2013-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction & Repurposing (LRR) project is to bring new ideas and technologies that will enable human presence in farther regions of space. The LRR project has five tasks: 1) Advanced Clothing System (ACS) to reduce clothing mass and volume, 2) Logistics to Living (L2L) to repurpose existing cargo, 3) Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) to reprocess materials in space, 4) Trash to Gas (TTG) to extract useful gases from trash, and 5) Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) to integrate these logistical components. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The ACS task is to find ways to further reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The ACS task has been broken into a series of studies on length of wear of various garments: 1) three small studies conducted through other NASA projects (MMSEV, DSH, HI-SEAS) focusing on length of wear of garments treated with an antimicrobial finish; 2) a ground study, which is the subject of this report, addressing both length of wear and subject perception of various types of garments worn during aerobic exercise; and 3) an ISS study replicating the ground study, and including every day clothing to collect information on perception in reduced gravity in which humans experience physiological changes. The goal of the ground study is first to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment, and second to learn why. Human factors considerations included in the study consist of the Institutional Review Board approval, test protocol and participants' training, and a web

  17. Advanced Variance Reduction Strategies for Optimizing Mesh Tallies in MAVRIC

    SciTech Connect

    Peplow, Douglas E.; Blakeman, Edward D; Wagner, John C

    2007-01-01

    More often than in the past, Monte Carlo methods are being used to compute fluxes or doses over large areas using mesh tallies (a set of region tallies defined on a mesh that overlays the geometry). For problems that demand that the uncertainty in each mesh cell be less than some set maximum, computation time is controlled by the cell with the largest uncertainty. This issue becomes quite troublesome in deep-penetration problems, and advanced variance reduction techniques are required to obtain reasonable uncertainties over large areas. The CADIS (Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling) methodology has been shown to very efficiently optimize the calculation of a response (flux or dose) for a single point or a small region using weight windows and a biased source based on the adjoint of that response. This has been incorporated into codes such as ADVANTG (based on MCNP) and the new sequence MAVRIC, which will be available in the next release of SCALE. In an effort to compute lower uncertainties everywhere in the problem, Larsen's group has also developed several methods to help distribute particles more evenly, based on forward estimates of flux. This paper focuses on the use of a forward estimate to weight the placement of the source in the adjoint calculation used by CADIS, which we refer to as a forward-weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS).

  18. TREATABILITY STUDY BULLETIN: MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT AT THE SAND CREEK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) Releases Control Branch (RCB) has developed a pilot-scale Mobile Volume Reduction Unit (VRU) to determine the feasibility of soil washing for the remediation of contaminated soils. This mobile unit, mounted on two trailers, can pro...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH NONSELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes results from testing a rich-burn reciprocating internal combustion engine retrofitted with a nonselective catalytic reduction system for NOx reduction. A comprehensive test program was performed to characterize catalyst inlet and outlet organic and...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH NONSELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes results from testing a rich-burn reciprocating internal combustion engine retrofitted with a nonselective catalytic reduction system for NOx reduction. A comprehensive test program was performed to characterize catalyst inlet and outlet organic and...

  1. Space Launch System NASA Research Announcement Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.

    2011-01-01

    The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction

  2. The Volume Reduction Ratio of Uterine Fibroid Treated With MRgFUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Kaoru; Funaki, Tsuyoshi; Fukunishi, Hidenobu

    2007-05-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the mid-term effect of MRgFUS (Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery) focusing on the volume reduction ratio and the perfused volume of uterine fibroid. Material and Methods: Forty-three fibroids on 30 patients were examined, excluding the case treated with GnRHa (gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue) just before MRgFUS. The fibroid's volume and the perfused volume were measured by MR images on the treatment day and then again 6 months later. The fibroids were classified into 3 types according to the signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images; Type 1, low intensity as skeletal muscle; Type 2, intermediate intensity that is lower than myometrium but higher than skeletal muscle; Type 3, high intensity that is the same as or higher than myometrium. Result: The non-perfused ratio immediately after MRgFUS was significantly lower in Type 3 fibroid as we had previously reported. The non-perfused volume of Type 3 fibroid showed a tendency to shrink more at 6 months after MRgFUS, than the other two types, however the volume reduction ratio was smallest in Type 3 fibroid (p<0.01). At the same time, some fibroids showed smaller perfused volume 6 months later than on the treatment day; those generally belonged to Type 1 and Type 2. Conclusion: The volume reduction ratio indicates the Type 3 fibroids respond less well to MRgFUS. This ratio could be affected by the reduction of the non-perfused volume, but also reduction or increase of the perfused volume.

  3. Transuranic (Tru) waste volume reduction operations at a plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Nixon, Archie E; Dodge, Robert L; Fife, Keith W; Sandoval, Arnold M; Garcia, Vincent E

    2010-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA 55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). Size-reduction operations on glovebox equipment are a common activity when a process has been discontinued and the room is being modified to support a new customer. The Actin ide Processing Group at TA-55 uses one-meter-long glass columns to process plutonium. Disposal of used columns is a challenge, since they must be size-reduced to get them out of the glovebox. The task is a high-risk operation because the glass shards that are generated can puncture the bag-out bags, leather protectors, glovebox gloves, and the worker's skin when completing the task. One of the Lessons Learned from these operations is that Laboratory management should critically evaluate each hazard and provide more effective measures to prevent personnel injury. A bag made of puncture-resistant material was one of these enhanced controls. We have investigated the effectiveness of these bags and have found that they safely and effectively permit glass objects to be reduced to small pieces with a plastic or rubber mallet; the waste can then be easily poured into a container for removal from the glove box as non-compactable transuranic (TRU) waste. This size-reduction operation reduces solid TRU waste generation by almost 2% times. Replacing one-time-use bag-out bags with multiple-use glass crushing bags also contributes to reducing generated waste. In addition, significant costs from contamination, cleanup, and preparation of incident documentation are avoided. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National

  4. Advanced Thermionic Technology Program: summary report. Volume 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by the Advanced Thermionic Technology Program during the past several years. This Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, has had as its goal adapting thermionic devices to generate electricity in a terrestrial (i.e., combustion) environment. Volume 3 (Part D) contains the results of systems studies of primary interest to those involved in identifying and evaluating applications for thermionics. As a general rule of thumb, cogeneration technologies are most attractive to industries when those technologies naturally produce a ration of electrical to thermal output which closely matches the demand within the industrial facilities themselves. Several of the industries which consume the largest amounts of energy have an electrical-to-thermal ratio of about ten percent, as can be seen in Exhibit D-1.1. This closely matches the electrical efficiency of thermionic converters. Thermionic cogeneration has several other unique advantages relative to alternative technologies for cogeneration which should lead to a much broader application of cogeneration in industry. These advantages accrue from the much higher temperatures at which thermionic energy conversion takes place, its suitability for very small as well as large process heaters, and, of course, its production of direct heat rather than process steam. In fact, thermionics can even be coupled to more conventional cogeneration technologies (e.g., steam turbines) to extend their applicability to processes requiring a greater electrical-to-thermal ratio than either cogeneration technology alone can provide. Several examples of thermionic cogeneration are presented in greater detail: copper refining by the Noranda process; thermionic topping cycles for gas turbine; and combined cycle and fossil-fuel steam power plants. 13 refs., 71 figs.

  5. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  6. REGIONAL BRAIN VOLUME REDUCTIONS RELATE TO FACIAL DYSMORPHOLOGY AND NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION IN FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence F.; Sulik, Kathleen K.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Adnams, Colleen M.; May, Philip A.; O’Connor, Mary J.; Narr, Katherine L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and alterations in brain structure that persist into adulthood. In this report, data from 99 participants collected across three sites (Los Angeles and San Diego, California, and Cape Town, South Africa) were analyzed to examine relationships between brain structure, neurocognitive function, facial morphology, and maternal reports of quantities of alcohol consumption during the first trimester. Across study sites, we found highly significant volume reductions in the FASD group for all of the brain regions evaluated. After correcting for scan location, age, and total brain volume, these differences remained significant in some regions of the basal ganglia and diencephalon. In alcohol-exposed subjects, we found that smaller palpebral fissures were significantly associated with reduced volumes in the diencephalon bilaterally, that greater dysmorphology of the philtrum predicted smaller volumes in basal ganglia and diencephalic structures, and that lower IQ scores were associated with both smaller basal ganglia volumes and greater facial dysmorphology. In subjects from South Africa, we found a significant negative correlation between intracranial volume and total number of drinks per week in the first trimester. These results corroborate previous reports that prenatal alcohol exposure is particularly toxic to basal ganglia and diencephalic structures. We extend previous findings by illustrating relationships between specific measures of facial dysmorphology and the volumes of particular subcortical structures, and for the first time show that continuous measures of maternal alcohol consumption during the first trimester relates to overall brain volume reduction. PMID:21416562

  7. Development of Volume-Reduction System for Ion Exchange Resin Using Inductively Coupled Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective.

  8. Advanced Photon Source research: Volume 1, Number 1, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The following articles are included in this publication: (1) The Advanced Photon Source: A Brief Overview; (2) MAD Analysis of FHIT at the Structural Biology Center; (3) Advances in High-Energy-Resolution X-ray Scattering at Beamline 3-ID; (4) X-ray Imaging and Microspectroscopy of the Mycorrhyizal Fungus-Plant Symbiosis; (5) Measurement and Control of Particle-beam Trajectories in the Advanced Photon Storage Ring; (6) Beam Acceleration and Storage at the Advanced Photon Source; and (7) Experimental Facilities Operations and Current Status.

  9. A case of lung volume reduction surgery with decortication for a septic patient in respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, M.; Mayooran, N.; Anwer, M.; Anjum, M.N.; Doddakula, K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Decortication and lung volume reduction surgery are both major operations and each has its independent risk of morbidity and mortality. Case report We present the case of a 41 year old gentleman with left sided empyema and giant bullae of the upper lobe with an active air leak that was transferred to our tertiary referral centre for further management. We performed emergency left thoracotomy, decorticated the left lower lobe with extensive lung volume reduction surgery of the upper lobe. Patient’s respiratory status significantly improved along with excellent radiological results. Conclusion Our case demonstrates that a combination of complex procedures is feasible with excellent outcomes. PMID:26588664

  10. Online adaptive radiotherapy of the bladder: Small bowel irradiated-volume reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Burridge, Nichola . E-mail: nichola.burridge@physics.cr.man.ac.uk; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Sykes, Jonathan; Stratford, Julie; Henry, Ann; McBain, Catherine; Price, Pat; Moore, Chris

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To assess the potential reduction of small bowel volume receiving high-dose radiation by using kilovoltage X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and quantized margin selection for adaptive bladder cancer treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty bladder patients were planned conformally using a four-field, 15-mm uniform margin technique. Two additional planning target volumes (PTVs) were created using margins quantized to 5 and 10 mm in the superior direction only. CBCTs ({approx}8 scans/patient) were acquired during treatment. CBCT volumes were registered with CT planning scans to determine setup errors and to select the appropriate PTV of the day. Margin reduction in other directions was considered. Outlining of small bowel in every fraction is required to properly quantify the volume of small bowel spared from high doses. In the case of CBCT this is not always possible owing to artifacts created by small bowel movement and the presence of gas. A simpler method was adopted by considering the volume difference between PTVs created using uniform and adapted margins, which corresponds to the potential volume of small bowel sparing. Results: The average small bowel volume that can be spared by this form of adaptive radiotherapy is 31 {+-} 23 cm{sup 3} ({+-}1 SD). The bladder for 1 patient was systematically smaller than the planning scan and hence demonstrated the largest average reduction of 76 cm{sup 3}. The clinical target volume to PTV margins in other directions can be safely reduced to 10 mm except in the anterior direction where, like the superior direction, the bladder showed significant variation. Conclusions: Online CBCT-assisted plan selection based on quantized margins can significantly reduce the volume of small bowel receiving high doses for some bladder patients. CBCT allows the 15-mm margins used in some directions to be safely reduced to 10 mm.

  11. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  12. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 3: Supporting data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The overall study effort proceeded from the identification of 106 technology topics to the selection of 5 for detail trade studies. The technical issues and options were evaluated through the trade process. Finally, individual consideration was given to costs and benefits for the technologies identified for advancement. Eight priority technology items were identified for advancement. Supporting data generated during the trade selection and trade study process were presented. Space platform requirements, trade study and cost benefits analysis, and technology advancement planning are advanced. The structured approach used took advantage of a number of forms developed to ensure that a consistent approach was employed by each of the diverse specialists that participated. These forms were an intrinsic part of the study protocol.

  13. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 1: Project Summary and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Display House (ATDH) project is described. Tasks are defined in the areas of energy demand, water demand, sewage treatment, electric power, plumbing, lighting, heating, and air conditioning. Energy, water, and sewage systems are defined.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: MOBILE VOLUME REDUCTION UNIT - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Volume Reduction Unit (VRU), which was developed by EPA, is a mobile, pilot-scale soil washing system for stand-alone field use in cleaning soil contaminated with hazardous substances. Removal efficiencies depend on the contaminant as well as the type of soil. Soil washing...

  15. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In 1981, the NRC published a Policy Statement (46 FR 51100; October 16... August 15, 2011 (76 FR 50500), with the comment period ending on October 14, 2011. The NRC received... Volume Reduction Summary In 1981, the Commission published a Policy Statement (46 FR 51100; October...

  16. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME 2. SYMPOSIUM POSTER PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

  17. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1988 SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY--VOLUME 1. SYMPOSIUM ORAL PAPERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document the 1988 symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, jointly sponsored by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) and Office of Radiation Programs (ORP), in Denver, CO, October 17-21, 1988. The objective of the sympo...

  18. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  19. Regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions in first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip; Robinson, Delbert; Jang, Seonah; Woods, Roger P; Kim, Sharon; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Asunction, Dina; Toga, Arthur W; Bilder, Robert M

    2004-04-01

    Hippocampal volume reductions are widely observed in schizophrenia. Some studies suggest anterior hippocampal regions are more susceptible and associated with frontal lobe dysfunctions, while others implicate posterior regions. Using high-resolution MR images and novel computational image analysis methods, we identified the hippocampal subregions most vulnerable to disease processes in 62 (45 m/17 f) first-episode schizophrenia patients compared to 60 (30 m/30 f) healthy controls, similar in age. The hippocampi were traced on coronal brain slices and hemispheric volumes were compared between diagnostic groups. Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups in 3D. CSF concentrations were also compared statistically at homologous hippocampal surface points to localize corresponding gray matter reductions. Significant bilateral hippocampal volume reductions were observed in schizophrenia irrespective of brain size corrections. Statistical mapping results, confirmed by permutation testing, showed pronounced left hemisphere shape differences in anterior and midbody CA1 and CA2 regions in patients. Significant CSF increases surrounding the hippocampus were observed in a similar spatial pattern in schizophrenia. Results confirm that hippocampal volume reductions are a robust neuroanatomical correlate of schizophrenia and are present by first episode. Mid- to antero-lateral hippocampal regions show pronounced volume changes and complementary increases in peri-hippocampal CSF, suggesting that these hippocampal regions are more susceptible to disease processes in schizophrenia. Targeting regional hippocampal abnormalities may help dissociate schizophrenia patients from other groups exhibiting global hippocampal volume changes, and better focus systems-level pathophysiological hypotheses. PMID:15050580

  20. Advances in reduction techniques for tire contact problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.

    1995-01-01

    Some recent developments in reduction techniques, as applied to predicting the tire contact response and evaluating the sensitivity coefficients of the different response quantities, are reviewed. The sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the contact response to variations in the geometric and material parameters of the tire. The tire is modeled using a two-dimensional laminated anisotropic shell theory with the effects of variation in geometric and material parameters, transverse shear deformation, and geometric nonlinearities included. The contact conditions are incorporated into the formulation by using a perturbed Lagrangian approach with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the stress resultants, the generalized displacements, and the Lagrange multipliers associated with the contact conditions. The elemental arrays are obtained by using a modified two-field, mixed variational principle. For the application of reduction techniques, the tire finite element model is partitioned into two regions. The first region consists of the nodes that are likely to come in contact with the pavement, and the second region includes all the remaining nodes. The reduction technique is used to significantly reduce the degrees of freedom in the second region. The effectiveness of the computational procedure is demonstrated by a numerical example of the frictionless contact response of the space shuttle nose-gear tire, inflated and pressed against a rigid flat surface. Also, the research topics which have high potential for enhancing the effectiveness of reduction techniques are outlined.

  1. Impact of Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction on Right Ventricular Myocardial Function

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Tuleta, Izabela; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) provides a minimally invasive therapy for patients with severe lung emphysema. As its impact on right ventricular (RtV) function is undefined, we examined the extent of RtV functional changes following ELVR, as assessed by use of speckle tracking-based RtV deformation analysis. Methods We enrolled 32 patients with severe emphysematous COPD scheduled for bronchoscopic LVR using endobronchial valves (Zephyr, PulmonX, Inc.), comprising 16 matched clinical responders and 16 non-responders. Echocardiography was conducted one day prior to ELVR and at an eight-week postprocedural interval. Results Patients were predominantly of late middle-age (65.8±8.7yrs), male (62.5%) and presented advanced COPD emphysema (means FEV1 and RV: 32.6% and 239.1% of predicted, respectively). After ELVR, RtV apical longitudinal strain improved significantly in the total study cohort (-7.96±7.02% vs. -13.35±11.48%, p=0.04), whereas there were no significant changes in other parameters of RtV function such as RtV global longitudinal strain, TAPSE or pulmonary arterial systolic pressure. In responding patients, 6MWT-improvement correlated with a decrease in NT-proBNP (Pearson´s r: -0.53, p=0.03). However, clinical non-responders did not exhibit any RtV functional improvement. Discussion ELVR beneficially impacts RtV functional parameters. Speckle tracking-based RtV apical longitudinal strain analysis allows early determination of RtV contractile gain and identification of clinical responsiveness. PMID:25856379

  2. Learning and Teaching Elementary Subjects. Advances in Research on Teaching. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere, Ed.

    This publication is the fifth volume in the "Advanced in Research on Teaching" series, which has been established to provide state-of-the-art conceptualization and analysis of the processes involved in functioning as a classroom teacher. This volume focuses on the work of the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Elementary Subjects in the…

  3. Behavioral Disorders: Identification, Assessment, and Instruction of Students with EBD. Advances in Special Education. Volume 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeffrey P., Ed.; Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Volumes 22 and 23 of "Advances in Special Education" address the current top perspectives and issues in the field of EBD by providing chapters written by active researchers and scholarly university professors who specialize in this area. Volume 22 first delineates legal issues, themes, and dimensions related to the historical development of the…

  4. Behavioral Disorders: Practice Concerns and Students with EBD. Advances in Special Education. Volume 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Jeffrey P., Ed.; Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Volumes 22 and 23 of the "Advances in Special Education" address the current top perspectives and issues in the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) by providing chapters written by active researchers and scholarly university professors who specialize in this area. Volume 22 first delineates legal issues, themes, and dimensions…

  5. Planning and Managing Learning Tasks and Activities. Advances in Research on Teaching. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere, Ed.

    This publication is the third volume in the "Advanced in Research on Teaching" series, which has been established to provide state-of-the-art conceptualization and analysis of the processes involved in functioning as a classroom teacher. This volume focuses on the planning and managing of learning tasks and activities, in particular, what is…

  6. Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, James N., Jr., Ed.; Metcalf, Robert L., Ed.

    The aim of this volume is to help delineate and solve the multitude of environmental problems our technology has created. Representing a diversity of notable approaches to crucial environmental issues, it features eight self-contained chapters by noted scientists. Topics range from broad considerations of air pollution and specific techniques for…

  7. Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besner, D., Ed.; And Others

    Intended to (1) provide new data and reconceptualizations relevant to evolving debates, (2) present summaries of current theoretical positions, and (3) in some cases, to juxtapose radically different opinions in a rapidly growing field, this volume offers a number of views on topics concerning visual word recognition. In chapter 1, Thomas H. Carr…

  8. Design of the Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema Palliation Trial (VENT): a non-surgical method of lung volume reduction

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Charlie; Herth, Felix JF; Kovitz, Kevin L; McLennan, Geoffrey; Ernst, Armin; Goldin, Jonathan; Noppen, Marc; Criner, Gerard J; Sciurba, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT) posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < 45% of predicted, hyperinflation (total lung capacity measured by body plethysmography > 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted), and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC) score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema

  9. Engineering development of advanced froth flotation. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.; Torak, E.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an account of findings related to the Engineering and Development of Advanced Froth Flotation project. The results from benchscale and proof-of-concept (POC) level testing are presented and the important results from this testing are used to refine a conceptual design and cost estimate for a 20 TPH Semi-Works Facility incorporating the final proposed technology.

  10. Advanced Placement Computer Science with Pascal. Volume 2. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide presents 100 lessons for an advanced placement course on programming in Pascal. Some of the topics covered include arrays, sorting, strings, sets, records, computers in society, files, stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees, searching, hashing, and chaining. Performance objectives, vocabulary, motivation, aim,…

  11. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  12. Long-Term Occupational Stress Is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Blix, Eva; Perski, Aleksander; Berglund, Hans; Savic, Ivanka

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous data on chronic psychosocial stress, and indicate a morphological involvement of the frontostriatal circuits. The present findings of morphological changes in these regions confirm our previous conclusion that symptoms from occupational stress merit careful investigations and targeted treatment. PMID:23776438

  13. BRAF inhibition decreases cellular glucose uptake in melanoma in association with reduction in cell volume

    PubMed Central

    Theodosakis, Nicholas; Held, Matthew A.; Marzuka-Alcala, Alexander; Meeth, Katrina M.; Micevic, Goran; Long, Georgina V.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Stern, David F.; Bosenberg, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    BRAF kinase inhibitors have dramatically impacted treatment of BRAFV600E/K-driven metastatic melanoma. Early responses assessed using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have shown dramatic reduction of radiotracer signal within two weeks of treatment. Despite high response rates, relapse occurs in nearly all cases, frequently at sites of treated metastatic disease. It remains unclear whether initial loss of 18FDG uptake is due to tumor cell death or other reasons. Here we provide evidence of melanoma cell volume reduction in a patient cohort treated with BRAF inhibitors. We present data demonstrating that BRAF inhibition reduces melanoma glucose uptake per cell, but that this change is no longer significant following normalization for cell volume changes. We also demonstrate that volume normalization greatly reduces differences in transmembrane glucose transport and hexokinase-mediated phosphorylation. Mechanistic studies suggest that this loss of cell volume is due in large part to decreases in new protein translation as a consequence of vemurafenib treatment. Ultimately, our findings suggest that cell volume regulation constitutes an important physiologic parameter that may significantly contribute to radiographic changes observed in clinic. PMID:25948295

  14. Recent Advances in Electrical Resistance Preheating of Aluminum Reduction Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Kvande, Halvor

    2016-06-01

    ABSTRACT There are two mainpreheating methods that are used nowadays for aluminum reduction cells. One is based on electrical resistance preheating with a thin bed of small coke and/or graphite particles between the anodes and the cathode carbon blocks. The other is flame preheating, where two or more gas or oil burners are used. Electrical resistance preheating is the oldest method, but is still frequently used by different aluminum producers. Many improvements have been made to this method by different companies over the last decade. In this paper, important points pertaining to the preparation and preheating of these cells, as well as measurements made during the preheating process and evaluation of the performance of the preheating, are illustrated. The preheating times of these cells were found to be between 36 h and 96 h for cell currents between 176 kA and 406 kA, while the resistance bed thickness was between 13 mm and 60 mm. The average cathode surface temperature at the end of the preheating was usually between 800°C and 950°C. The effect of the preheating methods on cell life is unclear and no quantifiable conclusions can be drawn. Some works carried out in the mathematical modeling area are also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for more studies with real situations for preheated cells on the basis of actual measurements. The expected development in electrical resistance preheating of aluminum reduction cells is also summarized.

  15. 76 FR 50500 - Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Statement (46 FR 51100; October 16, 1981) regarding the volume reduction of LLW. On April 7, 2010, the NRC... COMMISSION Request for Comments on the Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive... was issued when disposal space was scarce since two of the three operating low level radioactive...

  16. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy’s (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (i) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (ii) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (iii) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  17. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    2006-06-01

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  18. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF TRU AND MIXED WASTES: ACTINIDE SPECIATION AND WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.; DODGE, C.J.

    2006-11-16

    The overall goals of this research project are to determine the mechanism of microbial dissolution and stabilization of actinides in Department of Energy's (DOE) TRU wastes, contaminated sludges, soils, and sediments. This includes (1) investigations on the fundamental aspects of microbially catalyzed radionuclide and metal transformations (oxidation/reduction reactions, dissolution, precipitation, chelation); (2) understanding of the microbiological processes that control speciation and alter the chemical forms of complex inorganic/organic contaminant mixtures; and (3) development of new and improved microbially catalyzed processes resulting in immobilization of metals and radionuclides in the waste with concomitant waste volume reduction.

  19. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Advanced technology program recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The benefits of the application of advanced technology to future transport aircraft were investigated. The noise reduction goals established by the CARD (Civil Aviation Research and Development) study for the 1981-1985 time period can be satisfied. Reduced terminal area and airway congestion can result from use of advanced on-board systems and operating procedures. The use of advanced structural design concepts can result in greatly reduced gross weight and improved operating economics. The full potential of these benefits can be realized in a 1985 airplane by implementing a research and development program that is funded to an average level of approximately $55 million per year over a ten year period.

  20. Development of an advanced Sabatier CO2 reduction subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Cusick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A preprototype Sabatier CO2 reduction subsystem was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The lightweight, quick starting (less than 5 minutes) reactor utlizes a highly active and physically durable methanation catalyst composed of ruthenium on alumina. The use of this improved catalyst permits a simple, passively controlled reactor design with an average lean component H2/CO2 conversion efficiency of over 99% over a range of H2/CO2 molar ratios of 1.8 to 5 while operating with process flows equivalent to a crew size of up to five persons. The subsystem requires no heater operation after start-up even during simulated 55 minute lightside/39 minute darkside orbital operation.

  1. Late Major Hemoptysis After Lung Volume Reduction With Coils Induced by Dual Antiaggregation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Antonio; Casutt, Alessio; Koutsokera, Angela; Noetzli, Jasmine; Perentes, Jean Yannis; Krueger, Thorsten; Pons, Marco; Nicod, Laurent P; Lovis, Alban

    2016-02-01

    Lung-volume reduction using coils is an effective and safe treatment for selected patients presenting severe emphysema and hyperinflation. Most complications occur during the first 30 days after the procedure. Although frequent, hemoptysis is usually transient and minor. Antiaggregation therapy is common in patients with emphysema who, very often, have additional tobacco-associated comorbidities. Aspirin is considered safe for most major interventions; however, clopidogrel is mainly contraindicated and considered an exclusion criterion. We present a case of life-threatening hemoptysis caused by dual antiaggregation therapy "accidentally" introduced 3 months after the procedure. So far no recommendations exist on the optimal therapeutic strategy after lung-volume reduction with coils. PMID:26777971

  2. Advanced oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on nitrogen-doped graphene derived from edible sugar and urea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuping; Jin, Jutao; Fu, Xiaogang; Liu, Qiao; Zhang, Junyan

    2013-11-13

    Designing and fabricating advanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts is critical importance for the sake of promoting widespread application of fuel cells. In this work, we report that nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), synthesized via one-step pyrolysis of naturally available sugar in the presence of urea, can serve as metal-free ORR catalyst with excellent electrocatalytic activity, outstanding methanol crossover resistance as well as long-term operation stability in alkaline medium. The resultant NG1000 (annealed at 1000 °C) exhibits a high kinetic current density of 21.33 mA/cm(2) at -0.25 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH electrolyte, compared with 16.01 mA/cm(2) at -0.25 V for commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. Notably, the NG1000 possesses comparable ORR half-wave potential to Pt/C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the physical prosperity and ORR performance of NG are also investigated. The obtained results demonstrate that high activation temperature (1000 °C) results in low nitrogen doping level, high graphitization degree, enhanced electrical conductivity, and high surface area and pore volume, which make a synergetic contribution to enhancing the ORR performance for NG. PMID:24099362

  3. Advanced technology airfoil research, volume 1, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This compilation contains papers presented at the NASA Conference on Advanced Technology Airfoil Research held at Langley Research Center on March 7-9, 1978, which have unlimited distribution. This conference provided a comprehensive review of all NASA airfoil research, conducted in-house and under grant and contract. A broad spectrum of airfoil research outside of NASA was also reviewed. The major thrust of the technical sessions were in three areas: development of computational aerodynamic codes for airfoil analysis and design, development of experimental facilities and test techniques, and all types of airfoil applications.

  4. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  5. Advanced Food Technology Workshop Report. Volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) Program conducts research and technology development to provide new technologies and next-generation system that will enable humans to live and work safely and effectively in space. One program element within the AHST Program is Advanced Life Support (ALS). The goal of the ALS program element is to develop regenerative life support systems directed at supporting National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) future long-duration missions. Such missions could last from months to years and make resupply impractical, thereby necessitating self-sufficiency. Thus, subsystems must be developed to fully recycle air and water, recover resources from solid wastes grow plants, process raw plant products into nutritious and palatable foods, control the thermal environment, while reducing the overall system mass. ALS systems will be a combination of physico-chemical and biological components depending on the specific mission requirements. In the transit vehicle, the food system will primarily be a prepackaged food system with the possible addition of salad crops that can be picked and eaten with limited preparation. On the lunar or planetary evolved base, the food system will be a combination of the prepackaged menu item and ingredients that are processed from the grown crops. Food processing and food preparation will be part of this food system.

  6. Hypothalamic-Amygdalar-Brainstem Volume Reduction in a Patient with Narcolepsy Secondary to Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Walid; Sugihara, Genichi; Oishi, Naoya; Kubota, Manabu; Ubukata, Shiho; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old male with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) was referred to our psychiatric clinic with a diagnosis of depression. However, further investigation indicated that he had narcolepsy without cataplexy secondary to DAI. We assessed regional volume alterations in the patient; MRI analysis showed a significant decrease in the volume of the hypothalamus, left amygdala, and brainstem. Our findings add to further understanding of the structural basis of secondary narcolepsy, and may provide basis for future neuroimaging studies on sleep disturbances in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Citation: Yassin W, Sugihara G, Oishi N, Kubota M, Ubukata S, Murai T, Ueda K. Hypothalamic-amygdalar-brainstem volume reduction in a patient with narcolepsy secondary to diffuse axonal injury. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):581–582. PMID:25665696

  7. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Aign, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  8. Effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional right ventricular deformation in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Açar, Göksel; Alizade, Elnur; Avci, Anıl; Cakir, Hakan; Efe, Suleyman Cagan; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Toprak, Cuneyt; Tanboğa, Ibrahim Halil; Esen, Ali Metin

    2014-03-01

    Strain (S) and strain rate (SR) are known to be altered in diseases associated with right ventricular (RV) pressure/volume overload and RV myocardial dysfunction; however determinants of S/SR are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blood donation-mediated volume reduction on regional RV deformation in healthy young adults. Study population was composed of 61 consecutive healthy subjects who were volunteers for blood donation. All underwent standard echocardiography and two-dimensional S and SR imaging by speckle tracking before and after 450 mL blood donation. We found no change in RV lateral wall SR in all three segments. However, the S in the apical and mid segments of the RV lateral wall immediately decreased after blood donation [-26.2 ± 3.3 vs. -23.2 ± 3.3 % (p < 0.0001) and -28.2 ± 3.4 vs. -27.1 ± 3.2 % (p = 0.009), respectively], whereas no change was observed in the basal segment. Moreover, changes in systolic S on the apical segment of the RV lateral wall before and after blood donation were significantly correlated with the changes in the RV size [end-diastolic area index, r = - 0.369 (p = 0.003) and end-systolic area index, r = - 0.319 (p = 0.012)] and changes in the stroke volume index [r = - 0.436 (p < 0.001)]. Blood donation-mediated volume reduction in healthy subjects caused a regional difference in RV longitudinal deformation with the lower mid and apical S that was related to parameters of volume load severity. However, RV systolic SR was found to be resistant to the effects of volume depletion. PMID:24442771

  9. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate Measured by Magnetic Resonance Volumetry Correlated With Pathologic Tumor Response of Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jung, Kyung Hae; Hong, Yong Sang; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Ji Won; Lim, Seok-Byung; Choi, Hyo Seong; Jeong, Seung-Yong

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlates with the pathologic tumor response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 405 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4) who had undergone preoperative CRT and radical proctectomy. The tumor volume was measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry before and after CRT but before surgery. We analyzed the correlation between the TVRR and the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and tumor regression grade (TRG). Downstaging was defined as ypStage 0-I (ypT0-T2N0M0), and the TRG proposed by Dworak et al. was used. Results: The mean TVRR was 65.0% {+-} 22.3%. Downstaging and complete regression occurred in 167 (41.2%) and 58 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The TVRRs according to ypT classification (ypT0-T2 vs. ypT3-T4), ypN classification (ypN0 vs. ypN1-N2), downstaging (ypStage 0-I vs. ypStage II-III), good regression (TRG 3-4 vs. TRG 1-2), and complete regression (TRG 4 vs. TRG 1-3) were all significantly different (p <.05). When the TVRR was categorized into three groups (<60%, 60-80%, and >80%), the rates of ypT0-T2, ypN0, downstaging, and good regression were all significantly greater for patients with a TVRR of {>=}60%, as was the complete regression rate for patients with a TVRR >80% (p <.05). Conclusion: The TVRR measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest magnetic resonance volumetry correlated significantly with the pathologic tumor response in terms of downstaging and TRG after preoperative CRT for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  10. ECLSS evolution: Advanced instrumentation interface requirements. Volume 3: Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An Advanced ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) Technology Interfaces Database was developed primarily to provide ECLSS analysts with a centralized and portable source of ECLSS technologies interface requirements data. The database contains 20 technologies which were previously identified in the MDSSC ECLSS Technologies database. The primary interfaces of interest in this database are fluid, electrical, data/control interfaces, and resupply requirements. Each record contains fields describing the function and operation of the technology. Fields include: an interface diagram, description applicable design points and operating ranges, and an explaination of data, as required. A complete set of data was entered for six of the twenty components including Solid Amine Water Desorbed (SAWD), Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation System (TIMES), Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Concentrator (EDC), Solid Polymer Electrolysis (SPE), Static Feed Electrolysis (SFE), and BOSCH. Additional data was collected for Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Potable (ROWRP), Reverse Osmosis Water Reclaimation-Hygiene (ROWRH), Static Feed Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SFSPE), Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), and Multifiltration Water Reclamation - Hygiene (MFWRH). A summary of the database contents is presented in this report.

