Science.gov

Sample records for advanced waste water

  1. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  2. Decontamination of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine waste water by hydrodynamic cavitation-induced advanced Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Torabi Angaji, Mahmood; Ghiaee, Reza

    2015-03-01

    A pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor, using iron metal blades, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H₂O₂ was developed for catalytic decontamination of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) waste water. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The effects of the applied catalyst, pH of the initial solution (1.0-9.7), initial UDMH concentration (2-15 mg/l), inlet pressure (5.5-7.8bar), and downstream pressure (2-6 bar), have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitation yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial UDMH concentration of 10mg/l. Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the extent of UDMH degradation. In addition, the optimum value of 3 bar was determined for the downstream pressure that resulted to 98.6% degradation of UDMH after 120 min of processing time. Neither n-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) nor any other toxic byproduct (/end-product) was observed in the investigated samples. Formic acid and acetic acid, as well as nitromethane, were identified as oxidation by-products. The present work has conclusively established that hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with Fenton's chemistry can be effectively used for the degradation of UDMH. PMID:25262345

  3. Development of an advanced spacecraft water and waste materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Middleton, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    An Integrated Waste Management-Water System (WM-WS) which uses radioisotopes for thermal energy is described and results of its trial in a 4-man, 180 day simulated space mission are presented. It collects urine, feces, trash, and wash water in zero gravity, processes the wastes to a common evaporator, distills and catalytically purifies the water, and separates and incinerates the solid residues using little oxygen and no chemical additives or expendable filters. Technical details on all subsystems are given along with performance specifications. Data on recovered water and heat loss obtained in test trials are presented. The closed loop incinerator and other projects underway to increase system efficiency and capacity are discussed.

  4. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Mahamuni, Naresh N; Adewuyi, Yusuf G

    2010-08-01

    Two things are needed for any technology to be suitable for use in the industry, viz. 1. Technical feasibility and 2. Economical feasibility. The use of ultrasound for waste water treatment has been shown to be technically feasible by numerous reports in the literature over the years. But there are hardly any exhaustive reports which address the issue of economical feasibility of the use of ultrasound for waste water treatment on industrial scale. Hence an attempt was made to estimate the cost for the waste water treatment using ultrasound. The costs have been calculated for 1000 L/min capacity treatment plant. The costs were calculated based upon the rate constants for pollutant degradation. The pollutants considered were phenol, trichloroethylene (TCE) and reactive azo dyes. Time required for ninety percent degradation of pollutant was taken as the residence time. The amount of energy required to achieve the target degradation was calculated from the energy density (watt/ml) used in the treatability study. The cost of treatment was calculated by considering capital cost and operating cost involved for the waste water treatment. Quotations were invited from vendors to ascertain the capital cost of equipments involved and operating costs were calculated based on annual energy usage. The cost was expressed in dollars per 1000 gallons of waste water treated. These treatment costs were compared with other established Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) technologies. The cost of waste water treatment for phenol was in the range of $89 per 1000 gallons for UV/US/O(3) to $15,536 per 1000 gallons for US alone. These costs for TCE were in the range of $25 per 1000 gallons to $91 for US+UV treatment and US alone, respectively. The cost of waste water treatment for reactive azo dyes was in the range of $65 per 1000 gallon for US+UV+H(2)O(2) to $14,203 per 1000 gallon for US alone. This study should help in quantifying the economics of waste water treatment using ultrasound on

  5. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  6. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies for Waste Treatment, Water Purification and Recycle, and Food Production in Polar Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Lewis, Carol E.; Covington, M. Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North, the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the environment. The project primarily provides treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water. and production of food. A testbed is being established to demonstrate the technologies which will enable safe, healthy, and autonomous function of remote communities and to establish the base for commercial development of the resulting technology into new industries. The challenge is to implement the technological capabilities in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of the native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Performance acceptance test of a portable instrument to detect uranium in water at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Weeks, S.J.

    1997-03-28

    The Eppendorf-Biotronik Model IC 2001-2, a portable field ruggedized ion chromatography instrument, was rigorously tested at the DOE Advanced Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fernald, Ohio. This instrument rapidly detected the uranium concentration in water, and has a detection limit in the low ppb range without using the sample concentrating feature. The test set of samples analyzed included: ``Real World`` water samples from the AWWT containing uranium concentrations in the 9--110 ppb range, a sample blank, and a performance evaluation sample. The AWWT samples contained sets of both raw water and acid-preserved water samples. Selected samples were analyzed in quadruplicate to asses the instrument`s precision, and these results were compared with the results from an off-site confirmatory laboratory to assess the instrument`s accuracy. Additional comparisons with on-site laboratory instruments, Chemcheck KPA-11 and Scintrex UA-3 are reported. Overall, the Eppendorf-Biotronik IC 2001-2 performed exceptionally well providing a detection limit in the low ppb region (< 10 ppb) and giving rapid (< 5 minutes) accurate and reproducible analytical results for the AWWT, ``real world``, water samples with uranium concentrations in the region of interest (10--40 ppb). The per sample operating cost for this instrument is equivalent to the per sample cost for the currently used KPA. The time required to analyze a sample and provide a result is approximately the same for the CI 2001-2, KPA, and Scintrex instruments.

  8. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  9. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  10. Advanced waste management technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, H.; Birbara, P.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate the feasibility of steam reforming spacecraft wastes into simple recyclable inorganic salts, carbon dioxide and water. Model waste compounds included cellulose, urea, methionine, Igapon TC-42, and high density polyethylenes. These are compounds found in urine, feces, hygiene water, etc. The gasification and steam reforming process used the addition of heat and low quantities of oxygen to oxidize and reduce the model compounds.The studied reactions were aimed at recovery of inorganic residues that can be recycled into a closed biologic system. Results indicate that even at very low concentrations of oxygen (less than 3%) the formation of a carbonaceous residue was suppressed. The use of a nickel/cobalt reforming catalyst at reaction temperature of 1600 degrees yielded an efficient destruction of the organic effluents, including methane and ammonia. Additionally, the reforming process with nickel/cobalt catalyst diminished the noxious odors associated with butyric acid, methionine and plastics.

  11. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  12. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki, Y.; Odawara, Y.; Shimizu, N.

    1982-10-26

    The invention relates to an improvement of the floc-formation property of activated sludge contained in waste water. A waste water treatment process comprises steps culturing a novel strain-alcaligenes faecalis hrl-1-and adding the cultured cells to to-be-treated waste water.

  13. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  14. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  15. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Helke, R.C.

    1980-12-02

    A method useful for treating waste water is disclosed wherein waste water is collected in a first vessel and a portion of the large solid particles are filtered from said waste waters. The liquid waste including suspended solid particles is combined with a solids coagulant, effective in coagulating solid particles, and the waste is disinfected. In one embodiment, coagulation and disinfection occurs simultaneously in a single treatment vessel. In the treatment vessel, the disinfectant and the coagulant are reacted with the waste waters to form gas bubbles and coagulated solid particles. The reaction of the disinfectant causes a substantial portion of the coagulated solids contained in the treatment vessel to float to the upper portion of the treatment vessel as a result of being carried to the surface by the gas bubbles. The clarified waste water is then removed from an outer chamber in the treatment vessel. In another embodiment, waste water is disinfected by radiation so that gas bubbles are not formed by the disinfection reaction. In this embodiment the coagulated solids are floated to the surface of the treatment vessel by providing small gas, i.e., air, bubbles in the treatment vessel generated from an extraneous source.

  17. Advances in water resources technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The presentation of technological advances in the field of water resources will be the focus of Advances in Water Resources Technology, a conference to be held in Athens, Greece, March 20-23, 1991. Organized by the European Committee for Water Resources Management, in cooperation with the National Technical University of Athens, the conference will feature state-of-the art papers, contributed original research papers, and poster papers. Session subjects will include surface water, groundwater, water resources conservation, water quality and reuse, computer modeling and simulation, real-time control of water resources systems, and institutions and methods for technology.The official language of the conference will be English. Special meetings and discussions will be held for investigating methods of effective technology transfer among European countries. For this purpose, a wide representation of research institutions, universities and companies involved in water resources technology will be attempted.

  18. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts.

  19. Treatment of industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D. R.

    1980-02-12

    A method is disclosed for processing industrial waste waters and , in particular, blow down water from thermal electric plants. The water is processed to concentrate the salts contained therein and to obtain a concentrated brine which can then be passed to a thermal evaporator and/or solar evaporation ponds. The water is processed by the addition of magnesium hydroxide and carbon dioxide in amounts sufficient to precipitate the calcium as calcium carbonate, thereby obtaining a water reduced in calcium content and increased in magnesium content from the industrial waste water. The treated water is processed to recover a purified water from a brine, preferably by reverse osmosis. Calcium hydroxide is added to the brine generated by the reverse osmosis process in an amount sufficient to precipitate magnesium hydroxide therefrom which can be recycled to supply the magnesium hydroxide used in pre-treatment of the water prior to the reverse osmosis process. A clarified brine is recovered from the magnesium hydroxide precipitation step and may then be naturally or thermally evaporated to produce a saturated slurry of salt solids. This slurry can then be further reduced to dryness by solar evaporation.

  20. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  1. Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

  2. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  3. Concentrating industrial waste waters by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnova, T.A.; Saldadze, K.M.; Kutergin, V.R.; Valov, V.G.; Fedoseeva, N.M.

    1984-02-01

    A promising method for reprocessing waste water and process solutions is electrodialysis in which demineralized water and concentrated solutions of valuable components are obtained at the same time. Electrodialysis is characterized by simple equipment, ease of automation, low capital and energy costs. The results of tests aimed at developing the technology for extracting and concentrating the mineral impurities found in waste water from production of ammonium nitrate are presented.

  4. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for

  5. Integrated waste and water management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance requirements of the NASA Space Station have prompted a reexamination of a previously developed integrated waste and water management system that used distillation and catalytic oxydation to purify waste water, and microbial digestion and incineration for waste solids disposal. This system successfully operated continuously for 206 days, for a 4-man equivalent load of urine, feces, wash water, condensate, and trash. Attention is given to synergisms that could be established with other life support systems, in the cases of thermal integration, design commonality, and novel technologies.

  6. Immobilized microbe bioreactors for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Portier, R J; Miller, G P

    1991-10-01

    The application of adapted microbial populations immobilized on a porous diatomaceous earth carrier to pre-treat and reduce toxic concentration of volatile organics, pesticides, petroleum aliphatics and aromatics has been demonstrated for several industrial sites. In the pre-treatment of industrial effluents and contaminated groundwaters, these bioreactors have been used to optimize and reduce the cost of conventional treatment systems, i.e. steam stripping, carbon adsorption and traditional biotreatment. Additionally, these systems have been employed as seeding devices for larger biotreatment systems. The cost effective utilization of an immobilized microbe reactor system for water supply regeneration in a microgravity environment is presented. The feasibility of using immobilized biomass reactors as an effluent treatment technology for the biotransformation and biodegradation of phenols, chlorinated halocarbons, residual oils and lubricants was evaluated. Primary biotransformation tests of two benchmark toxicants, phenol and ethylene dichloride at concentrations expected in life support effluents were conducted. Biocatalyst supports were evaluated for colonization potential, surface and structural integrity, and performance in continuous flow bioreactors. The implementation of such approaches in space will be outlined and specific areas for interfacing with other non-biological treatment approaches will be considered for advanced life support, tertiary waste water biotreatment. PMID:11537697

  7. Advanced method for making vitreous waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.M.; Harrison, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for making waste glass that circumvents the problems of dissolving nuclear waste in molten glass at high temperatures. Because the reactive mixing process is independent of the inherent viscosity of the melt, any glass composition can be prepared with equal facility. Separation of the mixing and melting operations permits novel glass fabrication methods to be employed.

  8. Hanford 200 area (sanitary) waste water system

    SciTech Connect

    Danch, D.A.; Gay, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Site is approximately 1,450 sq. km (560 sq. mi) of semiarid land set aside for activities of the DOE. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are located in the 200 Areas. Over the last 50 years at Hanford dicard of hazardous and sanitary waste water has resulted in billions of liters of waste water discharged to the ground. As part of the TPA, discharges of hazardous waste water to the ground and waters of Washington State are to be eliminated in 1995. Currently sanitary waste water from the 200 Area Plateau is handled with on-site septic tank and subsurface disposal systems, many of which were constructed in the 1940s and most do not meet current standards. Features unique to the proposed new sanitary waste water handling systems include: (1) cost effective operation of the treatment system as evaporative lagoons with state-of-the-art liner systems, and (2) routing collection lines to avoid historic contamination zones. The paper focuses on the challenges met in planning and designing the collection system.

  9. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. This report discusses waste composition from fluidized bed coal combustion. Also presented is analytical data from the leaching of waste sampled from storage soils and of soil samples collected. 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. ADVANCED FILTRATION OF PULP MILL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamically formed reverse osmosis ...

  11. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  12. Chelating water-soluble polymers for waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.; Cournoyer, M.; Duran, B.; Ford, D.; Gibson, R.; Lin, M.; Meck, A.; Robinson, P.; Robison, T.

    1996-11-01

    Within the DOE complex and in industry there is a tremendous need for advanced metal ion recovery and waste minimization techniques. This project sought to employ capabilities for ligand-design and separations chemistry in which one can develop and evaluate water- soluble chelating polymers for recovering actinides and toxic metals from various process streams. Focus of this work was (1) to develop and select a set of water-soluble polymers suitable for a selected waste stream and (2) demonstrate this technology in 2 areas: removal of (a) actinides and toxic RCRA metals from waste water and (b) recovery of Cu and other precious metals from industrial process streams including from solid catalysts and aqueous waste streams. The R&D was done in 4 phases for each of the 2 target areas: polymer synthesis for scaleup, equipment assembly, process demonstration at a DOE or industrial site, and advanced ligand/polymer synthesis. The TA- 50 site at Los Alamos was thought to be appropriate due to logistics and to its being representative of similar problems throughout the DOE complex.

  13. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  14. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  15. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  16. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  17. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    DOEpatents

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  18. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  19. N-SINK - reduction of waste water nitrogen load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Sanni; Tiirola, Marja; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Tulonen, Tiina; Rissanen, Antti; Nykänen, Hannu

    2014-05-01

    Protection of the Baltic Sea from eutrophication is one of the key topics in the European Union environmental policy. One of the main anthropogenic sources of nitrogen (N) loading into Baltic Sea are waste water treatment plants, which are currently capable in removing only 40-70% of N. European commission has obliged Finland and other Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which would require high monetary investments on nitrate removal processes in treatment plants. In addition, forced denitrification in treatment plants would increase emissions of strong greenhouse gas N2O. In this project (LIFE12 FI/ENV/597 N-SINK) we will develop and demonstrate a novel economically feasible method for nitrogen removal using applied ecosystem services. As sediment is known to have enormous capacity to reduce nitrate to nitrogen gas through denitrification, we predict that spatial optimization of the waste water discharge would be an efficient way to reduce nitrate-based load in aquatic systems. A new sediment filtration approach, which will increase both the area and time that nitrified waste water will be in contact with the reducing microbes of the sediment, is tested. Compared to the currently implemented practice, where purified waste water is discharged though one-point outlet system, we expect that sediment filtration system will result in more efficient denitrification and decreased N load to aquatic system. We will conduct three full-scale demonstrations in the receiving water bodies of waste water treatment plants in Southern and Central Finland. The ecosystem effects of sediment filtration system will be monitored. Using the most advanced stable isotope techniques will allow us accurately measure denitrification and unfavoured DNRA (reduction of nitrite to ammonium) activity.

  20. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  1. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 micrograms/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Biodegradation pathway of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) during recycling waste water through plant hydroponics for advanced life support during long-duration space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, L. H.; Kagie, H. R.; Garland, J. L.

    The degradation of an anionic surfactant (Igepon TC-42) was investigated as part of an integrated study of direct recycling of human hygiene water through hydroponic plant growth systems. Several chemical approaches were developed to characterize the degradation of Igepon and to measure the accumulation of intermediates such as fatty acids and methyl taurine. Igepon was rapidly degraded as indicated by the reduction of methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and component fatty acids. The Igepon degradation rate continued to increase over a period of several weeks following repeated daily exposure to 18 μg/l Igepon. The accumulation of free fatty acids and methyl taurine was also observed during decomposition of Igepon. The concentration of methyl taurine was below detection limit (0.2 nmol/ml) during the slow phase of Igepon degradation, and increased to 1-2 nmol/ml during the phase of rapid degradation. These findings support a degradation pathway involving initial hydrolysis of amide to release fatty acids and methyl taurine, and subsequent degradation of these intermediates.

  3. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  4. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  5. Waste Water Plant Operators Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual for sewage treatment plant operators was prepared by a committee of operators, educators, and engineers for use as a reference text and handbook and to serve as a training manual for short course and certification programs. Sewage treatment plant operators have a responsibility in water quality control; they are the principal actors in…

  6. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; MENDOZA RE

    2010-08-11

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  7. TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY ADVANCING TANK WASTE RETREIVAL AND PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL

    2010-07-07

    This technology overview provides a high-level summary of technologies being investigated and developed by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to advance Hanford Site tank waste retrieval and processing. Technology solutions are outlined, along with processes and priorities for selecting and developing them.

  8. Water Balance Covers For Waste Containment: Principles and Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water Balance Covers for Waste Containment: Principles and Practices introduces water balance covers and compares them with conventional approaches to waste containment. The authors provided detailed analysis of the fundamentals of soil physics and design issues, introduce appl...

  9. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Tracing Waste Water with Li isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and various domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. In the present study, we investigate waste water tracing by the use of Li isotopes in a small river basin near Orléans in France (l'Egoutier, 15 km² and 5 km long). It is well known that Li has strategic importance for numerous industrial applications including its use in the production of batteries for both mobile devices (computers, tablets, smartphones, etc.) and electric vehicles, but also in pharmaceutical formulations. In the present work, we collected river waters samples before and after the release from a waste water treatment plant connected to an hospital. Lithium isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ7Li values around -0.5‰ ± 1 along the main course of the stream (n=7). The waste water sample is very different from the natural background of the river basin with Li concentration being twice of the values without pollution and significant heavy lithium contribution (δ7Li = +4‰). These preliminary results will be discussed in relation with factors controlling the distribution of Li and its isotopes in this specific system and compared with the release of other metals such as Pb or Zn.