  11. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  12. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  13. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  14. Recent numerical and algorithmic advances within the volume tracking framework for modeling interfacial flows

    SciTech Connect

    François, Marianne M.

    2015-05-28

    A review of recent advances made in numerical methods and algorithms within the volume tracking framework is presented. The volume tracking method, also known as the volume-of-fluid method has become an established numerical approach to model and simulate interfacial flows. Its advantage is its strict mass conservation. However, because the interface is not explicitly tracked but captured via the material volume fraction on a fixed mesh, accurate estimation of the interface position, its geometric properties and modeling of interfacial physics in the volume tracking framework remain difficult. Several improvements have been made over the last decade to address these challenges. In this study, the multimaterial interface reconstruction method via power diagram, curvature estimation via heights and mean values and the balanced-force algorithm for surface tension are highlighted.

  15. Recent numerical and algorithmic advances within the volume tracking framework for modeling interfacial flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    François, Marianne M.

    2015-05-28

    A review of recent advances made in numerical methods and algorithms within the volume tracking framework is presented. The volume tracking method, also known as the volume-of-fluid method has become an established numerical approach to model and simulate interfacial flows. Its advantage is its strict mass conservation. However, because the interface is not explicitly tracked but captured via the material volume fraction on a fixed mesh, accurate estimation of the interface position, its geometric properties and modeling of interfacial physics in the volume tracking framework remain difficult. Several improvements have been made over the last decade to address these challenges.more » In this study, the multimaterial interface reconstruction method via power diagram, curvature estimation via heights and mean values and the balanced-force algorithm for surface tension are highlighted.« less

  16. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF

  17. Frontal cortical thinning and subcortical volume reductions in early adulthood obesity.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Pueyo, Roser; Garolera, Maite; Segura, Bàrbara; Junqué, Carme; García-García, Isabel; José Sender-Palacios, María; Vernet-Vernet, María; Narberhaus, Ana; Ariza, Mar; Jurado, María Ángeles

    2013-11-30

    Obesity depends on homeostatic and hedonic food intake behavior, mediated by brain plasticity changes in cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this study was to investigate cortical thickness and subcortical volumes of regions related to food intake behavior in a healthy young adult sample with obesity. Thirty-seven volunteers, 19 with obesity (age=33.7±5.7 (20-39) years body-mass index (BMI)=36.08±5.92 (30.10-49.69)kg/m(2)) and 18 controls (age=32.3±5.9 (21-40) years; BMI=22.54±1.94 (19.53-24.97)kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Patients with neuropsychiatric or biomedical disorders were excluded. We used FreeSurfer software to analyze structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) and obtain global brain measures, cortical thickness and subcortical volume estimations. Finally, correlation analyses were performed for brain structure data and obesity measures. There were no between-group differences in age, gender, intelligence or education. Results showed cortical thickness reductions in obesity in the left superior frontal and right medial orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, the obesity group had lower ventral diencephalon and brainstem volumes than controls, while there were no differences in any other subcortical structure. There were no statistically significant correlations between brain structure and obesity measures. Overall, our work provides evidence of the structural brain characteristics associated with metabolically normal obesity. We found reductions in cortical thickness, ventral diencephalon and brainstem volumes in areas that have been implicated in food intake behavior. PMID:24041490

  18. Pedagogy of Language Learning in Higher Education: An Introduction. Advances in Foreign Language Pedagogy, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Gerd, Ed.

    This second volume in the series "Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy" is an introduction to the pedagogy of language learning in higher education focusing on learner motivation, classroom environments, relationships for learning, and the future of language education. The book reveals numerous links to language education on the…

  19. Russian Advanced Preparatory Course: Comprehensive Review of Structural Patterns. Volume 1, Lessons 1-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of two volumes dealing with a comprehensive review of structural patterns in the "Advanced Preparatory Course." All essential grammatical structures introduced in the "Basic Course" are included. The textual material in the 20 lessons is designed to stimulate recall and reinforce previously learned grammatical patterns. The…

  20. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Mechanisms underlying reductions in stroke volume at rest and during exercise at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Stembridge, Mike; Ainslie, Philip N; Shave, Rob

    2016-08-01

    High-altitude exposure challenges the cardiovascular system to maintain oxygen delivery to the mitochondria under conditions of hypoxic stress. Following acclimatisation (3-5 days), stroke volume (SV) falls to below sea-level values but heart rate remains elevated, such that cardiac output is maintained compared to sea level. The decrease in SV has been a topic of research for over 40 years, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Impaired systolic contractile function secondary to reduced coronary arterial oxygen tension has been investigated as a potential cause for the decrease in SV. However, despite in vitro evidence of impaired cardiac contractile force in severe hypoxia, the majority of studies to date have reported enhanced in vivo ventricular systolic function at rest and during exercise in humans up to and above 5000 m. However, the elevated function observed at rest has recently been suggested to reduce the functional reserve available during exercise. While in vivo systolic function appears enhanced at high altitude, a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and altered filling patterns of both ventricles has been observed. The reduction in ventricular filling will undoubtedly affect SV, and four potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the reduction in left ventricular filling. In this article, both historical and recent reports of systolic function at high altitude will be reviewed, and evidence supporting and refuting each of the four mechanisms underpinning reduced left ventricular filling will be discussed. PMID:26325452

  2. Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  3. Surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Meena, Manoj; Dixit, Ramakant; Singh, Mrityunjaya; Samaria, Jai Kumar; Kumar, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the most extensively studied and researched disease in pulmonology and a cause of significant morbidity, mortality, and financial burden on patient's family and country's economy. Its management continues to be a challenge to both the physician and the patient's family. So far, it is preventable and treatable but not curable. Emphysema, a phenotype of COPD, is the most debilitating condition associated with progressive exercise intolerance and severe dyspnea. Despite decades of research, medical treatments available so far have helped improve quality of life and slowed down the decline in respiratory function but did not significantly improve the survival benefits. Though surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) procedures have shown some promise in context to functional gains and survival but, only in a carefully selected group of patients, bronchoscopic LVR procedures are yet to explore their full potential and limitations. This paper retrospectively studied the developments so far, medical and surgical, with special emphasis on the bronchoscopic procedures of lung volume reduction, and tried to comparatively analyze the risks and benefits of each one of them through various trials and studies done to date. PMID:25614834

  4. Rational design of an on-site volume reduction system for source-separated urine.

    PubMed

    Pahore, Muhammad Masoom; Ito, Ryusei; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2010-04-01

    Human urine contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, which can be applied as fertilizer in agriculture, replacing commercial fertilizer. However, owing to the low nutrient content of the urine, huge quantities must be transported to farmland to meet the nutrient demand of crops. This highly increases the transportation cost for the farmers. To address the transportation issue, a new on-site volume reduction system was tested at the laboratory scale based on water evaporation from vertical gauze sheets. A mathematical water transport model was proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. The mass transfer coefficient and the resistance of water flow through the sheet in the water transport model were obtained from the experiments. The results agreed with the simulated data, thereby confirming the proposed model. The model was then applied to the dry climate of southern Pakistan, having an air temperature of 30-40 degrees C and air humidity of 20-40%, for an 80% volume reduction of 10 L urine per day, which corresponds to a family of 10 members (average for a household in Pakistan). The findings revealed that the estimated size of the vertical sheet is 440-2060 cm2, which is only a small area for setting up the system at a household level. PMID:20450114

  5. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 4: Technology advancement program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An overview study of the major technology definition tasks and subtasks along with their interfaces and interrelationships is presented. Although not specifically indicated in the diagram, iterations were required at many steps to finalize the results. The development of the integrated technology advancement plan was initiated by using the results of the previous two tasks, i.e., the trade studies and the preliminary cost and schedule estimates for the selected technologies. Descriptions for the development of each viable technology advancement was drawn from the trade studies. Additionally, a logic flow diagram depicting the steps in developing each technology element was developed along with descriptions for each of the major elements. Next, major elements of the logic flow diagrams were time phased, and that allowed the definition of a technology development schedule that was consistent with the space station program schedule when possible. Schedules show the major milestone including tests required as described in the logic flow diagrams.

  6. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  7. Experiment and mechanism investigation on advanced reburning for NOx reduction: influence of CO and temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Zhou, Jun-hu; Zhang, Yan-wei; Lu, Zhi-min; Fan, Jian-ren; Cen, Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    Pulverized coal reburning, ammonia injection and advanced reburning in a pilot scale drop tube furnace were investigated. Premix of petroleum gas, air and NH3 were burned in a porous gas burner to generate the needed flue gas. Four kinds of pulverized coal were fed as reburning fuel at constant rate of 1g/min. The coal reburning process parameters including 15%~25% reburn heat input, temperature range from 1100 °C to 1400 °C and also the carbon in fly ash, coal fineness, reburn zone stoichiometric ratio, etc. were investigated. On the condition of 25% reburn heat input, maximum of 47% NO reduction with Yanzhou coal was obtained by pure coal reburning. Optimal temperature for reburning is about 1300 °C and fuel-rich stoichiometric ratio is essential; coal fineness can slightly enhance the reburning ability. The temperature window for ammonia injection is about 700 °C~1100 °C. CO can improve the NH3 ability at lower temperature. During advanced reburning, 72.9% NO reduction was measured. To achieve more than 70% NO reduction, Selective Non-catalytic NOx Reduction (SNCR) should need NH3/NO stoichiometric ratio larger than 5, while advanced reburning only uses common dose of ammonia as in conventional SNCR technology. Mechanism study shows the oxidization of CO can improve the decomposition of H2O, which will rich the radical pools igniting the whole reactions at lower temperatures. PMID:15682503

  8. Changes in Vascular Tone Occur Early During Hemodialysis Treatments Independently of Volume Reduction.

    PubMed

    Power, Albert; Charitaki, Evangelia; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Hypotension commonly occurs during hemodialysis (HD). Hypotension can result from an absolute reduction in plasma volume following excessive ultrafiltration or from a reduction in vascular tone. We hypothesized that changes in vascular tone could occur during dialysis. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured in 197 HD patients, mean age 63.3 ± 16.6 years, 62% male, 49% diabetic, during a single HD session. aPWV did not change (9.6 ± 2.2 vs. 9.6 ± 2.2 m/s) with HD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) declined from 151 ± 31 to 147 ± 32 after 20 min and to 140 ± 36 mm Hg on completion of HD (P < 0.05), with an ultrafiltration volume of 2.2 ± 0.9 L over a 3.9 ± 0.4 h HD session. Aortic SBP declined from 154 ± 32 to 146 ± 29 after 20 min and 143 ± 35 at the end of HD, P < 0.001. Aortic augmentation index (Aortic Aix) decreased from 65% (52-79%) to 36.7% (23.3-52.9%) by 20 min and to 34.3 (15.1-49.1%) on completion of HD (P < 0.05), and brachial augmentation index (brachial Aix) from 5.7% (-25.2 to 27.5%) to -1.9% (-2.2 to 30.1%) and -6.6% (-44 to 22.7%), respectively, P < 0.05. Diastolic reflection area (DRA) increased from 36.7 (27.9-46.3) to 40.4 (32.2-51) after 20 min and 47.1 (34.2-60.5) on completion of HD, P < 0.05. We report changes in arterial tone within 20 min of starting HD, when minimal ultrafiltration has occurred, suggesting that volume changes may not be the only predisposing cause of intradialytic hypotension. The combination of a fall in SBP and a rise in DRA would suggest a reduction in coronary blood flow in keeping with reports of "myocardial stunning" during HD. PMID:26496182

  9. Hippocampal Volume Reduction in Humans Predicts Impaired Allocentric Spatial Memory in Virtual-Reality Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Dzieciol, Anna M.; Gadian, David G.; Jentschke, Sebastian; Doeller, Christian F.; Burgess, Neil; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on hippocampal integrity in humans is not well documented. We investigated allocentric spatial recall using a virtual environment in a group of patients with severe hippocampal damage (SHD), a group of patients with “moderate” hippocampal damage (MHD), and a normal control group. Through four learning blocks with feedback, participants learned the target locations of four different objects in a circular arena. Distal cues were present throughout the experiment to provide orientation. A circular boundary as well as an intra-arena landmark provided spatial reference frames. During a subsequent test phase, recall of all four objects was tested with only the boundary or the landmark being present. Patients with SHD were impaired in both phases of this task. Across groups, performance on both types of spatial recall was highly correlated with memory quotient (MQ), but not with intelligence quotient (IQ), age, or sex. However, both measures of spatial recall separated experimental groups beyond what would be expected based on MQ, a widely used measure of general memory function. Boundary-based and landmark-based spatial recall were both strongly related to bilateral hippocampal volumes, but not to volumes of the thalamus, putamen, pallidum, nucleus accumbens, or caudate nucleus. The results show that boundary-based and landmark-based allocentric spatial recall are similarly impaired in patients with SHD, that both types of recall are impaired beyond that predicted by MQ, and that recall deficits are best explained by a reduction in bilateral hippocampal volumes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In humans, bilateral hippocampal atrophy can lead to profound impairments in episodic memory. Across species, perhaps the most well-established contribution of the hippocampus to memory is not to episodic memory generally but to allocentric spatial memory. However, the extent to which navigational spatial memory depends on

  10. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  11. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  12. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  13. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  14. Enrichment and volume reduction of tritiated water using combined electrolysis catalytic exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, D.A.; Everatt, A.E.; Seto, P.W.K.; Chuang, K.T.

    1988-09-01

    The CECE process with AECL hydrophobic catalyst is ideally suited for extracting tritium from water because of its high separation factor and mild operating conditions. A simple linear expression that relates the overall rate constant (K/sub y/a) to the inverse of the equilibrium slope (m) for H/sub 2//H/sub 2/O isotope exchange was developed from the two-film mass transfer model. Laboratory and pilot data were used to demonstrate the applicability of this simple relationship which allows reaction rates for any pair of hydrogen isotope species at any given concentration to be predicted from rate dat of any other isotope pair and/or concentration range. This approach was used to design a hypothetical CECE plant for concentrating tritiated light water to 100 Ci/L (3.7 TBq.L) to give a 250-fold reduction in waste volume.

  15. Vitrification process for the volume reduction and stabilization of organic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J L

    1982-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed a series of experimental tests sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the feasibility of incinerating and vitrifying organic ion-exchange resins in a single-step process. The resins used in this study were identical to those used for decontaminating auxiliary building water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor. The primarily organic resins were loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium for processing in a pilot-scale, joule-heated glass melter modified to support resin combustion. The feasibility tests demonstrated an average process rate of 3.0 kg/h. Based on this rate, if 50 organic resin liners were vitrified in a six-month campaign, a melter 2.5 times the size of the pilot scale unit would be adequate. A maximum achievable volume reduction of 91% was demonstrated in these tests.

  16. Convection in tropical cyclones associated with vapor volume reduction - a new concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Low pressure zone formation due to convection in a tropical cyclone is associated by a newly discovered phenomenon. The explanation is based on Avogadro's law. According to the law 18 grams (molecular weight expressed in grams) of water when evaporated occupies 22.414 litres of vapor at standard temperature and pressure (STP). Therefore, 1.0 gram of water in the vapor form will occupy 1.245 litres. That is, 1245 ml volume of vapor at STP when condensed will form 1.0 ml volume of water. Due to the phase change that is from water vapor to liquid water, huge reduction in volume occurs. The process of condensation of vapor into liquid water from the vapor component of the vapor-rich air is continuously taking place in a tropical cyclone particularly in the eye wall on a very large scale. The condensed water precipitates as rain or forms clouds. Each ml of the rain leaves behind a vacant space equal to 1245 ml forming a low-pressure zone and consequently a pressure gradient force is formed. Therefore, when there are continuous heavy rains in the eye wall, the magnitude of the low pressure zone and the pressure gradient force forming continuously in the condensation regions of the eye wall is gigantic. At the same time the latent heat released in the condensation process is absorbed by the remaining air component, it becomes warmer and buoyant, therefore ascends and ultimately escapes from the top of the cyclone as the outflow, again forming a low pressure zone. Thus, continuous condensation and continuous ascent and escape of warm air from the top together form a continuous pressure gradient and the vapour-rich air is continuously sucked up from below, that is from above the sea surface in the region of the eye wall due to the continuously forming pressure gradient force maintaining the near sea surface convergence of the vapour rich air. The value 1245 changes with change in temperature and pressure, but it does not affect the presented concept. The formation of the

  17. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  18. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This volume presents the following appendices: ceramic test specimen drawings and schematics, mixed-mode and biaxial stress fracture of structural ceramics for advanced vehicular heat engines (U. Utah), mode I/mode II fracture toughness and tension/torsion fracture strength of NT154 Si nitride (Brown U.), summary of strength test results and fractography, fractography photographs, derivations of statistical models, Weibull strength plots for fast fracture test specimens, and size functions.

  19. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  20. A Pilot Study on the Feasibility of Interventional Lung Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wansheng; Dong Yonghua Liu Bin; Zhu Chi; Yu Yongqiang

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of lung volume reduction by transbronchial alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion with the aid of balloon-tipped catheter occlusion. Twenty-six healthy adult rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion (n = 8), lipiodol infusion (n = 8), alcohol infusion (n = 5), or bronchial lumen occlusion (n = 5). After selective lobar or segmental bronchial catheterization using a balloon-tipped occlusion catheter, the corresponding drug infusion was performed. Bone cement was used to occlude the bronchial lumen in the occlusion group. The animals were followed up for 10 weeks by chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT), and then the whole lungs were harvested for histological examination. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension or lipiodol could be stably retained in alveoli in the first two groups based on chest X-ray and CT, but obvious collapse only occurred in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension or the bronchial lumen occlusion group. Histological examination revealed damage and disruption of the alveolar epithelium and fibrosis in related lung tissue in the group receiving alcohol and lipiodol suspension. Similar changes were seen in the bronchial lumen occlusion group, apart from obvious marginal emphysema of the target areas in two animals. Interstitial pneumonia and dilated alveoli existed in some tissue in target areas in the lipiodol group, in which pulmonary fibrosis obliterating alveoli also occurred. Chronic alveolitis and pleural adhesion in target areas occurred in the group infused with alcohol alone, whereas visceral pleura of the other three groups was regular and no pleural effusion or adhesion was found. Alcohol and lipiodol suspension that is stably retained in alveoli can result in significant lung volume reduction. Through alcohol and lipiodol suspension infusion, obstructive emphysema or pneumonia arising from bronchial lumen

  1. IMRT planning on adaptive volume structures--a decisive reduction in computational complexity.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Alexander; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Bortfeld, Thomas; Monz, Michael; Alonso, Fernando

    2005-05-01

    The objective of radiotherapy planning is to find a compromise between the contradictive goals of delivering a sufficiently high dose to the target volume while widely sparing critical structures. The search for such a compromise requires the computation of several plans, which mathematically means solving several optimization problems. In the case of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) these problems are large-scale, hence the accumulated computational expense is very high. The adaptive clustering method presented in this paper overcomes this difficulty. The main idea is to use a preprocessed hierarchy of aggregated dose-volume information as a basis for individually adapted approximations of the original optimization problems. This leads to a decisively reduced computational expense: numerical experiments on several sets of real clinical data typically show computation times decreased by a factor of about 10. In contrast to earlier work in this field, this reduction in computational complexity will not lead to a loss in accuracy: the adaptive clustering method produces the optimum of the original optimization problem. PMID:15843735

  2. Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) Special Case Study Report: Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, Paul J.; Hayes, Jane; Zelinski, Lillian

    2000-01-01

    This special case study report presents the Science and Engineering Technical Assessments (SETA) team's findings for exploring the correlation between the underlying models of Advanced Risk Reduction Tool (ARRT) relative to how it identifies, estimates, and integrates Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) activities. The special case study was conducted under the provisions of SETA Contract Task Order (CTO) 15 and the approved technical approach documented in the CTO-15 Modification #1 Task Project Plan.

  3. Waste assay and mass balance for the decontamination and volume reduction system at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Garner, Scott E.; Romero, Mike J.; Christensen, Davis V.; Bustos, Roland M.

    2003-07-01

    The Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) operated by the Solid Waste Operations (SWO) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) processes large volume, legacy radioactive waste items. Waste boxes, in sizes varying from 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft to 10 ft x 12 ft x 40 ft, are assayed prior to entry into the processing building. Inside the building, the waste items are removed from their container, decontaminated and/or size reduced if necessary, and repackaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or on-site low-level waste disposal. The repackaged items and any secondary waste produced (e.g., personal protective equipment) are assayed again at the end of the process and a mass balance is done to determine whether there is any significant hold-up material left in the DVRS building. The DVRS building is currently classed as a radiological facility, with a building limit of 0.52 Ci of Pu239 and Am241, and 0.62 Ci of Pu238, the most common radionuclides processed. This requires tight controls on the flow of nuclear material. The large volume of the initial waste packages, the (relatively) small amounts of radioactive material in them, and the tight ceiling on the building inventory require accurate field measurements of the nuclear material. This paper describes the radioactive waste measurement techniques, the computer modeling used to determine the amount of nuclear material present in a waste package, the building inventory database, and the DVRS process itself. Future plans include raising the limit on the nuclear material inventory allowed in the building to accommodate higher activity waste packages. All DOE sites performing decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive process equipment face challenges related to waste assay and inventory issues. This paper describes an ongoing operation, incorporating lessons learned over the life of the project to date.

  4. Mechanisms of gas exchange response to lung volume reduction surgery in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Cremona, George; Barberà, Joan A; Barbara, Joan A; Melgosa, Teresa; Appendini, Lorenzo; Roca, Josep; Casadio, Caterina; Donner, Claudio F; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Wagner, Peter D

    2011-04-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves lung function, respiratory symptoms, and exercise tolerance in selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who have heterogeneous emphysema. However, the reported effects of LVRS on gas exchange are variable, even when lung function is improved. To clarify how LVRS affects gas exchange in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 23 patients were studied before LVRS, 14 of whom were again studied afterwards. We performed measurements of lung mechanics, pulmonary hemodynamics, and ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) inequality using the multiple inert-gas elimination technique. LVRS improved arterial Po₂ (Pa(O₂)) by a mean of 6 Torr (P = 0.04), with no significant effect on arterial Pco₂ (Pa(CO₂)), but with great variability in both. Lung mechanical properties improved considerably more than did gas exchange. Post-LVRS Pa(O₂) depended mostly on its pre-LVRS value, whereas improvement in Pa(O(2)) was explained mostly by improved Va/Q inequality, with lesser contributions from both increased ventilation and higher mixed venous Po(2). However, no index of lung mechanical properties correlated with Pa(O₂). Conversely, post-LVRS Pa(CO₂) bore no relationship to its pre-LVRS value, whereas changes in Pa(CO₂) were tightly related (r² = 0.96) to variables, reflecting decrease in static lung hyperinflation (intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure and residual volume/total lung capacity) and increase in airflow potential (tidal volume and maximal inspiratory pressure), but not to Va/Q distribution changes. Individual gas exchange responses to LVRS vary greatly, but can be explained by changes in combinations of determining variables that are different for oxygen and carbon dioxide. PMID:21233341

  5. Control and reduction of immersion defectivity for yield enhancement at high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Seki, Rei; Sekito, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Owa, Soichi

    2009-03-01

    Volume device manufacturing using immersion lithography is widely accepted as the solution for patterning IC features below 40 nm half pitch. In order to ensure high yield and steady productivity tight control of defectivity is essential. A major source of defects and tool contamination is the particles introduced by incoming wafers. Particles can be categorized in two groups: particles attached to wafer surface or residues on the wafer edge. Surface or edge peeling of topcoats can also be a source of particle. Adhesion force between topcoat or topcoat-less (TC-less) resist and wafer is one of the most important parameter for particle reduction. Peeling test results proved that TC-less resist has better adhesion performance than topcoat. One of the most commonly used adhesion promoting material is hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Application condition of this material is an important factor in preventing wafer edge and surface topcoat peeling. Studies have shown lower temperature and longer application of HMDS shows better adhesion result. Maintaining a clean wafer surface is also a very important factor for particle reduction. Pre-rinse, which can rinse off particles before exposure, was evaluated and the efficiency was confirmed. Edge particles are more effectively reduced by pre-rinse, because weakly attached topcoat and wafer edge residues were effectively removed by pre-rinse. For further particle reduction, edge residue reduction and cut line roughness improvement were evaluated and their effectiveness was confirmed. Lower cut position achieved improved particle counts on both topcoat and TC-less resist; more frequent contact between water and cut-line can weaken the adhesion and consequently peel off topcoat or TC-less resist. Finally the relationship between defectivity and hydrophobicity is analyzed, high Receding Contact Angle (RCA) showed better defectivity result. Topcoat and TC-less process is compared for each defectivity reduction methodology and for

  6. Advanced 3D-Sonographic Imaging as a Precise Technique to Evaluate Tumor Volume

    PubMed Central

    Pflanzer, R.; Hofmann, M.; Shelke, A.; Habib, A.; Derwich, W.; Schmitz-Rixen, T.; Bernd, A.; Kaufmann, R.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    Determination of tumor volume in subcutaneously inoculated xenograft models is a standard procedure for clinical and preclinical evaluation of tumor response to treatment. Practitioners frequently use a hands-on caliper method in conjunction with a simplified formula to assess tumor volume. Non-invasive and more precise techniques as investigation by MR or (μ)CT exist but come with various adverse effects in terms of radiation, complex setup or elevated cost of investigations. Therefore, we propose an advanced three-dimensional sonographic imaging technique to determine small tumor volumes in xenografts with high precision and minimized observer variability. We present a study on xenograft carcinoma tumors from which volumes and shapes were calculated with the standard caliper method as well as with a clinically available three-dimensional ultrasound scanner and subsequent processing software. Statistical analysis reveals the suitability of this non-invasive approach for the purpose of a quick and precise calculation of tumor volume in small rodents. PMID:25500076

  7. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt (ADVANCE) was an invehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) that operated in the northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It was designed to provide origin-destination shortest-time route guidance to a vehicle based on (a) an on-board static (fixed) data base of average network link travel times by time of day, combined as available and appropriate with (b) dynamic (real-time) information on traffic conditions provided by radio frequency (RF) communications to and from a traffic information center (TIC). Originally conceived in 1990 as a major project that would have installed 3,000 to 5,000 route guidance units in privately owned vehicles throughout the test area, ADVANCE was restructured in 1995 as a {open_quotes}targeted deployment,{close_quotes} in which approximately 80 vehicles were to be equipped with the guidance units - Mobile Navigation Assistants (MNAs) - to be in full communication with the TIC while driving the ADVANCE test area road system. Volume one consists of the evaluation managers overview report, and several appendices containing test results.

  8. Conceptual design of a fluidized bed combustor for volume reduction of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.K.; Morris, G.J.; Atkinson, C.M.; Clark, N.N.; Gautam, M.; Loth, J.L.; Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, L.M.; Kono, H.O.

    1992-06-01

    A group of research engineers was assembled to investigate novel fluidized bed combustion systems for incinerating low-level radioactive wastes. The goal of this project was to significantly reduce the volume of these wastes in an efficient and environmentally safe manner. The process is to be limited by a maximum temperature of 600 {degrees}C and the waste product was to contain a minimum of waste material produced by the process itself (refractory, absorbents, catalysts, etc.). The approach presented in this study is to evaluate: (1) a modification of the existing system, (2) a hybrid reactor concept, and (3) a fast circulating reactor concept. Carbon dioxide and oxygen were to be the only gases introduced into the reactors. The results of this study indicate that the existing system may be more efficient with gas and solids recirculation; however, two beds are required. The hybrid reactor concept involves a bubbling bed and a fast bed in one reactor. Although a simple operation is envisioned for this system, there are several technical questions which must be addressed in order to optimize the system for a final analysis. The fast circulating reactor concept also appears to represent a simple system to operate; however, it also presents several technical questions which must be addressed before a thorough evaluation of this concept may be completed. In conclusion, this report represents a first evaluation of new concepts for significant volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes. The technical issues required for a complete evaluation of these concepts are presented. A future research effort is outlined the result of which should significantly increase our knowledge of these issues.

  9. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zayas Pérez, Teresa; Geissler, Gunther; Hernandez, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater. Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low total suspended solids. The outcomes of coffee wastewater treatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD, color, and turbidity. It was found that a reduction in COD of 67% could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculation with lime and coagulant T-1. When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H2O2, a COD reduction of 86% was achieved, although only after prolonged UV irradiation. Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered, UV/H2O2, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective, with an efficiency of color, turbidity and further COD removal of 87%, when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater. PMID:17918591

  10. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 1. Ingot and forging production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Steiner, J.E.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation.

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  12. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  13. Reduction of Pulmonary Function After Surgical Lung Resections of Different Volume

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years an increasing number of lung resections are being done because of the rising prevalence of lung cancer that occurs mainly in patients with limited lung function, what is caused with common etiologic factor - smoking cigarettes. Objective: To determine how big the loss of lung function is after surgical resection of lung of different range. Methods: The study was done on 58 patients operated at the Clinic for thoracic surgery KCU Sarajevo, previously treated at the Clinic for pulmonary diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01.06.2012. to 01.06.2014. The following resections were done: pulmectomy (left, right), lobectomy (upper, lower: left and right). The values of postoperative pulmonary function were compared with preoperative ones. As a parameter of lung function we used FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and changes in FEV1 are expressed in liters and in percentage of the recorded preoperative and normal values of FEV1. Measurements of lung function were performed seven days before and 2 months after surgery. Results: Postoperative FEV1 was decreased compared to preoperative values. After pulmectomy the maximum reduction of FEV1 was 44%, and after lobectomy it was 22% of the preoperative values. Conclusion: Patients with airway obstruction are limited in their daily life before the surgery, and an additional loss of lung tissue after resection contributes to their inability. Potential benefits of lung resection surgery should be balanced in relation to postoperative morbidity and mortality. PMID:25568542

  14. Proceedings of the Advanced Turbine Systems Annual Program Review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Goal of the 8-year program is to develop cleaner, more efficient, and less expensive gas turbine systems for utility and industrial electric power generation, cogeneration, and mechanical drive units. The conference is held annually for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties industry, academia, and Government. Advanced turbine systems topics discussed during five technical sessions included policy and strategic issues, program element overviews and technical reviews, related activities, university/industry consortium interactions, and supportive projects. Twenty-one papers presented during the technical sessions are contained in this volume; they are processed separately for the data base.

  15. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  16. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1991 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 4: SYMPOSIUM POSTER PAPERS: SESSIONS VI THROUGH X

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings, in four volumes, document the 1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, held in Philadelphia, PA, April 2-5, 1991. n all, 65 oral papers (including the welcome address, the lead address, and the keynote address), 14 panel session paper...

  17. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1991 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 2: SYMPOSIUM ORAL PAPERS: SESSIONS VI THROUGH X

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings, in four volumes, document the 1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, held in Philadelphia, PA, April 2-5, 1991. n all, 65 oral papers (including the welcome address, the lead address, and the keynote address), 14 panel session paper...

  18. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1991 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 1: SYMPOSIUM ORAL PAPERS: SESSIONS I THROUGH V

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings, in four volumes, document the 1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, held in Philadelphia, PA, April 2-5, 1991. n all, 65 oral papers (including the welcome address, the lead address, and the keynote address), 14 panel session paper...

  19. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumbura/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. This volume provides a summary of the insights and achievements made as a result of this field test, and selected appendices containing more detailed information.

  20. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  1. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  2. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  3. Physiological and Computed Tomographic Predictors of Outcome from Lung Volume Reduction Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Washko, George R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Loring, Stephen H.; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Han, MeiLan K.; DeCamp, Malcolm; Reilly, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Previous investigations have identified several potential predictors of outcomes from lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). A concern regarding these studies has been their small sample size, which may limit generalizability. We therefore sought to examine radiographic and physiologic predictors of surgical outcomes in a large, multicenter clinical investigation, the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. Objectives: To identify objective radiographic and physiological indices of lung disease that have prognostic value in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease being evaluated for LVRS. Methods: A subset of the subjects undergoing LVRS in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial underwent preoperative high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scanning of the chest and measures of static lung recoil at total lung capacity (SRtlc) and inspiratory resistance (Ri). The relationship between CT measures of emphysema, the ratio of upper to lower zone emphysema, CT measures of airway disease, SRtlc, Ri, the ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), and both 6-month postoperative changes in FEV1 and maximal exercise capacity were assessed. Measurements and Main Results: Physiological measures of lung elastic recoil and inspiratory resistance were not correlated with improvement in either the FEV1 (R = −0.03, P = 0.78 and R = –0.17, P = 0.16, respectively) or maximal exercise capacity (R = –0.02, P = 0.83 and R = 0.08, P = 0.53, respectively). The RV/TLC ratio and CT measures of emphysema and its upper to lower zone ratio were only weakly predictive of postoperative changes in both the FEV1 (R = 0.11, P = 0.01; R = 0.2, P < 0.0001; and R = 0.23, P < 0.0001, respectively) and maximal exercise capacity (R = 0.17, P = 0.0001; R = 0.15, P = 0.002; and R = 0.15, P = 0.002, respectively). CT assessments of airway disease were not predictive of change in FEV1 or exercise capacity in this cohort. Conclusions: The RV/TLC ratio and CT measures

  4. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  5. Recent Advances in Inorganic Heterogeneous Electrocatalysts for Reduction of Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong Dong; Liu, Jin Long; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    In view of the climate changes caused by the continuously rising levels of atmospheric CO2 , advanced technologies associated with CO2 conversion are highly desirable. In recent decades, electrochemical reduction of CO2 has been extensively studied since it can reduce CO2 to value-added chemicals and fuels. Considering the sluggish reaction kinetics of the CO2 molecule, efficient and robust electrocatalysts are required to promote this conversion reaction. Here, recent progress and opportunities in inorganic heterogeneous electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction are discussed, from the viewpoint of both experimental and computational aspects. Based on elemental composition, the inorganic catalysts presented here are classified into four groups: metals, transition-metal oxides, transition-metal chalcogenides, and carbon-based materials. However, despite encouraging accomplishments made in this area, substantial advances in CO2 electrolysis are still needed to meet the criteria for practical applications. Therefore, in the last part, several promising strategies, including surface engineering, chemical modification, nanostructured catalysts, and composite materials, are proposed to facilitate the future development of CO2 electroreduction. PMID:26996295

  6. Beyond the Baseline: Proceedings of the Space Station Evolution Symposium. Volume 2, Part 2; Space Station Freedom Advanced Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This report contains the individual presentations delivered at the Space Station Evolution Symposium in League City, Texas on February 6, 7, 8, 1990. Personnel responsible for Advanced Systems Studies and Advanced Development within the Space Station Freedom program reported on the results of their work to date. Systems Studies presentations focused on identifying the baseline design provisions (hooks and scars) necessary to enable evolution of the facility to support changing space policy and anticipated user needs. Also emphasized were evolution configuration and operations concepts including on-orbit processing of space transfer vehicles. Advanced Development task managers discussed transitioning advanced technologies to the baseline program, including those near-term technologies which will enhance the safety and productivity of the crew and the reliability of station systems. Special emphasis was placed on applying advanced automation technology to ground and flight systems. This publication consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the results of the advanced system studies with the emphasis on reference evolution configurations, system design requirements and accommodations, and long-range technology projections. Volume 2 reports on advanced development tasks within the Transition Definition Program. Products of these tasks include: engineering fidelity demonstrations and evaluations on Station development testbeds and Shuttle-based flight experiments; detailed requirements and performance specifications which address advanced technology implementation issues; and mature applications and the tools required for the development, implementation, and support of advanced technology within the Space Station Freedom Program.

  7. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Chris

    2007-07-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et al., 1992; Bergman et al., 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), $50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using the same parameters that previously suggested the $55 million figure. Within that cost estimate, $300 each was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable), direct replacement of the traditional filter train. This paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'Metallic HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al., 1997 work suggested that 1000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) (1690 m{sup 3}/hr) stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for $5000 each after development (although the $70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors own company have estimated development units able to be retrofitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps $30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced industrially in significant numbers may be closer to $15,000 each. That being the case

  8. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  9. Simultaneous nitrate reduction and acetaminophen oxidation using the continuous-flow chemical-less VUV process as an integrated advanced oxidation and reduction process.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-11-15

    This work was aimed at investigating the performance of the continuous-flow VUV photoreactor as a novel chemical-less advanced process for simultaneously oxidizing acetaminophen (ACT) as a model of pharmaceuticals and reducing nitrate in a single reactor. Solution pH was an important parameter affecting the performance of VUV; the highest ACT oxidation and nitrate reduction attained at solution pH between 6 and 8. The ACT was oxidized mainly by HO while the aqueous electrons were the main working agents in the reduction of nitrate. The performance of VUV photoreactor improved with the increase of hydraulic retention time (HRT); the complete degradation of ACT and ∼99% reduction of nitrate with 100% N2 selectivity achieved at HRT of 80min. The VUV effluent concentrations of nitrite and ammonium at HRT of 80min were below the drinking water standards. The real water sample contaminated with the ACT and nitrate was efficiently treated in the VUV photoreactor. Therefore, the VUV photoreactor is a chemical-less advanced process in which both advanced oxidation and advanced reduction reactions are accomplished. This unique feature possesses VUV photoreactor as a promising method of treating water contaminated with both pharmaceutical and nitrate. PMID:27434736

  10. Postimplantation Analysis Enables Improvement of Dose-Volume Histograms and Reduction of Toxicity for Permanent Seed Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wust, Peter Postrach, Johanna; Kahmann, Frank; Henkel, Thomas; Graf, Reinhold; Cho, Chie Hee; Budach, Volker; Boehmer, Dirk

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate how postimplantation analysis is useful for improving permanent seed implantation and reducing toxicity. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 197 questionnaires completed by patients after permanent seed implantation (monotherapy between 1999 and 2003). For 70% of these patients, a computed tomography was available to perform postimplantation analysis. The index doses and volumes of the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were determined and categorized with respect to the date of implantation. Differences in symptom scores relative to pretherapeutic status were analyzed with regard to follow-up times and DVH descriptors. Acute and subacute toxicities in a control group of 117 patients from an earlier study (June 1999 to September 2001) by Wust et al. (2004) were compared with a matched subgroup from this study equaling 110 patients treated between October 2001 and August 2003. Results: Improved performance, identifying a characteristic time dependency of DVH parameters (after implantation) and toxicity scores, was demonstrated. Although coverage (volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose of the prostate) increased slightly, high-dose regions decreased with the growing experience of the users. Improvement in the DVH and a reduction of toxicities were found in the patient group implanted in the later period. A decline in symptoms with follow-up time counteracts this gain of experience and must be considered. Urinary and sexual discomfort was enhanced by dose heterogeneities (e.g., dose covering 10% of the prostate volume, volume covered by 200% of prescription dose). In contrast, rectal toxicities correlated with exposed rectal volumes, especially the rectal volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: The typical side effects occurring after permanent seed implantation can be reduced by improving the dose distributions. An improvement in dose distributions and a reduction of toxicities were identified with elapsed time between

  11. Reduced Volume Prototype Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; A Next-Generation Evaporative Cooling System for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Anchondo, Ian; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Colunga, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Development of the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) portable life support subsystem (PLSS) is currently under way at NASA Johnson Space Center. The AEMU PLSS features a new evaporative cooling system, the reduced volume prototype (RVP) spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME). The RVP SWME is the third generation of hollow fiber SWME hardware. Like its predecessors, RVP SWME provides nominal crew member and electronics cooling by flowing water through porous hollow fibers. Water vapor escapes through the hollow fiber pores, thereby cooling the liquid water that remains inside of the fibers. This cooled water is then recirculated to remove heat from the crew member and PLSS electronics. Major design improvements, including a 36% reduction in volume, reduced weight, and a more flight-like backpressure valve, facilitate the packaging of RVP SWME in the AEMU PLSS envelope. The development of these evaporative cooling systems will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  12. Algorithm of lithography advanced process control system for high-mix low-volume products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi

    2007-03-01

    We have proposed a new algorithm of Lithography Advanced Process Control System for high-mix low-volume production. This algorithm works well for 1 st lot of a new device input into the production line, or 1st lot of an existing device to be exposed with a newly introduced exposure tool. The algorithm consists of 1) searching the most suitable trend of other similar devices referring to an attribute table and a look-up table for priority of searching order, and 2) correction of differences between the two devices for deciding optimum exposure conditions. The attribute table categorizes same layers across different devices and similar layers within a device. Look-up table describes the order of searching keys. To attain cost-effective process control system, information useful to compensate referred trend is compiled into the database.

  13. Recent advancements in Pt and Pt-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yao; Li, Li; Wei, Zidong

    2015-04-21

    Developing highly efficient catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is key to the fabrication of commercially viable fuel cell devices and metal-air batteries for future energy applications. Herein, we review the most recent advances in the development of Pt-based and Pt-free materials in the field of fuel cell ORR catalysis. This review covers catalyst material selection, design, synthesis, and characterization, as well as the theoretical understanding of the catalysis process and mechanisms. The integration of these catalysts into fuel cell operations and the resulting performance/durability are also discussed. Finally, we provide insights into the remaining challenges and directions for future perspectives and research. PMID:25652755

  14. Noise Reduction Potential of Large, Over-the-Wing Mounted, Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Indeed, the noise goal for NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise calls for technologies that will help to provide a 20 EPNdB reduction relative to today's levels by the year 2022. Further, the large fan diameters of modem, increasingly higher bypass ratio engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large, ultra high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this over-the-wing design is believed to offer noise shielding benefits to observers on the ground. This paper describes the analytical certification noise predictions of a notional, long haul, commercial quadjet transport with advanced, high bypass engines mounted above the wing.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  16. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility. [For decommissioned stainless steel equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, J. L.; Younger, A. F.

    1980-06-02

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests.

  17. Advances in solar energy: An annual review of research and development. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Boeer, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    In Volume 7 of the Advances in Solar Energy we have targeted the research and development under the leadership of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). This Laboratory is in an excellent position to judge the present state of the art and to review the advances made in variety of solar energy fields over the last two decades. Based on the NREL experience, the Laboratory also has been periodically involved in developing a more realistic forecast, and we felt, in deviation from our previous policy of reporting strictly reviews, that we should encourage NREL to update its latest forecast and to include it in the appropriate chapters. This forecast will be of great value to assess the presently visualized potential of solar energy conversion, and to place it more fairly in competition with other energy options. We must now review solar energy conversion in a global picture. The development of the field has progressed in rather distinct steps: the first major effort began in the mid fifties, when it became clear that current resources in fossil fuels are limited. About twenty years later, the next step was initiated by political motivation, to counteract the Middle-East-induced oil crisis. Again twenty years later, a new a even stronger motivation now requires further acceleration of research, development, demonstration, and commercialization of a mix of promising solar energy conversion means. This new driving force relates to the rapid growth of the world's ppopulation, its demand to live at a higher standard, hence requiring more energy, and the limited volume available on the planet Earth to dump the opulation's waste products. Most critical, and related to energy, is the CO[sub 2]-induced global warming and the disposal of nuclear waste. This requires an all-out effort and a delicate maneuvering to avoid political, economic, and ecological catastrophies.

  18. Dual-domain microchip-based process for volume reduction solid phase extraction of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Strachan, Briony C; Higginson, Joshua J; Bienvenue, Joan M; Greenspoon, Susan A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-07-01

    A microfluidic device was developed to carry out integrated volume reduction and purification of nucleic acids from dilute, large volume biological samples commonly encountered in forensic genetic analysis. The dual-phase device seamlessly integrates two orthogonal solid-phase extraction (SPE) processes, a silica solid phase using chaotrope-driven binding and an ion exchange phase using totally aqueous chemistry (chitosan phase), providing the unique capability of removing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors used in silica-based extractions (guanidine and isopropanol). Nucleic acids from a large volume sample are shown to undergo a substantial volume reduction on the silica phase, followed by a more stringent extraction on the chitosan phase. The key to interfacing the two steps is mixing of the eluted nucleic acids from the first phase with loading buffer which is facilitated by flow-mediated mixing over a herringbone mixing region in the device. The complete aqueous chemistry associated with the second purification step yields a highly concentrated PCR-ready eluate of nucleic acids devoid of PCR inhibitors that are reagent-based (isopropanol) and sample-based (indigo dye), both of which are shown to be successfully removed using the dual-phase device but not by the traditional microfluidic SPE (muSPE). The utility of the device for purifying DNA was demonstrated with dilute whole blood, dilute semen, a semen stain, and a blood sample inhibited with indigo dye, with the resultant DNA from all shown to be PCR amplifiable. The same samples purified using muSPE were not all PCR amplifiable due to a smaller concentration of the DNA and the lack of PCR-compatible aqueous chemistry in the extraction method. The utility of the device for the purification of RNA was also demonstrated, by the extraction of RNA from a dilute semen sample, with the resulting RNA amplified using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The vrSPE-SPE device reliably yields a volume reduction for

  19. Computer simulation of preflight blood volume reduction as a countermeasure to fluid shifts in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simanonok, K. E.; Srinivasan, R.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid shifts in weightlessness may cause a central volume expansion, activating reflexes to reduce the blood volume. Computer simulation was used to test the hypothesis that preadaptation of the blood volume prior to exposure to weightlessness could counteract the central volume expansion due to fluid shifts and thereby attenuate the circulatory and renal responses resulting in large losses of fluid from body water compartments. The Guyton Model of Fluid, Electrolyte, and Circulatory Regulation was modified to simulate the six degree head down tilt that is frequently use as an experimental analog of weightlessness in bedrest studies. Simulation results show that preadaptation of the blood volume by a procedure resembling a blood donation immediately before head down bedrest is beneficial in damping the physiologic responses to fluid shifts and reducing body fluid losses. After ten hours of head down tilt, blood volume after preadaptation is higher than control for 20 to 30 days of bedrest. Preadaptation also produces potentially beneficial higher extracellular volume and total body water for 20 to 30 days of bedrest.

  20. Influence of thyroid volume reduction on absorbed dose in 131I therapy studied by using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaur, Rahman; Sikander, M. Mirza; Waheed, Arshed; Nasir, M. Mirza; Waheed, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    A simulation study has been performed to quantify the effect of volume reduction on the thyroid absorbed dose per decay and to investigate the variation of energy deposition per decay due to β- and γ-activity of 131I with volume/mass of thyroid, for water, ICRP- and ICRU-soft tissue taken as thyroid material. A Monte Carlo model of the thyroid, in the Geant4 radiation transport simulation toolkit was constructed to compute the β- and γ-absorbed dose in the simulated thyroid phantom for various values of its volume. The effect of the size and shape of the thyroid on energy deposition per decay has also been studied by using spherical, ellipsoidal and cylindrical models for the thyroid and varying its volume in 1-25 cm3 range. The relative differences of Geant4 results for different models with each other and MCNP results lie well below 1.870%. The maximum relative difference among the Geant4 estimated results for water with ICRP and ICRU soft tissues is not more than 0.225%. S-values for ellipsoidal, spherical and cylindrical thyroid models were estimated and the relative difference with published results lies within 3.095%. The absorbed fraction values for beta particles show a good agreement with published values within 2.105% deviation. The Geant4 based simulation results of absorbed fractions for gammas again show a good agreement with the corresponding MCNP and EGS4 results (±6.667%) but have 29.032% higher values than that of MIRD calculated values. Consistent with previous studies, the reduction of the thyroid volume is found to have a substantial effect on the absorbed dose. Geant4 simulations confirm dose dependence on the volume/mass of thyroid in agreement with MCNP and EGS4 computed values but are substantially different from MIRD8 data. Therefore, inclusion of size/mass dependence is indicated for 131I radiotherapy of the thyroid.

  1. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  2. Advanced subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Element Separate Flow Nozzle Tests for Engine Noise Reduction Sub-Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.

    2000-01-01

    Contents of this presentation include: Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) goals and general information; Nozzle nomenclature; Nozzle schematics; Photograph of all baselines; Configurations tests and types of data acquired; and Engine cycle and plug geometry impact on EPNL.

  3. Identification of radwaste sources and reduction techniques. Volume 2. Project evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, C.P.; Daloisio, G.S.; Wilson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned an operations-related project in late 1981 to develop a methodology which can be used by utility operations managers in evaluating the radwaste generation rates at their nuclear stations, and to help them identify successful volume minimization techniques which can be applied to reduce these radwaste sources. The result of the project is a three volume report comprising radwaste related information from over two-thirds of the operating nuclear power plants in the country as of December 31, 1981. Volume 1 is intended to serve primarily as a handbook and includes: 1) the major conclusions obtained throughout the report; 2) a method to evaluate a plant's waste management program effectiveness in minimizing radwaste generation in comparison to industry performance; and 3) radwaste volume minimization techniques successfully used at operational nuclear stations. Volume 2 describes the project's technical approach, and provides detailed evaluations of the waste source/characteristics data gathered during the project; while Volume 3 provides the entire computerized data base of plant waste sources and characteristics used in the project. 53 references, 105 figures, 48 tables.

  4. Identification of radwaste sources and reduction techniques. Volume 3: Data base. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, C.P.; Daloisio, G.S.; Wilson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned an operations-related project in late 1981 to develop a methodology which can be used by utility operations managers in evaluating the radwaste generation rates at their nuclear stations, and to help them identify successful volume minimization techniques which can be applied to reduce these radwaste sources. The result of the project is a three volume report comprising radwaste related information from over two-thirds of the operating nuclear power plants in the country as of December 31, 1981. Volume 1 is intended to serve primarily as a handbook and includes: (1) the major conclusions obtained throughout the report; (2) a method to evaluate a plant's waste management program effectiveness in minimizing radwaste generation in comparison to industry performance; and (3) radwaste volume minimization techniques successfully used at operational nuclear stations. Volume 2 describes the project's technical approach, and provides detailed evaluations of the waste source/characteristics data gathered during the project; while Volume 3 provides the entire computerized data base of plant waste sources and characteristics used in the project.

  5. Identification of radwaste sources and reduction techniques. Volume 1: Implementation Handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deltete, C.P.; Daloisio, G.S.; Wilson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) commissioned an operations-related project in late 1981 to develop a methodology which can be used by utility operations managers in evaluating the radwaste generation rates at their nuclear stations, and to help them identify successful volume minimization techniques which can be applied to reduce these radwaste sources. The result of the project is a three volume report comprising radwaste related information from over two-thirds of the operating nuclear power plants in the country as of December 31, 1981. Volume 1 is intended to serve primarily as a handbook and includes: (1) the major conclusions obtained throughout the report; (2) a method to evaluate a plant's waste management program effectiveness in minimizing radwaste generation in comparison to industry performance; and (3) radwaste volume minimization techniques successfully used at operational nuclear stations. Volume 2 describes the project's technical approach, and provides detailed evaluations of the waste source/characteristics data gathered during the project; while Volume 3 provides the entire computerized data base of plant waste sources and characteristics used in the project. 30 figures, 15 tables.

  6. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  7. Advanced noise reduction in placental ultrasound imaging using CPU and GPU: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombori, G.; Ryan, J.; McAuliffe, F.; Rainford, L.; Moran, M.; Brennan, P.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of different implementations of 3D anisotropic diffusion speckle noise reduction technique on ultrasound images. In this project we are developing a novel volumetric calcification assessment metric for the placenta, and providing a software tool for this purpose. The tool can also automatically segment and visualize (in 3D) ultrasound data. One of the first steps when developing such a tool is to find a fast and efficient way to eliminate speckle noise. Previous works on this topic by Duan, Q. [1] and Sun, Q. [2] have proven that the 3D noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (3D SRAD) method shows exceptional performance in enhancing ultrasound images for object segmentation. Therefore we have implemented this method in our software application and performed a comparative study on the different variants in terms of performance and computation time. To increase processing speed it was necessary to utilize the full potential of current state of the art Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Our 3D datasets are represented in a spherical volume format. With the aim of 2D slice visualization and segmentation, a "scan conversion" or "slice-reconstruction" step is needed, which includes coordinate transformation from spherical to Cartesian, re-sampling of the volume and interpolation. Combining the noise filtering and slice reconstruction in one process on the GPU, we can achieve close to real-time operation on high quality data sets without the need for down-sampling or reducing image quality. For the GPU programming OpenCL language was used. Therefore the presented solution is fully portable.

  8. Aeronautical fuel conservation possibilities for advanced subsonic transports. [application of aeronautical technology for drag and weight reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, A. L.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The anticipated growth of air transportation is in danger of being constrained by increased prices and insecure sources of petroleum-based fuel. Fuel-conservation possibilities attainable through the application of advances in aeronautical technology to aircraft design are identified with the intent of stimulating NASA R and T and systems-study activities in the various disciplinary areas. The material includes drag reduction; weight reduction; increased efficiency of main and auxiliary power systems; unconventional air transport of cargo; and operational changes.

  9. Hippocampal volume reduction in female but not male recent abstinent methamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Quan, Meina; Zhuang, Wenxu; Zhong, Na; Jiang, Haifeng; Kennedy, David N; Harrington, Amy; Ziedonis, Douglas; Fan, Xiaoduo; Zhao, Min

    2015-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests abnormalities in brain morphology including hippocampal structure in patients with methamphetamine (MA) dependence. This study was performed to examine hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users, and to further explore its relationship with cognitive function. 30 abstinent MA users (20 males and 10 females) with average 5.52 months of duration of abstinence and 29 healthy controls (19 males and 10 females) age 18-45 years old were recruited for clinical assessment and imaging scan. FreeSurfer was used to segment the hippocampus bilaterally, and hippocampal volumes were extracted for group and gender comparisons. Cognitive function was measured using the CogState Battery Chinese language version (CSB-C). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education showed a significant group by gender interaction for the right hippocampal relative volume adjusted for total brain size (p = 0.020); there was a significant difference between male controls and female controls (p < 0.001), but such a difference did not exist between male patients and female patients (p = 0.203). No significant correlations were found between hippocampal volume and cognitive measures. There seems to be a gender difference in how MA affects hippocampal volume in abstinent MA users. Hippocampus might be an important treatment target for cognitive improvement and functional recovery in this patient population, especially in females. PMID:25920682

  10. Disinhibited eating in obese adolescents is associated with orbitofrontal volume reductions and executive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Maayan, L; Hoogendoorn, C; Sweat, V; Convit, A.

    2011-01-01

    In adults, obesity has been associated with disinhibited eating, decreased cortical gray matter volume, and lower performance on cognitive assessments. Much less is known about these relationships in adolescence and there are no studies assessing behavioral, cognitive, and neurostructural measures in the same group of study participants. This study examined the relationship between obesity, executive function, disinhibition, and brain volumes in relatively healthy youth. Participants included 54 obese and 37 lean adolescents. Participants received a cognitive battery, questionnaires of eating behaviors, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Neuropsychological assessments included tasks targeting frontal lobe function. Eating behaviors were determined using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and structural MRIs were performed on a 1.5 T Siemens Avanto MRI System (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) to determine brain gray matter volumes. Lean and obese adolescents were matched on age, years of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. Relative to lean adolescents, obese participants had significantly higher ratings of disinhibition on the TFEQ, lower performance on the cognitive tests, and lower orbitofrontal cortex volume. Disinhibition significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, Stroop Color-Word score, and orbitofrontal cortex volume. This is the first report of these associations in adolescents and point to the importance of better understanding the associations between neurostructural deficits and obesity. PMID:21350433

  11. Quantifying volume reduction and peak flow mitigation for three bioretention cells in clay soils in northeast Ohio.

    PubMed

    Winston, Ryan J; Dorsey, Jay D; Hunt, William F

    2016-05-15

    Green infrastructure aims to restore watershed hydrologic function by more closely mimicking pre-development groundwater recharge and evapotranspiration (ET). Bioretention has become a popular stormwater control due to its ability to reduce runoff volume through these pathways. Three bioretention cells constructed in low permeability soils in northeast Ohio were monitored for non-winter quantification of inflow, drainage, ET, and exfiltration. The inclusion of an internal water storage (IWS) zone allowed the three cells to reduce runoff by 59%, 42%, and 36% over the monitoring period, in spite of the tight underlying soils. The exfiltration rate and the IWS zone thickness were the primary determinants of volume reduction performance. Post-construction measured drawdown rates were higher than pre-construction soil vertical hydraulic conductivity tests in all cases, due to lateral exfiltration from the IWS zones and ET, which are not typically accounted for in pre-construction soil testing. The minimum rainfall depths required to produce outflow for the three cells were 5.5, 7.4, and 13.8mm. During events with 1-year design rainfall intensities, peak flow reduction varied from 24 to 96%, with the best mitigation during events where peak rainfall rate occurred before the centroid of the rainfall volume, when adequate bowl storage was available to limit overflow. PMID:26906696

  12. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe(2+)/H2O2) and UV/H2O2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H2O2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe(2+)/H2O2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2h, 2.58-3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH=7.0), the removal was 2.26-3.35 logs. For the UV/H2O2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H2O2 concentration of 0.01molL(-1) accompanied by 30min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8-3.5 logs, and 1.55-2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H2O2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe(2+)/H2O2 molar ratios, H2O2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. PMID:26815295

  13. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  14. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  15. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and for the US economy. Volume II: technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station and prepared this report to the congressional Committees on Appropriations. The study has included work by groups both within NASA and outside NASA, in the academic and industrial communities. The report is divided into two volumes. The Policy Report, Volume I, summaizes the major findings of the study and establishes NASA policy for advancing automation and robotics technologies to use them in the Space Station and to benefit the US economy. The Technical Report, Volume II (this document), provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents the following: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to US industry and for space commercialization. Volume II provides guidance for prospective Space Station contractors to direct their efforts toward a planned advance in these technologies.

  16. WASTE VOLUME REDUCTION USING SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION AND DECONTAMINATION BY LASER ABLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The waste stream generated in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities includes a significant volume of material that is contaminated only in the surface or near-surface region. The U.S. Department of Energy will require disposal of as much as 109 ft2 (...

  17. Reduction of thioredoxin significantly decreases its partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, S. M.; Richards, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    The partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility were determined at several temperatures for oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Oxidized thioredoxin had a partial specific volume of 0.785-0.809 mL/g at the observed upper limit for all proteins whereas the partial specific volume of reduced thioredoxin was 0.745-0.755 mL/g, a value in the range found for a majority of proteins. The adiabatic compressibility of oxidized thioredoxin was also much larger (9.8-18 x 10(-12) cm2 dyne-1) than that of the reduced protein (3.8-7.3 x 10(-12)). Apart from the region immediately around the small disulfide loop, the structures of the oxidized (X-ray, crystal) and reduced protein (nuclear magnetic resonance, solution) are reported to be very similar. It would appear that alterations in the solvent layer in contact with the protein surface must play a major role in producing these large changes in the apparent specific volumes and compressibilities in this system. Some activities of thioredoxin require the reduced structure but are not electron transfer reactions. The large changes in physical parameters reported here suggest the possibility of a reversible metabolic control function for the SS bond. PMID:1304879

  18. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study.

    PubMed

    Desarda, Hitesh; Gurav, Abhijit; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant; Shete, Abhijeet; Gaikwad, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU) with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination. PMID:25346838

  19. Efficacy of High-volume Evacuator in Aerosol Reduction: Truth or Myth? A Clinical and Microbiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Desarda, Hitesh; Gurav, Abhijit; Dharmadhikari, Chandrakant; Shete, Abhijeet; Gaikwad, Subodh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Basic periodontal treatment aims at eliminating supra- and sub-gingival plaque and establishing conditions which will allow effective self-performed plaque control. This aim is primarily achieved with sonic and ultrasonic scalers. However, generation of bacterial aerosols during these procedures is of great concern to patients, the dentist and the dental assistant. The aim of this study was to compare the reduction in aerosol with and without high-volume evacuator through a microbiological study. Materials and methods. For this clinical study a fumigated closed operatory was selected. Maxillary incisors and canines were selected as an area for scaling. Piezoelectric ultrasonic scaling was performed in the absence and in the presence of a high-volume evacuator at 12 and 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. In both groups scaling was carried out for 10 minutes. Nutrient agar plates were exposed for a total of 20 minutes. After this procedure, nutrient agar plates were incubated in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The next day the nutrient agar plates were examined for colony forming units by a single microbiologist. Results. The results showed no statistically significant differences in colony forming units (CFU) with and without the use of a high-volume evacuator either at 12 or 20 inches from the patient's oral cavity. Conclusion. It was concluded that high-volume evacuator, when used as a separate unit without any modification, is not effective in reducing aerosol counts and environmental contamination. PMID:25346838

  20. Noise-Reduction Benefits Analyzed for Over-the-Wing-Mounted Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Also, the large fan diameters of modern engines with increasingly higher bypass ratios pose significant packaging and aircraft installation challenges. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large diameters and high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this approach allows the wing to shield much of the engine noise from people on the ground. The Propulsion Systems Analysis Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field conducted independent analytical research to estimate the noise reduction potential of mounting advanced turbofan engines above the wing. Certification noise predictions were made for a notional long-haul commercial quadjet transport. A large quad was chosen because, even under current regulations, such aircraft sometimes experience difficulty in complying with certification noise requirements with a substantial margin. Also, because of its long wing chords, a large airplane would receive the greatest advantage of any noise-shielding benefit.

  1. AFDM: An advanced fluid-dynamics model. Volume 6: EOS-AFDM interface

    SciTech Connect

    Henneges, G.; Kleinheins, S.

    1994-01-01

    This volume of the Advanced Fluid-Dynamics Model (AFDM) documents the modeling of the equation of state (EOS) in the code. The authors present an overview of the basic concepts underlying the thermodynamics modeling and resulting EOS, which is a set of relations between the thermodynamic properties of materials. The AFDM code allows for multiphase-multimaterial systems, which they explore in three phase models: two-material solid, two-material liquid, and three-material vapor. They describe and compare two ways of specifying the EOS of materials: (1) as simplified analytic expressions, or (2) as tables that precisely describe the properties of materials and their interactions for mechanical equilibrium. Either of the two EOS models implemented in AFDM can be selected by specifying the option when preprocessing the source code for compilation. Last, the authors determine thermophysical properties such as surface tension, thermal conductivities, and viscosities in the model for the intracell exchanges of AFDM. Specific notations, routines, EOS data, plots, test results, and corrections to the code are available in the appendices.