  11. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  12. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-12

    The AMWTP Final EIS assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with alternatives related to the construction and operation of a proposed waste treatment facility at the INEEL. The alternatives analyzed were: the No Action Alternative, the Proposed Action, the Non-Thermal Treatment Alternative, and the Treatment and Storage Alternative. The Proposed Action is the Preferred Alternative. Under the Proposed Action/Preferred Alternative, the AMWTP facility would treat transuranic waste, alpha-contaminated low-level mixed waste, and low-level mixed waste in preparation for disposal. After treatment, transuranic waste would be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Low-level mixed waste would be disposed of at an approved disposal facility depending on decisions to be based on DOE's Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Evaluation of impacts on land use, socioeconomics, cultural resources, aesthetic and scenic resources, geology, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, noise, traffic and transportation, occupational and public health and safety, INEEL services, and environmental justice were included in the assessment.

  13. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  14. Advancing Water Science through Data Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T.

    2014-12-01

    As water scientists, we are increasingly handling larger and larger datasets with many variables, making it easy to lose ourselves in the details. Advanced data visualization will play an increasingly significant role in propelling the development of water science in research, economy, policy and education. It can enable analysis within research and further data scientists' understanding of behavior and processes and can potentially affect how the public, whom we often want to inform, understands our work. Unfortunately for water scientists, data visualization is approached in an ad hoc manner when a more formal methodology or understanding could potentially significantly improve both research within the academy and outreach to the public. Firstly to broaden and deepen scientific understanding, data visualization can allow for more analyzed targets to be processed simultaneously and can represent the variables effectively, finding patterns, trends and relationships; thus it can even explores the new research direction or branch of water science. Depending on visualization, we can detect and separate the pivotal and trivial influential factors more clearly to assume and abstract the original complex target system. Providing direct visual perception of the differences between observation data and prediction results of models, data visualization allows researchers to quickly examine the quality of models in water science. Secondly data visualization can also improve public awareness and perhaps influence behavior. Offering decision makers clearer perspectives of potential profits of water, data visualization can amplify the economic value of water science and also increase relevant employment rates. Providing policymakers compelling visuals of the role of water for social and natural systems, data visualization can advance the water management and legislation of water conservation. By building the publics' own data visualization through apps and games about water

  15. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  16. Advance prototype silver ion water bactericide system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Allen, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    An advance prototype unit was designed and fabricated to treat anticipated fuel cell water. The unit is a single canister that contains a membrane-type prefilter and a silver bromide contacting bed. A seven day baseline simulated mission test was performed; the performance was satisfactory and the effluent water was within all specifications for potability. After random vibrations another seven day simulated mission test was performed, and results indicate that simulated launch vibrations have no effects on the design and performance of the advanced prototype. Bench tests and accelerated breadboard tests were conducted to define the characteristics of an upgraded model of the advance prototype unit which would have 30 days of operating capability. A preliminary design of a silver ion generator for the shuttle orbiter was also prepared.

  17. NTTC Course 315: Advanced Water Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is the examination booklet used for a home study course in water treatment. This course is the advanced part of a series produced by the Department of the Navy. This publication is designed to be used in conjunction with a course textbook. Each of the four examinations contained in this document are referenced to a specific…

  18. Water Management Applications of Advanced Precipitation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. E.; Braswell, G.; Delaney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced precipitation sensors and numerical models track storms as they occur and forecast the likelihood of heavy rain for time frames ranging from 1 to 8 hours, 1 day, and extended outlooks out to 3 to 7 days. Forecast skill decreases at the extended time frames but the outlooks have been shown to provide "situational awareness" which aids in preparation for flood mitigation and water supply operations. In California the California-Nevada River Forecast Centers and local Weather Forecast Offices provide precipitation products that are widely used to support water management and flood response activities of various kinds. The Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program is being conducted to help advance the science of precipitation tracking and forecasting in support of the NWS. HMT high-resolution products have found applications for other non-federal water management activities as well. This presentation will describe water management applications of HMT advanced precipitation products, and characterization of benefits expected to accrue. Two case examples will be highlighted, 1) reservoir operations for flood control and water supply, and 2) urban stormwater management. Application of advanced precipitation products in support of reservoir operations is a focus of the Sonoma County Water Agency. Examples include: a) interfacing the high-resolution QPE products with a distributed hydrologic model for the Russian-Napa watersheds, b) providing early warning of in-coming storms for flood preparedness and water supply storage operations. For the stormwater case, San Francisco wastewater engineers are developing a plan to deploy high resolution gap-filling radars looking off shore to obtain longer lead times on approaching storms. A 4 to 8 hour lead time would provide opportunity to optimize stormwater capture and treatment operations, and minimize combined sewer overflows into the Bay.ussian River distributed hydrologic model.

  19. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James; Kim, Dong -Sang; Maio, Vincent

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  20. Assessment of Feasibility of the Beneficial Use of Waste Heat from the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Donna P. Guillen

    2012-07-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of using waste heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). A proposed glycol waste heat recovery system was assessed for technical and economic feasibility. The system under consideration would use waste heat from the ATR secondary coolant system to preheat air for space heating of TRA-670. A tertiary coolant stream would be extracted from the secondary coolant system loop and pumped to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, where heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air in the heating and ventilation system. Historical data from Advanced Test Reactor operations over the past 10 years indicates that heat from the reactor coolant was available (when needed for heating) for 43.5% of the year on average. Potential energy cost savings by using the waste heat to preheat intake air is $242K/yr. Technical, safety, and logistics considerations of the glycol waste heat recovery system are outlined. Other opportunities for using waste heat and reducing water usage at ATR are considered.

  1. Advancing Water Science through Improved Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. J.; Miles, B.; Rai, A.; Ahalt, S.; Band, L. E.; Minsker, B.; Palmer, M.; Williams, M. R.; Idaszak, R.; Whitton, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Major scientific advances are needed to help address impacts of climate change and increasing human-mediated environmental modification on the water cycle at global and local scales. However, such advances within the water sciences are limited in part by inadequate information infrastructures. For example, cyberinfrastructure (CI) includes the integrated computer hardware, software, networks, sensors, data, and human capital that enable scientific workflows to be carried out within and among individual research efforts and across varied disciplines. A coordinated transformation of existing CI and development of new CI could accelerate the productivity of water science by enabling greater discovery, access, and interoperability of data and models, and by freeing scientists to do science rather than create and manage technological tools. To elucidate specific ways in which improved CI could advance water science, three challenges confronting the water science community were evaluated: 1) How does ecohydrologic patch structure affect nitrogen transport and fate in watersheds?, 2) How can human-modified environments emulate natural water and nutrient cycling to enhance both human and ecosystem well-being?, 3) How do changes in climate affect water availability to support biodiversity and human needs? We assessed the approaches used by researchers to address components of these challenges, identified barriers imposed by limitations of current CI, and interviewed leaders in various water science subdisciplines to determine the most recent CI tools employed. Our preliminary findings revealed four areas where CI improvements are likely to stimulate scientific advances: 1) sensor networks, 2) data quality assurance/quality control, 3) data and modeling standards, 4) high performance computing. In addition, the full potential of a re-envisioned water science CI cannot be realized without a substantial training component. In light of these findings, we suggest that CI

  2. Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  3. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis. PMID:26991185

  4. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  5. Recent Advances in GEO Water Cycle Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past few years GEO (Group on Earth Observations) efforts within the Water Societal Benefit Area (SBA) have been coordinated by the Science Committee of the former Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P) IGWCO (Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations) theme. Within this framework a number of projects related to data system design, product development, and capacity building are being carried out. GEO has recently consolidated the Water SBA activities into three tasks, namely Droughts, Floods and Water Resource Management; Capacity Building for Water Resource Management (in Asia, Africa and the Americas); and Integrated Products for Water Resource Management and Research. In order to strengthen interactions with the GEO and its User Interface Committee, a Water Cycle Community of Practice (COP) was initiated. In addition, within the past year, the IGWCO Science Committee has decided to also function as a Community of Practice in collaboration with the existing Water Cycle COP. This overview will provide background and an update on the GEO Water SBA activities with an emphasis of the way in which these activities are being integrated within the three tasks. It will also describe activities that are planned for 2010 to facilitate this integration. Recent advances related to drought monitoring, capacity and network building, and observational and data systems will be highlighted. New water-related activities arising from collaborations between US GEO and Canada GEO, and through activities within the GEO Architecture and Data Committee, will also be described. This presentation will conclude with a longer-term outlook for water within the GEO framework and provide some guidance for interested experts on how they can become involved in helping to implement these plans.

  6. Control of organic substances in water and waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.B.

    1983-04-01

    The presence of organic substances of industrial origin in waste waters, storm runoff, and in surface and groundwaters may not always be an unmitigated evil--but, it is safe to say, it never is good. In 1976, EPA was required to give special emphasis to 129 priority pollutants that present probable hazard in the water resource. Of these 129 priority pollutants, 114 are organic. This document is comprised of 14 chapters, each prepared by a specialist. Chapter 1, Fundamental Considerations in the Removal of Organic Substances in Water is, in essence, an examination of a wide spectrum of physical-chemical principles that are being used, are under study, or may in the future be adapted for use in the separation of organic pollutants in waters.

  7. Technology tradeoffs related to advanced mission waste processing.

    PubMed

    Slavin, T J; Oleson, M W

    1991-10-01

    Manned missions to the Moon and Mars will produce waste, both in liquid and solid form, from the day-to-day life-support functions of the mission--even considering a "closed" physico-chemical life support approach. An "open" life support system configuration, even one reliant on in situ resources, would result in even more waste being produced. The solution for short term missions appears to be either to store these wastes on-site or to convert them to useful products needed by other systems such as methane, water and gases which could be used for propulsion. The solution for longer term missions appears to be to incorporate their use within the life support system itself by making them a part of a closed ecological life-support system where nearly all materials are recycled. This paper discusses briefly the extent and impact of the life-support system waste production problem for a lunar base for different life support system configurations, including the impact of using in situ resources to meet life support requirements. It then discusses in more detail trade-offs among six of the currently funded physico-chemical waste processing technologies being considered for use in space. PMID:11537692

  8. Advanced Waste Retrieval System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    At West Valley, following the baseline removal operations, bulk waste retrieval methods may be augmented if required, with the deployment of the Advanced Waste Retrieval System (AWRS). The AWRS is a hydraulic boom mounted on a trolley on the Mast-Mounted Tool Delivery System. The boom is about 15 ft long with a pan and tilt mechanism at the end. On the end is a steam jet with a suction tool that can reach down around the tank internal structure and vacuum up zeolite or sludge off the bottom of the tank from a thirty-foot diameter reach. A grinder is included topside in the discharge path to pulverize the zeolite so it can be readily retrieved from the destination tank.

  9. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  10. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  11. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  12. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  13. AN ADVANCED LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEM USING A HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLIDIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, M.; Hirayama, S.; Noshita, K.; Yatou, Y.; Huang, C.T.

    2003-02-27

    An advanced system using High Efficiency Solidification Technology (HEST) was developed to treat PWR liquid waste and the first unit is operating in Taiwan (1) and a detailed design is being carried out for the second unit in Japan. The HEST system consists of two subsystems, a super-concentration subsystem and a solidification subsystem. The super-concentration subsystem is able to concentrate the waste solution to a total boron content as high as 130,000 ppm prior to solidification. The higher boron content will result in greater volume reduction efficiency of solidification. The solidification subsystem consists of an in-drum mixing and a conveyor units. Representative features of this advanced system are as follows. (1) Simple system: The system consists of the super-concentration and cement solidification subsystems; it is as simple as the conventional cement solidification system. (2) High volume reduction efficiency: The number of solidified waste drums is about 1/2.5 that of bitumen solidification. (3) Stable Package: Essentially no organic material is used, and the final package will be stable under the final disposal conditions. (4) Zero secondary waste: Washing water used in the in-drum mixer is recycled. This paper describes the outline of HEST technology, treatment system and pilot plant tests.

  14. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  15. Aerospace vehicle water-waste management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecoraro, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The collection and disposal of human wastes, such as urine and feces, in a spacecraft environment are performed in an aesthetic and reliable manner to prevent degradation of crew performance. The waste management system controls, transfers, and processes materials such as feces, emesis, food residues, used expendables, and other wastes. The requirements, collection, transport, and waste processing are described.

  16. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky

    2011-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  17. Development of an advanced water treatment system for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Chung, H; Ku, B; Gregory, J

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this research was to develop an optimal reuse system applying various types of advanced oxidation processes such as titanium dioxide (TiO2), ozone (O3) and electro-coagulation/oxidation methods. This system is suitable for improving the treatment efficiency of difficult wastewaters, and for the efficient reuse of wastewater. The connecting systems were divided into various types to investigate the stability and treatment efficiency according to the kinds of waste load. Different treatment sequences were examined taking into consideration the characteristics and economical efficiency. In the case of electro-coagulation/oxidation + ozone system, the mean treatment efficiency in terms of BOD5, CODCr and SS removal was 98.7%. The effluent concentration was 50.2 mg l(-1), 38.3 mg l(-1), 30.4 mg l(-1), respectively. In considering the economical efficiency and commercial use, around an eighth of the treatment expenses and around a fifth of the maintenance expenses could be saved compared with existing water treatment systems. The initial construction expenses could be reduced by a third to a fifth. Therefore, if a proper implementation of this research is carried out in relation to site conditions and the purpose of the water reuse, the water reuse rate will be higher and water resources can be protected. PMID:18844120

  18. Basic environmental technology: Water supply, waste disposal, pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes hydrology, hydraulics, water management and water quality. It also discusses solid and hazardous waste, and air and noise pollution. Fundamental scientific concepts are introduced as needed - the text does not assume extensive knowledge of chemistry or biology.

  19. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  20. Advanced ceramic cladding for water reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Feinroth, H.

    2000-07-01

    Under the US Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiatives (NERI) program, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) are being developed as cladding for water reactor fuel elements. The purpose is to substantially increase the passive safety of water reactors. A development effort was initiated in 1991 to fabricate CFCC-clad tubes using commercially available fibers and a sol-gel process developed by McDermott Technologies. Two small-diameter CFCC tubes were fabricated using pure alumina and alumina-zirconia fibers in an alumina matrix. Densities of {approximately}60% of theoretical were achieved. Higher densities are required to guarantee fission gas containment. This NERI work has just begun, and only preliminary results are presented herein. Should the work prove successful, further development is required to evaluate CFCC cladding and performance, including in-pile tests containing fuel and exploring a marriage of CFCC cladding materials with suitable advanced fuel and core designs. The possibility of much higher temperature core designs, possibly cooled with supercritical water, and achievement of plant efficiencies {ge}50% would be examined.

  1. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  2. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012 at 77 FR 14307 and invited interested parties... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides...

  3. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  4. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  5. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  7. Waste stream recycling: Its effect on water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, D.A. ); Lee, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    Waste streams recycled to the influent of a water treatment plant typically contain contaminants at concentrations that are of concern. These contaminants may include giardia and Cryptosporidium, trihalomethanes, manganese, and assimilable organic carbon. This research shows that proper management--treatment, equalization, and monitoring--of the waste streams can render them suitable for recycling in many situations.

  8. ADVERSE IMPACTS OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT ­ A CASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Industrial metal plating processes coat materials with metals, such as chromium, copper and nickel. After the plating process, excess metals are rinsed off and the rinse water is collected and then treated to remove metals prior to discharge of the rinse water into rivers. This waste water is typica...

  9. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  10. 51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. LOOKING NORTHEAST AT EIMCO WASTE WATER TREATMENT THICKENER No. 2, ELECTRIC POWERHOUSE No. 2, AND OUTDOOR ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN BACKGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COMPLEX FOR THE PRIMARY AND 22 BAR MILLS. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Auxiliary Buildings & Shops, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. MICROORGANISMS AND HIGHER PLANTS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Batch experiments were conducted to compare the waste water treatment efficiencies of plant-free microbial filters with filters supporting the growth of reeds (Phragmites communis), cattail (Typha latifolia), rush (Juncus effusus), and bamboo (Bambusa multiplex). The experimental...

  13. Study of water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarneri, C. A.; Reed, A.; Renman, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The manner in which current and advanced technology can be applied to develop practical solutions to existing and emerging water supply and waste disposal problems is evaluated. An overview of water resource factors as they affect new community planning, and requirements imposed on residential waste treatment systems are presented. The results of equipment surveys contain information describing: commercially available devices and appliances designed to conserve water; devices and techniques for monitoring water quality and controlling back contamination; and advanced water and waste processing equipment. System concepts are developed and compared on the basis of current and projected costs. Economic evaluations are based on community populations of from 2,000 to 250,000. The most promising system concept is defined in sufficient depth to initiate detailed design.

  14. Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

  15. Apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Besik, F.

    1983-12-20

    An apparatus and a method for biological treatment of waste waters achieving biological oxidation of organic matter, biological nitrification and denitrification of nitrogenous compounds and biological removal of phosphorus and clarification of the treated waste water in a single reaction tank in a single suspended growth sludge system without the use of traditional compressors, mixers, recirculation pumps, piping and valving and without the use of the traditional clarifier.

  16. Ion removal from waste water using immobilized adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacson, A.E.; Jeffers, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes experiments investigating the removal of various anions from dilute aqueous streams using mixtures of ferric hydroxide and peat moss immobilized in porous polymer beads. Cyclic load-strip tests were conducted at aqueous-to-bead radios of 20, 10, and 5 for loading, stripping, and conditioning, respectively. Beads were stripped with a sodium hydroxide solution and regenerated with a dilute acid. Waste waters containing arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, selenium, tungsten, and vanadium were tested. The maximum waste loading on the beads was determined for each waste water; experimental isotherms are presented.

  17. Waste disposal from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, J. M.; Hardy, C. J.

    1981-05-01

    Alternaive nuclear fuel cycles for support of light water reactors are described and wastes containing naturally occurring or artificially produced radioactivity reviewed. General principles and objectives in radioactive waste management are outlined, and methods for their practical application to fuel cycle wastes discussed. Management of wastes from upgrading processes of uranium hexafluoride manufacture and uranium manufacture and enrichment, and, to a lesser extent, nuclear power reactor wastes are discussed. Some estimates of radiological dose commitments and health effects from nuclear power and fuel cycle wastes were made for US conditions. These indicate that the major part of the radiological dose arises from uranium mining and milling, operation of nuclear reactors, and spent fuel reprocessing. However, the total dose from the fuel cycle is estimated to be only a small fraction of that from natural background radiation.

  18. An evaluation of disposal and utilization options for advanced coal utilization wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    If the US is to continue to effectively use its substantial coal reserves, new clean coal technologies must be developed to improve power production efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants. In order to gain information about wastes produced by advanced coal utilization processes, a research project is being conducted to characterize the geotechnical and geochemical properties of advanced coal process wastes. The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) analyzed 34 of these wastes for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and for the disposal-related physical properties listed in a table. This paper discusses potentially useful waste management practices for eight bulk waste samples obtained from four different clean coal processes: gas reburning with sorbent injection (GRSI); pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC); SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX (SNRB); and coal reburning (CR). All four processes have been demonstrated at either full-scale or pilot-scale facilities in the US. Since the properties of advanced process wastes are different from conventional coal combustion wastes, an analysis was performed to identify any potential problems that could occur when standard, off-the-shelf waste management technologies are used for handling and disposal of advanced process wastes. When potential problems were identified, possible alternative technologies were evaluated.

  19. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control. PMID:26427371

  20. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  1. ADVANCES IN GROUND WATER SAMPLING PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  2. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As. PMID:20153878

  3. Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

    2005-05-01

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall

  4. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF WASTE WATER AQUACULTURE TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study attempted to ascertain the economic viability of aquaculture as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment systems for small municipalities in the Southwestern region of the United States. A multiple water quality objective level cost-effectiveness model was ...

  5. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  6. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  7. Advanced robotics technology applied to mixed waste characterization, sorting and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Hurd, R.; Grasz, E.

    1994-04-01

    There are over one million cubic meters of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste, known as mixed waste, stored at Department of Energy facilities. Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are developing methods to safely and efficiently treat this type of waste. LLNL has automated and demonstrated a means of segregating items in a mixed waste stream. This capability incorporates robotics and automation with advanced multi-sensor information for autonomous and teleoperational handling of mixed waste items with previously unknown characteristics. The first phase of remote waste stream handling was item singulation; the ability to remove individual items of heterogeneous waste directly from a drum, box, bin, or pile. Once objects were singulated, additional multi-sensory information was used for object classification and segregation. In addition, autonomous and teleoperational surface cleaning and decontamination of homogeneous metals has been demonstrated in processing mixed waste streams. The LLNL waste stream demonstration includes advanced technology such as object classification algorithms, identification of various metal types using active and passive gamma scans and RF signatures, and improved teleoperational and autonomous grasping of waste objects. The workcell control program used an off-line programming system as a server to perform both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the motivation for remote mixed waste stream handling, the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 3D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms.

  8. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  9. 2013 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  10. 2014 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  11. 2010 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advance Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  12. 2011 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  13. 2012 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  14. Anaerobic treatability of waste water from pulp and paper industries.

    PubMed

    Norrman, J; Narbuvold, R; Nyström, L

    1984-01-01

    A black liquor evaporator condensate from a Kraft mill and a waste water from production of corrugating medium were anaerobically treated on a laboratory scale. The composition of the waste waters was determined before and after treatment in fixed bed reactors. Toxicity studies by the Microtox-method showed that both waste waters were highly toxic and a slight decrease in toxicity was achieved by anaerobic treatment. Despite the toxicity efficient anaerobic treatment was obtained. Major components of the condensate were methanol, ethanol, acetone, guaiacol, hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl disulfide. Anaerobic treatment reduced the concentration of the major components considerably with one exception. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide was unchanged. Organic overloading of the fixed bed reactor or a temperature drop resulted in an accumulation of acetone, although methanol and ethanol were degraded. Major components of the waste water from the production of corrugating medium were: Klason-lignin, acid-soluble lignin, carbohydrates, extractives and ash. When the fixed bed reactor was operated at a volumetric load of 1.6 kg COD/m(3).d the following reductions were obtained: Klason - lignin (solids fraction 84%; soluble and colloidal fraction 76%), acid-soluble lignin (solids fraction 56%; soluble and colloidal fraction 7%), carbohydrates (100%), extractives (71%), total-S (80%), COD (73%) and BOD(7) (78%). Kinetic studies showed that condensate was more easily degraded anaerobically than corrugating medium waste water. PMID:14545703

  15. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  16. Absorption type water chiller fired directly by waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, K. L.; Kalwar, K.

    1982-08-01

    The direct use of waste heat as heating element in a water chiller of the absorption type was studied. The chilled water is used as cooling element in the industrial process, producing the waste heat or for conditioning the workplace or further located places. The heat source is gaseous or liquid. The cooling capacity is in the range from 10 to 120 kW. After reviewing the different absorption systems, LiBr/H20 proved to be the most suitable. The process retained for experimenting was the manufacturing of synthetic materials polymer industry and was tested in two different factories. It is proved that the use of absorption type water chillers is practicable with an efficiency of 10% to 25% of the waste heat energy, but that the existing chillers need extensive conversion for obtaining economical operation when using a low temperature heating source.

  17. Development of electrochemical denitrification from waste water containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, Toshio; Hirose, Yasuo; Ishii, Yoshinori; Takatsudo, Atsushi; Wakasugi, Kazuhico; Hayashi, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The authors developed processes to dentrify waste water containing ammonium nitrate discharged from the nuclear fuel manufacturing works and to recover nitric acid and ammonia. For denitrification they applied the operating method and the conditions of operation to make 0.4mM or less from NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 1.5 M by 3 stages of electrodialysis cells. To recover nitric acid and ammonium water, they separated HNO{sub 3} solution of 6 M and NH{sub 4}OH solution with one unit of electrolysis cell, then absorbed NH{sub 3} gas from NH{sub 4}OH solution with water and applied the condition of operation to recover 8 M NH{sub 4}OH solution. The authors demonstrated that treatment and recovery can be carried out stably with actual waste water with a system through the combination of previously mentioned electrodialysis cells, electrolysis cells and an ammonia gas absorber. At present they are planning a plant where NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} waste water of 4,500 mol can be treated per day.

  18. Advances in water resources monitoring from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1974-01-01

    Nimbus-5 observations indicate that over the oceans the total precipitable water in a column of atmosphere can be estimated to within + or - 10%, the liquid water content of clouds can be estimated to within + or - 25%, areas of precipitation can be delineated, and broad estimates of the precipitation rate obtained. ERTS-1 observations permit the measurement of snow covered area to within a few percent of drainage basin area and snowline altitudes can be estimated to within 60 meters. Surface water areas as small as 1 hectare can be inventoried over large regions such as playa lakes region of West Texas and Eastern New Mexico. In addition, changes in land use on water-sheds occurring as a result of forest fires, urban development, clear cutting, or strip mining can be rapidly obtained.

  19. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  20. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  1. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

    Controlled-Ecological-Life-Support-System (CELSS) model wastes were wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500°C, i.e., below and above the critical point of water (374°C and 218 kg/cm2 or 21.4 MPa). A solution of ammonium hydroxide and acetic acid and a slurry of human urine, feces, and wipes were used as model wastes. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500°C, i.e., above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. Although the extent of nitrogen oxidation to nitrous oxide (N2O) and/or nitrogen gas (N2) increased with reaction temperature, most of the nitrogen was retained in solution as ammonia near 400°C. This important finding suggests that most of the nitrogen in the waste feed can be retained in solution as ammonia during oxidation at low supercritical temperatures and be subsequently used as a nitrogen source for plants in a CELSS while at the same time organic matter is almost completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. It was also found in this study the Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during waste oxidation. The rate of corrosion was lower above than below the critical temperature for water.

  2. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ray W. Sheldon, P.E.

    2001-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  3. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-10-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  4. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-09-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  5. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-04-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  6. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  7. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-07-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  8. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program was intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research was to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by

  9. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominately water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  10. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-08-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  11. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  12. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Peeler, D. K.; Kim, D. S.; Vienna, J. D.; Piepel, G. F.; Schweiger, M. J.

    2015-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule.

  13. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  14. Combination gas producing and waste water disposal well

    SciTech Connect

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1984-02-07

    The present invention is directed to a waste water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased borehole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. By-pass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the by-pass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  15. Radioactive Waste Conditioning, Immobilisation, And Encapsulation Processes And Technologies: Overview And Advances (Chapter 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Lee, William E.; Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-10-19

    The main immobilization technologies that are available commercially and have been demonstrated to be viable are cementation, bituminization, and vitrification. Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either alkali borosilicate glass or alkali aluminophosphate glass. The exact compositions of nuclear waste glasses are tailored for easy preparation and melting, avoidance of glass-in-glass phase separation, avoidance of uncontrolled crystallization, and acceptable chemical durability, e.g., leach resistance. Glass has also been used to stabilize a variety of low level wastes (LLW) and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) low level wastes (MLLW) from other sources such as fuel rod cladding/decladding processes, chemical separations, radioactive sources, radioactive mill tailings, contaminated soils, medical research applications, and other commercial processes. The sources of radioactive waste generation are captured in other chapters in this book regarding the individual practices in various countries (legacy wastes, currently generated wastes, and future waste generation). Future waste generation is primarily driven by interest in sources of clean energy and this has led to an increased interest in advanced nuclear power production. The development of advanced wasteforms is a necessary component of the new nuclear power plant (NPP) flowsheets. Therefore, advanced nuclear wasteforms are being designed for robust disposal strategies. A brief summary is given of existing and advanced wasteforms: glass, glass-ceramics, glass composite materials (GCM’s), and crystalline ceramic (mineral) wasteforms that chemically incorporate radionuclides and hazardous species atomically in their structure. Cementitious, geopolymer, bitumen, and other encapsulant wasteforms and composites that atomically bond and encapsulate

  16. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on further concept and technology development and verification at the pilot scale of an MSE technology developed by 3M. The technology shows great promise to substantially decrease energy and water consumption in bioethanol production.

  17. Advances in nitrogen management for water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The creation of this book was inspired by collaborative discussions with some of the individuals who presented at the 7th annual symposium that was jointly held by the Soil and Water Conservation Society (SWCS) and Soil Science Society of America (SSSA) in 2006. These individuals were asked to work ...

  18. Recent advances in SPE (tm) water electrolyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, James F.

    1993-01-01

    A new cell structure has been introduced into the SPE Water Electrolyzer which has improved overall characteristics significantly. Weight, reliability, and efficiency are the characteristics that are improved the most, with volume having a second order improvement. This paper discusses the capabilities of the new cell structure and the impact it would have in various space applications.

  19. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  20. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey, Kevin B.; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Heslop, J. Mark

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of 238Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed 238PuO2 fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of 238Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes 238Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239Pu), makes disposal of 238Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all 238Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from 238Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of 238PuO2 from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  1. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  2. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  3. Guide to land treatment of municipal waste water in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Skelton, L.W.; Hinesly, T.D.; John, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Waste water is a recyclable commodity. Organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in waste water are generally harmful when discharged to lakes and streams, but these constituents have a positive economic value when applied under properly controlled conditions to vegetated soils. The guide provides an overview of planning for a land-treatment system. It first discusses the potential for land treatment in Illinois, how to modify lagoons for land treatment, economic considerations, health and environmental concerns, regulatory requirements, and public education. It then provides more technical information on land-treatment processes, site and waste-load evaluation, systems for agricultural production, the potential for supplemental irrigation in Illinois, general site management, and system monitoring.

  4. [Spending review, personal view, water and waste in (home) hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In a moment of particular attention to the health care costs, of global crisis and of concerns not only for the economic future of our Society, but also for the precarious health of our Planet, it is worth reading an Australian article entitled Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis-water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities, by Agar, one of the spokesman of the "ecological dialysis". The article describes, with some irony, some paradoxes of the ecological and economic costs of dialysis. Among these, 156 billion of liters of water per year and a minimum of 625000 tons of waste products, at least partly potentially reusable. With regards to his battle for a planet friendly dialysis, Agar comments that perseverance is not a diffused virtue. Keeping in mind the cost of waste disposal, reading this paper can be an invitation to an intelligent saving policy that directs attention to the economy and to the world around us. PMID:24671836

  5. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  6. STRATEGIES FOR WATER AND WASTE REDUCTION IN DAIRY FOOD PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to reduce water and waste discharges in a complex, multiproduct dairy food plant through management control and modifications of equipment and processes. The objectives were to develop approaches that would be broadly applicable throughout the dairy industr...

  7. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  8. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  9. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. Fetal loss and work in a waste water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.W.; Kheifets, L.; Obrinsky, D.L.; Whorton, M.D.; Foliart, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    We investigated pregnancy outcomes in 101 wives of workers employed in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP), and verified fetal losses by hospital records. Paternal work histories were compiled and each of the 210 pregnancies was assigned a paternal exposure category. The relative risk of fetal loss was increased when paternal exposure to the WWTP occurred around the time of conception.

  11. The Determination of Anionic Surfactants in Natural and Waste Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, P. T.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results of an experiment suitable for measuring subpart per million concentrations of anionic surfactants in natural waters and waste effluents are provided. The experiment required only a spectrophotometer or filter photometer and has been successfully performed by students in an undergraduate environmental…

  12. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  13. Toxicity testing of ground water, surface water and waste water in the island of Cyprus

    SciTech Connect

    McNaughton, E.; Kouris, D.; Guden, H.; Gokcekus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The island of Cyprus is an exporter of agricultural products to the European Community (EC). Public health and environmental toxicity testing programs on the island, especially in the Greek-dominated south, are based on EC models. Following EC guidelines, an environmental toxicology laboratory is being established at the State Laboratory in Nicosia. It will test water for toxicity using the acute Daphnia magna survival test, the chronic 4-day algal growth test (Selenastrum capricomutum), Microtox and Mutatox. During a 6-month survey of water and wastewater using the acute Ceriodaphnia dubia test and the algal growth test, the question of the relevance of environmental toxicity testing in an ecosystem devoid of natural year round freshwater sources, excepting ground water, was examined. Municipal wells, potable and agricultural water reservoirs, municipal and industrial effluent were tested. Preliminary studies showed some municipal well water to be toxic to freshwater species, probably due to high salt content. Water from a newly developed reservoir was toxic, probably due to its location at the base of eroding hills recently mined for copper. Effluent from a paper factory was toxic, but the reservoir into which it flows was not, nor was the sulfide-rich water toxic to untreated seeds. For the water-deficient ecosystem of Cyprus, the environmental testing program must be different from those developed for the European continent. The choice of appropriate test species, the need to focus on water quality for public health and agricultural use, and the possible benefits of nutrient-enriched waste water flowing into sterile ocean water, must all be considered.

  14. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  15. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  16. Advanced Water Vapor Lidar Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    1998-01-01

    In the present water vapor lidar system, the detected signal is sent over long cables to a waveform digitizer in a CAMAC crate. This has the disadvantage of transmitting analog signals for a relatively long distance, which is subjected to pickup noise, leading to a decrease in the signal to noise ratio. Generally, errors in the measurement of water vapor with the DIAL method arise from both random and systematic sources. Systematic errors in DIAL measurements are caused by both atmospheric and instrumentation effects. The selection of the on-line alexandrite laser with a narrow linewidth, suitable intensity and high spectral purity, and its operation at the center of the water vapor lines, ensures minimum influence in the DIAL measurement that are caused by the laser spectral distribution and avoid system overloads. Random errors are caused by noise in the detected signal. Variability of the photon statistics in the lidar return signal, noise resulting from detector dark current, and noise in the background signal are the main sources of random error. This type of error can be minimized by maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The increase in the signal to noise ratio can be achieved by several ways. One way is to increase the laser pulse energy, by increasing its amplitude or the pulse repetition rate. Another way, is to use a detector system with higher quantum efficiency and lower noise, on the other hand, the selection of a narrow band optical filter that rejects most of the day background light and retains high optical efficiency is an important issue. Following acquisition of the lidar data, we minimize random errors in the DIAL measurement by averaging the data, but this will result in the reduction of the vertical and horizontal resolutions. Thus, a trade off is necessary to achieve a balance between the spatial resolution and the measurement precision. Therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to increase the signal to noise ratio by a factor of

  17. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  18. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  19. Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

    2012-01-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

  20. Russian technology advancements for waste mixing and retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    GIBBONS, P.W.

    2002-01-21

    Engineers at the Mining and Chemical Combine nuclear facility, located in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, have developed a pulsating mixer/sluicer to mobilize a layer of consolidated, hardened sludge at the bottom of their 12-m-diameter by 30-m-high nuclear waste tanks. This waste has resisted mobilization by conventional sluicing jets. The new pulsating mixer/sluicer draws tank liquid into a pressure vessel, then expels it at elevated pressure either through a set of submerged mixing jets or a steerable through-air jet. Four versions (or generations) of this technology have been developed. Following testing of three other Russian mobilization and transfer systems at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, a first generation of the new pulsating mixer/sluicer was identified for possible waste retrieval applications in U.S. high-level waste tanks (1). A second-generation pulsating mixer/sluicer was developed and successfully deployed in Tank TH-4 at the Oak Ridge Reservation, located in Tennessee, US (2). A thud-generation pulsating mixed/sluicer with a dual nozzle design was developed and is being tested for possible use by the Hanford Site's River Protection Project to retrieve waste from Tank 241-S-102, a single-shell tank containing radioactive saltcake and sludge. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area, the Mining and Chemical Combine is conducting cold (that is, nonradioactive) tests and demonstrations of the third-generation system in 2001 and 2002. This work is being conducted through the Tank Retrieval and Closure Demonstration Center, which is sponsored by the National Nuclear Safety Administration's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (NN-40). A fourth-generation dual-nozzle pulsating mixer/sluicer is undergoing cold testing for use at the Mining and Chemical Combine to retrieve radioactive sludge there in 2004.

  1. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  2. Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

  3. Advanced Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Emerson; Thomas Vanderspurt; Susanne Opalka; Rakesh Radhakrishnan; Rhonda Willigan

    2009-01-07

    The overall objectives for this project were: (1) to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane with high stability and commercially relevant hydrogen permeation in the presence of trace amounts of carbon monoxide and sulfur; and (2) to identify and synthesize a water gas shift catalyst with a high operating life that is sulfur and chlorine tolerant at low concentrations of these impurities. This work successfully achieved the first project objective to identify a suitable PdCu tri-metallic alloy membrane composition, Pd{sub 0.47}Cu{sub 0.52}G5{sub 0.01}, that was selected based on atomistic and thermodynamic modeling alone. The second objective was partially successful in that catalysts were identified and evaluated that can withstand sulfur in high concentrations and at high pressures, but a long operating life was not achieved at the end of the project. From the limited durability testing it appears that the best catalyst, Pt-Re/Ce{sub 0.333}Zr{sub 0.333}E4{sub 0.333}O{sub 2}, is unable to maintain a long operating life at space velocities of 200,000 h{sup -1}. The reasons for the low durability do not appear to be related to the high concentrations of H{sub 2}S, but rather due to the high operating pressure and the influence the pressure has on the WGS reaction at this space velocity.