  2. A clip-based protocol for breast boost radiotherapy provides clear target visualisation and demonstrates significant volume reduction over time

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lorraine; Cox, Jennifer; Morgia, Marita; Atyeo, John; Lamoury, Gillian

    2015-09-15

    The clinical target volume (CTV) for early stage breast cancer is difficult to clearly identify on planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Surgical clips inserted around the tumour bed should help to identify the CTV, particularly if the seroma has been reabsorbed, and enable tracking of CTV changes over time. A surgical clip-based CTV delineation protocol was introduced. CTV visibility and its post-operative shrinkage pattern were assessed. The subjects were 27 early stage breast cancer patients receiving post-operative radiotherapy alone and 15 receiving post-operative chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. The radiotherapy alone (RT/alone) group received a CT scan at median 25 days post-operatively (CT1rt) and another at 40 Gy, median 68 days (CT2rt). The chemotherapy/RT group (chemo/RT) received a CT scan at median 18 days post-operatively (CT1ch), a planning CT scan at median 126 days (CT2ch), and another at 40 Gy (CT3ch). There was no significant difference (P = 0.08) between the initial mean CTV for each cohort. The RT/alone cohort showed significant CTV volume reduction of 38.4% (P = 0.01) at 40 Gy. The Chemo/RT cohort had significantly reduced volumes between CT1ch: median 54 cm{sup 3} (4–118) and CT2ch: median 16 cm{sup 3}, (2–99), (P = 0.01), but no significant volume reduction thereafter. Surgical clips enable localisation of the post-surgical seroma for radiotherapy targeting. Most seroma shrinkage occurs early, enabling CT treatment planning to take place at 7 weeks, which is within the 9 weeks recommended to limit disease recurrence.

  3. Radar Derived Spatial Statistics of Summer Rain. Volume 2; Data Reduction and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konrad, T. G.; Kropfli, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Data reduction and analysis procedures are discussed along with the physical and statistical descriptors used. The statistical modeling techniques are outlined and examples of the derived statistical characterization of rain cells in terms of the several physical descriptors are presented. Recommendations concerning analyses which can be pursued using the data base collected during the experiment are included.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 15-day continuous emission monitoring for a 1,500 kW (2000 hp) gas-fired, four-stroke turbocharged reciprocating engine equipped with an ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A RECIPROCATING ENGINE RETROFITTED WITH SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 15-day continuous emission monitoring for a 1,500 kW (2000 hp) gas-fired, four-stroke turbocharged reciprocating engine equipped with an ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control.

  6. What the Research Tells Us: Class Size Reduction. Information Capsule. Volume 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule examines the background and history in addition to research findings pertaining to class size reduction (CSR). This Capsule concludes that although educational researchers have not definitively agreed upon the effectiveness of CSR, given its almost universal public appeal, there is little doubt it is here to stay in some…

  7. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

  8. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support during lung volume reduction surgery for a severe respiratory failure patient with emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuyan; He, Hangyong

    2016-01-01

    The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adults has increased in popularity and importance for the support of patients with cardiac or pulmonary failure, but rarely been described as a means of support during anaesthesia and surgery. We report the case of a patient who required lung volume reduction because of emphysema where veno-venous ECMO was required both during surgery and for the first four days postoperatively. We describe the anaesthetic management of this patient who had severe respiratory failure, review other alternatives and discuss why ECMO was particularly suited to this case. PMID:27076979

  9. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. [ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT OF DIAPHRAGM CONDITION OF THE PATIENTS, WHO PASSED THE SELECTION FOR LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Gorbunkov, S D; Varlamov, V V; Gichkin, A Yu; Perley, V E; Chernyi, S M; Romanikhin, A I; Syrovnev, V A; Agishev, A S; Akopov, A L

    2015-01-01

    The article showed the results of ultrasonic assessment of topographic and functional diaphragm indices in patients with severe diffuse emphysema. They passed the selection for lung volume reduction surgery. The comparison of diaphragm indices was presented in patients with diffuse emphysema and control group of healthy volunteers. Dynamics of diaphragm condition was studied after surgical treatment. There wasn't noted any statistical difference of diaphragm topographic indices as compared with the control group. There wasn't shown a correlation between respiratory function indices and functional diaphragm indices, but it was noted a positive tendency in characteristics during quiet breathing. PMID:26983252

  11. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  12. Gender differences in muscle blood volume reduction in the tibialis anterior muscle during passive plantarflexion.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Aki; Muraoka, Yoshiho; Fujita, Emi; Kubo, Sayaka; Yoshida, Misaki; Komuro, Yuko; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Ohta, Yuji; Kuno-Mizumura, Mayumi

    2016-09-01

    Physical flexibility, such as joint range of motion and muscle extension, may influence muscle blood volume. Women have been shown to have a greater degree of flexibility than men. We examined whether there is a gender difference in the relationship between fascicle length and muscle blood volume or oxygenation in untrained men and women. In 16 untrained men and thirteen untrained women, we measured the total-[haemoglobin (Hb) + myoglobin (Mb)] (total-[Hb + Mb]) and relative oxy-[Hb + Mb] after calibrating baseline and arterial occlusion deoxygenation levels with near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, fascicle length was measured with B-mode ultrasonography at the tibialis anterior muscle during passive plantarflexion. Increases in fascicle length from baseline (ankle joint angle 120°, composed from the caput fibulae, the malleolus (pivot), and the distal epiphysis of the fifth metatarsal bone) were greater in women than in men during plantarflexion of 140° and 160° and the maximal angle without pain. However, the decreases in total-[Hb + Mb] and relative oxy-[Hb + Mb] from baseline were not different between women and men at any degree of plantarflexion. Moreover, fascicle length and total-[Hb + Mb]/muscle thickness (men > women) showed a similar relationship, with muscle thickness increasing capillary compression. These findings indicate the possibility of a mechanical function underlying muscle blood volume during muscle stretching, which is greater in women than in men. PMID:25620638

  13. Voxel-based meta-analysis of gray matter volume reductions associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaqian; Yang, Jing; Hu, Xinyu; Shang, Huifang

    2016-06-01

    Brain gray matter volume (GMV) reduction has been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and in PD patients with dementia (PDD) with cumulative evidence using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). However, the findings of these studies have not been entirely concordant. Whole-brain VBM studies comparing PD-MCI with PD patients without cognitive impairment (PD-NCI) and comparing PDD with PD patients without dementia (PDND) were systematically searched in PubMed and EMBASE databases from January 1995 to December 2015. Coordinates with significant differences were extracted from each cluster. Meta-analysis was performed using AES-SDM to quantitatively evaluate the GMV changes. Five studies comparing 92 PD-MCI with 192 PD-NCI patients were included in the PD-MCI vs. PD-NCI meta-analysis. Ten studies with 168 PDD and 233 PDND patients were included in the PDD vs. PDND meta-analysis. Compared with PD-NCI, GMV reductions were observed in left superior temporal lobe, left insula and left superior frontal lobe in PD-MCI patients. Significant GMV reduction were found in bilateral superior temporal lobe extending to hippocampus, and left superior frontal lobe in PDD patients comparing with PDND. Meta-regression of PDD studies showed that disease duration was negatively correlated with GMV in the left superior frontal lobe. GMV reductions in the frontal-limbic-temporal regions were main features of cognitive decline in PD. Unilateral-to-bilateral development of GMV reduction in the frontal-limbic-temporal regions is a possible indicator for PD-MCI to PDD progression, whereas significant hippocampal GMV reduction may not be a marker for early cognitive decline in PD. PMID:27113603

  14. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  15. The reduction of volume and fiber bundle connections in the hippocampus of EGR3 transgenic schizophrenia rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ensen; Song, Tianbin; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Jie; Wang, Liwen; Zhao, Qichao; Guo, Runcai; Li, Miao; Ma, Guolin; Lu, Guangming; Li, Kefeng

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective There is a growing consensus that schizophrenia is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. White matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain. In this study, we aimed to investigate the white matter connection in schizophrenia susceptible brain regions of early growth response factor 3 (EGR3) expressing rats. Methods A rat model of schizophrenia was created by the transfection of the EGR3 gene into rat hippocampus. All animals were placed in a fixation system using a commercial rat-dedicated coil. Schizophrenia susceptible brain regions were scanned using in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The volume, quantity, average length of fiber bundles, fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, the relative heterosexual fraction, and volume ratio were collected in the whole brain and schizophrenia related brain areas (the hippocampus, thalamus, and prefrontal lobe). MedINRIA software was used for data processing of diffusion tensor and fiber bundles tracking. The fibronectin in relevant brain regions was also analyzed. Results There was a significant decrease in the volume of the fiber beam through the left hippocampus dentate in the schizophrenia model group in comparison to the control group and the risperidone treatment group (P<0.05). A significant reduction in the volume and number of the fiber bundles was also observed in left prefrontal–left hippocampus, left hippocampus–left thalamus, left prefrontal–left hippocampus–left thalamus areas in the model group (all P<0.05). Conclusion The volume of hippocampus and the number of fiber bundles were reduced in EGR3 transgenic schizophrenia rats, and are the most sensitive indicators in schizophrenia. The diffusion tensor imaging technique plays an important role in the evaluation of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26170675

  16. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Volume and dosimetric variations during two-phase adaptive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-hao; Zhang, Shu-xu; Zhou, Ling-hong; Zhang, Guo-qian; Yu, Hui; Lin, Xiao-dan; Lin, Shengqu

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the volume and dosimetric variations during IMRT for locally advanced NPC and to identify the benefits of a two-phase adaptive IMRT method. Twenty patients with locally advanced NPC having received IMRT treatment were included. Each patient had both an initial planning CT (CT-1) and a repeated CT scan (CT-2) after treatment at a dose of 40 Gy. Three IMRT planning scenarios were compared: (1) the initial plan on the CT-1 (plan-1); (2) the hybrid plan recalculated the initial plan on the CT-2 (plan-2); (3) the replan generated on the CT-2 being used to complete the course of IMRT (plan-3). The mean gross target volume and mean volumes of the positive neck lymph nodes, high-risk clinical target volume, and the left and right parotid glands significantly decreased by 30.2%, 45.1%, 21.1%, 14.7% and 18.2%, respectively on the CT-2. Comparing plan-2 with plan-1, the dose coverage of the targets remained unchanged, whereas the dose delivered to the parotid glands and spinal cord increased significantly. These patients with locally advanced NPC might benefit from replanning because of the sparing of the parotid glands and spinal cord. PMID:24212016

  18. Phenotyping by magnetic resonance imaging nondestructively measures glomerular number and volume distribution in mice with and without nephron reduction

    PubMed Central

    Baldelomar, Edwin J.; Charlton, Jennifer R.; Beeman, Scott C.; Hann, Bradley D.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Pearl, Valeria M.; Bertram, John F.; Wu, Teresa; Zhang, Min; Bennett, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced nephron mass is strongly linked to susceptibility to chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases. There are currently no tools to identify nephropenia in clinical or preclinical diagnostics. Such new methods could uncover novel mechanisms and therapies for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reveal how variation among traits can affect renal function and morphology. Here we used cationized ferritin (CF) enhanced-MRI (CFE-MRI) to investigate the relationship between glomerular number (Nglom) and volume (Vglom) in kidneys of healthy wild type mice and mice with oligosyndactylism (Os/+), a model of congenital nephron reduction. Mice were injected with cationic ferritin and perfused and the resected kidneys imaged with 7T MRI to detect CF-labeled glomeruli. CFE-MRI was used to measure the intrarenal distribution of individual glomerular volumes and revealed two major populations of glomeruli distinguished by size. Spatial mapping revealed that the largest glomeruli were located in the juxtamedullary region in both wild type and Os/+ mice and the smallest population located in the cortex. Os/+ mice had about a 50% reduction and 35% increase of Nglom and Vglom, respectively, in both glomerular populations compared to wild type, consistent with glomerular hypertrophy in the Os/+ mice. Thus, we provide a foundation for whole-kidney, MRI-based phenotyping of mouse renal glomerular morphology and provide new potential for quantitative human renal diagnostics. PMID:26535998

  19. Phenotyping by magnetic resonance imaging nondestructively measures glomerular number and volume distribution in mice with and without nephron reduction.

    PubMed

    Baldelomar, Edwin J; Charlton, Jennifer R; Beeman, Scott C; Hann, Bradley D; Cullen-McEwen, Luise; Pearl, Valeria M; Bertram, John F; Wu, Teresa; Zhang, Min; Bennett, Kevin M

    2016-02-01

    Reduced nephron mass is strongly linked to susceptibility to chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases. There are currently no tools to identify nephropenia in clinical or preclinical diagnostics. Such new methods could uncover novel mechanisms and therapies for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reveal how variation among traits can affect renal function and morphology. Here we used cationized ferritin (CF)–enhanced MRI (CFE-MRI) to investigate the relationship between glomerular number (Nglom) and volume (Vglom) in kidneys of healthy wild-type mice and mice with oligosyndactylism (Os/+), a model of congenital nephron reduction. Mice were injected with CF and perfused, and the resected kidneys were imaged with 7T MRI to detect CF-labeled glomeruli. CFE-MRI was used to measure the intrarenal distribution of individual glomerular volumes and revealed two major populations of glomeruli distinguished by size. Spatial mapping revealed that the largest glomeruli were located in the juxtamedullary region in both wild-type and Os/+ mice and the smallest population located in the cortex. Os/+ mice had about a 50% reduction and 35% increase of Nglom and Vglom, respectively, in both glomerular populations compared with wild type, consistent with glomerular hypertrophy in the Os/+ mice. Thus, we provide a foundation for whole-kidney, MRI-based phenotyping of mouse renal glomerular morphology and provide new potential for quantitative human renal diagnostics. PMID:26535998

  20. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy. Volume 1: Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the Space Station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the Space Station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  1. Experiment and mechanism investigation on advanced reburning for NO(x) reduction: influence of CO and temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hua; Zhou, Jun-Hu; Zhang, Yan-Wei; Lu, Zhi-Min; Fan, Jian-Ren; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-03-01

    Pulverized coal reburning, ammonia injection and advanced reburning in a pilot scale drop tube furnace were investigated. Premix of petroleum gas, air and NH3 were burned in a porous gas burner to generate the needed flue gas. Four kinds of pulverized coal were fed as reburning fuel at constant rate of 1g/min. The coal reburning process parameters including 15% approximately 25% reburn heat input, temperature range from 1100 degrees C to 1400 degrees C and also the carbon in fly ash, coal fineness, reburn zone stoichiometric ratio, etc. were investigated. On the condition of 25% reburn heat input, maximum of 47% NO reduction with Yanzhou coal was obtained by pure coal reburning. Optimal temperature for reburning is about 1300 degrees C and fuel-rich stoichiometric ratio is essential; coal fineness can slightly enhance the reburning ability. The temperature window for ammonia injection is about 700 degrees C approximately 1100 degrees C. CO can improve the NH3 ability at lower temperature. During advanced reburning, 72.9% NO reduction was measured. To achieve more than 70% NO reduction, Selective Non-catalytic NO(x) Reduction (SNCR) should need NH3/NO stoichiometric ratio larger than 5, while advanced reburning only uses common dose of ammonia as in conventional SNCR technology. Mechanism study shows the oxidization of CO can improve the decomposition of H2O, which will rich the radical pools igniting the whole reactions at lower temperatures. PMID:15682503

  2. Volume reduction of the jugular foramina in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with syringomyelia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the pathogenesis of the chiari-like malformation in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) is incomplete, and current hypotheses do not fully explain the development of syringomyelia (SM) in the spinal cords of affected dogs. This study investigates an unconventional pathogenetic theory for the development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure waves in the subarachnoid space in CKCS with SM, by analogy with human diseases. In children with achondroplasia the shortening of the skull base can lead to a narrowing of the jugular foramina (JF) between the cranial base synchondroses. This in turn has been reported to cause a congestion of the major venous outflow tracts of the skull and consequently to an increase in the intracranial pressure (ICP). Amongst brachycephalic dog breeds the CKCS has been identified as having an extremely short and wide braincase. A stenosis of the JF and a consequential vascular compromise in this opening could contribute to venous hypertension, raising ICP and causing CSF jets in the spinal subarachnoid space of the CKCS. In this study, JF volumes in CKCSs with and without SM were compared to assess a possible role of this pathologic mechanism in the development of SM in this breed. Results Computed tomography (CT) scans of 40 CKCSs > 4 years of age were used to create three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and the JF. Weight matched groups (7–10 kg) of 20 CKCSs with SM and 20 CKCSs without SM were compared. CKCSs without SM presented significantly larger JF -volumes (median left JF: 0.0633 cm3; median right JF: 0.0703 cm3; p < 0.0001) when compared with CKCSs with SM (median left JF: 0.0382 cm3; median right JF: 0.0434 cm3; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the left and right JF within each group. Bland-Altman analysis revealed excellent reproducibility of all volume measurements. Conclusion A stenosis of the JF and consecutive venous congestion may explain the aetiology of CSF

  3. Development in Waste Volume Reduction Technologies for Highly Contaminated Organic Radioactive Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    AKAI, Yoshie; OHMURA, Hisao; FUJIE, Makoto; MONIWA, Shinobu; SEKI, Shuji; YOTSUYANAGI, Tadasu; EBATA, Masaaki; TAKAGI, Junichi

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear facilities, there is highly contaminated organic radioactive waste such as ion exchange resins for water purification in nuclear power plants. In the future, it is desired that this waste be decomposed to reduce the volume and to become stable. Toshiba has developed a waste treatment system using supercritical water. Furthermore, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin has been examined. By this new system, it is possible to reduce the volume of ion exchange resin waste. First, supercritical water was applied to the decomposition of ion exchange resin. The supercritical water whose temperature and pressure exceed 647 K and 22 MPa is an excellent solvent for organic compound decomposition, since oxygen and organic compounds can exist in a single homogeneous fluid phase. Organic compounds can be rapidly and completely decomposed using supercritical water. Almost all the reactants can be kept in the water during organic compound decomposition. Therefore, applying supercritical water to treat organic radioactive waste is an attractive proposition. Actual plant-size apparatus was constructed with a treatment capacity of 1 kg of ion exchange resin per hour. The test revealed that more than 99.9% of the ion exchange resin was decomposed at 723 K and 30 MPa. By this system, ion exchange resin decomposes rapidly and completely, and the volume of ion exchange resin waste can be largely reduced. Secondly, the new demineralization system without using ion exchange resin is described. The new demineralization system consists of a filter and a demineralization cell. A metal mesh filter is adopted to remove crud, and the demineralization cell removes ionic impurities. In this system, it is important whether demineralization can take place at high temperature. Thus, this report describes the test results of the new demineralization process. This demineralization cell consists of an anode, a cathode, and a membrane made of inorganic material. The

  4. National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing. Program summary report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing focused on manufacturing research and development for flat panel displays, advanced lithography, microelectronics, and optoelectronics. This report provides an overview of the program, summaries of the technical projects, and key program accomplishments.

  5. Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 130, 2-Volume Set, Geometric Structures of Phase Space in Multi-Dimensional Chaos: Applications to Chemical Reaction Dynamics in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Stuart A.; Toda, Mikito; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Konishi, Tetsuro; Berry, R. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Edited by Nobel Prize winner Ilya Prigogine and renowned authority Stuart A. Rice, the Advances in Chemical Physics series provides a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations in every area of the discipline. In a format that encourages the expression of individual points of view, experts in the field present comprehensive analyses of subjects of interest. Advances in Chemical Physics remains the premier venue for presentations of new findings in its field. Volume 130 consists of three parts including: Part I: Phase Space Geometry of Multi-dimensional Dynamical Systems and Reaction Processes Part II Complex Dynamical Behavior in Clusters and Proteins, and Data Mining to Extract Information on Dynamics Part III New directions in Multi-Dimensional Chaos and Evolutionary Reactions

  6. Radwaste (DAW) volume reduction cost initiative at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wacha, A.H.

    1995-05-01

    Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station is a General Electric Mark 1, 620 MWe (Net) Boiling Water Reactor operated by GPU Nuclear Corporation and located in Forked River, New Jersey. The plant began commercial operation on December 23, 1969, and achieved its longest continuous run during cycle 14 (413 days) 2-16-93 to 9-11-94. As part of the industry-wide initiative to reduce nuclear plant O&M costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was asked by GPU Nuclear to assist the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) in identifying opportunities for reducing the costs associated with its Radwaste Minimization Program for Dry Active Waste (DAW). The purpose of the project was to evaluate the existing generation, minimization, processing and disposal programs and to identify a wide variety of potential mechanisms for reducing waste volumes and associated costs.

  7. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  8. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-08-01

    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  9. Significant volume reduction of tank waste by selective crystallization: 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.; Lunsford, T.R.

    1994-09-27

    The objective of this technology task plan is to develop and demonstrate a scaleable process of reclaim sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) from Hanford waste tanks as a clean nonradioactive salt. The purpose of the so-called Clean Salt Process is to reduce the volume of low level waste glass by as much as 70%. During the reporting period of October 1, 1993, through May 31, 1994, progress was made on four fronts -- laboratory studies, surrogate waste compositions, contracting for university research, and flowsheet development and modeling. In the laboratory, experiments with simulated waste were done to explore the effects of crystallization parameters on the size and crystal habit of product NaNO{sub 3} crystals. Data were obtained to allows prediction of decontamination factor as a function of solid/liquid separation parameters. Experiments with actual waste from tank 101-SY were done to determine the extent of contaminant occlusions in NaNO{sub 3} crystals. In preparation for defining surrogate waste compositions, single shell tanks were categorized according to the weight percent NaNO{sub 3} in each tank. A detailed process flowsheet and computer model were created using the ASPENPlus steady state process simulator. This is the same program being used by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program for their waste pretreatment and disposal projections. Therefore, evaluations can be made of the effect of the Clean Salt Process on the low level waste volume and composition resulting from the TWRS baseline flowsheet. Calculations, using the same assumptions as used for the TWRS baseline where applicable indicate that the number of low level glass vaults would be reduced from 44 to 16 if the Clean Salt Process were incorporated into the baseline flowsheet.

  10. Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong

    2013-11-01

    Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.

  11. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  12. Early Significant Tumor Volume Reduction After Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases From Renal Cell Carcinoma Results in Long-Term Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Wook Ha; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Paek, Sun Ha; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Chae-Yong; Kim, Yong Hwy; Kim, Jin Wook; Jung, Hee-Won

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate survival of patients with brain metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 46 patients were treated with radiosurgery, and the total number of lesions was 99. The mean age was 58.9 years (range, 33-78 years). Twenty-six patients (56.5%) had a single brain metastasis. The mean tumor volume was 3.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-35.1 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose prescribed was 20.8 Gy (range, 12-25 Gy) at the 50% isodose line. A patient was classified into the good-response group when the sum of the volume of the brain metastases decreased to less than 75% of the original volume at a 1-month follow-up evaluation using MRI. Results: As of December 28, 2010, 39 patients (84.8%) had died, and 7 (15.2%) survived. The overall median survival time was 10.0 {+-} 0.4 months (95% confidence interval, 9.1-10.8). After treatment, local tumor control was achieved in 72 (84.7%) of the 85 tumors assessed using MRI after radiosurgery. The good-response group survived significantly longer than the poor-response group (median survival times of 18.0 and 9.0 months, respectively; p = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, classification in the good-response group was the only independent prognostic factor for longer survival (p = 0.037; hazard ratio = 0.447; 95% confidence interval, 0.209-0.953). Conclusions: Radiosurgery seems to be an effective treatment modality for patients with brain metastases from RCC. The early significant tumor volume reduction observed after radiosurgery seems to result in long-term survival in RCC patients with brain metastases.

  13. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p < 0.05) due to increases in VRC,p and VRC,a with constant VAB. End-expiratory VCW decreased with late increasing VRC,p, dynamically hyperinflating VRC,a (p < 0.05), and progressively decreasing VAB (p < 0.05). After MBWRP, weight loss was concentrated in the abdomen and total IC decreased. During exercise, abdominal rib cage hyperinflation was delayed and associated with 15% increased performance and reduced dyspnea at high workloads (p < 0.05) without ventilatory and metabolic changes. We conclude that otherwise healthy obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea. PMID:27175804

  14. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  15. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-05-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  16. Innovative cross-flow membrane system for volume reduction of mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, W.

    1997-10-01

    In this task, SpinTek Membrane Systems, Inc., and the Institute of Gas Technology are completing engineering development leading to a full-scale demonstration of the SpinTek ST-II High Shear Rotary Membrane Filtration System (ST-II) under a Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA) with the Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown. The SpinTek ST-II technology will be scaled-up, and a two-stage ST-II system will be designed, constructed, and operated on both surrogate and actual feed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (LRWTF). Results from these studies on both surrogate and actual wastewater streams will also be used by LANL personnel to produce a model for determining the applicability and economics of the SpinTek ST-II system to other DOE waste and process streams. The ST-II is a unique, compact cross-flow membrane system having several advantages in performance and cost compared to currently available systems. Staff at LANL have performed pilot-scale testing with the SpinTek technology to evaluate its feasibility for enhanced radionuclide removal from wastewater at its 5- to 8-million-gallon-per-year LRWTF. Recent data have shown the system`s capabilities to remove radionuclides from the waste stream at concentration factors greater than 2000:1, and performance has exceeded both conventional and all other advanced technologies examined.

  17. Lung Volume Reduction Surgery and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Improve Exercise Capacity and Reduce Dyspnea During Functional Activities in People with Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and pulmonary rehabilitation on levels of dyspnea during functional activities in patients with diffuse emphysema. Methods: Fifteen subjects who had undergone LVRS participated in this study. A visual analog scale (VAS) Activity Dyspnea Scales (VADS) measurement tool developed for this study was determined reliable in 10 subjects. The VADS was used to assess changes in dyspnea with functional activity in 10 subjects prior to and following the interventions of LVRS and pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Results of this study indicate that LVRS followed by pulmonary rehabilitation significantly reduces levels of dyspnea during functional activities. Conclusion: The VADS developed for this study is a valid and reliable method of assessing changes in levels of dyspnea during functional activities in the LVRS population. PMID:20467532

  18. The ADVANCE project: Formal evaluation of the targeted deployment. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The ADVANCE familiar driver test provided a small sample of drivers familiar with their local road network and patterns of recurring congestion with an opportunity to drive a vehicle equipped with the ADVANCE dynamic route guidance system for a period of two weeks of normal use. On the basis of this test experience, drivers were asked to evaluate the ADVANCE system and to assess the value of features for future in-vehicle route guidance systems. This test involved 80 volunteer households living in the ADVANCE test area in northwest suburban Chicago; 110 drivers from these households used the ADVANCE vehicle and responded to both baseline (pre-test) and post-test surveys. Thirty two of these drivers participated in focus groups. Drivers also maintained written logs describing their rerouting experiences with the ADVANCE system.

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of planning target volume margin reduction for prostate cancer via image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Taejin; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Park, Soah; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Meyeon; Kim, Kyoung-Joo; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively estimate the dosimetric benefits of the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system for the prostate intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery. The cases of eleven patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer without a prostatectomy at our institution between October 2012 and April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. For every patient, clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins were uniformly used: 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm. For each margin size, the IMRT plans were independently optimized by one medical physicist using Pinnalce3 (ver. 8.0.d, Philips Medical System, Madison, WI) in order to maintain the plan quality. The maximum geometrical margin (MGM) for every CT image set, defined as the smallest margin encompassing the rectum at least at one slice, was between 13 mm and 26 mm. The percentage rectum overlapping PTV (%V ROV ), the rectal normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and the mean rectal dose (%RD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. However the bladder NTCP remained around zero to some extent regardless of the increase of PTV margin while the percentage bladder overlapping PTV (%V BOV ) and the mean bladder dose (%BD mean ) increased in proportion to the increase of PTV margin. Without relatively large rectum or small bladder, the increase observed for rectal NTCP, %RDmean and %BD mean per 1-mm PTV margin size were 1.84%, 2.44% and 2.90%, respectively. Unlike the behavior of the rectum or the bladder, the maximum dose on each femoral head had little effect on PTV margin. This quantitative study of the PTV margin reduction supported that IG-IMRT has enhanced the clinical effects over prostate cancer with the reduction of normal organ complications under the similar level of PTV control.

  20. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  1. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  2. Predicting Advanced Placement Examination Success from FCAT Scores. Research Brief. Volume 0709

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Tirado, Arleti

    2008-01-01

    Advanced Placement courses are offered at M-DCPS for students to acquire college credit or advanced college academic standing. A system has been developed in the past by the College Board to use the PSAT for 10th grade students to estimate their potential for AP Examination success. The same test has recently been applied in this district to 9th…

  3. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  4. National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing. Program summary report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The National Center for Advanced Information Components Manufacturing focused on manufacturing research and development for flat panel displays, advanced lithography, microelectronics, and optoelectronics. This report provides an overview of the program, program history, summaries of the technical projects, and key program accomplishments.

  5. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, construction and testing requirements are defined for developing an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is composed of the advanced cab and visual system and the rotorcraft system motion generator, and is part of an existing simulation facility. User's applications for the simulator include rotorcraft design development, product improvement, threat assessment, and accident investigation.

  6. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbour, Salma K.; Kim, Sinae; Haider, Syed A.; Xu, Xiaoting; Wu, Alson; Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph; Langenfeld, John; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume consists of the following sections: WRAP 2A value engineering assessment, resolution of value engineering assessment actions (white paper), HAZOP studies for identifying major safety and operability problems, and time and motion simulation.

  8. ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY GAS TURBINE ENGINES: VOLUME II. BENCH SCALE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports describe an exploratory development program to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate dry techniques for significantly reducing NOx emissions from stationary gas turbine combustors. (Volume 1 documents the research activities leading to selection of 26 combustor design c...

  9. ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY GAS TURBINE ENGINES. VOLUME IV. COMBUSTOR VERIFICATION TESTING. ADDENDUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports describe an exploratory development program to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate dry techniques for significantly reducing NOx from stationary gas turbine engines. Volume 4 describes an additional series of tests to evaluate the performance of the combustor on heavy...

  10. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer reduces volume of bowel treated to high dose levels

    SciTech Connect

    Urbano, M. Teresa Guerrero; Henrys, Anthony J.; Adams, Elisabeth J.; Norman, Andrew R.; Bedford, James L.; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.; Dearnaley, David P.; Tait, Diana M. . E-mail: jenny.pearson@rmh.nthames.nhs.uk

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to spare the bowel in rectal tumors. Methods and Materials: The targets (pelvic nodal and rectal volumes), bowel, and bladder were outlined in 5 patients. All had conventional, three-dimensional conformal RT and forward-planned multisegment three-field IMRT plans compared with inverse-planned simultaneous integrated boost nine-field equally spaced IMRT plans. Equally spaced seven-field and five-field and five-field, customized, segmented IMRT plans were also evaluated. Results: Ninety-five percent of the prescribed dose covered at least 95% of both planning target volumes using all but the conventional plan (mean primary and pelvic planning target volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose was 32.8 {+-} 13.7 Gy and 23.7 {+-} 4.87 Gy, respectively), reflecting a significant lack of coverage. The three-field forward planned IMRT plans reduced the volume of bowel irradiated to 45 Gy and 50 Gy by 26% {+-} 16% and 42% {+-} 27% compared with three-dimensional conformal RT. Additional reductions to 69 {+-} 51 cm{sup 3} to 45 Gy and 20 {+-} 21 cm{sup 3} to 50 Gy were obtained with the nine-field equally spaced IMRT plans-64% {+-} 11% and 64% {+-} 20% reductions compared with three-dimensional conformal RT. Reducing the number of beams and customizing the angles for the five-field equally spaced IMRT plan did not significantly reduce bowel sparing. Conclusion: The bowel volume irradiated to 45 Gy and 50 Gy was significantly reduced with IMRT, which could potentially lead to less bowel toxicity. Reducing the number of beams did not reduce bowel sparing and the five-field customized segmented IMRT plan is a reasonable technique to be tested in clinical trials.

  11. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.

    1998-06-01

    'Understanding factors which control the long-term survival and activity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in subsurface sedimentary environments is important for predicting their ability to serve as agents for bioremediation of organic and inorganic contaminants. This project seeks to refine the authors quantitative understanding of microbiological and geochemical controls on bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction and growth of FeRB, using laboratory reactor systems which mimic to varying degrees the physical and chemical conditions of subsurface sedimentary environments. Methods for studying microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and FeRB growth in experimental systems which incorporate advective aqueous phase flux are being developed for this purpose. These methodologies, together with an accumulating database on the kinetics of Fe(III) reduction and bacterial growth with various synthetic and natural Fe(III) oxide minerals, will be applicable to experimental and modeling studies of subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction and FeRB activity. This report summarizes research accomplished after approximately 1.5 yr of a 3-yr project. A central hypothesis of the research is that advective elimination of the primary end-product of Fe(III) oxide reduction, Fe(II), will enhance the rate and extent of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in open experimental systems. This hypothesis is based on previous studies in the laboratory which demonstrated that association of evolved Fe(II) with oxide and FeRB cell surfaces (via adsorption or surface precipitation) is a primary cause for cessation of Fe(III) oxide reduction activity in batch culture experiments. Semicontinuous culturing was adopted as a first approach to test this basic hypothesis. Synthetic goethite or natural Fe(III) oxide-rich subsoils were used as Fe(III) sources, with the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga as the test organism.'

  13. Life prediction methodology for ceramic components of advanced heat engines. Phase 1: Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cuccio, J.C.; Brehm, P.; Fang, H.T.

    1995-03-01

    Emphasis of this program is to develop and demonstrate ceramics life prediction methods, including fast fracture, stress rupture, creep, oxidation, and nondestructive evaluation. Significant advancements were made in these methods and their predictive capabilities successfully demonstrated.

  14. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Menzies, B.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  15. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 2. Mechanical property evaluation. Final report. [CrMoV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Landes, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation. 40 refs., 84 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The Use of Cryogenically Cooled 5A Molecular Sieves for Large Volume Reduction of Tritiated Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniazzi, A.B.; Bartoszek, F.E.; Sherlock, A.M.

    2006-07-01

    A commercial hydrogen isotope separation system based on gas chromatography (AGC-ISS) has been built. The system operates in two modes: stripping and volume reduction. The purpose of the stripping mode is to reduce a large volume of tritiated hydrogen gas to a small volume of tritium rich hydrogen gas. The results here illustrate the effectiveness of the AGC-ISS in the stripping and volume reduction phases. Column readiness for hydrogen isotope separation is confirmed by room temperature air separation tests. Production runs were initially carried out using natural levels of deuterium (110-160 ppm) in high purity hydrogen. After completion of the deuterium/hydrogen runs the system began operations with tritiated hydrogen. The paper presents details of the AGC-ISS design and results of tritium tests. The heart of the AGC-ISS consists of two packed columns (9 m long, 3.8 cm OD) containing 5A molecular sieve material of 40/60 mesh size. Each column has 5 individually controlled heaters along the length of the column and is coiled around an inverted inner dewar. The coiled column and inner dewar are both contained within an outer dewar. In this arrangement liquid nitrogen, used to cryogenically cool the columns, flows into and out off the annular space defined by the two dewars, allowing for alternate heating and cooling cycles. Tritiated hydrogen feed is injected in batch quantities. The batch size is variable with the maximum quantity restricted by the tritium concentration in the exhausted hydrogen. The stripping operations can be carried out in full automated mode or in full manual mode. The average cycle time between injections is about 75 minutes. To date, the maximum throughput achieved is 10.5 m{sup 3}/day. A total of 37.8 m{sup 3} of tritiated hydrogen has been processed during commissioning. The system has demonstrated that venting of >99.95% of the feed gas is possible while retaining 99.98% of the tritium. At a maximum tritium concentration of {approx}7 GBq

  17. Recent advances in membrane bio-technologies for sludge reduction and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Hongguang; Ma, Jinxing; Zheng, Xiang; Wu, Zhichao

    2013-12-01

    This paper is designed to critically review the recent developments of membrane bio-technologies for sludge reduction and treatment by covering process fundamentals, performances (sludge reduction efficiency, membrane fouling, pollutant removal, etc.) and key operational parameters. The future perspectives of the hybrid membrane processes for sludge reduction and treatment are also discussed. For sludge reduction using membrane bioreactors (MBRs), literature review shows that biological maintenance metabolism, predation on bacteria, and uncoupling metabolism through using oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process are promising ways that can be employed in full-scale applications. Development of control methods for worm proliferation is in great need of, and a good sludge reduction and MBR performance can be expected if worm growth is properly controlled. For lysis-cryptic sludge reduction method, improvement of oxidant dispersion and increase of the interaction with sludge cells can enhance the lysis efficiency. Green uncoupler development might be another research direction for uncoupling metabolism in MBRs. Aerobic hybrid membrane system can perform well for sludge thickening and digestion in small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and pilot-scale/full-scale applications have been reported. Anaerobic membrane digestion (AMD) process is a very competitive technology for sludge stabilization and digestion. Use of biogas recirculation for fouling control can be a powerful way to decrease the energy requirements for AMD process. Future research efforts should be dedicated to membrane preparation for high biomass applications, process optimization, and pilot-scale/full-scale tracking research in order to push forward the real and wide applications of the hybrid membrane systems for sludge minimization and treatment. PMID:23466365

  18. Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. First year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    'The authors have made considerable progress toward a number of project objectives during the first several months of activity on the project. An exhaustive analysis was made of the growth rate and biomass yield (both derived from measurements of cell protein production) of two representative strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaalga strain BrY and Geobactermetallireducens) growing with different forms of Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. These two fundamentally different types of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) showed comparable rates of Fe(III) reduction, cell growth, and biomass yield during reduction of soluble Fe(III)-citrate and solid-phase amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Intrinsic growth rates of the two FeRB were strongly influenced by whether a soluble or a solid-phase source of Fe(III) was provided: growth rates on soluble Fe(III) were 10--20 times higher than those on solid-phase Fe(III) oxide. Intrinsic FeRB growth rates were comparable during reduction of HF0 and a synthetic crystalline Fe(III) oxide (goethite). A distinct lag phase for protein production was observed during the first several days of incubation in solid-phase Fe(III) oxide medium, even though Fe(III) reduction proceeded without any lag. No such lag between protein production and Fe(III) reduction was observed during growth with soluble Fe(III). This result suggested that protein synthesis coupled to solid-phase Fe(III) oxide reduction in batch culture requires an initial investment of energy (generated by Fe(III) reduction), which is probably needed for synthesis of materials (e.g. extracellular polysaccharides) required for attachment of the cells to oxide surfaces. This phenomenon may have important implications for modeling the growth of FeRB in subsurface sedimentary environments, where attachment and continued adhesion to solid-phase materials will be required for maintenance of Fe(III) reduction activity. Despite considerable differences in the rate and pattern

  19. Setup Variations in Radiotherapy of Anal Cancer: Advantages of Target Volume Reduction Using Image-Guided Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yijen; Suh, Steve; Nelson, Rebecca A.; Liu An; Pezner, Richard D.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To define setup variations in the radiation treatment (RT) of anal cancer and to report the advantages of image-guided RT (IGRT) in terms of reduction of target volume and treatment-related side effects. Methods and Materials: Twelve consecutive patients with anal cancer treated by combined chemoradiation by use of helical tomotherapy from March 2007 to November 2008 were selected. With patients immobilized and positioned in place, megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scans were performed before each treatment and were automatically registered to planning CT scans. Patients were shifted per the registration data and treated. A total of 365 MVCT scans were analyzed. The primary site received a median dose of 55 Gy. To evaluate the potential dosimetric advantage(s) of IGRT, cases were replanned according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0529, with and without adding recommended setup variations from the current study. Results: Significant setup variations were observed throughout the course of RT. The standard deviations for systematic setup correction in the anterior-posterior (AP), lateral, and superior-inferior (SI) directions and roll rotation were 1.1, 3.6, and 3.2 mm, and 0.3 Degree-Sign , respectively. The average random setup variations were 3.8, 5.5, and 2.9 mm, and 0.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. Without daily IGRT, margins of 4.9, 11.1, and 8.5 mm in the AP, lateral, and SI directions would have been needed to ensure that the planning target volume (PTV) received {>=}95% of the prescribed dose. Conversely, daily IGRT required no extra margins on PTV and resulted in a significant reduction of V15 and V45 of intestine and V10 of pelvic bone marrow. Favorable toxicities were observed, except for acute hematologic toxicity. Conclusions: Daily MVCT scans before each treatment can effectively detect setup variations and thereby reduce PTV margins in the treatment of anal cancer. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IGRT provided favorable

  20. Study of the application of advanced technologies to laminar flow control systems for subsonic transports. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.; Etchberger, F. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Meade, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of applying laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long-range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mi), advanced technology laminar-flow-control (LFC) and turbulent-flow (TF) aircraft were developed for both 200 and 400-passenger payloads, and compared on the basis of production costs, direct operating costs, and fuel efficiency. Parametric analyses were conducted to establish the optimum geometry for LFC and TF aircraft, advanced LFC system concepts and arrangements were evaluated, and configuration variations maximizing the effectiveness of LFC were developed. For the final LFC aircraft, analyses were conducted to define maintenance costs and procedures, manufacturing costs and procedures, and operational considerations peculiar to LFC aircraft. Compared to the corresponding advanced technology TF transports, the 200- and 400-passenger LFC aircraft realized reductions in fuel consumption up to 28.2%, reductions in direct operating costs up to 8.4%, and improvements in fuel efficiency, in ssm/lb of fuel, up to 39.4%. Compared to current commercial transports at the design range, the LFC study aircraft demonstrate improvements in fuel efficiency up to 131%. Research and technology requirements requisite to the development of LFC transport aircraft were identified.

  1. Determination of the Optimal Dose Reduction Level via Iterative Reconstruction Using 640-Slice Volume Chest CT in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingli; Wang, Jingshi; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Pengfei; Hou, Yang; Ma, Yue; Guo, Qiyong

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the optimal dose reduction level of iterative reconstruction technique for paediatric chest CT in pig models. Materials and Methods 27 infant pigs underwent 640-slice volume chest CT with 80kVp and different mAs. Automatic exposure control technique was used, and the index of noise was set to SD10 (Group A, routine dose), SD12.5, SD15, SD17.5, SD20 (Groups from B to E) to reduce dose respectively. Group A was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), and Groups from B to E were reconstructed using iterative reconstruction (IR). Objective and subjective image quality (IQ) among groups were compared to determine an optimal radiation reduction level. Results The noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Group D had no significant statistical difference from that in Group A (P = 1.0). The scores of subjective IQ in Group A were not significantly different from those in Group D (P>0.05). There were no obvious statistical differences in the objective and subjective index values among the subgroups (small, medium and large subgroups) of Group D. The effective dose (ED) of Group D was 58.9% lower than that of Group A (0.20±0.05mSv vs 0.48±0.10mSv, p <0.001). Conclusions In infant pig chest CT, using iterative reconstruction can provide diagnostic image quality; furthermore, it can reduce the dosage by 58.9%. PMID:25764485

  2. Tungsten Contact and Line Resistance Reduction with Advanced Pulsed Nucleation Layer and Low Resistivity Tungsten Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekar, Anand; Chen, Feng; Lin, Jasmine; Humayun, Raashina; Wongsenakhum, Panya; Chang, Sean; Danek, Michal; Itou, Takamasa; Nakayama, Tomoo; Kariya, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Masazumi; Hizume, Shunichi

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes electrical testing results of new tungsten chemical vapor deposition (CVD-W) process concepts that were developed to address the W contact and bitline scaling issues on 55 nm node devices. Contact resistance (Rc) measurements in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices indicate that the new CVD-W process for sub-32 nm and beyond - consisting of an advanced pulsed nucleation layer (PNL) combined with low resistivity tungsten (LRW) initiation - produces a 20-30% drop in Rc for diffused NiSi contacts. From cross-sectional bright field and dark field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, such Rc improvement can be attributed to improved plugfill and larger in-feature W grain size with the advanced PNL+LRW process. More experiments that measured contact resistance for different feature sizes point to favorable Rc scaling with the advanced PNL+LRW process. Finally, 40% improvement in line resistance was observed with this process as tested on 55 nm embedded dynamic random access memory (DRAM) devices, confirming that the advanced PNL+LRW process can be an effective metallization solution for sub-32 nm devices.

  3. ADVANCED OXIDATION AND REDUCTION PROCESSES IN THE GAS PHASE USING NON-THERMAL PLASMAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past several years interest in gas-phase pollution control has increased, arising from a larger body of regulations and greater respect for the environment. Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs), historically used to treat recalcitrant water pollutants via hydroxyl-radica...

  4. FINAL REPORT. ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CONTROLS ON MICROBIAL FE(III) OXIDE REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this research project were to refine existing models of microbiological and geochemical controls on Fe(III) oxide reduction, using laboratory reactor systems which mimic to varying degrees the physical and chemical conditions of the subsurface. Novel experimenta...

  5. Advanced Experiment Analysis of controls on Microbial FE(III) Oxide Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, Eric E.; Urrutia, Matilde M.

    1999-06-01

    Understanding factors which control the long-term survival and activity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in subsurface sedimentary environments is important for predicting the ability of these organisms to serve as agents for bioremediation of organic and inorganic contaminants. This project seeks to refine our quantitative understanding of microbiological and geochemical controls on bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction and growth of FeRB, using laboratory reactor systems which mimic to varying degrees the physical and chemical conditions of subsurface sedimentary environments. Methods for studying microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and FeRB growth in experimental systems which incorporate advective aqueous phase flux are being developed for this purpose. These methodologies, together with an accumulating database on the kinetics of Fe(III) reduction and bacterial growth with various synthetic and natural Fe(III) oxide minerals, will be applicable to experimental and modeling studies of subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction activity.

  6. An investigation into reservoir NOM reduction by UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Goslan, Emma H; Gurses, Filiz; Banks, Jenny; Parsons, Simon A

    2006-11-01

    A comparison of four treatment technologies for reduction of natural organic matter (NOM) in a reservoir water was made. The work presented here is a laboratory based evaluation of NOM treatment by UV-C photolysis, UV/H(2)O(2), Fenton's reagent (FR) and photo-Fenton's reagent (PFR). The work investigated ways of reducing the organic load on water treatment works (WTWs) with a view to treating 'in-reservoir' or 'in-pipe' before the water reaches the WTW. The efficiency of each process in terms of NOM removal was determined by measuring UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In terms of DOC reduction PFR was the most effective (88% removal after 1 min) however there were interferences when measuring UV(254) which was reduced to a lesser extent (31% after 1 min). In the literature, pH 3 is reported to be the optimal pH for oxidation with FR but here the reduction of UV(254) and DOC was found to be insensitive to pH in the range 3-7. The treatment that was identified as the most effective in terms of NOM reduction and cost effectiveness was PFR. PMID:16765416

  7. NMR Studies of Structure-Reactivity Relationships in Carbonyl Reduction: A Collaborative Advanced Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marincean, Simona; Smith, Sheila R.; Fritz, Michael; Lee, Byung Joo; Rizk, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    An upper-division laboratory project has been developed as a collaborative investigation of a reaction routinely taught in organic chemistry courses: the reduction of carbonyl compounds by borohydride reagents. Determination of several trends regarding structure-activity relationship was possible because each student contributed his or her results…

  8. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  11. Learning from Research on Teaching: Perspective, Methodology, and Representation. Advances in Research on Teaching. Volume 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Jere, Ed.; Pinnegar, Stefinee, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume is designed to accomplish three primary purposes: (1) illustrate a variety of qualitative methods that researchers have used to study teaching and teacher education; (2) assess the affordances and constraints of these methods and the ways that they focus and shape explorations of teaching; and (3) illuminate representative questions…

  12. Writing across Languages. Advances in Foreign and Second Language Pedagogy Series. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauer, Gerd, Ed.

    This book contains articles from Europe and North America that focus on writing instruction in Danish, French, Italian, German, and English as foreign or second languages at all levels of instruction. The aim of this volume is mainly to encourage an understanding of an expanded function of writing in the field of language education, in theoretical…

  13. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  14. Multicultural Education for Learners with Exceptionalities. Advances in Special Education Series, Volume 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Schwenn, John O., Ed.; Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.

    This volume contains a collection of chapters written by individuals in the fields of general and special education on multicultural education and students with exceptionalities. Chapters include: (1) "Multicultural Education: Powerful Tool for Educating Learners with Exceptionalities" (Festus E. Obiakor); (2) "Educating the African-American…

  15. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume IV. Design drawings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains design drawings for the biomass cogeneration plant to be built in Maine. The drawings show a considerable degree of detail, however, they are not to be considered released for construction. There has been no actual procurement of equipment, therefore equipment drawings certified by suppliers have not been included. (DMC)

  16. Advances in Special Education Volume 11, Issues, Practices and Concerns in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F., Ed.; Schwenn, John O., Ed.; Burkhardt, Sandra, Ed.

    This volume presents 14 papers which address current issues and practices in special education. The papers are: (1) "National Educational Reform: General and Special Education" (Joyce Fiddler and Freddie W. Litton); (2) "Linguistically Appropriate Special Education" (Herbert Grossman); (3) "Portfolio Assessment: An Individualized Approach for…

  17. Verbal Interaction and Development in Families with Adolescents. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Manfred, Ed.; Youniss, James, Ed.; Noack, Peter, Ed.

    Individuation theory is rooted in the belief that it is a major developmental task for adolescents to establish their identity while simultaneously maintaining a relationship with their parents. Building on the individuation paradigm, the researchers contributing to this edited volume zeroed in on discourse as a critical mechanism through which…

  18. Communication: An Arena of Development. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budwig, Nancy, Ed.; Uzgiris, Ina C., Ed.; Wertsch, James V., Ed.

    This volume compiles papers from a 1996 conference on communication held at Clark University (Worcester, Massachusetts). The goal of the conference was to share the work and ideas regarding the development of communication and meaning comprehension. The papers are organized into three parts, covering the organization and the origins of…

  19. ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY GAS TURBINE ENGINES: VOLUME I. REVIEW AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports describe an exploratory development program to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate dry techniques for significantly reducing NOx from thermal and fuel-bound sources in stationary gas turbine engines. Volume 1 covers Phase I of the four-phase effort. In Phase I, duty c...

  20. ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR STATIONARY GAS TURBINE ENGINES: VOLUME III. COMBUSTOR VERIFICATION TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports describe an exploratory development program to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate dry techniques for significantly reducing NOx from stationary gas turbine engines. Volume 3 describes the scaleup of the rich-burn/quick-quench (RB/QQ) model to a full-scale (25 MW) gas...

  1. Elevated HbA1c Levels Are Associated with the Blunted Autonomic Response Assessed by Heart Rate Variability during Blood Volume Reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Miho; Maruyama, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    A high glycemic status increases the risk for autonomic dysfunction and cardiovascular failure. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent changes in the autonomic response and cardiovascular dynamics and the association between the level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and autonomic response during blood volume reduction. The study population consisted of 26 preoperative participants who were scheduled for autologous blood donation (200-400 mL of whole blood) for intraoperative or postoperative use. These participants without circulatory, respiratory, or brain disease and diabetes mellitus were grouped according to their HbA1c levels: < 6.5% (n = 18) and ≥ 6.5% (n = 8). We measured blood pressure (BP) and analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation throughout blood donation. During blood volume reduction, which was about 10% of the circulating blood volume, the BP and heart rate varied within normal ranges in both groups. The high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, significantly decreased and increased with the progression of blood volume reduction, respectively, in the HbA1c < 6.5% group. In contrast, in the HbA1c ≥ 6.5% group, the HF component did not significantly change, and the increase in the LF/HF ratio was delayed. Time-dependent changes in HRV were related to blood volume reduction only in the HbA1c < 6.5% group. Thus, elevated HbA1c levels are associated with the decrease in the autonomic response induced by blood volume reduction. PMID:27615262

  2. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Normal technology requirements applicable to Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) systems were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle design analysis of three different operational concepts resulting in four configurations of a Single Stage to Orbit system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were then compared and a system concept selected. A figure of merit was developed for advanced technology programs based on a cost/performance basis. The selected advanced technology programs were then used to reassess the vehicle to determine the impact on performance, weight and cost. Based on study results, recommendations are provided in technology areas associated with earth orbit transportation systems. The recommendations address advanced space transportation system design considerations, both hardware and software technolgoy program requirements.

  3. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  4. Generalized Advanced Propeller Analysis System (GAPAS). Volume 2: Computer program user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, L.; Crawford, D. R.; Kosmatka, J. B.; Swigart, R. J.; Wong, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Generalized Advanced Propeller Analysis System (GAPAS) computer code is described. GAPAS was developed to analyze advanced technology multi-bladed propellers which operate on aircraft with speeds up to Mach 0.8 and altitudes up to 40,000 feet. GAPAS includes technology for analyzing aerodynamic, structural, and acoustic performance of propellers. The computer code was developed for the CDC 7600 computer and is currently available for industrial use on the NASA Langley computer. A description of all the analytical models incorporated in GAPAS is included. Sample calculations are also described as well as users requirements for modifying the analysis system. Computer system core requirements and running times are also discussed.

  5. External Magnetic Field Reduction Techniques for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.; Geng, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Linear alternators coupled to high efficiency Stirling engines are strong candidates for thermal-to-electric power conversion in space. However, the magnetic field emissions, both AC and DC, of these permanent magnet excited alternators can interfere with sensitive instrumentation onboard a spacecraft. Effective methods to mitigate the AC and DC electromagnetic interference (EMI) from solenoidal type linear alternators (like that used in the Advanced Stirling Convertor) have been developed for potential use in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator. The methods developed avoid the complexity and extra mass inherent in data extraction from multiple sensors or the use of shielding. This paper discusses these methods, and also provides experimental data obtained during breadboard testing of both AC and DC external magnetic field devices.

  6. Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the study was to generate the system design of a performance-optimized, advanced LOX/hydrogen expander cycle space engine. The engine requirements are summarized, and the development and operational experience with the expander cycle RL10 engine were reviewed. The engine development program is outlined.

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME II. ADVANCED PROCESSES AND SPECIAL TOPICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Advanced processes--(The influence of fuel characteristics on nitrogen oxide formation - bench-scale studies, The control of pollutant formation in fuel oil flames - the influence of oil properties and spray characteristics, The generalization of low emission coal burn...

  8. Advanced Information Processing. Volume II. Instructor's Materials. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Linda

    This course curriculum is intended for use by community college insructors and administrators in implementing an advanced information processing course. It builds on the skills developed in the previous information processing course but goes one step further by requiring students to perform in a simulated office environment and improve their…

  9. EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY: ADVANCED PROGRAM, FOURTH PROGRESS REPORT; VOLUME 1. BASIC REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of advanced testing (late November 1976 - June 1978) of 30,000-35,000 acfm (10 MW equivalent) lime/limestone wet scrubbers for SO2 and particulate removal at TVA's Shawnee power station. Forced oxidation with two scrubber loops was developed on the ventur...

  10. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of advanced V/STOL aircraft to civil utility applications was assessed for offshore oil support, forest fire support, transport, and humanitarian missions. The aircraft concepts considered were a lift fan aircraft, a tilt rotor aircraft, and an advanced helicopter. All the aircraft had a design payload of 2,268 kg. (5,000 lb.) with the maximum range varying from 2,224 km. (1,800 nm) for the lift fan STOL to 1,482 km (800 nm) for the advanced helicopter. The analysis of these missions considered such factors as aircraft performance, annual utilization, initial cost, and operating cost. It is concluded that all the advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts generally performed these missions better than contemporary aircraft. The lift fan aircraft and the tilt rotor aircraft were found to be effective for the offshore oil and the forest fire support missions. The lift fan aircraft in the VTOL mode was also found to be very attractive for the executive transport mission where the passenger time value was $30/hr. or more.

  11. NASA/HAA Advanced Rotorcraft Technology and Tilt Rotor Workshops. Volume 3: Aerodynamics and Structures Session

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Advanced rotorcraft technology and tilt rotor aircraft were discussed. Rotorcraft performance, acoustics, and vibrations were discussed, as was the use of composite materials in rotorcraft structures. Rotorcraft aerodynamics, specifically the aerodynamic phenomena of a rotating and the aerodynamics of fuselages, was discussed.

  12. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  13. Orbit transfer vehicle advanced expander cycle engine point design study. Volume 2: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diem, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the baseline engine configuration of the advanced expander cycle engine are described. Several aspects of engine optimization are considered which directly impact the design of the baseline thrust chamber. Four major areas of the power cycle optimization are emphasized: main turbine arrangement; cycle engine source; high pressure pump design; and boost pump drive.

  14. Strategy for advancement of IRP in public power, Volume 2: Technical appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Garrick, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    NREL and subcontractor Garrick & Associates are conducting the Advancement of integrated resource planning (IRP) in Public Power Program, sponsored by DOE. The program is intended to develop a consistent strategy for DOE to advance IRP practices in the publicly and cooperatively owned utility sector. The IRP advancement program includes two major tasks: key participant involvement and strategy development. The Program`s initial task is to involve key public and cooperative utility organizations and their constituents in the development of the IRP advancement strategy. Key Participant Involvement is accomplished through two distinct subtasks: Needs Assessment and Steering Committee Involvement. The Needs Assessment identifies key participant needs, expectations, common interests, issues, and divergences that must be addressed by the IRP program. The results of this effort, which are presented in this {open_quotes}Needs Assessment Summary Report,{close_quotes} provide a foundation for the specific strategy development efforts conducted later in the IRP project. The remaining sections of this report present the approach to the Needs Assessment subtask and summarize the findings of this effort.

  15. NASA/HAA Advanced Rotorcraft Technology and Tilt Rotor Workshops. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the NASA Rotorcraft Program as an introduction to the technical sessions of the Advanced Rotorcraft Technology Workshop. It deals with the basis for NASA's increasing emphasis on rotorcraft technology, NASA's research capabilities, recent program planning efforts, highlights of its 10-year plan and future directions and opportunities.

  16. The Historical Evolution of Chinese Languages and Scripts. Pathways to Advanced Skills Series. Volume 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youguang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    This bilingual text by Zhou Youguang (in Chinese) with English translation by Zhang Liqing makes it easier for English speakers to gain advanced level skills in East Asian languages. It also exposes learners at or above intermediate skill levels to the vocabulary and discourses of academic disciplines and provides entries into discussions with…

  17. Ceramic transactions: Advances in fusion and processing of glass. Volume 29

    SciTech Connect

    Varshneya, A.K.; Bickford, D.F.; Bihuniak, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third in a series of international conferences on Advances in Fusion and Processing of Glass, held in 1992. The book includes articles on fast forming, oxy-fuel combustion, recycling, hazardous and radioactive waste vitrification, redox equilibria, gas solubility, heat transfer and stress relaxation, furnace modeling, and non-fusion-based glass making. Individual articles are abstracted separately.

  18. Advanced missions safety. Volume 2: Technical discussion, Part 2: Experiment safety, guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, M. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technical analysis of a portion of the advanced missions safety study is presented. The potential hazards introduced when experimental equipment is carried aboard the Earth Orbit Shuttle are identified. Safety guidelines and requirements for eliminating or reducing these hazards are recommended.

  19. Applications of advanced V/STOL aircraft concepts to civil utility missions. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The linear performance definition curves for the lift fan aircraft, tilt rotor aircraft, and advanced helicopter are given. The computer program written to perform the mission analysis for this study is also documented, and examples of its use are shown. Methods used to derive the performance coefficients for use in the mission analysis of the lift fan aircraft are described.

  20. Something Ventured, Something Gained. An Advanced Curriculum for Small Business Management. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuchat, Jo; And Others

    Nine units on small business management are provided in this curriculum guide designed for use in an advanced course for secondary and postsecondary students who are interested in beginning a small business venture, have some prior business knowledge, and have a specific business in mind. Unit topics include marketing, location, systems and…

  1. Reduction of Worldwide Plutonium Inventories Using Conventional Reactors and Advanced Fuels: A Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A., Bathke, C.G.

    1997-12-31

    The potential for reducing plutonium inventories in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle through recycle in LWRs of a variety of mixed oxide forms is examined by means of a cost based plutonium flow systems model. This model emphasizes: (1) the minimization of separated plutonium; (2) the long term reduction of spent fuel plutonium; (3) the optimum utilization of uranium resources; and (4) the reduction of (relative) proliferation risks. This parametric systems study utilizes a globally aggregated, long term (approx. 100 years) nuclear energy model that interprets scenario consequences in terms of material inventories, energy costs, and relative proliferation risks associated with the civilian fuel cycle. The impact of introducing nonfertile fuels (NFF,e.g., plutonium oxide in an oxide matrix that contains no uranium) into conventional (LWR) reactors to reduce net plutonium generation, to increase plutonium burnup, and to reduce exo- reactor plutonium inventories also is examined.

  2. Advanced study of global oceanographic requirements for EOS A/B: Appendix volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tables and graphs are presented for a review of oceanographic studies using satellite-borne instruments. The topics considered include sensor requirements, error analysis for wind determination from glitter pattern measurements, coverage frequency plots, ground station rise and set times, a technique for reduction and analysis of ocean spectral data, rationale for the selection of a 2 PM descending orbit, and a priority analysis.

  3. ADVANCEMENT OF NUCLEIC ACID-BASED TOOLS FOR MONITORING IN SITU REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K; ELIZABETH EDWARDS, E; FRANK LOFFLER, F; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-11-17

    Regulatory protocols generally recognize that destructive processes are the most effective mechanisms that support natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents. In many cases, these destructive processes will be biological processes and, for chlorinated compounds, will often be reductive processes that occur under anaerobic conditions. The existing EPA guidance (EPA, 1998) provides a list of parameters that provide indirect evidence of reductive dechlorination processes. In an effort to gather direct evidence of these processes, scientists have identified key microorganisms and are currently developing tools to measure the abundance and activity of these organisms in subsurface systems. Drs. Edwards and Luffler are two recognized leaders in this field. The research described herein continues their development efforts to provide a suite of tools to enable direct measures of biological processes related to the reductive dechlorination of TCE and PCE. This study investigated the strengths and weaknesses of the 16S rRNA gene-based approach to characterizing the natural attenuation capabilities in samples. The results suggested that an approach based solely on 16S rRNA may not provide sufficient information to document the natural attenuation capabilities in a system because it does not distinguish between strains of organisms that have different biodegradation capabilities. The results of the investigations provided evidence that tools focusing on relevant enzymes for functionally desired characteristics may be useful adjuncts to the 16SrRNA methods.

  4. Advances in projection of climate change impacts using supervised nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Burn, Donald H.; Yang, Ge; Ghodsi, Ali

    2016-05-01

    One of the main challenges in climate change studies is accurate projection of the global warming impacts on the probabilistic behaviour of hydro-climate processes. Due to the complexity of climate-associated processes, identification of predictor variables from high dimensional atmospheric variables is considered a key factor for improvement of climate change projections in statistical downscaling approaches. For this purpose, the present paper adopts a new approach of supervised dimensionality reduction, which is called "Supervised Principal Component Analysis (Supervised PCA)" to regression-based statistical downscaling. This method is a generalization of PCA, extracting a sequence of principal components of atmospheric variables, which have maximal dependence on the response hydro-climate variable. To capture the nonlinear variability between hydro-climatic response variables and projectors, a kernelized version of Supervised PCA is also applied for nonlinear dimensionality reduction. The effectiveness of the Supervised PCA methods in comparison with some state-of-the-art algorithms for dimensionality reduction is evaluated in relation to the statistical downscaling process of precipitation in a specific site using two soft computing nonlinear machine learning methods, Support Vector Regression and Relevance Vector Machine. The results demonstrate a significant improvement over Supervised PCA methods in terms of performance accuracy.

  5. PROCEEDINGS: THE 1991 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RADON AND RADON REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY - VOLUME 3: SYMPOSIUM PANEL/POSTER PAPERS: SESSIONS I THROUGH V

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings, in four volumes, document the 1991 International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, held in Philadelphia, PA, April 2-5, 1991. n all, 65 oral papers (including the welcome address, the lead address, and the keynote address), 14 panel session paper...

  6. Basic EMC (Electromagnetic compatibility) technology advancement for C3 (Command, control, and communications) systems. Volume 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, D.; Paul, C. R.; Whalen, J.

    1985-04-01

    This research effort was devoted to eliminating some of the basic technological gaps in the two important areas of: (1) electromagnetic effects (EM) on microelectronic circuits and (2) EM coupling and testing. The results are presented in fourteen reports which have been organized into six volumes. The reports are briefly summarized in this volume. In addition, an experiment is described which was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of applying several of the results to a problem involving electromagnetic interference. Specifically, experimental results are provided for the randomness associated with: (1) crosstalk in cable harnesses and (2) demodulation of amplitude modulated (AM) signals in operational amplifiers. These results are combined to predict candidate probability density functions (pdf's) for the amplitude of an AM interfering signal required to turn on a light emitting diode. The candidate pdf's are shown to be statistically consistent with measured data.

  7. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  8. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.

  9. An experimental study of dynamic stall on advanced airfoil sections. Volume 1: Summary of the experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccroskey, W. J.; Mcalister, K. W.; Carr, L. W.; Pucci, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The static and dynamic characteristics of seven helicopter sections and a fixed-wing supercritical airfoil were investigated over a wide range of nominally two dimensional flow conditions, at Mach numbers up to 0.30 and Reynolds numbers up to 4 x 10 to the 6th power. Details of the experiment, estimates of measurement accuracy, and test conditions are described in this volume (the first of three volumes). Representative results are also presented and comparisons are made with data from other sources. The complete results for pressure distributions, forces, pitching moments, and boundary-layer separation and reattachment characteristics are available in graphical form in volumes 2 and 3. The results of the experiment show important differences between airfoils, which would otherwise tend to be masked by differences in wind tunnels, particularly in steady cases. All of the airfoils tested provide significant advantages over the conventional NACA 0012 profile. In general, however, the parameters of the unsteady motion appear to be more important than airfoil shape in determining the dynamic-stall airloads.