  4. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Khan, S.U.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  5. SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

  6. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, Russell L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  7. Method of draining water through a solid waste site without leaching

    DOEpatents

    Treat, R.L.; Gee, G.W.; Whyatt, G.A.

    1993-02-02

    The present invention is a method of preventing water from leaching solid waste sites by preventing atmospheric precipitation from contacting waste as the water flows through a solid waste site. The method comprises placing at least one drain hole through the solid waste site. The drain hole is seated to prevent waste material from entering the drain hole, and the solid waste site cover material is layered and graded to direct water to flow toward the drain hole and to soil beneath the waste site.

  8. Strategic methodology for advancing food manufacturing waste management paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.

    2004-12-01

    As manufacturing industries become more cognizant of the ecological effects that their firms have on the surrounding environment, their waste streams are increasingly becoming viewed not as materials in need of disposal, but rather as resources that can be reused, recycled, or reprocessed into valuable products. Within the food processing sector there are many examples of value-added use of processing residues, although many of these focus solely on utilization as livestock feed ingredients. In addition to livestock feed, though, many other potential avenues exist for food processing waste streams, including food grade as well as industrial products. Unfortunately, the challenge to food processors is actually conducting the byproduct development work. In fact, no clear delineation exists that describes necessary components for an effective byproduct development program. This paper describes one such strategic methodology that could help fill this void. It consists of identifying, quantifying, characterizing, developing, analyzing, optimizing, and modeling the waste stream of interest. This approach to byproduct development represents an inclusive strategy that can be used to more effectively implement value-added utilization programs. Not only is this methodology applicable to food processing operations, but any industrial or manufacturing firm could benefit from instituting the formal components described here. Thus, this methodology, if implemented by a manufacturer, could hold the potential for increasing the probability of meeting the goals of industrial ecology, namely, that of developing and operating sustainable systems.

  9. Advancing Information Technology in the Waste Management World

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, B.; Smylie, G.; Thompson, S.; Bruemmer, H.

    2008-07-01

    The development and utilization of software for the waste management world is critical, yet complex. Numerous and sometimes conflicting regulations, coupled with demands for streamlined efficiency and high standards of safety, require innovative information technology solutions and closely-managed processes. The primary goal of this paper is to demonstrate how this challenge can be met by applying software engineering best practices to the waste management domain. This paper presents two case studies highlighting how IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) software engineering standards have proven to be effective within the CH-TRU and RH-TRU waste management arena. These examples show how adherence to best practices has enabled software to meet institutional expectations for usability, consistency, reusability, documentation, quality assurance, and adherence to regulations. Specific techniques, such as the use of customisable software life-cycle management software, and the integration of subject matter experts and the information technology specialists through the change control board, will be presented in detail. With an eye to the future, we will show the software resulting from a best practices approach can be further enhanced with the use of artificial intelligence techniques to tackle problems such as accounting for unexpected user inputs, analyzing the relationship between data fields, and recognizing aberrant patterns in the data. (authors)

  10. Biological processes for advancing lignocellulosic waste biorefinery by advocating circular economy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-09-01

    The actualization of a circular economy through the use of lignocellulosic wastes as renewable resources can lead to reduce the dependence from fossil-based resources and contribute to a sustainable waste management. The integrated biorefineries, exploiting the overall lignocellulosic waste components to generate fuels, chemicals and energy, are the pillar of the circular economy. The biological treatment is receiving great attention for the biorefinery development since it is considered an eco-friendly alternative to the physico-chemical strategies to increase the biobased product recovery from wastes and improve saccharification and fermentation yields. This paper reviews the last advances in the biological treatments aimed at upgrading lignocellulosic wastes, implementing the biorefinery concept and advocating circular economy. PMID:27131870

  11. Recent Advances in Point-of-Access Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostynska, O.; Arshak, K.; Velusamy, V.; Arshak, A.; Vaseashta, Ashok

    Clean water is one of our most valuable natural resources. In addition to providing safe drinking water it assures functional ecosystems that support fisheries and recreation. Human population growth and its associated increased demands on water pose risks to maintaining acceptable water quality. It is vital to assess source waters and the aquatic systems that receive inputs from industrial waste and sewage treatment plants, storm water systems, and runoff from urban and agricultural lands. Rapid and confident assessments of aquatic resources form the basis for sound environmental management. Current methods engaged in tracing the presence of various bacteria in water employ bulky laboratory equipment and are time consuming. Thus, real-time water quality monitoring is essential for National and International Health and Safety. Environmental water monitoring includes measurements of physical characteristics (e.g. pH, temperature, conductivity), chemical parameters (e.g. oxygen, alkalinity, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), and abundance of certain biological taxa. Monitoring could also include assays of biological activity such as alkaline phosphatase, tests for toxins such as microcystins and direct measurements of pollutants such as heavy metals or hydrocarbons. Real time detection can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper presents overview of state-of-the-art methods and devices used for point-of-access water quality monitoring and suggest further developments in this area.

  12. [WASTE WATERS AS THE RESERVOIR OF INTESTINAL ENTERIC VIRAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Nedachin, A E; Dmitrieva, R A; Doskina, T V; Dolgin, V A; Chulanov, V P; Pimenov, N N

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented data of field observations of the spectrum of viruses, contained in the waste waters. The studies were performed on the territory of the city and the territory unfavorable for hepatitis A. In the territory of the big city by RT-PCR in the waste liquid the enterovirus RNA was detected in 45% of samples; astroviruses--90%; noroviruses--80% and 15% of rotaviruses. Samples from 2 wells were slightly positive for the presence of HCV RNA A. In the waste liquid on the territory, unfavorable for viral hepatitis A, in 100% of the samples there were determined noro- and astroviruses RNA and adenovirus DNA, in 75%--enterovirus RNA; 50%--HAV RNA and a 25%--rotavirus RNA. PMID:26856138

  13. Advances in the Glass Formulations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Albert A.; Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    The Department of Energy-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site in Washington. The WTP that is being designed and constructed by a team led by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) will separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fractions with the majority of the mass (~90%) directed to LAW and most of the activity (>95%) directed to HLW. The pretreatment process, envisioned in the baseline, involves the dissolution of aluminum-bearing solids so as to allow the aluminum salts to be processed through the cesium ion exchange and report to the LAW Facility. There is an oxidative leaching process to affect a similar outcome for chromium-bearing wastes. Both of these unit operations were advanced to accommodate shortcomings in glass formulation for HLW inventories. A by-product of this are a series of technical challenges placed upon materials selected for the processing vessels. The advances in glass formulation play a role in revisiting the flow sheet for the WTP and hence, the unit operations that were being imposed by minimal waste loading requirements set forth in the contract for the design and construction of the plant. Another significant consideration to the most recent revision of the glass models are the impacts on resolution of technical questions associated with current efforts for design completion.

  14. Advanced Waste Treatment. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This operations manual represents a continuation of operator training manuals developed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in response to the technological advancements of wastewater treatment and the changing needs of the operations profession. It is intended to be used as a home-study course manual (using the concepts…

  15. Advance directives, dementia, and withholding food and water by mouth.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Paul T; Chandler-Cramer, M Colette

    2014-01-01

    People with dementia who are no longer competent have limited control over how their lives end. But an advance directive to withhold food and water by mouth could be used to ensure that one does not live for years in severe dementia. Such directives are arguably already legal. PMID:24821250

  16. Advances in the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a plethora of research related to the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology of acid mine waters and associated tailings and waste-rock waters. Numerous books, reviews, technical papers, and proceedings have been published that examine the complex bio-geochemical process of sulfide mineral oxidation, develop and apply geochemical models to site characterization, and characterize the microbial ecology of these environments. This review summarizes many of these recent works, and provides references for those investigating this field. Comparisons of measured versus calculated Eh and measured versus calculated pH for water samples from several field sites demonstrate the reliability of some current geochemical models for aqueous speciation and mass balances. Geochemical models are not, however, used to predict accurately time-dependent processes but to improve our understanding of these systems and to constrain possible processes that contribute to actual or potential water quality issues. Microbiological studies are demonstrating that there is much we have yet to learn about the types of different microorganisms and their function and ecology in mine-waste environments. A broad diversity of green algae, bacteria, archaea, yeasts, and fungi are encountered in acid mine waters, and a better understanding of their ecology and function may potentially enhance remediation possibilities as well as our understanding of the evolution of life.

  17. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  18. Treatment of oilfield produced water by waste stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2007-01-01

    Produced water (PW) from oil wells can serve as an alternative water resource for agriculture if the main pollutants (hydrocarbons and heavy metals) can be removed to below irrigation standards. Waste stabilization ponds seem like a promising solution for PW treatment, especially in the Middle East where solar radiation is high and land is available. In this work, hydrocarbon removal from PW in a biological waste stabilization pond was examined at lab-scale followed by an intermittent slow sand filter. The system was run for 300 days and removed around 90% of the oil in the pond, and 95% after the sand filter. COD removal was about 80% in the pond effluent, and 85% after the filter. The system was tested under various operational modes and found to be stable to shock loads. Installation of oil booms and decantation of surface oil seem to be important in order to maintain good system performance over time. PMID:17591220

  19. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with RO membrane technology and its application for agriculture and industry in arid area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, F.

    2015-04-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is the global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase the quantity of conventional water resources such as surface water and groundwater for agriculture and industry in arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane has been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking water quality standards, with utilizing RO membrane. In this report a new fresh water resource from municipal waste water is studied to apply to the plant factory which is the water saving type agriculture and industry in arid area.

  20. Treatment of dairy waste by using water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, R K; Pattanshetty, S M

    2002-01-01

    In the present study treatment of wastewater from a large dairy by using water hyacinth was studied in laboratory experiments. Effects of depth of the system, variations in area coverage, prior settling and of daily renewal of the plants was also studied on the efficacy of hyacinth in treating the dairy waste. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was found to grow exceptionally well in the waste (BOD 840.0 mg/L) and brought down the level of BOD from 840.0 to 121.0 mg/L; COD from 1,160.0 to 164.0 mg/L, total suspended solids from 359.0 mg/L to 245.0 mg/L, TDS from 848.0 mg/L to 352.0 mg/L, total nitrogen from 26.6 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L in 4 days. There was very little reduction, however in calcium, sodium and potassium concentration. Results of different experiments showed that systems with shallow depth were more efficient in removing dissolved solids, suspended solids, BOD, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus. Daily renewal of the plants led to slightly better reduction in suspended and dissolved solids, BOD, COD and nitrogen. Water hyacinth coverage was found to have a direct bearing on the treatment efficiency. Pretreatment (settling) of the waste was also found to be favourable as dissolved oxygen content increased rapidly in the experimental sets with pretreatment. Efficiency of removal of various parameters was also good in these sets. From the study it can be concluded that dairy waste can be effectively treated by water hyacinth. Consideration of above parameters and incorporating them in design factors can greatly increase the efficiency of the system. PMID:12201119

  1. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murawczyk, C.

    1973-01-01

    The work is described accomplished in compiling information needed to establish the current water supply and waste water processing requirements for dwellings, and for developing a preliminary design for a waste water to potable water management system. Data generated was used in formulation of design criteria for the preliminary design of the waste water to potable water recycling system. The system as defined was sized for a group of 500 dwelling units. Study tasks summarized include: water consumption, nature of domestic water, consumer appliances for low water consumption, water quality monitoring, baseline concept, and current and projected costs.

  2. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste. PMID:19965345

  3. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  4. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

  5. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  6. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin of the shipment and the 7-day... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  7. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172.203(d); (3) The point of origin... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a)(1) As specified in paragraphs...

  8. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  9. Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, A.L.; Nikolic, O.

    1995-11-27

    A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

  10. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  11. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 138 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Coal mine wastes. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coal mining wastes, refuse dumps, and spoil. The disposal, environmental impact, waste treatment, utilization, and pollution control of these wastes are discussed. The revegetation of mined lands using waste water sludge is also considered. (Contains a minimum of 243 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  14. Oxygen Penalty for Waste Oxidation in an Advanced Life Support System: A Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Fisher, John

    2002-01-01

    Oxidation is one of a number of technologies that are being considered for waste management and resource recovery from waste materials generated on board space missions. Oxidation processes are a very effective and efficient means of clean and complete conversion of waste materials to sterile products. However, because oxidation uses oxygen there is an "oxygen penalty" associated either with resupply of oxygen or with recycling oxygen from some other source. This paper is a systems approach to the issue of oxygen penalty in life support systems and presents findings on the oxygen penalty associated with an integrated oxidation-Sabatier-Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for waste management in an Advanced Life Support System. The findings reveal that such an integrated system can be operated to form a variety of useful products without a significant oxygen penalty.

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extraterrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtration material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removal technique. Our studies have shown a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  16. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  17. Integrated water management system - Description and test results. [for Space Station waste water processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elden, N. C.; Winkler, H. E.; Price, D. F.; Reysa, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    Water recovery subsystems are being tested at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for Space Station use to process waste water generated from urine and wash water collection facilities. These subsystems are being integrated into a water management system that will incorporate wash water and urine processing through the use of hyperfiltration and vapor compression distillation subsystems. Other hardware in the water management system includes a whole body shower, a clothes washing facility, a urine collection and pretreatment unit, a recovered water post-treatment system, and a water quality monitor. This paper describes the integrated test configuration, pertinent performance data, and feasibility and design compatibility conclusions of the integrated water management system.

  18. Bioregenerative technologies for waste processing and resource recovery in advanced space life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for producing oxygen, water, and food in space will require an interactive facility to process and return wastes as resources to the system. This paper examines the bioregenerative techologies for waste processing and resource recovery considered for a CELSS Resource Recovery system. The components of this system consist of a series of biological reactors to treat the liquid and solid material fractions, in which the aerobic and anaerobic reactors are combined in a block called the Combined Reactor Equipment (CORE) block. The CORE block accepts the human wastes, kitchen wastes, inedible refractory plant materials, grey waters from the CELLS system, and aquaculture solids and processes these materials in either aerobic or anaerobic reactors depending on the desired product and the rates required by the integrated system.

  19. Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-11-21

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under irradiation by sunlight has received much attention for production of renewable hydrogen from water on a large scale. Many challenges still remain in improving energy conversion efficiency, such as utilizing longer-wavelength photons for hydrogen production, enhancing the reaction efficiency at any given wavelength, and increasing the lifetime of the semiconductor materials. This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Controlling the semiconducting properties of photocatalysts and photoelectrode materials is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting, because they determine how much photoexcitation occurs in a semiconductor under solar illumination and how many photoexcited carriers reach the surface where water splitting takes place. Given a specific semiconductor material, surface modifications are important not only to activate the semiconductor for water splitting but also to facilitate charge separation and to upgrade the stability of the material under photoexcitation. In addition, reducing resistance loss and forming p-n junction have a significant impact on the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting. Correct evaluation of the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting is becoming more important in enabling an accurate comparison of a number of studies based on different systems. In the latter part, recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions. PMID:24413305

  20. Performance analysis of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M.; DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1995-07-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal wastes. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Conceptual designs of two power plants rated at 250 MWe and 150 MWe were developed. Heat and material balances were completed for each plant along with environmental issues. With the PFBC`s operation at high temperature and pressure, efforts were centered on defining feeding systems capable of operating at these conditions. Air emissions and solid wastes were characterized to assess the environmental performance comparing them to state and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  1. Application of Integrated Control of Linked Water and Waste Water Systems in the Hoeksche Waard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loenen, A.; van Heeringen, K.-J.; Mol, B.

    2012-04-01

    Presented is a project in which an experimental integrated automatic control system for sewer systems and open water is developed for a rural region in The Netherlands, containing five municipalities and one water board. The goal of the project is to improve the water quality through increased cooperation between the authorities. The most effective method for realizing the water quality goals is to reduce the number of sewer spills, and to position the spills on locations less sensitive to sewer spills. In the project, three main methods are used to reduce the number of sewer spills: The first method involves optimizing the use of the available storage in the sewer system; the control of the pumps aim at keeping the filling rates of the sewer subsystems equal. A second method entails increasing the inflow of the Waste Water Treatment Plants during heavy rainfall events without disturbing the treatment process. The third method is about controlling the system in such a way that spills occur at less sensitive locations, thus avoiding spills in ecologically valuable waterbodies. All these methods require an extensive sensor network and centrally real-time controlled systems (RTC). An extensive study of the waste water chain constitutes the basis for the deployment of the automatic central control. The project has resulted so far in an extensive knowledge on the functioning of the waste water systems and an increased cooperation between water authorities. Preliminary results on the central control indicate that the number and volume of spills have decreased.

  2. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics

  3. Developing a common framework for integrated solid waste management advances in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Olley, Jane E; IJgosse, Jeroen; Rudin, Victoria; Alabaster, Graham

    2014-09-01

    This article describes the municipal solid waste management system in Managua, Nicaragua. It updates an initial profile developed by the authors for the 2010 UN-HABITAT publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities and applies the methodology developed in that publication. In recent years, the municipality of Managua has been the beneficiary of a range of international cooperation projects aimed at improving municipal solid waste management in the city. The article describes how these technical assistance and infrastructure investments have changed the municipal solid waste management panorama in the city and analyses the sustainability of these changes. The article concludes that by working closely with the municipal government, the UN-HABITAT project Strengthening Capacities for Solid Waste Management in Managua was able to unite these separate efforts and situate them within a strategic framework to guide the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system in the forthcoming years. The creation of this multi-stakeholder platform allowed for the implementation of joint activities and ensured coherence in the products generated by the different projects. This approach could be replicated in other cities and in other sectors with similar effect. Developing a long term vision was essential for the advancement of municipal solid waste management in the city. Nevertheless, plan implementation may still be undermined by the pressures of the short term municipal administrative government, which emphasize operational over strategic investment. PMID:25236614

  4. Economics of co-firing waste materials in an advanced pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Bonk, D.L.; McDaniel, H.M.; DeLallo, M.R. Jr.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1995-04-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach is the atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC). It has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power by burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. The results and conclusions developed are generally applicable to current and advanced PFBC design concepts.

  5. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  6. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V.

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  7. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  8. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  9. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  10. Tracing and age-dating recycled waste water recharged for potable reuse in a seawater injection barrier, southern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Esser, B K; Herndon, R L; Hudson, G B

    1998-12-02

    In this report we outline an investigative approach that combines isotopic tracers and tritium-helium-3 (3H-3He) dating to directly measure groundwater mixing and ages. These data can be used to test regulatory compliance in potable water reuse projects (Davisson et al., 1998). We provide an example from a seawater injection barrier located in Orange County, California, which has been injecting advanced- treated waste water into a coastal aquifer for the past 25 years to prevent seawater intrusion. Treatment comprises lime coagulation of secondary waste effluents, followed by re-carbonation, sand filtration, and reverse osmosis. The finished water has a very low TDS (-100 mg/L), which is blended -50% with a low TDS (288 mg/L) native groundwater, making an injection water of -200 mg/L.

  11. Warm water aquaculture using waste heat and water from zero discharge power plants in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Heckmann, R.A.; Winget, R.N.; Infanger, R.C.; Mickelsen, R.W.; Hendersen, J.M.

    1984-01-31

    Two series of experiments were completed to determine (a) toxicity of waste water from power plants on warm water fish and (b) multiple use of waste heat and water for aquatic animal and plant production. All three types of waste water from a typical coal-fired power plant are acceptable for growing catfish and tilapia following aeration. This growth was compared with fish raised in spring water. Closed, recirculating polyculture systems using evaporation pond water operated efficiently for plant (duckweed) and animal (fish and freshwater prawns) production. Duckweed is an excellent supplement for fish feed. Tilapia and freshwater prawns grew rapidly in the tanks containing duckweed only. 10 references, 13 tables.

  12. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout

  13. Advancements in waste water characterization through NMR spectroscopy: review.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Alexandre e Silva, Lorena M; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    There are numerous organic pollutants that lead to several types of ecosystem damage and threaten human health. Wastewater treatment plants are responsible for the removal of natural and anthropogenic pollutants from the sewage, and because of this function, they play an important role in the protection of human health and the environment. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable analytical tool as a result of its versatility in characterizing both overall chemical composition as well as individual species in a wide range of mixtures. In addition, NMR can provide physical information (rigidity, dynamics, etc.) as well as permit in depth quantification. Hyphenation with other techniques such as liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and mass spectrometry creates unprecedented capabilities for the identification of novel and unknown chemical species. Thus, NMR is widely used in the study of different components of wastewater, such as complex organic matter (fulvic and humic acids), sludge and wastewater. This review article summarizes the NMR spectroscopy methods applied in studies of organic pollutants from wastewater to provide an exhaustive review of the literature as well as a guide for readers interested in this topic. PMID:25280056

  14. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of CELSS model wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Wydeven, T.; Koo, C.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium hydroxide with acetic acid and a slurry of human feces, urine, and wipes were used as CELSS model wastes to be wet-oxidized at temperatures from 250 to 500 C, i.e. below and above the critical point of water (374 C and 218 kg/sq cm or 21.4 MPa). The effects of oxidation temperature ( 250-500 C) and residence time (0-120 mn) on carbon and nitrogen and on metal corrosion from the reactor material were studied. Almost all of the organic matter in the model wastes was oxidized in the temperature range from 400 to 500 C, above the critical conditions for water. In contrast, only a small portion of the organic matter was oxidized at subcritical conditions. A substantial amount of nitrogen remained in solution in the form of ammonia at temperatures ranging from 350 to 450 C suggesting that, around 400 C, organic carbon is completely oxidized and most of the nitrogen is retained in solution. The Hastelloy C-276 alloy reactor corroded during subcritical and supercritical water oxidation.

  15. Device for the removal of heat from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kalberer, F.

    1983-12-27

    Waste water is led into a container (1) through a inlet (4) at the top. A connection (20) between the inlet (4) and an outlet (21) having a check valve (22) comprises adjacent to the inlet (4) two inverted frusto-conical hollow bodies (24, 25) which are directly connected to each other. The connecting surface between the two hollow bodies (24, 25) is formed as a coarse screen (26). A round fine screen (30), which diverges downwardly, surrounds the hollow bodies (24,25). Heat exchangers (31) are located in the space between the fine screen (30) and the wall (2) of the container (1). An outlet (5) terminates at the bottom of the container and connects with a riser (6) and via a bend (7) with the sewerage conduit (8). Through the coarse screen (26) the waste water reaches the container, and the heat can reach the heat exchangers (31) through the fine screen (30), so that practically uncontaminated water is present at the heat exchangers, and the need for cleansing is substantially diminished.

  16. Application of fiber optic sensors in waste water management from microelectronics fabrication processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulieru, Dumitru G.

    1999-09-01

    The concept of waste water treatment from microelectronics fab processes is referring to waste water discharged from ultrapure water plant which can't be treated on recovery waste water section. These wastes concentrated contains organic and inorganic acids, alkalis, metals, cyanide, chromium and fluoride effluent from fab processes. They will be canalized on qualities for treatment sections which permit the discharge of treated waste water as neutral with solids removal as compacted sludge. For management of waste water treatment plant we are using the fiber optic sensors as follows: level and flow control, signalization automatic pumps control and protection, solid control, leak detection a.s.o. The neutral quality of treated water has 'null' impact against of environmental system recommended for all semiconductors and microelectronics fab processes.

  17. Evaluation of Point of Use Water Treatment Devices for Removal of Mine Wastes from Well Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA Region VII and the Office of Research and Development (ORD) are conducting a large-scale study to identify the prevalence of lead (Pb) and other contaminants in drinking water at four mine waste areas in Washington County, Missouri. Numerous households in Potosi, Richwoo...

  18. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  19. Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Halama, Gary E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range avalanche photodiodes (APD's) are the best choice for higher signal-to-noise ratio, where there are many water vapor absorption lines. In this study, characterization experiments were performed to evaluate a group of silicon-based APD's. The APD's have different structures representative of different manufacturers. The experiments include setups to calibrate these devices, as well as characterization of the effects of voltage bias and temperature on the responsivity, surface scans, noise measurements, and frequency response measurements. For each experiment, the setup, procedure, data analysis, and results are given and discussed. This research was done to choose a suitable APD detector for the development of an advanced atmospheric water vapor differential absorption lidar detection system operating either at 720, 820, or 940 nm. The results point out the benefits of using the super low ionization ratio (SLIK) structure APD for its lower noise-equivalent power, which was found to be on the order of 2 to 4 fW/Hz(sup (1/2)), with an appropriate optical system and electronics. The water vapor detection systems signal-to-noise ratio will increase by a factor of 10.

  20. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  1. Case study of the effectiveness of passive grease trap for management on domestic kitchen waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Juffrizal, K.; Mustapha, F.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Household waste, generally known as trash or garbage is mostly includes food wastes, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes that are coming from domestic household. Grease waste such as oil and fats can contaminate water and also clot on pipes provoking blockages. Thus, waste water from kitchen sink need a proper way of filtration. Grease trap developed in this paper is viable in trapping the grease residue. The experiments have been conducted in controlled environment and the objectives are to investigate the effectiveness of grease trap by proving the existence of retention time and the expected ratio of collected water and oil during experiment process using a prototype model.

  2. The application of advanced remote systems technology to future waste handling facilities: Waste Systems Data and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Herndon, J.N.; Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been advancing the technology in remote handling and remote maintenance of in-cell systems planned for future US nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Much of the experience and technology developed over the past decade in this endeavor are directly applicable to the in-cell systems being considered for the facilities of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The ORNL developments are based on the application of teleoperated force-reflecting servomanipulators controlled by an operator completely removed from the hazardous environment. These developments address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in a waste handling facility. Employing technological advancements in dexterous manipulators, as well as basic design guidelines that have been developed for remotely maintained equipment and processes, can increase operation and maintenance system capabilities, thereby allowing the attainment of two FWMS major objectives: decreasing plant personnel radiation exposure and increasing plant availability by decreasing the mean-time-to-repair in-cell maintenance and process equipment. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. G-189A analytical simulation of the integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coggi, J. V.; Loscutoff, A. V.; Barker, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical simulation of the RITE-Integrated Waste Management and Water Recovery System using radioisotopes for thermal energy was prepared for the NASA-Manned Space Flight Center (MSFC). The RITE system is the most advanced concept water-waste management system currently under development and has undergone extended duration testing. It has the capability of disposing of nearly all spacecraft wastes including feces and trash and of recovering water from usual waste water sources: urine, condensate, wash water, etc. All of the process heat normally used in the system is produced from low penalty radioisotope heat sources. The analytical simulation was developed with the G189A computer program. The objective of the simulation was to obtain an analytical simulation which can be used to (1) evaluate the current RITE system steady state and transient performance during normal operating conditions, and also during off normal operating conditions including failure modes; and (2) evaluate the effects of variations in component design parameters and vehicle interface parameters on system performance.

  4. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  5. Advanced conceptual design report solid waste retrieval facility, phase I, project W-113

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.E.

    1994-03-21

    Project W-113 will provide the equipment and facilities necessary to retrieve suspect transuranic (TRU) waste from Trench 04 of the 218W-4C burial ground. As part of the retrieval process, waste drums will be assayed, overpacked, vented, head-gas sampled, and x-rayed prior to shipment to the Phase V storage facility in preparation for receipt at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP). Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) studies focused on project items warranting further definition prior to Title I design and areas where the potential for cost savings existed. This ACD Report documents the studies performed during FY93 to optimize the equipment and facilities provided in relation to other SWOC facilities and to provide additional design information for Definitive Design.

  6. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  7. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  8. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  9. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    PubMed

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  10. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a recirculating control loop which had no water quality maintenance. Results show that periodic water maintenance can improve performance of the SWME. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage of this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to enhance the robustness of the SWME through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A patented bed design that was developed for a United Technologies Aerospace System military application provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in the SWME recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for the ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  11. Effect of textile waste water on tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Marwari, Richa; Khan, T I

    2012-09-01

    In this study Sanganer town, Jaipur was selected as study area. The plants of Lycopersicon esculentum var. K 21(Tomato) treated with 20 and 30% textile wastewater were analyzed for metal accumulation, growth and biochemical parameters at per, peak and post flowering stages. Findings of the study revealed that chlorophyll content was most severely affected with the increase in metal concentration. Total chlorophyll content showed a reduction of 72.44% while carbohydrate, protein and nitrogen content showed a reduction of 46.83, 71.65 and 71.65% respectively. With the increase in waste water treatment the root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and total dry weight were reduced to 50.55, 52.06, 69.93, 72.42, 72.10% respectively. After crop harvesting, the fruit samples of the plants treated with highest concentration of textile waste water contained 2.570 mg g(-1)d.wt. of Zn, 0.800 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cu, 1.520 mg g(-1) d.wt. Cr and 2.010 mg g(-1) d.wt. Pb. PMID:23734449

  12. Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, G.M.; Dempsey, C.R.; Dostal, K.A.

    1988-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development of test rules under Section 4. Azo dyes are of concern because some of the dyes, dye precurors, and/or their degradation products such as aromatic amines (which are also dye precurors) have been shown to be, or are suspected to be, carcinogenic. The fate of azo dyes in biological waste-water treatment systems was studied to aid in the review of PMN submissions and to assist in the possible development of test rules. Results from extensive pilot-scale activated-sludge process testing for 18 azo dyes are presented. Results from fate studies of C.I. Disperse Blue 79 in aerobic and anaerobic waste-water treatment will also be presented.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  14. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  15. Advanced fuels for plutonium management in pressurized water reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, A.; Dufour, Ph; Golfier, H.; Grouiller, J. P.; Guillet, J. L.; Poinot, Ch; Youinou, G.; Zaetta, A.

    2003-06-01

    Several fuel concepts are under investigation at CEA with the aim of manage plutonium inventories in pressurized water reactors. This options range from the use of mature technologies like MOX adapted in the case of MOX-EUS (enriched uranium support) and COmbustible Recyclage A ILot (CORAIL) assemblies to more innovative technologies using IMF like DUPLEX and advanced plutonium assembly (APA). The plutonium burning performances reported to the electrical production go from 7 to 60 kg (TW h) -1. More detailed analysis covering economic, sustainability, reliability and safety aspects and their integration in the whole fuel cycle would allow identifying the best candidate.

  16. A Hydrological Perspective to Advance Understanding of the Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghuijs, W.

    2014-12-01

    In principle hydrologists are scientists that study relationships within the water cycle. Yet, current technology makes it tempting for hydrology students to lose their "hydrological perspective" and become instead full-time computer programmers or statisticians. I assert that students should ensure their hydrological perspective thrives, notwithstanding the importance and possibilities of current technology. This perspective is necessary to advance the science of hydrology. As other hydrologists have pondered similar views before, I make no claims of originality here. I just hope that in presenting my perspective on this issue I may spark the interest of other early career hydrologists.

  17. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  18. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  19. The Continued Need for Modeling and Scaled Testing to Advance the Hanford Tank Waste Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, Loni M.; Fort, James A.; Rector, David R.

    2013-09-03

    Hanford tank wastes are chemically complex slurries of liquids and solids that can exhibit changes in rheological behavior during retrieval and processing. The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) recently abandoned its planned approach to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) supported by testing at less than full scale to verify the design of vessels that process these wastes within the plant. The commercial CFD tool selected was deemed too difficult to validate to the degree necessary for use in the design of a nuclear facility. Alternative, but somewhat immature, CFD tools are available that can simulate multiphase flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Yet both CFD and scaled testing can play an important role in advancing the Hanford tank waste mission—in supporting the new verification approach, which is to conduct testing in actual plant vessels; in supporting waste feed delivery, where scaled testing is ongoing; as a fallback approach to design verification if the Full Scale Vessel Testing Program is deemed too costly and time-consuming; to troubleshoot problems during commissioning and operation of the plant; and to evaluate the effects of any proposed changes in operating conditions in the future to optimize plant performance.

  20. Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power should become a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the last two decades has been made in the field of geological disposal. Some countries have reached important milestones and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden and in fact the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into their final phases. In France disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by a Parliament Act in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, has the potential of reducing the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of P&T (Partitioning and Transmutation). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the High Level Waste definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository, i.e. increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion.

  1. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes at a Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has resulted in long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor soil water potential conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in soil water potential in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to above normal precipitation. These tensiometer data have the potential to effectively and rapidly validate that a remedial action such as placement of an ET cover would be successful in reducing the water moisture movement inside the disposal area to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  2. CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothe, Douglas B.

    2010-11-01

    Like the fusion community, the nuclear engineering community is embarking on a new computational effort to create integrated, multiphysics simulations. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), one of 3 newly-funded DOE Energy Innovation Hubs, brings together an exceptionally capable team that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated the Virtual Reactor (VR), will: 1) Enable the use of leadership-class computing for engineering design and analysis to improve reactor capabilities, 2) Promote an enhanced scientific basis and understanding by replacing empirically based design and analysis tools with predictive capabilities, 3) Develop a highly integrated multiphysics environment for engineering analysis through increased fidelity methods, and 4) Incorporate UQ as a basis for developing priorities and supporting, application of the VR tools for predictive simulation. In this presentation, we present the plans for CASL and comment on the similarity and differences with the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).

  3. State waste discharge permit application: 400 Area secondary cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This document constitutes the Washington Administrative Code 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit Application that serves as interim compliance as required by the Consent Order DE 91NM-177, for the 400 Area Secondary Cooling Water stream. As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permitting Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered in to Consent Order DE 91NM-177. The Consent Order DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges.

  4. Life Cycle Assesment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnoli, F.; Sampaio, F.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga's waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact -eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Climate change also seems to be a relevant impact coming from the wastewater treatment stage and the main contributor to the Climate change is N2O. The main environmental benefits, in terms of the percentages of the total impact, associated to the use of biogas instead of any other fossil fuel in the cogeneration plant are equal to: 3,11% for abiotic depletation, 1,48% for climate change, 0,51% for acidification and 0,12% for eutrophication.

  5. Method and apparatus for waste destruction using supercritical water oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Haroldsen, Brent Lowell; Wu, Benjamin Chiau-pin

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved apparatus and method for initiating and sustaining an oxidation reaction. A hazardous waste, is introduced into a reaction zone within a pressurized containment vessel. An oxidizer, preferably hydrogen peroxide, is mixed with a carrier fluid, preferably water, and the mixture is heated until the fluid achieves supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The heating means comprise cartridge heaters placed in closed-end tubes extending into the center region of the pressure vessel along the reactor longitudinal axis. A cooling jacket surrounds the pressure vessel to remove excess heat at the walls. Heating and cooling the fluid mixture in this manner creates a limited reaction zone near the center of the pressure vessel by establishing a steady state density gradient in the fluid mixture which gradually forces the fluid to circulate internally. This circulation allows the fluid mixture to oscillate between supercritical and subcritical states as it is heated and cooled.

  6. Parameter identification in dynamical models of anaerobic waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Müller, T G; Noykova, N; Gyllenberg, M; Timmer, J

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical reactions can often be formulated mathematically as ordinary differential equations. In the process of modeling, the main questions that arise are concerned with structural identifiability, parameter estimation and practical identifiability. To clarify these questions and the methods how to solve them, we analyze two different second order models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes using two data sets obtained from different experimental setups. In both experiments only biogas production rate was measured which complicates the analysis considerably. We show that proving structural identifiability of the mathematical models with currently used methods fails. Therefore, we introduce a new, general method based on the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator to show local structural identifiability. For parameter estimation we use the multiple shooting approach which is described. Additionally we show that the Hessian matrix approach to compute confidence intervals fails in our examples while a method based on Monte Carlo Simulation works well. PMID:11965253

  7. Composting of municipal waste-water sludges. Seminar pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This seminar publication provides practical information on current methods of composting municipal waste-water sludges. It is intended for government and private sector individuals involved in the planning, design, and operation of municipal sludge treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 1 presents general principles of the composting process and system design. Chapters 2 and 3 discuss in depth the experiences at the Dickerson, Western Branch, and Site II static-pile-composting operations in Maryland and at the windrow operation in Los Angeles County. In-vessel composting is reviewed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 discusses current and proposed regulations and guidelines that pertain to sludge composting. The publication is not a design manual nor does it include all the latest knowledge about composting.