  10. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  11. Defectivity and particle reduction for mask life extension, and imprint mask replication for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emoto, Keiji; Sakai, Fumio; Sato, Chiaki; Takabayashi, Yukio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Takabayashi, Tsuneo; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Hattori, Tadashi; Hiura, Mitsuru; Ando, Toshiaki; Kawanobe, Yoshio; Azuma, Hisanobu; Iwanaga, Takehiko; Choi, Jin; Aghili, Ali; Jones, Chris; Irving, J. W.; Fletcher, Brian; Ye, Zhengmao

    2016-03-01

    Imprint lithography has been shown to be an effective technique for replication of nano-scale features. Jet and Flash* Imprint Lithography (J-FIL*) involves the field-by-field deposition and exposure of a low viscosity resist deposited by jetting technology onto the substrate. The patterned mask is lowered into the fluid which then quickly flows into the relief patterns in the mask by capillary action. Following this filling step, the resist is crosslinked under UV radiation, and then the mask is removed, leaving a patterned resist on the substrate. Criteria specific to any lithographic process for the semiconductor industry include overlay, throughput and defectivity. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology advancements made in the reduction of particle adders in an imprint tool and introduce the new mask replication tool that will enable the fabrication of replica masks with added residual image placement errors suitable for memory devices with half pitches smaller than 15nm. Hard particles on a wafer or mask create the possibility of creating a permanent defect on the mask that can impact device yield and mask life. By using material methods to reduce particle shedding and by introducing an air curtain system, test stand results demonstrate the potential for extending mask life to better than 1000 wafers. Additionally, a new replication tool, the FPA-1100 NR2 is introduced. Mask chuck flatness simulation results were also performed and demonstrate that residual image placement errors can be reduced to as little as 1nm.

  12. Isotope separation and advanced manufacturing technology. Volume 2, No. 2, Semiannual report, April--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Tehmanu; Carpenter, J.

    1993-12-31

    This is the second issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives of the ISAM Program include: the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) process, and advanced manufacturing technologies which include industrial laser materials processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. Topics included in this issue are: production plant product system conceptual design, development and operation of a solid-state switch for thyratron replacement, high-performance optical components for high average power laser systems, use of diode laser absorption spectroscopy for control of uranium vaporization rates, a two-dimensional time dependent hydrodynamical ion extraction model, and design of a formaldehyde photodissociation process for carbon and oxygen isotope separation.

  13. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    Technology readiness and development trends are discussed for three advanced power generation systems: combined cycle gas turbine, fuel cells, and magnetohydrodynamics. Power plants using these technologies are described and their performance either utilizing a medium-Btu coal derived fuel supplied by pipeline from a large central coal gasification facility or integrated with a gasification facility for supplying medium-Btu fuel gas is assessed.

  14. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovil, D. V.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Desper, O. E.; Jamison, E. S.; Syder, H.

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, analysis, and testing activities and results that were required to produce five and one-half shipsets of advanced composite elevators for Boeing 727 aircraft are summarized. During the preliminary design period, alternative concepts were developed. After selection of the best design, detail design and basic configuration improvements were evaluated. Five and one-half shipsets were manufactured. All program goals (except competitive cost demonstration) were accomplished when our design met or exceeded all requirements, criteria, and objectives.

  15. Analysis of advanced programs (Study 2.3). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of advanced programs for space missions is presented. The subjects discussed are (1) alternate space shuttle configurations, (2) space transportation systems, (3) computer programs and methodology to estimate program cost implications of space vehicle program uncertainties, (4) vehicle synthesis program, (5) relative effectiveness of various proposals for space vehicles, and (6) cost analysis of solid propellant rocket engine program to support space shuttle vehicle.

  16. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  17. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 2, book 4: Integrated advanced technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) program provides both an opportunity and a requirement to increase our upper stage capabilities with the development and applications of new technologies. Issues such as man rating, space basing, reusability, and long lunar surface storage times drive the need for new technology developments and applications. In addition, satisfaction of mission requirements such as lunar cargo delivery capability and lunar landing either require new technology development or can be achieved in a more cost-effective manner with judicious applications of advanced technology. During the STV study, advanced technology development requirements and plans have been addressed by the Technology/Advanced Development Working Group composed of NASA and contractor representatives. This report discusses the results to date of this working group. The first section gives an overview of the technologies that have potential or required applications for the STV and identifies those technologies baselined for the STV. Figures are provided that list the technology categories and show the priority placed on those technology categories for either the space-based or ground-based options. The second section covers the plans and schedules for incorporating the technologies into the STV program.

  18. FY05-FY06 Advanced Simulation and Computing Implementation Plan, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, A L

    2004-07-19

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program will require the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapon design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile life extension programs and the resolution of significant finding investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced system of technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions.

  19. Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet

    PubMed Central

    URIBARRI, JAIME; WOODRUFF, SANDRA; GOODMAN, SUSAN; CAI, WEIJING; CHEN, XUE; PYZIK, RENATA; YONG, ANGIE; STRIKER, GARY E.; VLASSARA, HELEN

    2013-01-01

    Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands the available dAGE database, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE formation, and introduces practical approaches for reducing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to reduce dAGE intake. PMID:20497781

  20. Advanced glycation end products in foods and a practical guide to their reduction in the diet.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, Jaime; Woodruff, Sandra; Goodman, Susan; Cai, Weijing; Chen, Xue; Pyzik, Renata; Yong, Angie; Striker, Gary E; Vlassara, Helen

    2010-06-01

    Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This report significantly expands the available dAGE database, validates the dAGE testing methodology, compares cooking procedures and inhibitory agents on new dAGE formation, and introduces practical approaches for reducing dAGE consumption in daily life. Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar. The new dAGE database provides a valuable instrument for estimating dAGE intake and for guiding food choices to reduce dAGE intake. PMID:20497781

  1. Evaluation of sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery efficiencies in a new advanced wastewater treatment system using denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Kondo, T; Nakagawa, K; Tsuneda, S; Hirata, A; Shimizu, Y; Inamori, Y

    2006-01-01

    A new biological nutrient removal process, anaerobic-oxic-anoxic (A/O/A) system using denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs), was proposed. To attain excess sludge reduction and phosphorus recovery, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation tank and phosphorus adsorption column was operated for 92 days, and water quality of the effluent, sludge reduction efficiency, and phosphorus recovery efficiency were evaluated. As a result, TOC, T-N and T-P removal efficiency were 85%, 70% and 85%, respectively, throughout the operating period. These slightly lower removal efficiencies than conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) processes were due to the unexpected microbial population in this system where DNPAOs were not the dominant group but normal polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) that could not utilize nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor became dominant. However, it was successfully demonstrated that 34-127% of sludge reduction and around 80% of phosphorus recovery were attained. In conclusion, the A/O/A system equipped with ozonation and phosphorus adsorption systems is useful as a new advanced wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to resolve the problems of increasing excess sludge and depleted phosphorus. PMID:16749446

  2. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This volume presents the Total Estimated Cost (TEC) for the WRAP (Waste Receiving and Processing) 2A facility. The TEC is $81.9 million, including an overall project contingency of 25% and escalation of 13%, based on a 1997 construction midpoint. (The mission of WRAP 2A is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage, and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford site from about 20 DOE sites.)

  3. Advanced Exploration Systems Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Trash-to-Gas and Heat Melt Compactor KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Layne, Andrew; Hummerick, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered: 1. Project Structure 2. "Trash to Gas" 3. "Smashing Trash! The Heat Melt Compactor" 4. "Heat Melt Compaction as an Effective Treatment for Eliminating Microorganisms from Solid Waste" Thermal degradation of trash reduces volume while creating water, carbon dioxide and ash. CO2 can be fed to Sabatier reactor for CH4 production to fuel LOX/LCH4 ascent vehicle. Optimal performance: HFWS, full temperature ramp to 500-600 C. Tar challenges exist. Catalysis: Dolomag did eliminate allene byproducts from the product stream. 2nd Gen Reactor Studies. Targeting power, mass, time efficiency. Gas separation, Catalysis to reduce tar formation. Microgravity effects. Downselect in August will determine where we should spend time optimizing the technology.

  4. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the red cell volume disorders.

    PubMed

    Badens, Catherine; Guizouarn, Hélène

    2016-09-01

    Genetic defects of erythrocyte transport proteins cause disorders of red blood cell volume that are characterized by abnormal permeability to the cations Na(+) and K(+) and, consequently, by changes in red cell hydration. Clinically, these disorders are associated with chronic haemolytic anaemia of variable severity and significant co-morbidities, such as iron overload. This review provides an overview of recent insights into the molecular basis of this group of rare anaemias involving cation channels and transporters dysfunction. To date, a total of 5 different membrane proteins have been reported to be responsible for volume homeostasis alteration when mutated, 3 of them leading to overhydrated cells (AE1 [also termed SLC4A1], RHAG and GLUT1 [also termed SCL2A1) and 2 others to dehydrated cells (PIEZO1 and the Gardos Channel). These findings are not only of basic scientific interest, but also of direct clinical significance for improving diagnostic procedures and identify potential approaches for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27353637

  6. The Impact of Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Emphysema on Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients With Severe COPD Assessed for Lung Volume Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Zoumot, Zaid; Nair, Arjun; Davey, Claire; Hansell, David M.; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is a pathophysiologic hallmark of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of emphysema distribution on DH during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe COPD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among severe COPD patients who underwent thoracic high-resolution computed tomography, full lung function measurements and maximal CPET with inspiratory manouvers as assessment for a lung volume reduction procedure. ΔIC was calculated by subtracting the end-exercise inspiratory capacity (eIC) from resting IC (rIC) and expressed as a percentage of rIC (ΔIC %). Emphysema quantification was conducted at 3 predefined levels using the syngo PULMO-CT (Siemens AG); a difference >25% between best and worse slice was defined as heterogeneous emphysema. Fifty patients with heterogeneous (62.7% male; 60.9 ± 7.5 years old; FEV1% = 32.4 ± 11.4) and 14 with homogeneous emphysema (61.5% male; 62.5 ± 5.9 years old; FEV1% = 28.1 ± 10.3) fulfilled the enrolment criteria. The groups were matched for all baseline variables. ΔIC% was significantly higher in homogeneous emphysema (39.8% ± 9.8% vs.31.2% ± 13%, p = 0.031), while no other CPET parameter differed between the groups. Upper lobe predominance of emphysema correlated positively with peak oxygen pulse, peak oxygen uptake and peak respiratory rate, and negatively with ΔIC%. Homogeneous emphysema is associated with more DH during maximum exercise in COPD patients. PMID:26398112

  7. The Impact of Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Emphysema on Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients With Severe COPD Assessed for Lung Volume Reduction.

    PubMed

    Boutou, Afroditi K; Zoumot, Zaid; Nair, Arjun; Davey, Claire; Hansell, David M; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is a pathophysiologic hallmark of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of emphysema distribution on DH during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe COPD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among severe COPD patients who underwent thoracic high-resolution computed tomography, full lung function measurements and maximal CPET with inspiratory manouvers as assessment for a lung volume reduction procedure. ΔIC was calculated by subtracting the end-exercise inspiratory capacity (eIC) from resting IC (rIC) and expressed as a percentage of rIC (ΔIC%). Emphysema quantification was conducted at 3 predefined levels using the syngo PULMO-CT (Siemens AG); a difference >25% between best and worse slice was defined as heterogeneous emphysema. Fifty patients with heterogeneous (62.7% male; 60.9 ± 7.5 years old; FEV1% = 32.4 ± 11.4) and 14 with homogeneous emphysema (61.5% male; 62.5 ± 5.9 years old; FEV1% = 28.1 ± 10.3) fulfilled the enrolment criteria. The groups were matched for all baseline variables. ΔIC% was significantly higher in homogeneous emphysema (39.8% ± 9.8% vs.31.2% ± 13%, p = 0.031), while no other CPET parameter differed between the groups. Upper lobe predominance of emphysema correlated positively with peak oxygen pulse, peak oxygen uptake and peak respiratory rate, and negatively with ΔIC%. Homogeneous emphysema is associated with more DH during maximum exercise in COPD patients. PMID:26398112

  8. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  9. Cement advanced furance component and system optimization. Volume 2. Final report, August 1989-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Schreder, M.

    1994-10-01

    The Gas Research Institute`s Cement Advanced Furnace (CAF) is a natural gas fired system that produces clinker from cement raw mix pellets in a single unit combining preheating, clinkeering and cooling. Phase I of the program investigated process fundamentals. Phase II has concentrated on proof-of-concept testing in a pilot plant system at Fuller Company`s Research and Development facility in Catasauqua, Pennsylvania. A series of ten pilot tests were conducted between February 1991 and April 1993. The results are reported in the report.

  10. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  11. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

  12. Advanced Monitoring of Trace Metals Applied to Contamination Reduction of Silicon Device Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillot, P.; Martin, C.; Planchais, A.

    2011-11-01

    The detrimental effects of metallic on certain key electrical parameters of silicon devices mandates the use of state-of-the-art characterization and metrology tools as well as appropriate control plans. Historically, this has been commonly achieved in-line on monitor wafers through a combination of Total Reflectance X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and post anneal Surface Photo Voltage (SPV). On the other hand, VPD (Vapor Phase Decomposition) combined with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry) or TXRF is known to provide both identification and quantification of surface trace metals at lower detection limits. Based on these considerations the description of an advanced monitoring scheme using SPV, TXRF and automated VPD ICP-MS is described.

  13. Materials for Advanced Turbine Engines. Volume 1; Power Metallurgy Rene 95 Rotating Turbine Engine Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfouts, W. R.; Shamblen, C. E.; Mosier, J. S.; Peebles, R. E.; Gorsler, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve methods for producing powder metallurgy aircraft gas turbine engine parts from the nickel base superalloy known as Rene 95. The parts produced were the high pressure turbine aft shaft for the CF6-50 engine and the stages 5 through 9 compressor disk forgings for the CFM56/F101 engines. A 50% cost reduction was achieved as compared to conventional cast and wrought processing practices. An integrated effort involving several powder producers and a major forging source were included.

  14. Wind-tunnel studies of advanced cargo aircraft concepts. [leading edge vortex flaps for drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments in vortex flap research are summarized. A singular feature of the vortex flap is that, throughout the range of angle of attack range, the flow type remains qualitatively unchanged. Accordingly, no large or sudden change in the aerodynamic characteristics, as happens when forcibly maintained attached flow suddenly reverts to separation, will occur with the vortex flap. Typical wind tunnel test data are presented which show the drag reduction potential of the vortex flap concept applied to a supersonic cruise airplane configuration. The new technology offers a means of aerodynamically augmenting roll-control effectiveness on slender wings at higher angles of attack by manipulating the vortex flow generated from leading edge separation. The proposed manipulator takes the form of a flap hinged at or close to the leading edge, normally retracted flush with the wing upper surface to conform to the airfoil shape.

  15. Evaluation of mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio in advanced stage endometriosis with endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Yavuzcan, Ali; Çağlar, Mete; Üstün, Yusuf; Dilbaz, Serdar; Özdemir, İsmail; Yıldız, Elif; Özkara, Atilla; Kumru, Selahattin

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared the preoperative values of mean platelet volume (MPV) and peripheral systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet/lymphocyte ratio) between patients with advanced-stage (stage 3/4) endometriosis having endometrioma (OMA) and patients with a non-neoplastic adnexal mass other than endometrioma (non-OMA). Material and Methods Patients who underwent operations with the pre-diagnosis of infertility or adnexal mass and who underwent laparoscopic tubal ligation were included. Results Haemoglobin levels, leucocyte count, platelet count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count were not significantly different between patients with advanced stage endometriosis having OMA, patients with non-OMA and patients in the control group (p=0.970, p=0.902, p=0.373, p=0.501 and p=0.463, respectively). Patients with stage 3/4 endometriosis having OMA, patients with non-OMA and control patients were also not significantly different in terms of MPV (p=0.836), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p=0.555) and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR) (p=0.358). Preoperative cancer antigen 125 (Ca-125) levels were significantly higher in patients with OMA (p=0.006). Mean size of the OMAs was significantly lower than non-OMAs (p=0.000). Conclusion It is very important to determine advanced stage endometriosis and OMAs during preoperative evaluation in order to inform patients and plan an appropriate surgical approach. We demonstrate that MPV, NLR and PLR values are not useful for this purpose in patients with advanced stage endometriosis that are proven to develop severe inflammation at either the cellular or molecular level. PMID:24592108

  16. Single stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 3: Acoustic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Mishler, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec). The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise is accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. Predicted unsuppressed and suppressed fore and aft maximum perceived noise levels indicate that the cutback condition is the most critical with respect to the goal, which is probably unattainable for that condition. This is also true for aft radiated noise in the approach condition.

  17. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  18. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 1: Aerodynamic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Younghans, J. L.; Little, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic design for a half-scale fan vehicle, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec 11,650 ft/sec). The fan and booster components are designed in a scale model flow size convenient for testing with existing facility and vehicle hardware. The design corrected flow per unit annulus area at the fan face is 215 kg/sec sq m (44.0 lb m/sec sq ft) with a hub-tip ratio of 0.38 at the leading edge of the fan rotor. This results in an inlet corrected airflow of 117.9 kg/sec (259.9 lb m/sec) for the selected rotor tip diameter if 90.37 cm (35.58 in.). The variable geometry inlet is designed utilizing a combination of high throat Mach number and acoustic treatment in the inlet diffuser for noise suppression (hybrid inlet). A variable fan exhaust nozzle was assumed in conjunction with the variable inlet throat area to limit the required area change of the inlet throat at approach and hence limit the overall diffusion and inlet length. The fan exit duct design was primarily influenced by acoustic requirements, including length of suppressor wall treatment; length, thickness and position on a duct splitter for additional suppressor treatment; and duct surface Mach numbers.

  19. Liquid hydrogen turbopump ALS advanced development program. Volume 1: Hot fire unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The interface criteria for the Turbopump Test article (TPA) and the Component Test Facility located at NASA, Stennis Space Center is defined by this interface Control Document (ICD). TPA ICD Volume 2 is submitted for the Cold Gas Drive Turbopump Test Article, which is generally similar but incorporates certain changes, particularly in fluid requirements and in instrumentation needs. For the purposes of this ICD, the test article consists of the Hot Fire Drive Turbopump mounted on its test cart, readied for installation in the component test facility. It should be emphasized that the LH2 turbopump program is still in its early concept design phase. Design of the turbopump, test cart, and spools are subject to revisions until successful conclusion of the Detail Design Review (DDR).

  20. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This ACDR was performed following completed of the Conceptual Design Report in July 1992; the work encompassed August 1992 to January 1994. Mission of the WRAP Module 2A facility is to receive, process, package, certify, and ship for permanent burial at the Hanford site disposal facilities the Category 1 and 3 contact handled low-level radioactive mixed wastes that are currently in retrievable storage at Hanford and are forecast to be generated over the next 30 years by Hanford, and waste to be shipped to Hanford from about DOE sites. This volume provides an introduction to the ACDR process and the scope of the task along with a project summary of the facility, treatment technologies, cost, and schedule. Major areas of departure from the CDR are highlighted. Descriptions of the facility layout and operations are included.

  1. NiAl-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan (Inventor); Whittenbeger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 to 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAlY, and FeAl.

  2. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B

    2009-06-08

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that

  3. Advanced Simulation & Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Perry, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2008-04-30

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  4. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan Volume 2 Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M; Kusnezov, D; Bikkel, T; Hopson, J

    2007-04-25

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  5. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, L

    2009-04-01

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one that

  6. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Hopson, J; Peery, J; McCoy, M

    2008-10-07

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from one

  7. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY08-09 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnezov, D; Bickel, T; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2007-09-13

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC)1 is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from

  8. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-FY11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Peery, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2009-09-08

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the surety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future non-nuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering (D&E) programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program requires the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable stockpile Life Extension Programs (LEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation environment while maintaining support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model

  9. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY07-08 Implementation Plan Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnezov, D; Hale, A; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2006-06-22

    The Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is a single, highly integrated technical program for maintaining the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile. The SSP uses past nuclear test data along with current and future nonnuclear test data, computational modeling and simulation, and experimental facilities to advance understanding of nuclear weapons. It includes stockpile surveillance, experimental research, development and engineering programs, and an appropriately scaled production capability to support stockpile requirements. This integrated national program will require the continued use of current facilities and programs along with new experimental facilities and computational enhancements to support these programs. The Advanced Simulation and Computing Program (ASC) is a cornerstone of the SSP, providing simulation capabilities and computational resources to support the annual stockpile assessment and certification, to study advanced nuclear-weapons design and manufacturing processes, to analyze accident scenarios and weapons aging, and to provide the tools to enable Stockpile Life Extension Programs (SLEPs) and the resolution of Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs). This requires a balanced resource, including technical staff, hardware, simulation software, and computer science solutions. In its first decade, the ASC strategy focused on demonstrating simulation capabilities of unprecedented scale in three spatial dimensions. In its second decade, ASC is focused on increasing its predictive capabilities in a three-dimensional simulation environment while maintaining the support to the SSP. The program continues to improve its unique tools for solving progressively more difficult stockpile problems (focused on sufficient resolution, dimensionality and scientific details); to quantify critical margins and uncertainties (QMU); and to resolve increasingly difficult analyses needed for the SSP. Moreover, ASC has restructured its business model from

  10. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing

  11. Advanced space power requirements and techniques. Task 1: Mission projections and requirements. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop projections of the NASA, DoD, and civil space power requirements for the 1980-1995 time period; (2) identify specific areas of application and space power subsystem type needs for each prospective user; (3) document the supporting and historical base, including relevant cost related measures of performance; and (4) quantify the benefits of specific technology projection advancements. The initial scope of the study included: (1) construction of likely models for NASA, DoD, and civil space systems; (2) generation of a number of future scenarios; (3) extraction of time phased technology requirements based on the scenarios; and (4) cost/benefit analyses of some of the technologies identified.

  12. Space architecture monograph series. Volume 4: Genesis 2: Advanced lunar outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fieber, Joseph P.; Huebner-Moths, Janis; Paruleski, Kerry L.; Moore, Gary T. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This research and design study investigated advanced lunar habitats for astronauts and mission specialists on the Earth's moon. Design recommendations are based on environmental response to the lunar environment, human habitability (human factors and environmental behavior research), transportability (structural and materials system with least mass), constructability (minimizing extravehicular time), construction dependability and resilience, and suitability for NASA launch research missions in the 21st century. The recommended design uses lunar lava tubes, with construction being a combination of Space Station Freedom derived hard modules and light weight Kevlar laminate inflatable structures. The proposed habitat includes research labs and a biotron, crew quarters and crew support facility, mission control, health maintenance facility, maintenance work areas for psychological retreat, privacy, and comtemplation. Furniture, specialized equipment, and lighting are included in the analysis and design. Drawings include base master plans, construction sequencing, overall architectural configuration, detailed floor plans, sections and axonometrics, with interior perspectives.

  13. Cement advanced furnace component and system optimization. Volume 1. Final report, August 1989-April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, K.; Chatwani, A.; Litka, A.

    1994-10-01

    Research and development of the Cement Advanced Furnace (CAF) vertical shaft kiln has been performed under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute and Southern California Gas Co. by Textron Defense Systems and Fuller Co. The CAF represents a low cost, energy efficient, very low polluting alternative to traditional rotary kilns for the production of Portland and specialty cements. The testing program has resulted in the development of an integrated shaft furnace that has produced clinker in a pilot plant at rates up to 2200 lb/hr. The unit can be scaled to commercial sizes with the aid of a mathematical model of the equipment and process developed as part of this effort. Cement produced in this program is as strong as, but easier to grind than, cement produced in conventional rotary kilns. Polluting emissions from the CAF are lower than from conventional cement processing equipment by virtue of the use of natural gas as fuel and a low combustion temperature.

  14. Space Shuttle 2 Advanced Space Transportation System. Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adinaro, James N.; Benefield, Philip A.; Johnson, Shelby D.; Knight, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the feasibility of establishing a second generation space transportation system is summarized. Incorporating successful systems from the Space Shuttle and technological advances made since its conception, the second generation shuttle was designed to be a lower-cost, reliable system which would guarantee access to space well into the next century. A fully reusable, all-liquid propellant booster/orbiter combination using parallel burn was selected as the base configuration. Vehicle characteristics were determined from NASA ground rules and optimization evaluations. The launch profile was constructed from particulars of the vehicle design and known orbital requirements. A stability and control analysis was performed for the landing phase of the orbiter's flight. Finally, a preliminary safety analysis was performed to indicate possible failure modes and consequences.

  15. Advanced light source technologies that enable high-volume manufacturing of DUV lithography extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacouris, Theodore; Rao, Rajasekhar; Rokitski, Rostislav; Jiang, Rui; Melchior, John; Burfeindt, Bernd; O'Brien, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Deep UV (DUV) lithography is being applied to pattern increasingly finer geometries, leading to solutions like double- and multiple-patterning. Such process complexities lead to higher costs due to the increasing number of steps required to produce the desired results. One of the consequences is that the lithography equipment needs to provide higher operating efficiencies to minimize the cost increases, especially for producers of memory devices that experience a rapid decline in sales prices of these products over time. In addition to having introduced higher power 193nm light sources to enable higher throughput, we previously described technologies that also enable: higher tool availability via advanced discharge chamber gas management algorithms; improved process monitoring via enhanced on-board beam metrology; and increased depth of focus (DOF) via light source bandwidth modulation. In this paper we will report on the field performance of these technologies with data that supports the desired improvements in on-wafer performance and operational efficiencies.

  16. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  17. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 3: Summary report - dual mode propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of dual-mode propulsion on cost-effective technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems is considered. Additional objectives were to determine the advantages of the best dual mode concept relative to the LO2/LH2 concept of the basic study. Normal technology requirements applicable to horizontal take-off and landing single-stage-to-orbit systems utilizing dual mode rocket propulsion were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle parametric design analysis for two different operational concepts of a dual mode propulsion system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were compared. The selected propulsion concept was evaluated to confirm the parametric trending/scaling of weights and to optimize the configuration.

  18. Advanced study of global oceanographic requirements for EOS A/B: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the ocean are considered in terms of U.S. social, scientific and ecomomic priorities and in terms of the measurements that can best be made from a spacecraft. The kinds of information needed to advance the basic ocean sciences, to improve marine transportation and fisheries operations, and to provide information for pollution control are discussed. These information needs were related to sensor concepts and an optimum sensor complement is presented, together with orbital considerations. The data-gathering capabilities of an oceanographic spacecraft were considered in relation to those of terrestrial oceanographic programs, using airborne, surface, and submarine platforms. Data management problems are discussed and are considered to be solvable with current technology.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems, Volume 1: Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This is the first annual technical progress report for The Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems Program. Two semi-annual technical progress reports were previously issued. This program was initially by the Department of Energy as an R D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular three-stage slagging combustor concept. Fuel-rich conditions inhibit NO/sub x/ formation from fuel nitrogen in the first stage; coal ash and sulfur is subsequently removed from the combustion gases by an impact separator in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage. 27 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. CD bias reduction in CD-SEM linewidth measurements for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Maki; Meessen, Jeroen; Shishido, Chie; Watanabe, Kenji; Minnaert-Janssen, Ingrid; Vanoppen, Peter

    2008-03-01

    The linewidth measurement capability of the model-based library (MBL) matching technique was evaluated experimentally. This technique estimates the dimensions and shape of a target pattern by comparing a measured SEM image profile to a library of simulated line scans. The simulation model uses a non-linear least squares method to estimate pattern geometry parameters. To examine the application of MBL matching in an advanced lithography process, a focus-exposure matrix wafer was prepared with a leading-edge immersion lithography tool. The evaluation used 36 sites with target structures having various linewidths from 45 to 200 nm. The measurement accuracy was evaluated by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) as a reference measurement system. The results of a first trial indicated that two or more solutions could exist in the parameter space in MBL matching. To solve this problem, we obtained a rough estimation of the scale parameter in SEM imaging, based on experimental results, in order to add a constraint in the matching process. As a result, the sensitivity to sidewall variation in MBL matching was improved, and the measurement bias was reduced from 22.1 to 16 nm. These results indicate the possibility of improving the CD measurement capability by applying this tool parameter appropriately.

  1. X-Ray Dose Reduction in Abdominal Computed Tomography Using Advanced Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peigang; Zhu, Shaocheng; Shi, Dapeng; Guo, Ying; Sun, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aims to explore the effects of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithms in reducing computed tomography (CT) radiation dosages in abdominal imaging. Methods CT scans on a standard male phantom were performed at different tube currents. Images at the different tube currents were reconstructed with the filtered back-projection (FBP), 50% ASiR and MBIR algorithms and compared. The CT value, image noise and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of the reconstructed abdominal images were measured. Volumetric CT dose indexes (CTDIvol) were recorded. Results At different tube currents, 50% ASiR and MBIR significantly reduced image noise and increased the CNR when compared with FBP. The minimal tube current values required by FBP, 50% ASiR, and MBIR to achieve acceptable image quality using this phantom were 200, 140, and 80 mA, respectively. At the identical image quality, 50% ASiR and MBIR reduced the radiation dose by 35.9% and 59.9% respectively when compared with FBP. Conclusions Advanced iterative reconstruction techniques are able to reduce image noise and increase image CNRs. Compared with FBP, 50% ASiR and MBIR reduced radiation doses by 35.9% and 59.9%, respectively. PMID:24664174

  2. 2014 U.S. Offshore Wind Market Report: Industry Trends, Technology Advancement, and Cost Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Aaron; Stehly, Tyler; Walter Musial

    2015-09-29

    2015 has been an exciting year for the U.S. offshore wind market. After more than 15 years of development work, the U.S. has finally hit a crucial milestone; Deepwater Wind began construction on the 30 MW Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) in April. A number of other promising projects, however, have run into economic, legal, and political headwinds, generating much speculation about the future of the industry. This slow, and somewhat painful, start to the industry is not without precedent; each country in northern Europe began with pilot-scale, proof-of-concept projects before eventually moving to larger commercial scale installations. Now, after more than a decade of commercial experience, the European industry is set to achieve a new deployment record, with more than 4 GW expected to be commissioned in 2015, with demonstrable progress towards industry-wide cost reduction goals. DWW is leveraging 25 years of European deployment experience; the BIWF combines state-of-the-art technologies such as the Alstom 6 MW turbine with U.S. fabrication and installation competencies. The successful deployment of the BIWF will provide a concrete showcase that will illustrate the potential of offshore wind to contribute to state, regional, and federal goals for clean, reliable power and lasting economic development. It is expected that this initial project will launch the U.S. industry into a phase of commercial development that will position offshore wind to contribute significantly to the electric systems in coastal states by 2030.

  3. Boundary layer drag reduction research hypotheses derived from bio-inspired surface and recent advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuehao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jianshe

    2015-12-01

    Nature has supplied the inexhaustible resources for mankind, and at the same time, it has also progressively developed into the school for scientists and engineers. Through more than four billions years of rigorous and stringent evolution, different creatures in nature gradually exhibit their own special and fascinating biological functional surfaces. For example, sharkskin has the potential drag-reducing effect in turbulence, lotus leaf possesses the self-cleaning and anti-foiling function, gecko feet have the controllable super-adhesion surfaces, the flexible skin of dolphin can accelerate its swimming velocity. Great profits of applying biological functional surfaces in daily life, industry, transportation and agriculture have been achieved so far, and much attention from all over the world has been attracted and focused on this field. In this overview, the bio-inspired drag-reducing mechanism derived from sharkskin is explained and explored comprehensively from different aspects, and then the main applications in different fluid engineering are demonstrated in brief. This overview will inevitably improve the comprehension of the drag reduction mechanism of sharkskin surface and better understand the recent applications in fluid engineering. PMID:26348428

  4. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves for patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures (the BeLieVeR-HIFi trial): study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Davey, C; Zoumot, Z; Jordan, S; Carr, D H; Polkey, M I; Shah, P L; Hopkinson, N S

    2015-03-01

    Although lung volume reduction surgery improves survival in selected patients with emphysema, there has been ongoing interest in developing and evaluating bronchoscopic approaches to try to reduce lung volumes with less morbidity and mortality. The placement of endobronchial valves is one such technique, and although some patients have had a significant improvement, responses have been inconsistent because collateral ventilation prevents lobar atelectasis. We describe the protocol of a trial (ISRCTN04761234) aimed to show that a responder phenotype, patients with heterogeneous emphysema and intact interlobar fissures on CT scanning, can be identified prospectively, leading to a consistent benefit in clinical practice. PMID:24664535

  5. NASA Glenn's Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Supported the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project's Emissions Reduction Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltran, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustor Rig (ASCR) is NASA Glenn Research Center's unique high-pressure, high-temperature combustor facility supporting the emissions reduction element of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The facility can simulate combustor inlet test conditions up to a pressure of 900 psig and a temperature of 1200 F (non-vitiated). ASCR completed three sector tests in fiscal year 2003 for General Electric, Pratt & Whitney, and Rolls-Royce North America. This will provide NASA and U.S. engine manufacturers the information necessary to develop future low-emission combustors and will help them to better understand durability and operability at these high pressures and temperatures.