  8. Potential applications of advanced remote handling and maintenance technology to future waste handling facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, C.T.; Herndon, J.N.; Meacham, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been advancing the technology in remote handling and remote maintenance of in-cell systems planned for future US nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Much of the experience and technology developed over the past decade in this endeavor are directly applicable to the in-cell systems being considered for the facilities of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). The ORNL developments are based on the application of teleoperated force-reflecting servomanipulators controlled by an operator completely removed from the hazardous environment. These developments address the nonrepetitive nature of remote maintenance in the unstructured environments encountered in a waste handling facility. Employing technological advancements in dexterous manipulators, as well as basic design guidelines that have been developed for remotely maintained equipment and processes, can increase operation and maintenance system capabilities, thereby allowing the attainment of two Federal Waste Management System major objectives: decreasing plant personnel radiation exposure and increasing plant availability by decreasing the mean-time-to-repair in-cell maintenance and process equipment.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN GROUND WATER AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine and contaminated ground water at a chemical waste disposal site was investigated. ecently, it was determined that ground water downslope from the disposal site contained elevated levels of toxic pollutants, including benzene, toluene, xylene and ...

  10. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power becomes a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust, and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the field of geological disposal has been made in the last two decades. Some countries have reached important milestones, and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden. In fact, the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into its final phase. In France, disposal of intermediate-level waste (ILW) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by an Act of Parliament in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, can reduce the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production, a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the HLW definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository (i.e., an increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion).

  11. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  12. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  13. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  14. Conventional and Advanced Silicagel-water Adsorption Cycles Driven by Near - environmental Temperature Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelman, Elisa; B. Saha, Bidyut; Tanaka, Aiharu; Kashiwagi, Takao

    This work aims at clarifying the possible operating temperature ranges for silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycles driven by near-environmental temperature heat sources (between 50°C and 85°C), with relatively small regenerating temperature lifts (10 K to 65 K). A newly developed three stage advanced silica gel-water cycle, which is operational with 50°C driving heat source and 30°C cooling source is introduced and compared with a conventional single stage cycle. The cycles are evaluated in terms of cooling capacity, COP and the viability of operation with near-environmental temperature driving heat sources. The analysis is based on experimental and cycle simulation work. The results showed the advanced three stage cycle to be particularly suited for operation with low grade waste heat driving sources, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (ΔTregen)of 10K to 30K. Another significant advantage of operation with small ΔTregen is the possibility to reduce irreversible heat losses from batched cycle operation. Experiments carried out on full-size machine suggested that, even with smallΔTregen, adsorber /desorber heat exchanger improvements such as higher thermal conductance and smaller heat capacitance can contribute to reduce heat losses while improving cycle performance in terms of cooling capacity and COP.

  15. Optimisation of water-cannon cleaning for deposit removal on water walls inside waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Graube, Franziska; Grahl, Sebastian; Rostkowski, Slawomir; Beckmann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Deposits in municipal waste incinerators are very inhomogeneous in structure and constitution. They cause corrosion and reduce the efficiency, so they need to be removed frequently. Among other systems, operators use water cannons for the deposit removal. Two different removal mechanisms of water-cannon cleaning are suggested: A direct shattering of the deposit by the impact of the water jet, as well as the cracking caused by thermal stresses where droplets cool the deposits. As the contribution of each of the aforementioned mechanisms to the overall cleaning efficiency is unknown, we performed empirical investigations to determine the dominating effect. In a first experimental setup focusing on thermal stress, cold droplets were applied onto hot deposits taken from a waste incinerator. Results showed that the cleaning effect strongly depends on the deposit thickness and structure, so that the deposits could be categorised in three different groups. A second measurement campaign focused on the influence of deposit material, deposit temperature and water jet momentum. It could be shown that both deposit material and temperature have a significant effect on the cleaning efficiency, whereas an increase in water jet momentum only led to modest improvements. The combination of these two parameter studies implies that the influence of the thermal stress outweighs that of the momentum. This knowledge is applicable to the cleaning setup by increasing the temperature gradient. PMID:26608897

  16. Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul; Chattopadhyay, Sandip

    2004-10-18

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of historic operations that have led to significant contamination and ongoing hazardous waste generation. This study was performed to evaluate whether the U.S. EPA could propose treatment and disposal alternatives to the current land disposal restriction (LDR) treatment standards for mercury. The focus of this article is on the current state of encapsulation technologies that can be used to immobilize elemental mercury, mercury-contaminated debris, and other mercury-contaminated wastes, soils, sediments, or sludges. The range of encapsulation materials used in bench-scale, pilot-scale, and full-scale applications for mercury-contaminated wastes are summarized. Several studies have been completed regarding the application of sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic encapsulation, and polyethylene encapsulation. Other materials reported in the literature as under development for encapsulation use include asphalt, polyester resins, synthetic elastomers, polysiloxane, sol-gels, Dolocrete, and carbon/cement mixtures. The primary objective of these encapsulation methods is to physically immobilize the wastes to prevent contact with leaching agents such as water. However, when used for mercury-contaminated wastes, several of these methods require a pretreatment or stabilization step to chemically fix mercury into a highly insoluble form prior to encapsulation. Performance data is summarized from the testing and evaluation of various encapsulated, mercury-contaminated wastes. Future technology development and research needs are also discussed. PMID:15511593

  17. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  18. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  19. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  20. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  1. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... Food and Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, in accordance with standards established in title...

  2. Contaminated Groundwater N flux to Surface Waters from Biosolid Waste Application Fields at a Waste Water Treatment Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showers, W. J.; Fountain, M.; Fountain, J. C.

    2006-05-01

    Biosolids have been land applied at the Neuse River Waste Water Treatment Plant (NRWWTP) since 1980. The long biosolid application history at this site has resulted in a build up of nitrate in the ground water beneath the Waste Application Fields (WAFs). We have used an innovative river monitoring system that measures in situ nitrate concentrations and discharge above and below the plant to determine the amount of nitrate gained in the reach from the WAFs. The nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of nitrate in the WAF groundwater indicates that 18% of the monitoring wells are impacted by fertilizer N, 57% of the wells are impacted by biosolid N, 22% of the wells are affected by denitrification, and one well is impacted by A.D.N. The net daily contribution of surface / ground water and nitrate to the reach was calculated from the sum of the flux into the reach at the upper RiverNet station plus the plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach at the lower RiverNet station. The difference between the flux into the reach and plant discharge minus the flux out of the reach is termed the non-point source gain (NPS gain). The NPS gain could come from groundwater and/or surface drainage additions to the reach. On an annual basis, daily integrated NPS nitrate gains were ~70,000 kg in year 2004 and ~27,900 kg in 2005. This represents an average over the two year period of ~12% of the total nitrate flux out of the reach and 43% of the nitrate discharged from the plant. During the past year groundwater wells were installed in the river riparian buffer and N Flux was measured in a surface water drainage in the WAF. The results indicate that N is not migrating through the shallow groundwater, and most of the NPS gains in the reach can come from surface drainages which have nitrate concentrations of 30-80 mg/l. Over the next year wetlands will be reconstructed in the surface drainages to attenuate the N flux and protect river water quality.

  3. Advanced Water Recovery Technologies for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Scan X.

    2005-01-01

    Extended-duration space travel and habitation require recovering water from wastewater generated in spacecrafts and extraterrestrial outposts since the largest consumable for human life support is water. Many wastewater treatment technologies used for terrestrial applications are adoptable to extraterrestrial situations but challenges remain as constraints of space flights and habitation impose severe limitations of these technologies. Membrane-based technologies, particularly membrane filtration, have been widely studied by NASA and NASA-funded research groups for possible applications in space wastewater treatment. The advantages of membrane filtration are apparent: it is energy-efficient and compact, needs little consumable other than replacement membranes and cleaning agents, and doesn't involve multiphase flow, which is big plus for operations under microgravity environment. However, membrane lifespan and performance are affected by the phenomena of concentration polarization and membrane fouling. This article attempts to survey current status of membrane technologies related to wastewater treatment and desalination in the context of space exploration and quantify them in terms of readiness level for space exploration. This paper also makes specific recommendations and predictions on how scientist and engineers involving designing, testing, and developing space-certified membrane-based advanced water recovery technologies can improve the likelihood of successful development of an effective regenerative human life support system for long-duration space missions.

  4. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  5. Advanced sluicing system test report for single shell tank waste retrieval integrated testing

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29

    This document describes the testing performed by ARD Environmental, Inc., and Los Alamos Technical Associates of the LATA/ARD Advanced Sluicing System, in support of ACTR Phase 1 activities. Testing was to measure the impact force and pressures of sluicing streams at three different distances, as measured by the Government supplied load cell. Simulated sluicing of large simulated salt cake and hard pan waste coupons was also performed. Due to operational difficulties experienced with the Government supplied load cell, no meaningful results with respect to sluice stream impact pressure distribution or stream coherence were obtained. Sluice testing using 3000 psi salt cake simulants measured waste retrieval rates of approximately 12 Ml/day (17.6 ft{sup 3}/hr). Rates as high as 314 m{sup 3}/day (463 ft{sup 3}/hr) were measured against the lower strength salt cake simulants.

  6. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  7. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  8. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  9. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  10. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  11. A Review of the Latest Advances in Encrypted Bioactive Peptides from Protein-Rich Waste

    PubMed Central

    Lemes, Ailton Cesar; Sala, Luisa; Ores, Joana da Costa; Braga, Anna Rafaela Cavalcante; Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i) new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii) nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii) use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322241

  12. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  13. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  14. A Review of the Latest Advances in Encrypted Bioactive Peptides from Protein-Rich Waste.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Ailton Cesar; Sala, Luisa; Ores, Joana da Costa; Braga, Anna Rafaela Cavalcante; Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Fernandes, Kátia Flávia

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are considered the new generation of biologically active regulators that not only prevent the mechanism of oxidation and microbial degradation in foods but also enhanced the treatment of various diseases and disorders, thus increasing quality of life. This review article emphasizes recent advances in bioactive peptide technology, such as: (i) new strategies for transforming bioactive peptides from residual waste into added-value products; (ii) nanotechnology for the encapsulation, protection and release of controlled peptides; and (iii) use of techniques of large-scale recovery and purification of peptides aiming at future applications to pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322241

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  17. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating

  18. The Design and Construction of the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Harrop, G.

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Mixed Treatment Project (AMWTP) privatized contract was awarded to BNFL Inc. in December 1996 and construction of the main facility commenced in August 2000. The purpose of the advanced mixed waste treatment facility is to safely treat plutonium contaminated waste, currently stored in drums and boxes, for final disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The plant is being built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Construction was completed in 28 months, to satisfy the Settlement Agreement milestone of December 2002. Commissioning of the related retrieval and characterization facilities is currently underway. The first shipment of pre-characterized waste is scheduled for March 2003, with AMWTP characterized and certified waste shipments from June 2003. To accommodate these challenging delivery targets BNFL adopted a systematic and focused construction program that included the use of a temporary structure to allow winter working, proven design and engineering principles and international procurement policies to help achieve quality and schedule. The technology involved in achieving the AMWTP functional requirements is primarily based upon a BNFL established pedigree of plant and equipment; applied in a manner that suits the process and waste. This technology includes the use of remotely controlled floor mounted and overhead power manipulators, a high power shredder and a 2000-ton force supercompactor with the attendant glove box suite, interconnections and automated material handling. The characterization equipment includes real-time radiography (RTR) units, drum and box assay measurement systems, drum head space gas sampling / analysis and drum venting, drum coring and sampling capabilities. The project adopted a particularly stringent and intensive pre-installation testing philosophy to ensure that equipment would work safely and reliably at the required throughput. This testing included the complete off site

  19. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  20. Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ● to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ● to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ● to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (< 1 g) facilitates determining the solute transport in the pore space and identifying the origin of bio- and geogenic fluids in (un) consolidated sediments [1]. Advanced techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial

  1. Anticipatory Water Management in Phoenix using Advanced Scenario Planning and Analyses: WaterSim 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, D. A.; Quay, R.; White, D. D.; Gober, P.; Kirkwood, C.

    2013-12-01

    Complexity, uncertainty, and variability are inherent properties of linked social and natural processes; sustainable resource management must somehow consider all three. Typically, a decision support tool (using scenario analyses) is used to examine management alternatives under suspected trajectories in driver variables (i.e., climate forcing's, growth or economic projections, etc.). This traditional planning focuses on a small set of envisioned scenarios whose outputs are compared against one-another in order to evaluate their differing impacts on desired metrics. Human cognition typically limits this to three to five scenarios. However, complex and highly uncertain issues may require more, often much more, than five scenarios. In this case advanced scenario analysis provides quantitative or qualitative methods that can reveal patterns and associations among scenario metrics for a large ensemble of scenarios. From this analysis, then, a smaller set of heuristics that describe the complexity and uncertainty revealed provides a basis to guide planning in an anticipatory fashion. Our water policy and management model, termed WaterSim, permits advanced scenario planning and analysis for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area. In this contribution we examine the concepts of advanced scenario analysis on a large scale ensemble of scenarios using our work with WaterSim as a case study. For this case study we created a range of possible water futures by creating scenarios that encompasses differences in water supplies (our surrogates for climate change, drought, and inherent variability in riverine flows), population growth, and per capital water consumption. We used IPCC estimates of plausible, future, alterations in riverine runoff, locally produced and vetted estimates of population growth projections, and empirical trends in per capita water consumption for metropolitan cities. This ensemble consisted of ~ 30, 700 scenarios (~575 k observations). We compared and contrasted

  2. AN NDA Technique for the Disposition of Mixed Low Level Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Clapham; J.V. Seamans; R.E. Arbon

    2006-05-16

    The AMWTP is aggressively characterizing and shipping transuranic (TRU) waste to meet the DOE-IDs goal of 6000m3 of TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The AMWTP shipping schedule requires streamlined waste movements and efficient waste characterization. Achieving this goal is complicated by the presence of waste that cannot be shipped to WIPP. A large amount of this waste is non-shippable due to the fact that no measurable TRU activity is identified during non-destructive assay (NDA).

  3. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  4. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  5. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  6. ANALYSIS ON EFFLUENT WATER QUALITY AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION AFTER INTRODUCING ADVANCED SEWAGE TREATMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiojiri, Yasuo; Maekawa, Shunich

    We analyze effluent water quality and electricity consumption after in troducing advanced treatment in sewage treatment plant. We define 'advanced treatment ratio' as volume of treated water through advanced treatment processes divided by total volume of treated water in plant. Advanced treatment ratio represents degree of introducing advanced treatment. We build two types of equation. One represents relation between effluent water quality and advanced treatment ratio, the other between electricity consumption and advanced treatment ratio. Each equation is fitted by least squares on 808 samples: 8 fiscal years operation data of 101 plants working in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Saitama and Chiba areas, and coefficient of advanced treatment ratio is estimated. The result is as follows. (1) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at nitrogen removal, T-N in effluent water decreases by 51.3% and electricity consum ption increases by 52.2%. (2) After introducing advanced treatment aimed at phosphorus removal, T-P in effluent water decreases by 27.8%. Using the above result, we try prioritizing 71 plants in Tokyo Bay watershed about raising advanced treatment ratio, so that, in total, pollutant in effluent water decreases with minimized increase of electricity consumption.

  7. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  8. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  9. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  10. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs. PMID:26828795

  11. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  12. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  13. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  14. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal... immediately pay the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 debt in full; or (2) The...

  15. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  16. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect

    Djokic, Denia; Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R.

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  17. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  18. The ISS Water Processor Catalytic Reactor as a Post Processor for Advanced Water Reclamation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalette, Tim; Snowdon, Doug; Pickering, Karen D.; Callahan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Advanced water processors being developed for NASA s Exploration Initiative rely on phase change technologies and/or biological processes as the primary means of water reclamation. As a result of the phase change, volatile compounds will also be transported into the distillate product stream. The catalytic reactor assembly used in the International Space Station (ISS) water processor assembly, referred to as Volatile Removal Assembly (VRA), has demonstrated high efficiency oxidation of many of these volatile contaminants, such as low molecular weight alcohols and acetic acid, and is considered a viable post treatment system for all advanced water processors. To support this investigation, two ersatz solutions were defined to be used for further evaluation of the VRA. The first solution was developed as part of an internal research and development project at Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and is based primarily on ISS experience related to the development of the VRA. The second ersatz solution was defined by NASA in support of a study contract to Hamilton Sundstrand to evaluate the VRA as a potential post processor for the Cascade Distillation system being developed by Honeywell. This second ersatz solution contains several low molecular weight alcohols, organic acids, and several inorganic species. A range of residence times, oxygen concentrations and operating temperatures have been studied with both ersatz solutions to provide addition performance capability of the VRA catalyst.

  19. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4-7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1-3 (High) and 4-6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  20. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  1. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2009 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 permit year, approximately 164 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2012–October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of compliance activities • Noncompliance issues • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater was discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  3. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2013–October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Permit required groundwater monitoring data; Status of compliance activities; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2014 permit year, approximately 238 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters are below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the downgradient monitoring wells.

  4. Distribution of aquifers, liquid-waste impoundments, and municipal water-supply sources, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delaney, David F.; Maevsky, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Impoundments of liquid waste are potential sources of ground-water contamination in Massachusetts. The map report, at a scale of 1 inch equals 4 miles, shows the idstribution of aquifers and the locations of municipal water-supply sources and known liquid-waste impoundments. Ground water, an important source of municipal water supply, is produced from shallow sand and gravel aquifers that are generally unconfined, less than 200 feet thick, and yield less than 2,000 gallons per minute to individual wells. These aquifers commonly occupy lowlands and stream valleys and are most extensive in eastern Massachusetts. Surface impoundments of liquid waste are commonly located over these aquifers. These impoundments may leak and allow waste to infiltrate underlying aquifers and alter their water quality. (USGS)

  5. Measurement of protein-like fluorescence in river and waste water using a handheld spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andy; Ward, David; Lieten, Shakti H; Periera, Ryan; Simpson, Ellie C; Slater, Malcolm

    2004-07-01

    Protein-like fluorescence intensity in rivers increases with increasing anthropogenic DOM inputs from sewerage and farm wastes. Here, a portable luminescence spectrophotometer was used to investigate if this technology could be used to provide both field scientists with a rapid pollution monitoring tool and process control engineers with a portable waste water monitoring device, through the measurement of river and waste water tryptophan-like fluorescence from a range of rivers in NE England and from effluents from within two waste water treatment plants. The portable spectrophotometer determined that waste waters and sewerage effluents had the highest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, urban streams had an intermediate tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity, and the upstream river samples of good water quality the lowest tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity. Replicate samples demonstrated that fluorescence intensity is reproducible to +/- 20% for low fluorescence, 'clean' river water samples and +/- 5% for urban water and waste waters. Correlations between fluorescence measured by the portable spectrophotometer with a conventional bench machine were 0.91; (Spearman's rho, n = 143), demonstrating that the portable spectrophotometer does correlate with tryptophan-like fluorescence intensity measured using the bench spectrophotometer. PMID:15223288

  6. Water Vapor Permeability of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Kuzneth, Larry; Gillis, David; Jones, Jeffery; Daniel, Brian; Gernhardt, Michael; Hamilton, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) crewmembers are expected to return to earth wearing a suit similar to the current Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). To ensure optimum cognitive performance, suited crewmembers must maintain their core body temperature within acceptable limits. There are currently several options for thermal maintenance in the post-landing phase. These include the current baseline, which uses an ammonia boiler, purge flow using oxygen in the suit, accessing sea water for liquid cooling garment (LCG) cooling and/or relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit. These options vary significantly in mass, power, engineering and safety factors, with relying on the evaporative cooling capacity of the suit being the least difficult to implement. Data from previous studies indicates that the evaporative cooling capacity of the ACES was much higher than previously expected, but subsequent tests were performed for longer duration and higher metabolic rates to better define the water vapor permeability of the ACES. In these tests five subjects completed a series of tests performing low to moderate level exercise in order to control for a target metabolic rate while wearing the ACES in an environmentally controlled thermal chamber. Four different metabolic profiles at a constant temperature of 95 F and relative humidity of 50% were evaluated. These tests showed subjects were able to reject about twice as much heat in the permeable ACES as they were in an impermeable suit that had less thermal insulation. All of the heat rejection differential is attributed to the increased evaporation capability through the Gortex bladder of the suit.

  7. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto, Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  8. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Siang Yee; Choi, Siwon; Dien, Vivian; Sow-Peh, Yoke Keow; Qi, Genggeng; Hatton, T. Alan; Doyle, Patrick S.; Thio, Beng Joo Reginald

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ∼70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions. PMID:23818955

  9. Final technical report: Effects of water on properties of the simulated nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1996-02-01

    For isolation of nuclear wastes through the vitrification process, waste slurry is mixed with borosilicate based glass and remelted at high temperature. During these processes, water can enter into the final waste glass. It is known that water in silica and silicate glasses changes various glass properties, such as chemical durability, viscosity and electrical conductivity. These properties are very important for processing and assuring the quality and safety controls of the waste glasses. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of water in the simulated nuclear waste glasses on various glass properties, including chemical durability, glass transition temperature, liquidus temperature, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This report summarizes the results of this investigation conducted at Rensselaer during the past one year.

  10. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunn, Griffin Michael; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Ruby, Anna Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  11. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, January to April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal solid processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. Information on field disposal behavior is needed (a) as input to predictive models being developed, (b) as input to the development of rule of thumb design guidelines for the disposal of these wastes, and (c) as evidence of the behavior of these wastes in the natural environment.This study is organized into four major Tasks. Task 1 and 2 were devoted to planning the Task 3 field study. Task 4 uses the results of the field testing to produce an Engineering Design Manual for the utilities and industrial users who manage wastes from advanced coal combustion technologies.

  12. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, K. D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12

    The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products)represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries - pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most. The physico-chemical processes that control the development of this region have a significant impact on the long-term glass-water reaction. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include Geochemical Reaction Path simulations, Glass Reactivity in Allowance for Alteration Layer simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers; thus providing the fundamental data needed to develop pore-scale equations that enable more accurate predictions of nuclear waste glass corrosion in a geologic repository.

  13. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  14. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  15. Saline Drainage and Waste Water Use and its Effects on Forages and Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow saline water tables in the western San Joaquin Valley result from regional water management and irrigation. Since 1999, saline-sodic drainage and other waste waters (range: ECiw: 2-10 dS m-1) have been used to irrigate Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon) grazed rotationally by cattle at a 30 ...

  16. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Water and sewage treatment systems are presented with concentration on the filtration of water. Equipment is described for organic removal, solids removal, nutrient removal, inorganic removal, and disinfection of the water. Such things as aseline hardware, additional piping connections, waste disposal, and costs involved are also reported.

  17. WATER ACTIVITY DATA ASSESSMENT TO BE USED IN HANFORD WASTE SOLUBILITY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2011-01-06

    The purpose of this report is to present and assess water activity versus ionic strength for six solutes:sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and potassium nitrate. Water activity is given versus molality (e.g., ionic strength) and temperature. Water activity is used to estimate Hanford crystal hydrate solubility present in the waste.

  18. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  19. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  20. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  1. Oil-containing waste water treating material consisting of modified active carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, S.; Takenaka, Y.

    1982-03-16

    An oil-containing waste water treating material comprises an active carbon upon whose surface is chemically bonded at least one nitrogenous compound which is an amine or a quaternarized derivative thereof.

  2. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  3. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. PMID:23954716

  4. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  5. RATES OF IRON OXIDATION AND ARSENIC SORPTION DURING GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER MIXING AT A HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a pond at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact...

  6. Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of hazardous waste: better than incineration.

    PubMed

    Al-Duri, Bushra; Alsoqyani, Faihan; Kings, Iain

    2015-12-28

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an advanced process mainly employed for the treatment of hazardous stable wastes, otherwise treatable by incineration. It is based on the unique properties of water above its critical point (T(c)=675 K, P(c)=22.2 MPa), making it a superior reaction medium for the destruction of all organics in the presence of oxygen. This work presents preliminary laboratory scale studies on SCWO of nitrogen (N)-containing hazardous hydrocarbons, with a view to enhancing the process performance, using available reagents and non-complex reactor design. This article investigates the destruction of dimethylformamide (DMF), carried out in a continuous (plug flow) reactor system. SCWO of DMF was enhanced by (i) a split-oxidant system, where stoichiometric oxidant was divided between two inlet ports at various ratios and (ii) the addition of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a co-fuel, premixed with the feedstock. Testing a range of temperatures, initial DMF concentrations, oxidant ratios, IPA ratios and oxidant split ratios, selected results were presented in terms of % total organic carbon and % N removal. Reaction kinetics were studied and showed a dramatic decrease in the activation energy upon adding IPA. Split-oxidant-feeding enhancement depended on the split ratio and secondary feed position. PMID:26574530

  7. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  9. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  10. EPANET - AN ADVANCED WATER QUALITY MODELING PACKAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPANET is a third generation software package for modeling water quality within drinking water distribution systems. he program performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality conditions within pressurized pipe networks. n addition to substance concentration wa...

  11. Soil water repellency: the knowledge base, advances and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    The topic of soil water repellency (SWR or soil hydrophobicity) has moved from being perhaps a little known curiosity a few decades ago to a well established sub-discipline of soil physics and soil hydrology. In terms of the number of journal publications, SWR is comparable with other physical soil properties or processes such as crusting, aggregation or preferential flow. SWR refers to a condition when soil does not wet readily when in contact with water. This may be evident at the soil surface, when SWR leads to prolonged ponding on soils despite the presence of sufficient pore openings, or in the soil matrix, as manifest by enhanced uneven wetting and preferential flow that is not caused by structural in homogeneity. Amongst major milestones advancing the knowledge base of SWR have been the recognition that: (1) many, if not most, soils can exhibit SWR when the soil moisture content falls below a critical threshold, (2) it can be induced (and destroyed) during vegetation fires, but many soils exhibit SWR irrespective of burning, (3) it can be caused, in principle, by a large variety of naturally-abundant chemical compounds, (4) it is typically highly variable in space, time and its degree (severity and persistence), and (5) its impacts on, for example, soil hydrology, erosion and plant growth have the potential to be very substantial, but also that impacts are often minor for naturally vegetated and undisturbed soils. Amongst the key challenges that remain are: (a) predicting accurately the conditions when soils prone to SWR actually develop this property, (b) unravelling, for fire effected environments, to what degree any presence of absence of SWR is due to fire and post-fire recovery, (c) the exact nature and origin the material causing SWR at the molecular level in different environments, (d) understanding the implications of the spatial and temporal variability at different scales, (e) the capability to model and predict under which environmental conditions

  12. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  13. Toxicity of irradiated advanced heavy water reactor fuels.

    PubMed

    Priest, N D; Richardson, R B; Edwards, G W R

    2013-02-01

    The good neutron economy and online refueling capability of the CANDU® heavy water moderated reactor (HWR) enable it to use many different fuels such as low enriched uranium (LEU), plutonium, or thorium, in addition to its traditional natural uranium (NU) fuel. The toxicity and radiological protection methods for these proposed fuels, unlike those for NU, are not well established. This study uses software to compare the fuel composition and toxicity of irradiated NU fuel against those of two irradiated advanced HWR fuel bundles as a function of post-irradiation time. The first bundle investigated is a CANFLEX® low void reactor fuel (LVRF), of which only the dysprosium-poisoned central element, and not the outer 42 LEU elements, is specifically analyzed. The second bundle investigated is a heterogeneous high-burnup (LEU,Th)O(2) fuelled bundle, whose two components (LEU in the outer 35 elements and thorium in the central eight elements) are analyzed separately. The LVRF central element was estimated to have a much lower toxicity than that of NU at all times after shutdown. Both the high burnup LEU and the thorium fuel had similar toxicity to NU at shutdown, but due to the creation of such inhalation hazards as (238)Pu, (240)Pu, (242)Am, (242)Cm, and (244)Cm (in high burnup LEU), and (232)U and (228)Th (in irradiated thorium), the toxicity of these fuels was almost double that of irradiated NU after 2,700 d of cooling. New urine bioassay methods for higher actinoids and the analysis of thorium in fecal samples are recommended to assess the internal dose from these two fuels. PMID:23274823

  14. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-12-31

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  15. Releases from the cooling water system in the Waste Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lux, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    On September 12, 1991, a cooling-water header broke in the H-Area Waste Tank farm, at the Savannah River Site, releasing contaminated water down a storm sewer that drains to the creek. A copy of the Occurrence Report is attached. As part of the follow-up on this incident, the NPSR Section was asked by Waste Management Technology to perform a probabilistic analysis of the following cases: (1) A large break in the header combined with a large break in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (2) A large break in the header combined with a leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. (3) A large break in the header combined with a very small leak in a cooling coil inside a waste tank. This report documents the results of the analysis of these cases.

  16. Stabilization of crab scrap and processing waste water. Final report, 1984-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, B.C.; McCaleb, R.C.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes, in detail, the application of a National Space Technology Laboratories (NASA) developed technology involving anaerobic-digestion and microbial-filter processes as a possible solution to the blue crab waste-disposal problem. The project attempted to use this technology with crab waste and processing waste water to produce new products of organic fertilizer and methane (energy) while purifying the water to prevent nutrient enrichment of the Chesapeake Bay. Results of the project indicate that significant biogas production can be obtained with crab waste. However, digestion time is excessive, compared to that of cow manure. More work needs to be done on physical and/or chemical pretreatment to render the waste more amenable to digestion. The system was found costly and would not be practical except in periods of high energy prices.

  17. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bixler, Joel N; Cone, Michael T; Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

    2014-05-20

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  18. Ultrasensitive detection of waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Hokr, Brett H.; Mason, John D.; Figueroa, Eleonora; Fry, Edward S.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2014-01-01

    Clean water is paramount to human health. In this article, we present a technique for detection of trace amounts of human or animal waste products in water using fluorescence emission cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. The detection of femtomolar concentrations of urobilin, a metabolic byproduct of heme metabolism that is excreted in both human and animal waste in water, was achieved through the use of an integrating cavity. This technique could allow for real-time assessment of water quality without the need for expensive laboratory equipment. PMID:24799690

  19. Zirconia-magnesia inert matrix fuel and waste form: Synthesis, characterization and chemical performance in an advanced fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Kiel Steven

    There is a significant buildup in plutonium stockpiles throughout the world, because of spent nuclear fuel and the dismantling of weapons. The radiotoxicity of this material and proliferation risk has led to a desire for destroying excess plutonium. To do this effectively, it must be fissioned in a reactor as part of a uranium free fuel to eliminate the generation of more plutonium. This requires an inert matrix to volumetrically dilute the fissile plutonium. Zirconia-magnesia dual phase ceramic has been demonstrated to be a favorable material for this task. It is neutron transparent, zirconia is chemically robust, magnesia has good thermal conductivity and the ceramic has been calculated to conform to current economic and safety standards. This dissertation contributes to the knowledge of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel to establish behavior of the material containing a fissile component. First, the zirconia-magnesia inert matrix is synthesized in a dual phase ceramic containing a fissile component and a burnable poison. The chemical constitution of the ceramic is then determined. Next, the material performance is assessed under conditions relevant to an advanced fuel cycle. Reactor conditions were assessed with high temperature, high pressure water. Various acid solutions were used in an effort to dissolve the material for reprocessing. The ceramic was also tested as a waste form under environmental conditions, should it go directly to a repository as a spent fuel. The applicability of zirconia-magnesia as an inert matrix fuel and waste form was tested and found to be a promising material for such applications.

  20. Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Mineral Research Center (EMRC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. The specific objectives for the reporting period were as follows: review fourth site candidates; obtain site access for the Freeman United site; select an ash supplier for the Illinois site and initiate subcontracts for on-site work; commence construction of the Freeman United test cell; and obtain waste for the Colorado Ute test site. Accomplishments under each task are discussed.

  1. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  2. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  3. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  4. Advanced Fuel Cycles for Fusion Reactors: Passive Safety and Zero-Waste Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Sugiyama, Linda E.

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear fusion is seen as a much ''cleaner'' energy source than fission. Most of the studies and experiments on nuclear fusion are currently devoted to the Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel cycle, since it is the easiest way to reach ignition. The recent stress on safety by the world's community has stimulated the research on other fuel cycles than the DT one, based on 'advanced' reactions, such as the Deuterium-Helium-3 (DHe) one. These reactions pose problems, such as the availability of 3He and the attainment of the higher plasma parameters that are required for burning. However, they have many advantages, like for instance the very low neutron activation, while it is unnecessary to breed and fuel tritium. The extrapolation of Ignitor technologies towards a larger and more powerful experiment using advanced fuel cycles (Candor) has been studied. Results show that Candor does reach the passive safety and zero-waste option. A fusion power reactor based on the DHe cycle could be the ultimate response to the environmental requirements for future nuclear power plants.

  5. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced flotation techniques, namely column flotation, have shown potential in obtaining a low ash, low pyritic sulfur fine size clean coal. The overall objective of this program is to evaluate applicability of an advanced flotation technique, 'Ken-Flote' column to recover clean coal with minimum mineral matter content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois preparation plant waste streams. Column flotations tests were conducted on the flotation feed obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia and Ziegler No. 26 plants using three different bubble-generating devices: sparger, gas saver and foam jet. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column-operating variable to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. For the Galatia slurry, the column provided a clean coal containing 5 percent ash, 0.48 percent pyritic sulfur at combustible recovery averaging 90 percent. In other words, about 90 percent ash and about 75 percent pyritic sulfur rejection were attained for the Galatia slurry. Pilot plant studies on this slurry basically obtained results similar to the laboratory studies. For the Ziegler No. 26, slurry column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 5 percent ash, 0.44 percent pyritic sulfur at more than 90 percent combustible recovery. The ash and pyrite sulfur rejection was about 85 percent and 65 percent, respectively.

  6. Upgrading and extended testing of the MSC integrated water and waste management hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.; Hurley, T. L.; Jasionowski, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of upgrading and testing an integrated water and waste management system, which uses the compression distillation, reverse osmosis, adsorption filtration and ion-exchange processes to recover potable water from urine, flush water and used wash water. Also included is the development of techniques for extending the useful biological life of biological filters, activated carbon filters and ion-exchange resins to at least 30 days, and presterilizing ion-exchange resins so that sterile water can be recovered from waste water. A wide variety of reverse osmosos materials, surfactants and germicides were experimentally evaluated to determine the best combination for a wash water subsystem. Full-scale module tests with real wash water demonstrated that surface fouling is a major problem.

  7. New Method of Online Measurement of Oil and Suspended Material Concentration In Flowing Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hongwei; Xu, Guobing; Xu, Xinqiang; Zhou, Fangde

    2007-06-01

    At present, the most of the measurements of oil and suspended material concentration in waste water measuring are not online surveys. A new method of online measurement of oil and suspended material concentration in flowing waste water is presented. The room experiments and field tests showed that it is suitable to waste water treatment on line. After sampling, It needed to measure immediately the concentration in first time. Then let sample to be in still in 10 - 20 seconds. After that the bulk concentration was measured in second time. Because of the suspended solids having heavy density, they would be dropped from waster water. During ultrasonic operation, emulsify the oil in waster water, the oil and suspended solid would be depart. After that the third time measurement was done. In thus way the concentrations of oil and suspended solids can be measured. At present there are two on-site equipments operating in the Changqing oilfield, and the results are pretty well.

  8. Waste load equilibrium allocation: a soft path for coping with deteriorating water systems.

    PubMed

    Yao, Liming; Xu, Jiuping; Zhang, Mengxiang; Lv, Chengwei; Li, Chaozhi

    2016-08-01

    Waste load allocation is always regarded as another efficient approach comparing with the technology-based approach to improve the water quality. This paper proposes a bi-level multi-objective optimization model for optimally allocating the waste load of a river basin incorporating some concerns (i) the allocation equity from the regional authority, (ii) maximal benefits from the subareas along the river, and (iii) the Stackelberg-Nash-Cournot equilibrium strategy between the upper and lower decision makers. Especially, a novel Gini coefficient for measuring the load allocation equity is defined by considering the economic level and waste water quantity. The applicability and effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated through a practical case based on the Tuojiang River, which is a typical basin with diversified industrial waste discharges in western China. Some operational suggestions are developed to assist the decision makers' cope with deteriorating water systems. PMID:27080404

  9. Evaluation and comparison of alternative designs for water/solid-waste processing systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Promising candidate designs currently being considered for the management of spacecraft solid waste and waste-water materials were assessed. The candidate processes were: (1) the radioisotope thermal energy evaporation/incinerator process; (2) the dry incineration process; and (3) the wet oxidation process. The types of spacecraft waste materials that were included in the base-line computational input to the candidate systems were feces, urine residues, trash and waste-water concentrates. The performance characteristics and system requirements for each candidate process to handle this input and produce the specified acceptable output (i.e., potable water, a storable dry ash, and vapor phase products that can be handled by a spacecraft atmosphere control system) were estimated and compared. Recommendations are presented.