  6. Clinical Factors Associated With Seroma Volume Reduction in Breast-Conserving Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tzu-I J.; Elkhuizen, Paula H.M.; Minkema, Danny; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Mourik, Anke M. van; Cassee, Jorien; Hurkmans, Coen; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To correlate clinical factors with seroma volume and reduction; and to determine whether cone-beam CT (CBCT) could be used clinically to monitor seroma reduction. Patients and Methods: This investigation included 102 women from five institutions with stage T1-2 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Two CT scans were acquired: the planning CT (CT1) and a second CT (CT2) during radiotherapy (RT). Seroma was contoured on all scans, and correlations between seroma characteristics and clinical factors were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. In a substudy, 10 of the 102 patients received multiple CBCT scans during RT. Seroma were contoured by two observers in the substudy. Fifteen time points at which CT and CBCT were performed within 2 days were identified. The levels of correlation in seroma contours between CBCT and CT and between the two observers were examined. Results: The mean relative seroma reduction from CT1 to CT2 was 54% (p < 0.001). A significant inverse relationship was found between relative seroma reduction per week and number of RT fractions given by univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.01, 0.03). The mean difference in contoured seroma volumes between CT and CBCT was 12% (3.3 cm{sup 3}). When assessing the relative difference in seroma contours between Observer 1 and Observer 2, an interobserver difference of 12% was demonstrated. Neither discrepancy was clinically significant. Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to hinder seroma reduction. Volume discrepancies between CBCT and CT were minor, with low interobserver variation, indicating that CBCT might be useful in monitoring seroma reduction.

  7. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (p<0.05) were used to test for differences in muscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW

  8. Advances in fatigue crack closure measurement and analysis: Second volume. ASTM special technical publication 1343

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.C.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure by Elber was truly a landmark event in the study of fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the development of practical engineering methods for fatigue life management. Subsequent research identified other contributing mechanisms for crack closure, including crack surface roughness and oxide debris. Fatigue crack closure is now understood to be an intrinsic feature of crack growth behavior that must be considered to understand or treat many FCG problems, although closure may not be an issue in all problems and does not always provide a complete explanation of crack growth behavior. As the thirtieth anniversary of the Elber discovery approached, the strong, continuing international interest in crack closure prompted the organization of another ASTM symposium. An international audience numbering over sixty-five persons heard thirty papers contributed by authors from twelve different countries, with more than half of the papers originating from outside the United States. This STP volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts for twenty-seven of those presentations, plus one peer-reviewed paper that could not be presented at the symposium. Topics covered are: Fundamental Studies; Experimental Characterization of Closure; Load History Effects; Surface Roughness Effects; and Closure Effects on Crack Behavior. Separate abstracts were prepared for all 28 papers.

  9. Nial-base composite containing high volume fraction of AlN for advanced engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G. (Inventor); Whittenberger, John D. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy has a NiAl matrix and greater than about 13 volume percent fine particles of AlN within the matrix. The particles preferably have a diameter from about 15 nanometers to about 50 nanometers. The particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy may be prepared by cryomilling prealloyed NiAl in liquid nitrogen using grinding media having a diameter of from about 2 mm to about 6 mm at an impeller speed of from about 450 RPM to about 800 RPM. The cryomilling may be done for a duration of from about 4 hours to about 20 hours to obtain a cryomilled powder. The cryomilled powder may be consolidated to form the particulate reinforced NiAl-AlN composite alloy. The particulate reinforced alloy can further include a toughening alloy. The toughening alloy may include NiCrAlY, FeCrAY and FeAl.

  10. Advancement of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Using GRAPPA Reconstruction on a 3D Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Tony

    The overall objective of this research is to improve currently available metabolic imaging techniques for clinical use in monitoring and predicting treatment response to radiation therapy in liver cancer. Liver metabolism correlates with inflammatory and neoplastic liver diseases, which alter the intracellular concentration of phosphorus- 31 (31P) metabolites [1]. It is assumed that such metabolic changes occur prior to physical changes of the tissue. Therefore, information on regional changes of 31P metabolites in the liver, obtained by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) [1,2], can help in diagnosis and follow-up of various liver diseases. Specifically, there appears to be an immediate need of this technology for both the assessment of tumor response in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) [3--5], as well as assessment of radiation toxicity, which can result in worsening liver dysfunction [6]. Pilot data from our lab has shown that 31P MRSI has the potential to identify treatment response five months sooner than conventional methods [7], and to assess the biological response of liver tissue to radiation 24 hours post radiation therapy [8]. While this data is very promising, commonly occurring drawbacks for 31P MRSI are patient discomfort due to long scan times and prone positioning within the scanner, as well as reduced data quality due to patient motion and respiration. To further advance the full potential of 31P MRSI as a clinical diagnostic tool in the management of liver cancer, this PhD research project had the following aims: I) Reduce the long acquisition time of 3D 31P MRS by formulating and imple- menting an appropriate GRAPPA undersampling scheme and reconstruction on a clinical MRI scanner II) Testing and quantitative validation of GRAPPA reconstruction on 3D 31P MRSI on developmental phantoms and healthy volunteers At completion, this work should considerably advance 31P MRSI

  11. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas. PMID:25149446

  12. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  13. Advanced Platform Systems Technology study. Volume 2: Trade study and technology selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary tasks were identified which include task 1-trade studies, task 2-trade study comparison and technology selection, and task 3-technology definition. Task 1 general objectives were to identify candidate technology trade areas, determine which areas have the highest potential payoff, define specific trades within the high payoff areas, and perform the trade studies. In order to satisfy these objectives, a structured, organized approach was employed. Candidate technology areas and specific trades were screened using consistent selection criteria and considering possible interrelationships. A data base comprising both manned and unmanned space platform documentation was used as a source of system and subsystem requirements. When requirements were not stated in the data base documentation, assumptions were made and recorded where necessary to characterize a particular spacecraft system. The requirements and assumptions were used together with the selection criteria to establish technology advancement goals and select trade studies. While both manned and unmanned platform data were used, the study was focused on the concept of an early manned space station.

  14. Biconic cargo return vehicle with an advanced recovery system. Volume 1: Conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The conceptual design of the biconic Cargo Return Vehicle (CRV) is presented. The CRV will be able to meet all of the Space Station Freedom (SSF's) resupply needs. Worth note is the absence of a backup recovery chute in case of Advanced Recovery System (ARS) failure. The high reliability of ram-air parachutes does not warrant the penalty weight that such a system would create on successful missions. The CRV will launch vertically integrated with an Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) vehicle and meets all NASA restrictions on fuel type for all phases of the mission. Because of the downscaled Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) program, the CRV has been designed to be able to transfer cargo by docking directly to the Space Station Freedom as well as with OMV assistance. The CRV will cover enough crossrange to reach its primary landing site, Edwards Airforce Base, and all secondary landing sites with the exception of one orbit. Transportation back to KSC will be via the Boeing Super Guppy. Due to difficulties with man-rating the CRV, it will not be used in a CERV role. A brief summary of the CRV's specifications is given.

  15. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. Volume 2: Aerodynamic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harley, K. G.; Odegard, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data from static tests of a two-stage advanced technology fan designed to minimize noise are presented. Fan design conditions include delivery of 209.1kg/sec/sq m (42.85 lbm/sec/sq ft) specific corrected flow at an overall pressure ratio of 1.9 and an adiabatic efficiency of 85.3 percent. The 0.836m (2.74ft) diameter first stage rotor has a hub/tip ratio of 0.4 and 365.8m/sec (1200ft/sec) design tip speed. In addition to the moderate tip speed and pressure rise per stage, other noise control design features involve widely spaced blade rows and proper selection of blade-vane ratios. Aerodynamic data are presented for tests with unifrom and with hub and tip radially distorted inlet flow. Aerodynamic data are also presented for tests of this fan with acoustic treatments, including acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic ring, and a translating centerbody sonic inlet device. A complete tabulation of the overall performance data, the blade element data, and the power spectral density information relating to turbulence levels generated by the sonic inlet obtained during these tests is included. For vol. 1, see N74-33789.

  16. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  17. Applications study of advanced power generation systems utilizing coal-derived fuels. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1981-03-01

    The technology status of phosphoric acid and molten carbon fuel cells, combined gas and steam turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion systems was assessed and the power performance of these systems when operating with medium-Btu fuel gas whether delivered by pipeline to the power plant or in an integrated mode in which the coal gasification process and power system are closely coupled as an overall power plant was evaluated. Commercially available combined-cycle gas turbine systems can reach projected required performance levels for advanced systems using currently available technology. The phosphoric acid fuel cell appears to be the next most likely candidate for commercialization. On pipeline delivery, the systems efficiency ranges from 40.9% for the phosphoric acid fuel cell to 63% for the molten carbonate fuel cell system. The efficiencies of the integrated power plants vary from approximately 39-40% for the combined cycle to 46-47% for the molden carbonate fuel cell systems. Conventional coal-fired steam stations with flue-gas desulfurization have only 33-35% efficiency.

  18. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to define requirements for an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is for engineering studies in the area of mission associated vehicle handling qualities. Principally a technology survey and assessment of existing and proposed simulator visual display systems, image generation systems, modular cab designs, and simulator control station designs were performed and are discussed. State of the art survey data were used to synthesize a set of preliminary visual display system concepts of which five candidate display configurations were selected for further evaluation. Basic display concepts incorporated in these configurations included: real image projection, using either periscopes, fiber optic bundles, or scanned laser optics; and virtual imaging with helmet mounted displays. These display concepts were integrated in the study with a simulator cab concept employing a modular base for aircraft controls, crew seating, and instrumentation (or other) displays. A simple concept to induce vibration in the various modules was developed and is described. Results of evaluations and trade offs related to the candidate system concepts are given, along with a suggested weighting scheme for numerically comparing visual system performance characteristics.

  19. NiAl-Base Composite Containing High Volume Fraction of AIN Particulate for Advanced Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Lowell, C. E.; Garg, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cryomilling of prealloyed NiAl containing 53 at. % AJ was carried out to achieve high nitrogen levels. The consolidation of cryomilled powder by extrusion or hot pressing/ hot isostatic pressing resulted in a fully dense NiAl-base composite containing 30 vol. % of inhomogeneously distributed, nanosized AIN particulate. The NiAl-30AIN composite exhibited the highest compression yield strengths at all temperatures between 300 and 1300 K as compared with other compositions of NiAl-AIN composite. The NiAl-30AIN specimens tested under compressive creep loading between 1300 and 1500 K also exhibited the highest creep resistance with very little surface oxidation indicating also their superior elevated temperature oxidation resistance. In the high stress exponent regime, the strength is proportional to the square root of the AIN content and in the low stress exponent regime, the influence of AIN content on strength appears to be less dramatic. The specific creep strength of this material at 1300 K is superior to a first generation Ni-base single crystal superalloy. The improvements in elevated temperature creep strength and oxidation resistance have been achieved without sacrificing the room temperature fracture toughness of the NiAl-base material. Based on its attractive combination of properties, the NiAl-30AIN composite is a potential candidate for advanced engine applications,

  20. Acoustic Treatment Design Scaling Methods. Volume 2; Advanced Treatment Impedance Models for High Frequency Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.; Yu, J.; Kwan, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to develop improved models for the acoustic impedance of treatment panels at high frequencies, for application to subscale treatment designs. Effects that cause significant deviation of the impedance from simple geometric scaling are examined in detail, an improved high-frequency impedance model is developed, and the improved model is correlated with high-frequency impedance measurements. Only single-degree-of-freedom honeycomb sandwich resonator panels with either perforated sheet or "linear" wiremesh faceplates are considered. The objective is to understand those effects that cause the simple single-degree-of- freedom resonator panels to deviate at the higher-scaled frequency from the impedance that would be obtained at the corresponding full-scale frequency. This will allow the subscale panel to be designed to achieve a specified impedance spectrum over at least a limited range of frequencies. An advanced impedance prediction model has been developed that accounts for some of the known effects at high frequency that have previously been ignored as a small source of error for full-scale frequency ranges.

  1. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 27 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, San Diego, CA, August 11-14, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Applications of superconductivity are considered, taking into account MHD and fusion, generators, transformers, transmission lines, magnets for physics, cryogenic techniques, electrtronics, and aspects of magnet stability. Advances related to heat transfer in He I are discussed along with subjects related to theat transfer in He II, refrigeration of superconducting systems, refrigeration and liquefaction, dilution and magnetic refrigerators, refrigerators for space applications, mass transfer and flow phenomena, and the properties of fluids. Developments related to cryogenic applications are also explored, giving attention to bulk storage and transfer of cryogenic fluids, liquefied natural gas operations, space science and technology, and cryopumping. Topics related to cryogenic instrumentation and controls include the production and use of high grade silicon diode temperature sensors, the choice of strain gages for use in a large superconducting alternator, microprocessor control of cryogenic pressure, and instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction for a large spaceborne helium dewar.

  2. Feasibility study of advanced technology hov systems. Volume 4. Implementation of lateral control systems in transitways. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Chira-Chavala, T.; Zhang, W.B.; Walker, J.; Javandel, F.; Demsetz, L.

    1992-12-01

    Lateral guidance/control technologies are emerging advanced technologies that can be deployed independently to enhance traffic operation and safety. They can also be deployed in conjunction with longitudinal control systems to increase capacity of the transportation network. These capacity increases can occur because the use of lateral control may lead to reductions in the lane width requirement, which in turn allows additional lanes to be created within existing right-of-ways. This study investigates some issues concerning the implementation and impacts of lateral guidance/control systems. It proposes phased implementation of these systems, initially in exclusive-access high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) lanes. The rationale for focusing on these HOV lanes now is that implementation in such systems is likely to be less complex than that on multiple-lane freeways, and the implementation in HOV facilities appears to have its own merit from a policy standpoint.

  3. Limited microstructural and connectivity deficits despite subcortical volume reductions in school-aged children born preterm with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Sripada, Kam; Yendiki, Anastasia; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Østgård, Heidi Furre; Aanes, Synne; Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen; Løhaugen, Gro C; Eikenes, Live; Håberg, Asta K; Rimol, Lars M; Skranes, Jon

    2016-04-15

    Preterm birth and very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) are worldwide problems that burden survivors with lifelong cognitive, psychological, and physical challenges. In this multimodal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion MRI (dMRI) study, we investigated differences in subcortical brain volumes and white matter tract properties in children born preterm with VLBW compared to term-born controls (mean age=8 years). Subcortical brain structure volumes and cortical thickness estimates were obtained, and fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were generated for 18 white matter tracts. We also assessed structural relationships between white matter tracts and cortical thickness of the tract endpoints. Compared to controls, the VLBW group had reduced volumes of thalamus, globus pallidus, corpus callosum, cerebral white matter, ventral diencephalon, and brain stem, while the ventricular system was larger in VLBW subjects, after controlling for age, sex, IQ, and estimated total intracranial volume. For the dMRI parameters, group differences were not significant at the whole-tract level, though pointwise analysis found shorter segments affected in forceps minor and left superior longitudinal fasciculus - temporal bundle. IQ did not correlate with subcortical volumes or dMRI measures in the VLBW group. While the deviations in subcortical volumes were substantial, there were few differences in dMRI measures between the two groups, which may reflect the influence of advances in perinatal care on white matter development. PMID:26712340

  4. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Reduction in adipose tissue volume using a new high-power radiofrequency technology combined with infrared light and mechanical manipulation for body contouring.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Adatto-Neilson, Robyn M; Morren, Grietje

    2014-09-01

    A growing patient demand for a youthful skin appearance with a favorable body shape has led to the recent development of new noninvasive body contouring techniques. We have previously demonstrated that the combination of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and optical energies with tissue manipulation is an efficient reshaping modality. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new high-power version of this combined technology, in terms of adipose tissue reduction and skin tightening. Thirty-five patients received one treatment per week over 6 weeks to their abdomen/flank, buttock, or thigh areas and were followed up to 3 months post completion of the treatment protocol. This new device has an increased power in the bipolar RF, as this parameter appears to be the most important energy modality for volume reduction. Patient circumferences were measured and comparisons of baseline and post treatment outcomes were made. Diagnostic ultrasound (US) measurements were performed in 12 patients to evaluate the reduction in adipose tissue volume, and a cutometer device was used to assess improvements in skin tightening. We observed a gradual decline in patient circumferences from baseline to post six treatments. The overall body shaping effect was accompanied with improvement in skin tightening and was clearly noticeable in the comparison of the before and after treatment clinical photographs. These findings correlated with measurements of adipose tissue volume and skin firmness/elasticity using diagnostic US and cutometer, respectively. The thickness of the fat layer showed on average a 29% reduction between baseline and the 1-month follow up. The average reduction in the circumference of the abdomen/flanks, buttocks, and thighs from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was 1.4, 0.5, and 1.2 cm, respectively, and 93% of study participants demonstrated a 1-60% change in fat layer thickness. Patients subjectively described comfort and satisfaction from treatment, and 97% of

  6. Advanced Small Rocket Chambers. Option 3: 110 1Bf Ir-Re Rocket, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  7. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  8. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-part report that describes the AJ10-221, a high performance iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000 F) (2200 C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units were welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated which, when proven to be capable of withstanding launch vibration, is ready for

  9. Advanced small rocket chambers. Option 3: 110 1bf Ir-Re rocket, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassowski, Donald M.; Schoenman, Leonard

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the AJ10-221, a high performance Iridium-coated Rhenium (Ir-Re) 110 lbf (490N) welded rocket chamber with 286:1 area ratio nozzle. This engine was designed, built, and hot fired for over 6 hours on this program. It demonstrated an I(s) of 321.8 sec, which is 10 sec higher than conventional 110 lbf silicide coated Cb chambers now in use. The approach used in this portion of the program was to demonstrate the performance improvement that can be made by the elimination of fuel film cooling and the use of a high temperature (4000F) (2200C) iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) rocket chamber. Detailed thermal, performance, mechanical, and dynamic design analyses of the full engine were conducted by Aerojet. Two Ir-Re chambers were built to the Aerojet design by Ultramet, using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Incorporation of a secondary mixing device or Boundary Layer Trip (BLT) within the combustion chamber (Aerojet Patents 4882904 and 4936091) results in improvement in flow uniformity, and a significant life and performance increase. The 110 lbf engine design was verified in bolt-up hardware tests at sea level and altitude. The effects of injector design on performance were studied. Two duplicate injectors were fabricated matching the preferred design and were demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was fabricated matching the preferred design and was demonstrated to be interchangeable in operation. One of these units was welded into a flight type thruster which was tested for an accumulated duration of 22,590 sec in 93 firings, one of which was a continuous burn of two hours. A design deficiency in the C-103 nozzle near the Re-Cb transition joint was discovered, studied and corrected design has been prepared. Workhardening studies have been conducted to investigate methods for increasing the low yield strength of the Re in the annealed conditions. An advanced 490N high performance engine has been demonstrated

  10. Advanced Variance Reduction for Global k-Eigenvalue Simulations in MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Edward W. Larsen

    2008-06-01

    to the correlations between fission source estimates. In the new FMC method, the eigenvalue problem (expressed in terms of the Boltzmann equation) is integrated over the energy and direction variables. Then these equations are multiplied by J special "tent" functions in space and integrated over the spatial variable. This yields J equations that are exactly satisfied by the eigenvalue k and J space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction. Multiplying and dividing by suitable integrals of the eigenfunction, one obtains J algebraic equations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction, which contain nonlinear functionals that depend weakly on the eigenfunction. In the FMC method, information from the standard Monte Carlo solution for each active cycle is used to estimate the functionals, and at the end of each cycle the J equations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction are solved. Finally, these results are averaged over N active cycles to obtain estimated means and standard deviations for k and the space-angle-energy moments of the eigenfunction. Our limited testing shows that for large single fissile systems such as a commercial reactor core, (i) the FMC estimate of the eigenvalue is at least one order of magnitude more accurate than estimates obtained from the standard Monte Carlo approach, (ii) the FMC estimate of the eigenfunction converges and is several orders of magnitude more accurate than the standard estimate, and (iii) the FMC estimate of the standard deviation in k is at least one order of magnitude closer to the correct standard deviation than the standard estimate. These advances occur because: (i) the Monte Carlo estimates of the nonlinear functionals are much more accurate than the direct Monte Carlo estimates of the eigenfunction, (ii) the system of discrete equations that determines the FMC estimates of k is robust, and (iii) the functionals are only very weakly correlated between different fission

  11. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  12. SIGNIFICANCE OF SIZE REDUCTION IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT. VOLUME 3. EFFECTS OF MACHINE PARAMETERS ON SHREDDER PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hammermill shredders for size reduction of refuse were examined at three sites to determine the influence of key machine parameters on their performance. Internal machine configuration and single-versus two stage size reduction were studied. Key parameters that were investigated ...

  13. Facing "the Curse of Dimensionality": Image Fusion and Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction for Advanced Data Mining and Visualization of Astronomical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesenson, Meyer; Pesenson, I. Z.; McCollum, B.

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of multitemporal/multispectral astronomical data sets together with the approaching petascale of such datasets and large astronomical surveys require automated or semi-automated methods for knowledge discovery. Traditional statistical methods of analysis may break down not only because of the amount of data, but mostly because of the increase of the dimensionality of data. Image fusion (combining information from multiple sensors in order to create a composite enhanced image) and dimension reduction (finding lower-dimensional representation of high-dimensional data) are effective approaches to "the curse of dimensionality,” thus facilitating automated feature selection, classification and data segmentation. Dimension reduction methods greatly increase computational efficiency of machine learning algorithms, improve statistical inference and together with image fusion enable effective scientific visualization (as opposed to mere illustrative visualization). The main approach of this work utilizes recent advances in multidimensional image processing, as well as representation of essential structure of a data set in terms of its fundamental eigenfunctions, which are used as an orthonormal basis for the data visualization and analysis. We consider multidimensional data sets and images as manifolds or combinatorial graphs and construct variational splines that minimize certain Sobolev norms. These splines allow us to reconstruct the eigenfunctions of the combinatorial Laplace operator by using only a small portion of the graph. We use the first two or three eigenfunctions for embedding large data sets into two- or three-dimensional Euclidean space. Such reduced data sets allow efficient data organization, retrieval, analysis and visualization. We demonstrate applications of the algorithms to test cases from the Spitzer Space Telescope. This work was carried out with funding from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency University Research Initiative

  14. APFBC repowering could help meet Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction goals[Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, R.E.; Tonnemacher, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    The Clinton Administration signed the 1997 Kyoto Protocol agreement that would limit US greenhouse gas emissions, of which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the most significant. While the Kyoto Protocol has not yet been submitted to the Senate for ratification, in the past, there have been few proposed environmental actions that had continued and wide-spread attention of the press and environmental activists that did not eventually lead to regulation. Since the Kyoto Protocol might lead to future regulation, its implications need investigation by the power industry. Limiting CO{sub 2} emissions affects the ability of the US to generate reliable, low cost electricity, and has tremendous potential impact on electric generating companies with a significant investment in coal-fired generation, and on their customers. This paper explores the implications of reducing coal plant CO{sub 2} by various amounts. The amount of reduction for the US that is proposed in the Kyoto Protocol is huge. The Kyoto Protocol would commit the US to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions to 7% below 1990 levels. Since 1990, there has been significant growth in US population and the US economy driving carbon emissions 34% higher by year 2010. That means CO{sub 2} would have to be reduced by 30.9%, which is extremely difficult to accomplish. The paper tells why. There are, however, coal-based technologies that should be available in time to make significant reductions in coal-plant CO{sub 2} emissions. Th paper focuses on one plant repowering method that can reduce CO{sub 2} per kWh by 25%, advanced circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle (APFBC) technology, based on results from a recent APFBC repowering concept evaluation of the Carolina Power and Light Company's (CP and L) L.V. Sutton steam station. The replacement of the existing 50-year base of power generating units needed to meet proposed Kyoto Protocol CO{sub 2} reduction commitments would be a massive undertaking. It is

  15. Effects of dutasteride on lower urinary tract symptoms: a prospective analysis based on changes in testosterone/dihydrotestosterone levels and total prostatic volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Miyagi, Tohru; Nakashima, Takao; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed the effects of dutasteride on lower urinary tract symptoms based on the association between changes in the total testosterone (TT)/dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels and total prostate volume (TPV) reduction. Sixty participants diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia were given 0.5 mg of dutasteride daily for 52 weeks. Measures of TT and DHT levels, TPV and uroflowmetry were obtained before and after dutasteride treatment. Forty-three patients demonstrated a TPV reduction of ≥5% (Group 1), whereas the remaining 17 patients demonstrated a TPV reduction of <5% (Group 2). DHT suppression and DHT/TT ratio at baseline were significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2. International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS) and uroflowmetry were significantly improved in both groups. In Group 2, nine patients demonstrated some improvement in IPSS (Group 2A), whereas eight did not (Group 2B). The rate of TT increase and improvement in voiding symptoms were significantly higher in Group 2A than Group 2B. Dutasteride-induced TPV reduction is dependent on individual 5-α reductase inhibitor activity. Some patients demonstrating smaller dutasteride-induced TPV reduction may experience an improvement in voiding symptoms owing to an increased level of testosterone. PMID:26890877

  16. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  17. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A CRUDE-OIL HEATER USING STAGED AIR LANCES FOR NOX REDUCTION. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume of the report gives emission results from field tests of a crude-oil process heater burning a combination of oil and refinery gas. The heater had been modified by adding a system for injecting secondary air to reduce NOx emissions. One test was conducted with the stag...

  19. Reduction of Caudate Nucleus Volumes in Neuroleptic-Naïve Female Subjects with Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Min-Seong; Levitt, James J.; McCarley, Robert W.; Seidman, Larry J.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Voglmaier, Martina M.; Zamani, Payman; Long, Katherine R.; Kim, Sunnie S.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The caudate nucleus might contribute to the psychopathological and cognitive deficits observed in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Here we focused on female patients, because this group is underrepresented in studies of SPD and schizophrenia, and we might learn more about the caudate and clinical and cognitive impairments that are unique to female patients diagnosed with SPD. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging scans, obtained on a 1.5-T magnet with 1.5-mm contiguous slices, were used to measure the caudate in 32 neuroleptic-naïve women with SPD and in 29 female normal comparison subjects. Subjects were group-matched for age, parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence quotient. Results We found significantly reduced left and right caudate relative volume (8.3%, 7.7%) in female SPD subjects compared with normal comparison subjects. In female SPD subjects, we found significant correlations between smaller total caudate relative volume and worse performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (nonperseverative errors) and on the California Verbal Learning Test (verbal memory and learning), and significant correlations between smaller total caudate relative volume and both positive and negative symptoms on the Structured Interview for Schizotypy. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that, for female SPD subjects, smaller caudate volume is associated with poorer cognitive performance and more schizotypal symptomatology. PMID:16460694

  20. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction. Volume II. Early Implementation: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy-Thompson, M.; And Others

    This volume describes the experiences of each of the 15 rural and urban Healthy Start initiatives. These projects were set up in areas that had infant mortality rates that were 1.5 to 2.5 times the national average. Project locations include major cities such as Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, and rural areas in…

  1. The Healthy Start Initiative: A Community-Driven Approach to Infant Mortality Reduction. Volume IV: Community Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Debra, Ed.; Gwinner, Valerie, Ed.

    The Healthy Start Initiative is a national 5-year demonstration program that uses a broad range of community-driven, system development approaches to reduce infant mortality and improve the health and well-being of women, infants, children, and families. This volume, fourth in the series, deals with the topic of community outreach and is based on…

  2. HPA-axis function and grey matter volume reductions: imaging the diathesis-stress model in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Valli, I; Crossley, N A; Day, F; Stone, J; Tognin, S; Mondelli, V; Howes, O; Valmaggia, L; Pariante, C; McGuire, P

    2016-01-01

    The onset of psychosis is thought to involve interactions between environmental stressors and the brain, with cortisol as a putative mediator. We examined the relationship between the cortisol stress response and brain structure in subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Waking salivary cortisol was measured in 22 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 17 healthy controls. Grey matter volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. The relationship between the stress response and grey matter volume was investigated using voxel-based analyses. Our predictions of the topography of cortisol action as a structural brain modulator were informed by measures of brain glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptor distribution obtained from the multimodal neuroanatomical and genetic Allen Brain Atlas. Across all subjects, reduced responsivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was correlated with smaller grey matter volumes in the frontal, parietal and temporal cortex and in the hippocampus. This relationship was particularly marked in the UHR subjects in the right prefrontal, left parahippocampal/fusiform and parietal cortices. The subgroup that subsequently developed psychosis showed a significant blunting of HPA stress response, observed at trend level also in the whole UHR sample. Altered responses to stress in people at high risk of psychosis are related to reductions in grey matter volume in areas implicated in the vulnerability to psychotic disorders. These areas may represent the neural components of a stress vulnerability model. PMID:27138796

  3. Specificity of Compensatory Reserve and Tissue Oxygenation as Early Predictors of Tolerance to Progressive Reductions in Central Blood Volume.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Janak, Jud C; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen; Convertino, Victor A

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that measurements of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and the compensatory reserve index (CRI) provided earlier indication of reduced central blood volume than standard vital signs (e.g., blood pressure, heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation). In the present study, we hypothesized that the CRI would provide greater sensitivity and specificity to detect progressive decrease in central circulating blood volume compared with SmO2. Continuous noninvasive measures of CRI (calculated from feature changes in the photoplethysmographic arterial waveforms) were collected from 55 healthy volunteer subjects before and during stepwise lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to the onset of hemodynamic decompensation. Near infrared spectroscopy was used on the forearm to obtain deep SmO2, hydrogen ion concentration ([H]), and hemoglobin volume (HbT; decreases reflect vasoconstriction). CRI decreased by 97% in a linear fashion across progressive blood volume loss, with no clinically significant alterations in vital signs. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) for the CRI was 0.91, with a sensitivity of 0.87 and specificity of 0.80, when predicting decompensation at progressive levels of LBNP. In comparison, SmO2, [H], and HbT had significantly lower ROC AUC, sensitivity and specificity values for detecting the same outcome. Consistent with our hypothesis, CRI detected central hypovolemia with significantly greater specificity than measures of tissue metabolism. Single measurement of CRI may enable more accurate triage, while CRI monitoring may allow for earlier detection of casualty deterioration. PMID:27058052

  4. Application of Hollow Fiber Forward Osmosis Membranes for Produced and Process Water Volume Reduction: An Osmotic Concentration Process.

    PubMed

    Minier-Matar, Joel; Santos, Ana; Hussain, Altaf; Janson, Arnold; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Adham, Samer

    2016-06-01

    Produced and process water (PPW) from oil and gas operations, specifically in Qatar, are disposed of by deep well injection in onshore facilities. Disposing large volumes of PPW may affect deep well formation sustainability highlighting the need for effective PPW management. Forward osmosis (FO) was applied as an "osmotic concentration" process to reduce PPW injection volumes by 50% using brines and seawater as draw solutions (DS). The energy intensive step of restoring the salinity of the DS was eliminated; the diluted DS would be simply discharged to the ocean. Both hollow fiber and flat sheet FO membranes were tested and the former exhibited better flux and rejection; they are the focus of this study. Optimization experiments, conducted using Box-Behnken statistical design, confirmed that temperature and DS concentration had a substantial effect on performance. To validate the concept, a long-term experiment, under optimized conditions, was conducted with PPW as feed and brine from thermal desalination plant as DS which yielded an average flux of 24 L/m(2)h. The results confirmed that low-energy osmotic concentration FO has the potential for full-scale implementation to reduce PPW injection volumes. Pilot testing opportunities are being evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology under field conditions. PMID:27161935

  5. Early cerebral volume reductions and their associations with reduced lupus disease activity in patients with newly-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Anselm; Ho, Roger Chun-Man; Tng, Han-Ying; Koh, Hui Li; Chong, Joanna Su Xian; Zhou, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We examined if cerebral volume reduction occurs very early during the course of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and observed prospectively whether gray (GMV) and white matter volumes (WMV) of the brain would improve with lowered SLE disease activity. T1-weighted MRI brain images were obtained from 14 healthy controls (HC) and 14 newly-diagnosed SLE patients within 5 months of diagnosis (S1) and after achieving low disease activity (S2). Whole brain voxel-based morphometry was used to detect differences in the GMV and WMV between SLE patients and HC and those between SLE patients at S1 and S2. SLE patients were found to have lower GMV than HC in the middle cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus and right supplementary motor area, and lower WMV in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum cingulate gyrus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at both S1 and S2. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis revealed increased GMV chiefly in the prefrontal regions at S2 compared to S1 in SLE patients. The GMV increase in the left superior frontal gyrus was significantly associated with lowered SLE disease activity. In conclusion, GMV and WMV reduced very early in SLE patients. Reduction of SLE disease activity was accompanied by region-specific GMV improvement in the prefrontal regions. PMID:26928214

  6. Netscape Communicator 4.5. Volume II: Beyond the Basics. Advanced Searches, Multimedia, and Composing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Gail; Wichowski, Chester P.

    This second of two guides on Netscape Communicator 4.5 contains six lessons on advanced searches, multimedia, and composing a World Wide Web page. Lesson 1 is a review of the Navigator window, toolbars, and menus. Lesson 2 covers AltaVista's advanced search tips, searching for information excluding certain text, and advanced and nested Boolean…

  7. Relationship between systolic and diastolic function with improvements in forward stroke volume following reduction in mitral regurgitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs.

  8. The Effect of Complete Decongestive Therapy on Edema Volume Reduction and Pain in Women With Post Breast Surgery Lymph Edema

    PubMed Central

    Angooti Oshnari, Leila; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Haghighat, Shahpar; Hossein Zadeh, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Upper extremity lymph edema is the most common side effect of breast cancer treatment that may produce significant physical and psychological morbidity. Pain is the frequent symptom of lymph edema that causes impairment of activities in daily life. Objectives The aim of this study was assessment of the effect of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) on upper extremity lymph edema and pain in women with post breast surgery lymph edema. Patients and Methods In this quasi- experimental research with before- after design, 36 women with moderate lymph edema after breast surgery participated in the program. Edema volume was measured by water displacement method; pain values were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS). Data were recorded before intervention and 2 and 4 weeks after it. CDT included the first phase (intensive phase) and the second phase (maintenance phase). Each phase lasted 2 weeks. After use of Shapiro Wilk test for normality, analysis of variances with GEE and repeated measurements were used to analyze the data. Results After one month doing CDT program, significant decrease of edema was noticed (P < 0.0001), also pain decreased during 2 and 4 weeks after intervention (P < 0.0001). Conclusions This study indicated that CDT program is effective in reducing lymph edema volume and pain in women with moderate post breast surgery lymph edema. It seems that raising patients’ awareness and training healthcare professionals regarding lymph edema preventive strategies have an important role in earlier and better combating this complication. PMID:27482330

  9. Bone marrow lesion volume reduction is not associated with improvement of other periarticular bone measures: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We evaluated the associations between bone marrow lesion (BML) volume change and changes in periarticular bone mineral density (paBMD) as well as subchondral sclerosis to determine whether BML change is associated with other local bone changes. Methods The convenience sample comprised participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) with weight-bearing posterior-anterior knee radiographs and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) at the 24- and 48-month visits and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the 30-/36-month and 48-month visits. The right knee was assessed unless contraindicated for MRI. We used knee DXA scans to measure medial tibia paBMD and medial/lateral paBMD ratio (M:L paBMD). Knee radiographs were scored for sclerosis (grades 0 to 3) in the medial tibia. Two raters determined BML volume on sagittal fat-suppressed MRI by using a semiautomated segmentation method. To focus on knees with only medial tibia BML changes, knees with lateral tibial BMLs were excluded. Medial tibial BML volume change was classified into three groups: BML regression (lowest quartile of medial tibial BML volume change), no-to-minimal change (middle two quartiles), and BML progression (highest quartile). We used proportional odds logistic regression models to evaluate the association between quartiles of changes in medial paBMD or M:L paBMD ratio, as outcomes, and BML volume change. Results The sample (n = 308) included 163 (53%) female subjects, 212 (69%) knees with radiographic osteoarthritis, and participants with a mean age of 63.8 ± 9.3 years and mean body mass index of 29.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2. We found an association between greater increases in medial tibia paBMD and BML regression (OR = 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1 to 2.8)) and a similar trend for BML progression (OR = 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0 to 2.6]). We also detected associations between greater increase in M:L paBMD and BML regression (OR = 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0 to 2

  10. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. PMID:27346085

  11. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  12. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  13. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  15. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  16. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  17. Spindle and motoneuronal contributions to the phase advance of the human stretch reflex and the reduction of tremor.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, P B

    1997-01-01

    1. The human stretch reflex is known to produce a phase advance in the EMG reflexly evoked by sinusoidal stretching, after allowing for the phase lag introduced by simple conduction. Such phase advance counteracts the tendency to tremor introduced by the combined effect of the conduction delay and the slowness of muscle contraction. The present experiments confirm that the EMG advance cannot be attributed solely to the phase advance introduced by the muscle spindles, and show that a major additional contribution is provided by the dynamic properties of individual motoneurones. 2. The surface EMG was recorded from biceps brachii when two different types of sinusoidally varying mechanical stimuli were applied to its tendon at 2-40 Hz. The first was conventional sinusoidal displacement ('stretch'); the spindle discharge would then have been phase advanced. The second was a series of weak taps at 103 Hz, with their amplitude modulated sinusoidally ('modulated vibration'). The overall spindle discharge should then have been in phase with the modulating signal, since the probability of any individual 1 a fibre responding to a tap would increase with its amplitude. The findings with this new stimulus apply to motoneurone excitation by any rhythmic input, whether generated centrally or peripherally. 3. The sinusoidal variation of the EMG elicited by the modulated vibration still showed a delay-adjusted phase advance, but the value was less than that for simple stretching. At 10 Hz the difference was 70-80 deg. This was taken to be the phase advance introduced by the spindles, very slightly underestimated because of the lags produced by tendon compliance in transmitting sinusoidal stretch to the muscle proper. The adjusted phase advance with modulated vibration was taken to represent that introduced by the reflex centres, undistorted by tendon compliance. At 10 Hz the reflex centres produced about the same amount of phase advance as the muscle spindles. 4. At modulation

  18. Primary Tumor Volume Is an Important Predictor of Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck Treated With Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, Anna; Yovino, Susannah; Taylor, Rodney; Wolf, Jeffrey; Cullen, Kevin; Zimrin, Ann; Strome, Scott; Regine, William; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The tumor volume has been established as a significant predictor of outcomes among patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy alone. The present study attempted to add to the existing data on tumor volume as a prognostic factor among patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients who had undergone definitive chemoradiotherapy for Stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx were identified. The primary tumor volumes were calculated from the treatment planning computed tomography scans, and these were correlated to the survival and tumor control data obtained from the retrospective analysis. Results: The interval to progression correlated with the primary tumor volume (p = .007). The critical cutoff point for the tumor volume was identified as 35 cm{sup 3}, and patients with a tumor volume <35 cm{sup 3} had a significantly better prognosis than those with a tumor volume >35 cm{sup 3} at 5 years (43% vs. 71%, p = .010). Longer survival was also correlated with smaller primary tumor volumes (p = .022). Similarly, patients with a primary tumor volume <35 cm{sup 3} had a better prognosis in terms of both progression-free survival (61% vs. 33%, p = .004) and overall survival (84% vs. 41%, p = < .001). On multivariate analysis, the primary tumor volume was the best predictor of recurrence (hazard ratio 4.7, 95% confidence interval 1.9-11.6; p = .001) and survival (hazard ratio 10.0, 95% confidence interval 2.9-35.1; p = < .001). In contrast, the T stage and N stage were not significant factors. Analysis of variance revealed that tumors with locoregional failure were on average 21.6 cm{sup 3} larger than tumors without locoregional failure (p = .028) and 27.1-cm{sup 3} larger than tumors that recurred as distant metastases (p = .020). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that the primary tumor volume is a significant prognostic factor in patients with advanced cancer

  19. Reduction of cerebral infarct volume by apocynin requires pretreatment and is absent in Nox2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, KA; Miller, AA; De Silva, TM; Crack, PJ; Drummond, GR; Sobey, CG

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Nox2-containing reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity is reportedly detrimental in cerebrovascular disease. However, ROS generation by other Nox isoforms may have a physiological role. No Nox2-selective inhibitors have yet been identified, and thus it is unclear whether isoform non-selective Nox inhibitors would necessarily improve outcome after stroke. We assessed the effect of apocynin on cerebrovascular ROS production and also on outcome following cerebral ischaemia when administered either before ischaemia or after cerebral reperfusion. The involvement of Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase in the effects of apocynin was assessed using Nox2−/− mice. Experimental approach: Transient cerebral ischaemia was induced by 0.5 h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 23.5 h reperfusion. Mice received apocynin (2.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) either 0.5 h before ischaemia or 1 h after reperfusion. In situ superoxide production after cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion was measured in brain sections of wild-type mice at 24 h using dihydroethidium fluorescence. Key results: Treatment with apocynin 0.5 h before ischaemia reduced total infarct volume, neurological impairment and mortality in wild-type but not Nox2−/− mice. Conversely, treatment with apocynin 1 h after initiation of reperfusion had no protective effect. Cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion increased superoxide production in the brain at 24 h, and pretreatment but not posttreatment with apocynin reduced superoxide levels. Conclusions and implications: Apocynin improves outcome following stroke when administered before ischaemia in wild-type but not Nox2−/− mice. PMID:19175604

  20. Framework Programmable Platform for the Advanced Software Development Workstation (FPP/ASDW). Demonstration framework document. Volume 2: Framework process description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, Richard J.; Blinn, Thomas M.; Dewitte, Paula S.; Crump, John W.; Ackley, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    In the second volume of the Demonstration Framework Document, the graphical representation of the demonstration framework is given. This second document was created to facilitate the reading and comprehension of the demonstration framework. It is designed to be viewed in parallel with Section 4.2 of the first volume to help give a picture of the relationships between the UOB's (Unit of Behavior) of the model. The model is quite large and the design team felt that this form of presentation would make it easier for the reader to get a feel for the processes described in this document. The IDEF3 (Process Description Capture Method) diagrams of the processes of an Information System Development are presented. Volume 1 describes the processes and the agents involved with each process, while this volume graphically shows the precedence relationships among the processes.

  1. MRS International Meeting on Advanced Materials, 1st, Tokyo, Japan, June 2, 3, 1988, Proceedings. Volume 4 - Composites corrosion/Coating of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shiushichi; Kobayashi, Akira; Nii, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Yasutoshi; Umekawa, Sokichi.

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on metal-matrix composites (MMCs) and ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) discusses electrodeposited C/Cu MMCs, the quasi-liquid hot press method for SiC/Al composites, die-cast MMCs for tribological applications, the solidification-processing of monotectic alloy matrix composites, the fracture of SiC whisker-reinforced Al-alloy MMCs, the elastic constants of a graphite/magnesium composite, and an elastoplastic analysis of metal/plastic/metal sandwich plates in three-point bending. Also discussed are the fabrication of diamond particle-dispersed glass composites in space, heat-resistant graphite fiber-reinforced phosphate ceramic CMCs, the high-temperature creep of SiC-reinforced alumina CMCs, flexible carbon fiber-reinforced exfoliated graphite composites, and the application of advanced CMCs to advanced railway systems, the corrosion and oxidation of SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and other structural ceramics, corrosion properties of advanced alloys, and novel coating systems for advanced materials.

  2. Evaluating the Upgrading of Technical Courses at Two-Year Colleges: NSF's Advanced Technological Education Program. Advances in Program Evaluation. Volume 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullickson, Arlen, Ed.; Lawrenz, Frances, Ed.; Keiser, Nanette, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program is a diverse and dynamic set of projects intent on improving the USA's technical workforce. This book uses the ATE work as a means to focus on key issues for federally funded projects and all community colleges facing the difficult challenges of staying current…

  3. Measures of Adequacy for Library Collections in Australian Colleges of Advanced Education. Report of a Research Project Conducted in Behalf of the Commission on Advanced Education. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainwright, E. J.; Dean, J. E.

    This study investigates the bases for constructing quantitative and qualitative measures of Australian Colleges of Advanced Education (CAE) library collection adequacy, and the feasibility of producing specialized and appropriate measures to guide future collection planning. Adequacy is based on the libraries' policies for providing materials to…

  4. Curcumin and sertraline prevent the reduction of the number of neurons and glial cells and the volume of rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by stress.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Rashidian-Rashidabadi, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress induces morphological changes in the neurons of several brain regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is involved in variety of behavioral tasks, including learning and memory. Our previous work showed that stress impaired function. The present work extends the earlier work to study mPFC in stressed and non-stressed rats with or without sertraline or curcumin treatments using stereological methods. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and curcumin is the main ingredient of turmeric with neuroprotective effects. In this study, 42 male rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: stress + distilled water, stress + olive oil, stress + curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), stress + sertraline (10 mg/kg/day), curcumin, sertraline, and control groups. After 56 days, the right mPFC was removed. The volume of mPFC and its subdivisions and the total number of neurons and glia were estimated. The results showed ~8%, ~8%, and 24% decrease in the volume of the mPFC and its prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions, respectively. However, the anterior cingulated cortex remained unchanged. Also, the total number of the neurons and glial cells was significantly reduced (11% and 5%, respectively) in stress (+distilled water or olive oil) group in comparison to the non-stressed rats (P<0.01). However, no significant reduction was observed in the volume of the mPFC and its subdivisions as well as the total number of the neurons and glial cells in stress + sertraline and stress + curcumin groups in comparison to the non-treated stressed rats (P<0.01). The result indicated that treatment of rats with curcumin and sertraline could prevent the stress-induced changes in mPFC. PMID:24718043

  5. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  6. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: do good neuropsychological and seizure outcomes correlate with hippocampal volume reduction?

    PubMed

    Malikova, Hana; Kramska, Lenka; Liscak, Roman; Vojtech, Zdenek; Prochazka, Tomas; Mareckova, Iva; Lukavsky, Jiri; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-11-01

    Temporal lobe surgery bears the risk of a decline of neuropsychological functions. Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE) represents an alternative to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) surgery. This study compared neuropsychological results with MRI volumetry of the residual hippocampus. We included 35 patients with drug-resistant MTLE treated by SAHE. MRI volumetry and neuropsychological examinations were performed before and 1 year after SAHE. Each year after SAHE clinical seizure outcome was assessed. One year after SAHE 77% of patients were assessed as Engel Class I, 14% of patients was classified as Engel II and in 9% of patients treatment failed. Two years after SAHE 76% of subjects were classified as Engel Class I, 15% of patients was assessed as Engel II and in 9% of patients treatment failed. Hippocampal volume reduction was 58±17% on the left and 54 ± 27% on the right side. One year after SAHE, intelligence quotients of treated patients increased. Patients showed significant improvement in verbal memory (p=0.039) and the semantic long-term memory subtest (LTM) (p=0.003). Patients treated on the right side improved in verbal memory, delayed recall and LTM. No changes in memory were found in patients treated on the left side. There was a trend between the larger extent of the hippocampal reduction and improvement in visual memory in speech-side operated. PMID:22591753

  7. PlanHab: Hypoxia counteracts the erythropoietin suppression, but seems to exaggerate the plasma volume reduction induced by 3 weeks of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Mekjavic, Igor B; Kölegård, Roger; Choukèr, Alexander; Strewe, Claudia; Eiken, Ola

    2016-04-01

    The study examined the distinct and synergistic effects of hypoxia and bed rest on the erythropoietin (EPO) concentration and relative changes in plasma volume (PV). Eleven healthy male lowlanders underwent three 21-day confinement periods, in a counterbalanced order: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; PIO2: 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg); (2) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; PIO2: 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg, ambient simulated altitude of ~4000 m); and (3) hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PIO2: 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Blood samples were collected before, during (days 2, 5, 14, and 21) and 2 days after each confinement to determineEPOconcentration. Qualitative differences inPVchanges were also estimated by changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration along with concomitant changes in plasma renin concentration.NBRcaused an initial reduction inEPOby ~39% (P = 0.04). By contrast,HBRenhancedEPO(P = 0.001), but the increase was less than that induced byHAMB(P < 0.01). All three confinements caused a significant reduction inPV(P < 0.05), with a substantially greater drop inHBRthan in the other conditions (P < 0.001). Thus, present results suggest that hypoxia prevents theEPOsuppression, whereas it seems to exaggerate thePVreduction induced by bed rest. PMID:27081163

  8. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  9. Full-scale testing, production and cost analysis data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parson, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The development, testing, production activities, and associated costs that were required to produce five-and-one-half advanced-composite stabilizer shipsets for Boeing 737 aircraft are defined and discussed.

  10. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  11. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Current and advanced act control system definition study. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanks, G. W.; Shomber, H. A.; Dethman, H. A.; Gratzer, L. B.; Maeshiro, A.; Gangsaas, D.; Blight, J. D.; Buchan, S. M.; Crumb, C. B.; Dorwart, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of the Active Controls Technology (ACT) for the advanced subsonic transport project is investigated through analysis of the systems technical data. Control systems technologies under examination include computerized reliability analysis, pitch axis fly by wire actuator, flaperon actuation system design trade study, control law synthesis and analysis, flutter mode control and gust load alleviation analysis, and implementation of alternative ACT systems. Extensive analysis of the computer techniques involved in each system is included.

  12. NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Aeronautics, Space Sciences and Technology, Earth Systems Sciences, Global Hydrology, and Education. Volumes 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Tommy L. (Editor); White, Bettie (Editor); Goodman, Steven (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor); Randolph, Lynwood (Editor); Rickman, Doug (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume chronicles the proceedings of the 1998 NASA University Research Centers Technical Conference (URC-TC '98), held on February 22-25, 1998, in Huntsville, Alabama. The University Research Centers (URCS) are multidisciplinary research units established by NASA at 11 Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCU's) and 3 Other Minority Universities (OMU's) to conduct research work in areas of interest to NASA. The URC Technical Conferences bring together the faculty members and students from the URC's with representatives from other universities, NASA, and the aerospace industry to discuss recent advances in their fields.

  13. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY THE MINISTER FOR EDUCATION AND SCIENCE TO INVESTIGATE THE PROPOSAL TO ESTABLISH A COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION AT BATHURST. VOLUMES I AND II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    VOLUME I OF THIS STUDY IN SUPPORT OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A COLLEGE OF ADVANCED EDUCATION IN BATHURST, AUSTRALIA, CONTAINS THE TEXT OF THE RESEARCH, ARGUMENTS, AND PROPOSALS. THE APPENDIXES IN VOLUME II INCLUDE THE AMPLIFYING CHARTS, TABLES, QUESTIONNAIRES, SURVEY RESULTS, ETC. THIS PROPOSED COLLEGE DIFFERS IN CONCEPT FROM THE USUAL AMERICAN…

  14. Can currently available advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves provide health relevant exposure reductions? Results from initial assessment of select commercial models in India.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-03-01

    Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

  15. Relationship between three cotton trash measurements: High Volume Instrumentation (HVI), Shirley Analyzer (SA), and Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presence of non-lint materials (trashes) in commercial cotton bales at various amounts degrades the market values and further influences the end-use qualities. In order to ensure a fair trading, the USDA’s AMS has introduced the high volume instrument (HVI) measurement as a universal standard index....

  16. Edmund W. Gordon: Producing Knowledge, Pursuing Understanding. Advances in Education in Diverse Communities: Research, Policy, and Praxis, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeakey, Carol Camp, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the work of Edmund W. Gordon and the influence he has had on contemporary thinking in psychology, education, and social policy, and the implications of his work for the schooling of lower-status youth and children of color in the United States. The chapters are: (1) "The Social Context of Emotions in Black Adolescents:…

  17. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  18. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  19. Isotope Separation and Advanced Manufacturing Technology. ISAM semiannual report, Volume 3, Number 1, October 1993--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.; Kan, T.

    1994-10-01

    This is the fourth issue of a semiannual report for the Isotope Separation and Advanced Materials Manufacturing (ISAM) Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Primary objectives include: (I) the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (UAVLIS) process, which is being developed and prepared for deployment as an advanced uranium enrichment capability; (II) Advanced manufacturing technologies, which include industrial laser and E-beam material processing and new manufacturing technologies for uranium, plutonium, and other strategically important materials in support of DOE and other national applications. This report features progress in the ISAM Program from October 1993 through March 1994. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  1. Statistics for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater runoff best management practices (BMPs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to indicate the risk for stormwater concentrations, flows, and loads to be above user-selected water-quality goals and the potential effectiveness of mitigation measures to reduce such risks. SELDM models the potential effect of mitigation measures by using Monte Carlo methods with statistics that approximate the net effects of structural and nonstructural best management practices (BMPs). In this report, structural BMPs are defined as the components of the drainage pathway between the source of runoff and a stormwater discharge location that affect the volume, timing, or quality of runoff. SELDM uses a simple stochastic statistical model of BMP performance to develop planning-level estimates of runoff-event characteristics. This statistical approach can be used to represent a single BMP or an assemblage of BMPs. The SELDM BMP-treatment module has provisions for stochastic modeling of three stormwater treatments: volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment. In SELDM, these three treatment variables are modeled by using the trapezoidal distribution and the rank correlation with the associated highway-runoff variables. This report describes methods for calculating the trapezoidal-distribution statistics and rank correlation coefficients for stochastic modeling of volume reduction, hydrograph extension, and water-quality treatment by structural stormwater BMPs and provides the calculated values for these variables. This report also provides robust methods for estimating the minimum irreducible concentration (MIC), which is the lowest expected effluent concentration from a particular BMP site or a class of BMPs. These statistics are different from the statistics commonly used to characterize or compare BMPs. They are designed to provide a stochastic transfer function to approximate

  2. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  3. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Advancing Success for Black Men in College. Policy Notes. Volume 22, Number 1, Spring 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaffe, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This issue of ETS Policy Notes (Vol. 22, No. 1) provides highlights from a recent symposium sponsored by ETS and the Children Defense Fund (CDF), "Advancing Success for Black Men in College," held on June 23, 2014, in Washington, DC. The symposium is part of a two-conference series: It was the 18th of ETS's "Addressing Achievement…

  4. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  5. Research and development program for the development of advanced time-temperature dependent constitutive relationships. Volume 2: Programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassenti, B. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a 10-month research and development program for nonlinear structural modeling with advanced time-temperature constitutive relationships are presented. The implementation of the theory in the MARC nonlinear finite element code is discussed, and instructions for the computational application of the theory are provided.

  6. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  7. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  8. CT-Based Evaluation of Tumor Volume After Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy of Locally Advanced Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Comparison with Clinical Remission Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Stefan Turowski, Bernd; Berkefeld, Joachim; Kovacs, Adorjan F.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To assess the volume of locally advanced tumors of the oral cavity and the oropharynx before and after intra-arterial (i.a.) chemotherapy by means of computed tomography and to compare these data with clinically determined treatment response of the same patient population. Methods. Eighty-eight patients with histologically proven, advanced carcinoma of the oral cavity and/or the oropharynx (local tumor stages T3/4) received neoadjuvant i.a. chemotherapy with cisplatin as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen, comprising (1) local chemotherapy, (2) surgery, and (3) combined radio-chemotherapy. Three weeks after the intervention, residual disease was evaluated radiologically by measurement of the tumor volume and clinically by inspection and palpation of the primary tumor according to WHO criteria. Results. Comparison of treatment response according to radiological and clinical criteria respectively revealed complete remission in 5% vs. 8% (p < 0.05), partial remission in 30% vs. 31%, stable disease in 61% vs. 58%, and tumor progression in 5% vs. 2%. Conclusion. Radiological volumetry and clinical evaluation found comparable response rates after local chemotherapy. However, in patients with good response after local treatment, volumetric measurement with CT may help to distinguish between partial and complete remission. Thus, radiological tumor volumetry provides precise and differentiated information about tumor response and should be used as an additional tool in treatment monitoring after local chemotherapy.

  9. Space Shuttle Main Engine structural analysis and data reduction/evaluation. Volume 7: High pressure fuel turbo-pump third stage impeller analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Kirby V.

    1989-01-01

    This volume summarizes the analysis used to assess the structural life of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Fuel Turbo-Pump (HPFTP) Third Stage Impeller. This analysis was performed in three phases, all using the DIAL finite element code. The first phase was a static stress analysis to determine the mean (non-varying) stress and static margin of safety for the part. The loads involved were steady state pressure and centrifugal force due to spinning. The second phase of the analysis was a modal survey to determine the vibrational modes and natural frequencies of the impeller. The third phase was a dynamic response analysis to determine the alternating component of the stress due to time varying pressure impulses at the outlet (diffuser) side of the impeller. The results of the three phases of the analysis show that the Third Stage Impeller operates very near the upper limits of its capability at full power level (FPL) loading. The static loading alone creates stresses in some areas of the shroud which exceed the yield point of the material. Additional cyclic loading due to the dynamic force could lead to a significant reduction in the life of this part. The cyclic stresses determined in the dynamic response phase of this study are based on an assumption regarding the magnitude of the forcing function.

  10. Techno-stress: a prospective psychophysiological study of the impact of a controlled stress-reduction program in advanced telecommunication systems design work.

    PubMed

    Arnetz, B B

    1996-01-01

    There is a void of studies concerning occupational health aspects from working with the most advanced forms of information technologies techniques such as are found in some of the world-renowned telecommunication systems development laboratories. However, many of these techniques will later be applied in the regular office environment. We wanted to identify some of the major stressors perceived by advanced telecommunication systems design employees and develop a valid and reliable instrument by which to monitor such stressors. We were also interested in assessing the impact of a controlled prospective stress-reduction program on perceived mental stress and specific psychophysiological parameters. A total of 116 employees were recruited. Sixty-one were offered to participate in one of three stress-reduction training programs (intervention group). The additional 50 functioned as a reference group. After a detailed baseline assessment, including a comprehensive questionnaire and psychophysiological measurements, new assessments were made at the end of the formal training program (+ 3 months) and after an additional 5-month period. Results reveal a significant improvement in the intervention group with regard to circulating levels of the stress-sensitive hormone prolactin as well as an attenuation in mental strain. Cardiovascular risk indicators were also improved. Circulating thrombocytes decreased in the intervention group. Type of stress-reduction programs chosen and intensity of participation did not significantly impact results. Coping style was not affected and no beneficial effects were observed with regard to the psychological characteristics of the work, eg intellectual discretion and control over work processes. The survey instrument is now being used in the continuous improvement of work processes and strategic leadership of occupational health issues. The results suggest that prior psychophysiological stress research, based on low- and medium-skill, rather

  11. Mission oriented R and D and the advancement of technology: The imapct of NASA contributions, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, M. D.; Kelley, J. A.; Elliott, L.

    1972-01-01

    The contributions of NASA to the advancement of major developments in several selected fields of technology are identified. Subjects discussed are: (1) developing new knowledge, (2) developing new technology, (3) demonstrating the application of new technology for the first time, (4) augmenting existing technology, (5) applying existing technology in a new context, (6) stimulating industry to acquire or develop new technology, (7) identifying problem areas requiring further research, and (8) creating new markets.

  12. Design, ancillary testing, analysis and fabrication data for the advanced composite stabilizer for Boeing 737 aircraft. Volume 1: Technical summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aniversario, R. B.; Harvey, S. T.; Mccarty, J. E.; Parsons, J. T.; Peterson, D. C.; Pritchett, L. D.; Wilson, D. R.; Wogulis, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    The horizontal stabilizer of the 737 transport was redesigned. Five shipsets were fabricated using composite materials. Weight reduction greater than the 20% goal was achieved. Parts and assemblies were readily produced on production-type tooling. Quality assurance methods were demonstrated. Repair methods were developed and demonstrated. Strength and stiffness analytical methods were substantiated by comparison with test results. Cost data was accumulated in a semiproduction environment. FAA certification was obtained.

  13. PFB coal fired combined cycle development program. Advanced hot gas cleanup concept evaluation (Task 4. 3). Volume B. Developmental cyclone evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of cold flow model testing of a conventional reverse-flow cyclone containing several developmental features designed to improve its separative performance. The four advanced features evaluated were: Outlet Scroll Skimming - to remove particles from the high dust concentration region at the periphery of the outlet dust; Base Purge - to reduce reentrainment of dust from the disengagement hopper; Increased Outlet Duct Engagement - to reduce short-circuiting of the inlet dust into the outlet; and Vortex Shield - to stabilize the point of vortex attachment at the cyclone base and thus reduce base pickup. A schematic of the advanced cyclone, showing the various developmental features, is provided. The results of the cold flow experiments showed that substantial improvement (approximately 30% reduction in exhaust emission) could be obtained from outlet skimming or from increased engagement of the exhaust dust. Furthermore, the effects of these features are additive so that about 60% overall reduction in emissions could be achieved by incorporating both of these elements. On the other hand, the vortex shield and the base purge had little effect on the separative performance. Almost all of the experimental results exhibited strong electrostatic influence. At high flowrates, the separative performance of the cyclone decreased as the flowrate was reduced, as expected from cyclone theory. Although the improvements obtained with the developmental cyclone are significant, further improvements appear possible with the Air Shield cyclone and the Electrocyclone. Consequently, subsequent efforts under the CFCC program were focused on these concepts.

  14. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  15. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 1. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. The foundation to describe coal specific conversion behavior was AFR`s Functional Group and Devolatilization, Vaporization and Crosslinking (DVC) models, which had been previously developed. The combined FG-DVC model was integrated with BYU`s comprehensive two-dimensional reactor model for combustion and coal gasification, PCGC-2, and a one-dimensional model for fixed-bed gasifiers, FBED-1. Progress utilizing these models is described.

  16. Development of Experimental Techniques Using LVP (Large Volume Press) at GSECARS Beamlines, Advanced Photon Source (in Japanese with English abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.

    2009-09-09

    GSECARS (GeoSoilEnviroCARS, the University of Chicago) operates a bending magnet and an undulator beamlines at Sector 13, Advanced Photon Source. Experimental technique for High Pressure X-ray Tomographic Microscope (HPXTM) using monochromatized X-rays has been developed. The module for HPXTM also has shear deformation capability, which enables us to perform HPXTM experiments for microstructure developed by shear deformation under high pressure. A combination of Deformation DIA (D-DIA) and monochromatic X-rays has been developed for quantitative deformation experiments under pressure above 10 GPa. Deformation experiments of e-iron was performed at pressures up to 19 GPa and temperatures up to 700 K.

  17. Simulated flight acoustic investigation of treated ejector effectiveness on advanced mechanical suppresors for high velocity jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brausch, J. F.; Motsinger, R. E.; Hoerst, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ten scale-model nozzles were tested in an anechoic free-jet facility to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a mechanically suppressed inverted-velocity-profile coannular nozzle with an accoustically treated ejector system. The nozzle system used was developed from aerodynamic flow lines evolved in a previous contract, defined to incorporate the restraints imposed by the aerodynamic performance requirements of an Advanced Supersonic Technology/Variable Cycle Engine system through all its mission phases. Accoustic data of 188 test points were obtained, 87 under static and 101 under simulated flight conditions. The tests investigated variables of hardwall ejector application to a coannular nozzle with 20-chute outer annular suppressor, ejector axial positioning, treatment application to ejector and plug surfaces, and treatment design. Laser velocimeter, shadowgraph photograph, aerodynamic static pressure, and temperature measurement were acquired on select models to yield diagnositc information regarding the flow field and aerodynamic performance characteristics of the nozzles.

  18. Giardia duodenalis: Number and Fluorescence Reduction Caused by the Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV), which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP), on Giardia duodenalis cysts. The cysts were inoculated in synthetic and surface water using a concentration of 12 g H2O2 L−1 and a UV dose (λ = 254 nm) of 5,480 mJcm−2. The aqueous solutions were concentrated using membrane filtration, and the organisms were observed using a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The AOP was effective in reducing the number of G. duodenalis cysts in synthetic and surface water and was most effective in reducing the fluorescence of the cyst walls that were present in the surface water. The AOP showed a higher deleterious potential for G. duodenalis cysts than either peroxidation (H2O2) or photolysis (UV) processes alone. PMID:27379301

  19. TH-A-18C-11: An Investigation of KV CBCT Image Quality and Dose Reduction for Volume-Of-Interest Imaging Using Dynamic Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Robar, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  20. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.