  10. Perfluorooctane surfactants in waste waters, the major source of river pollution.

    PubMed

    Becker, Anna Maria; Gerstmann, Silke; Frank, Hartmut

    2008-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent and widely distributed in the environment. Recently, the discharge of municipal waste water has been shown to be an important route of such perfluoroalkyl surfactants into the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to assess the mass flow of PFOA and PFOS from typical waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) into surface waters. Samples were collected at different stages of treatment of four WWTPs in Northern Bavaria, Germany, and from the rivers receiving the treated waste waters (WW). The outflow of PFOA from the WWTPs to the rivers was 20-fold higher than the inflow to the plants; about a tenth was removed with the sludge. For PFOS, the increase from inlet to outlet was about 3-fold; almost half of it was retained in the sludge. Both surfactants were released into river water from the WWTP of a medium-sized city with domestic, industrial and commercial waste waters; in domestic waste waters the surfactants were found at much lower levels. PMID:18291438

  11. Caffeine and pharmaceuticals as indicators of waste water contamination in wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.; Zaugg, S.D.; Thomas, J.M.; Howcroft, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of caffeine or human pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations can provide a clear, unambiguous indication that domestic waste water is a source of some of the nitrate. Water from domestic, public supply, and monitoring wells in three communities near Reno, Nevada, was sampled to test if caffeine or pharmaceuticals are common, persistent, and mobile enough in the environment that they can be detected in nitrate-contaminated ground water and, thus, can be useful indicators of recharge from domestic waste water. Results of this study indicate that these compounds can be used as indicators of recharge from domestic waste water, although their usefulness is limited because caffeine is apparently nonconservative and the presence of prescription pharmaceuticals is unpredictable. The absence of caffeine or pharmaceuticals in ground water with elevated nitrate concentrations does not demonstrate that the aquifer is free of waste water contamination. Caffeine was detected in ground water samples at concentrations up to 0.23 ??g/L. The human pharmaceuticals chlorpropamide, phensuximide, and carbamazepine also were detected in some samples.

  12. Technical approach for the management of UMTRA ground water investigation-derived wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    During characterization, remediation, or monitoring activities of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, ground water samples are collected to assess the extent and amount of waterborne contamination that might have come from the mill tailings. This sampling sometimes occurs in contaminated areas where ground water quality has been degraded. Ground water sampling activities may result in field-generated wastes that must be disposed of in a manner protective of human health and the environment. During ground water sampling, appropriate measures must be taken to dispose of presampling purge water and well development water that is pumped to flush out any newly constructed wells. Additionally, pumping tests may produce thousands of gallons of potentially contaminated ground water that must be properly managed. In addition to the liquid wastes, there is the potential for bringing contaminated soils to the ground surface during the drilling and installation of water wells in areas where the subsurface soils may be contaminated. These soils must be properly managed as well. This paper addresses the general technical approach that the UMTRA Project will follow in managing field-generated wastes from well drilling, development, sampling, and testing. It will provide guidance for the preparation of Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the management and disposal of field-generated wastes from ground water monitoring and remediation activities.

  13. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  14. Restoration of wadi aquifers by artificial recharge with treated waste water.

    PubMed

    Missimer, Thomas M; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary; Maliva, Robert G; Keller, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country's treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. PMID:22536878

  15. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  16. Effects of Weathering at Waste Rock Dump on Water Quality Inside the Mine Wastes; A Case Study in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, G.; Cheong, Y.; Park, H.; Ji, S.; Lee, H.

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the route of acid rock drainage production and some of the important factors at the abandoned Geo-pung copper mine in Okcheon, Korea. In this research area, planting and remediation have been carried out to prevent environmental pollution, but these effects turned out to be a failure and that acid rock drainage is observed around waste rock dump and planted vegetation is dying. Currently, the slope of mine waste rock dump in the study site is about 40°. It is composed of particles with a variety of shapes, with the surface exposure to atmosphere being transformed to oxide minerals due to weathering. Since groundwater level underneath the mine wastes is directly related to rainfall, a comparative evaluation of weather records and groundwater level data obtained using on-site measuring device (CTD diver) would allow estimation of locational media-specific pattern of rainfall effect in term of infiltration flux and time of threshold impact on groundwater. Sampling and analysis of there borehole water were conducted in July and September, 2007. It was found that all of the borehole water had highly variable levels of Fe (0.4-588 mg/l), Al (8.2-41.9 mg/l), Cu (6.0-32.2 mg/l), Zn (22.2-226.7 mg/l) and other elements. Also, in general, pH of the borehole waters decreased while electric conducivity measured. Such a high variance in the water quality among different borehole water suggests that geochemical environment inside the mine wastes is largely dependent on the local variation in rainfall infiltration of waste rock dump and underneath groundwater level. Vadose zone which has vertical variation of 2-4 m is directly impacted by amount of rainfall and maintains oxidizing condition due to diffusion of oxygen carred by rainfall. Therefore, sulfide minerals within in the zone continued to be oxidized, producing acid rock drainage. To prevent production of acid rock drainage of mine waste, it is necessary to control infiltration of

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  18. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. PMID:26926783

  19. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  20. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  1. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  2. Soil Water: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the fourth of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the topic of soil water. Upon completing the three day module, the student will be able to classify water as to its presence in the soil, outline the hydrological cycle, list the ways water is lost from the soil,…

  3. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  4. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION IN SOURCE WATERS: A SIMPLIFIED ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities a tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. This methodology, using both urobilin and azithromycin (or any other human-use pharmaceutical) could be used to give pub...

  5. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  6. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluents For Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two ass...

  7. CHEMICAL MARKERS OF HUMAN WASTE CONTAMINATION: ANALYSIS OF UROBILIN AND PHARMACEUTICALS IN SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Giving public water authorities another tool to monitor and measure levels of human waste contamination of waters simply and rapidly would enhance public protection. Most of the methods used today detect such contamination by quantifying microbes occurring in feces in high enough...

  8. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  9. Strains of toxic and harmful microalgae, from waste water, marine, brackish and fresh water.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palacio, M C; Crisóstomo-Vázquez, L; Alvarez-Hernández, S; Lozano-Ramírez, C

    2012-01-01

    Some microalgae are economically important in Mexico and the world because they can be potentially toxic. Algal explosive population growths are named harmful algal blooms and are frequently recorded in Mexico. The authors set up potentially toxic microalgae cultures from the Gulf of Mexico (Garrapatas tideland, Barberena river, Carpintero lagoon in Tamaulipas State; Chalchoapan and Catemaco lakes in Veracruz State), from the Mexican Pacific Ocean, Guerrero, Colima and Michoacán States, and from interior water bodies such as Vicente Aguirre dam, Chapultepec lake and several waste water treatment plants. This research is about the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in relation a specific site because of harmful algal bloom events. Microalgae cultures are useful in order to solve taxonomic problems, to know life cycles, molecular studies, for the study of toxic species, and the isolation of useful metabolites. The cultures for this research are clonal, non-axenic, semi-continuous, 12:12 light/dark photoperiod, 20 ± 1 °C temperature and 90.5 µmol m(-2)s(-1) illumination. Four different culture media were used. This collection is open to the worldwide scientific community as a source of organisms in controlled conditions that can be used as a useful tool for microalgae research work. PMID:21815840

  10. Preconcentration of low levels of americium and plutonium from waste waters by synthetic water-soluble metal-binding polymers with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.F.; Gibson, R.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Robison, T.W.; Schroeder, N.C.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-12-31

    A preconcentration approach to assist in the measurement of low levels of americium and plutonium in waste waters has been developed based on the concept of using water-soluble metal-binding polymers in combination with ultrafiltration. The method has been optimized to give over 90% recovery and accountability from actual waste water.

  11. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  12. Preparation of low water-sorption lightweight aggregates from harbor sediment added with waste glass.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Ko, Kuan-Wei; Wang, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    A harbor sediment is successfully recycled at 1150 °C as low water-absorption lightweight aggregate via addition of waste glass powder. Sodium content in the waste glass is responsible for the formation of low-viscosity viscous phases during firing process to encapsulate the gases generated for bloating pellet samples. Water sorption capacity of the lightweight products can be considerably reduced from 5.6% to 1.5% with the addition of waste glass powder. Low water-absorption property of lightweight products is beneficial for preparing lightweight concrete because the water required for curing the cement would not be seized by lightweight aggregate filler, thus preventing the failure of long-term concrete strength. PMID:21367431

  13. Practical Considerations of Waste Heat Reuse for a Mars Mission Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Finn, Cory; Luna, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Energy conservation is a key issue in design optimization of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) for long-term space missions. By considering designs for conservation at the system level, energy saving opportunities arise that would otherwise go unnoticed. This paper builds on a steady-state investigation of system-level waste heat reuse in an ALSS with a low degree of crop growth for a Mars mission. In past studies, such a system has been defined in terms of technology types, hot and cold stream identification and stream energy content. The maximum steady-state potential for power and cooling savings within the system was computed via the Pinch Method. In this paper, several practical issues are considered for achieving a pragmatic estimate of total system savings in terms of equivalent system mass (ESM), rather than savings solely in terms of power and cooling. In this paper, more realistic ESM savings are computed by considering heat transfer inefficiencies during material transfer. An estimate of the steady-state mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with heat exchange equipment is made by considering heat exchange equipment material type and configuration, stream flow characteristics and associated energy losses during the heat exchange process. Also, previously estimated power and cooling savings are adjusted to reflect the impact of such energy losses. This paper goes one step further than the traditional Pinch Method of considering waste heat reuse in heat exchangers to include ESM savings that occur with direct reuse of a stream. For example, rather than exchanging heat between crop growth lamp cooling air and air going to a clothes dryer, air used to cool crop lamps might be reused directly for clothes drying purposes. When thermodynamically feasible, such an approach may increase ESM savings by minimizing the mass, volume and crewtime requirements associated with stream routing equipment.

  14. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate. PMID:26055751

  15. WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF WATER ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-sized manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of hazardous waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at...

  17. Lost water and nitrogen resources due to EU consumer food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bouraoui, F.; Leip, A.; Grizzetti, B.; Bidoglio, G.

    2015-08-01

    The European Parliament recently called for urgent measures to halve food waste in the EU, where consumers are responsible for a major part of total waste along the food supply chain. Due to a lack of data on national food waste statistics, uncertainty in (consumer) waste quantities (and the resulting associated quantities of natural resources) is very high, but has never been previously assessed in studies for the EU. Here we quantify: (1) EU consumer food waste, and (2) associated natural resources required for its production, in term of water and nitrogen, as well as estimating the uncertainty of these values. Total EU consumer food waste averages 123 (min 55-max 190) kg/capita annually (kg/cap/yr), i.e. 16% (min 7-max 24%) of all food reaching consumers. Almost 80%, i.e. 97 (min 45-max 153) kg/cap/yr is avoidable food waste, which is edible food not consumed. We have calculated the water and nitrogen (N) resources associated with avoidable food waste. The associated blue water footprint (WF) (the consumption of surface and groundwater resources) averages 27 litre per capita per day (min 13-max 40 l/cap/d), which slightly exceeds the total blue consumptive EU municipal water use. The associated green WF (consumptive rainwater use) is 294 (min 127-max 449) l/cap/d, equivalent to the total green consumptive water use for crop production in Spain. The nitrogen (N) contained in avoidable food waste averages 0.68 (min 0.29-max 1.08) kg/cap/yr. The food production N footprint (any remaining N used in the food production process) averages 2.74 (min 1.02-max 4.65) kg/cap/yr, equivalent to the use of mineral fertiliser by the UK and Germany combined. Among all the food product groups wasted, meat accounts for the highest amounts of water and N resources, followed by wasted cereals. The results of this study provide essential insights and information on sustainable consumption and resource efficiency for both EU policies and EU consumers.

  18. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby Macdonald; Brian Marx; Balaji Soundararajan; Morgan Smith

    2005-07-28

    The different tasks that have been carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA), which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals, and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples in order to exactly predict the corrosion mechanisms; (7) Wavelet analysis of EC noise data from steel samples undergoing corrosion in an environment similar to that of the high level waste storage containers, to extract data pertaining to general, pitting and stress corrosion processes, from the overall data. The work has yielded a number of important findings, including an unequivocal demonstration of the role of chloride ion in passivity breakdown on nickel in terms of cation vacancy generation within the passive film, the first detection and characterization of individual micro fracture

  19. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert; McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  20. High-resolution profiling of the stable isotopes of water in unsaturated coal waste rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, S. Lee; Hendry, M. Jim; Carey, Sean K.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of the rate of water migration through unsaturated mine waste rock dumps is an essential element in assessing the chemical loading from these landforms; yet our understanding of how water moves into, through and out of waste rock is incomplete. To further understand the rates and magnitude of percolation through waste rock, deep high-resolution (every 0.1-4.5 m) depth profiles of the stable isotopes of water (δ2H and δ18O) at two coal waste rock dumps and a natural alluvial deposit down-gradient of one of the dumps were collected in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. The profiles were generated using vapor equilibrium techniques applied to continuous core samples collected using dry sonic drilling methods. Elevated core temperatures (up to 80 °C) were measured during sonic coring. The isotopic values of pore waters measured in the core samples were corrected for water loss to the atmosphere attributed to the elevated core temperatures. The average isotopic composition of the core samples were compared to water collected from rock drains discharging from the base of the dumps. The results indicate that high-resolution profiles of δ2H and δ18O can be measured to depths of 86 m in coal waste rock dumps and, based on the seasonal cycles in the isotopic composition of recharging water, can be used to characterize the migration of recharge water within these dumps. These profiles also suggest that recharge into these dumps occurs from both rain as well as snow melt and may be as high as 400-600 mm/yr (60-75% of annual precipitation). Combined with the relatively low volumetric water contents of these dumps (5-10%) the rates of water migration through the dumps are tens of meters each year.

  1. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  2. 30 CFR 550.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.248 Section 550.248... liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  3. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...) § 250.248 What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information... cooling water intake information must accompany your DPP or DOCD: (a) Projected wastes. A table...

  4. 30 CFR 550.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 550.217 Section 550.217 Mineral... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water...

  5. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? 250.217 Section 250.217 Mineral... cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany your EP: (a) Projected wastes....

  6. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling proved useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water was warmed during the day, and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing nonflowering plants such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan, the water ceiling could be more effective.

  7. Time Domain Reflectometry for Measuring Volumetric Water Content in Processed Oil Shale Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, T. L.; Elgezawi, S. M.

    1992-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was evaluated and developed to monitor volumetric water content (θυ) in oil shale solid waste retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process. A TDR probe was designed and tested that could be buried and compacted in waste embankments and provide in situ measurements for θυ in the high-saline and high-alkaline conditions exhibited by this waste. TDR was found to be accurate for measurement of θυ across a broad range of water contents in the processed oil shale waste. A computer algorithm to automate the analysis of TDR traces to determine θυ, was developed and tested. A sensitivity test was performed to analyze differences between three smoothing algorithms on the measurement. No significant differences were found between smoothing algorithms or between the number of points applied for smoothing.

  8. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  9. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. PMID:26218340

  10. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  11. Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Treated Waste Water Used for Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Heredia, Rubén Darío; Ortiz, Carolina; Mazo, Martín; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos Arturo; Lopez, Myriam Consuelo

    2016-03-01

    We conducted an observational study to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba spp., in samples collected in a waste water treatment plant that provides water for agricultural irrigation. Samples were collected weekly over a period of 10 weeks at representative contamination stages from within the treatment plant. Protozoan identification was performed via light microscopy and culture. PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences of E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was performed in culture positive samples. Light microscopy revealed the presence of Entamoeba spp., in 70% (14/20) of the raw waste water samples and in 80% (8/10) of the treated water samples. PCR amplification after culture at both 24 and 37°C revealed that 100% (29/29) of the raw waste water samples and 78.6% (11/14) of the treated waste water were positive for E. moshkovskii. We report the first isolation of E. moshkovskii in Colombia, confirmed by PCR. Recent reports of E. moshkovskii pathogenic potential suggest this finding could constitute a public health risk for people exposed to this water. PMID:26732073

  12. Partitioning gas tracer tests for measurement of water in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Paul T; Jakubowitch, Andrew; Briening, Michele L; Chiu, Pei C

    2003-11-01

    A key component in the operation of almost all bioreactor landfills is the addition of water to maintain optimal moisture conditions. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, in situ methods are required to measure water within solid waste. Existing technologies often result in measurements of unknown accuracy, because of the variability of solid waste materials and time-dependent changes in packing density, both of which influence most measurement methods. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone--the partitioning gas tracer test--was tested. In this technology, the transport behavior of two gas tracers within solid waste is used to measure the fraction of the void space filled with water. One tracer is conservative and does not react with solids or liquids, while a second tracer partitions into the water and is separated from the conservative tracer during transport. This technology was tested in four different solid waste packings and was capable of determining the volumetric water content to within 48% of actual values, with most measurement errors less than 15%. This technology and the factors that affect its applicability to landfills are discussed in this paper. PMID:14649759

  13. Radioactive waste produced by DEMO and commerical fusion reactors extrapolated from ITER and advanced data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M.; Hertel, N.E.; Hoffman, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    The potential for providing energy with minimal environmental impact is a powerful motivation for the development of fusion and is the long-term objective of most fusion programs. However, the societal acceptability of magnetic fusion may well be decided in the near-term when decisions are taken on the construction of DEMO to follow ITER (if not when the construction decision is taken on ITER). Component wastes were calculated for DEMOs based on each data base by first calculating reactor sizes needed to satisfy the physics, stress and radiation attenuation requirements, and then calculating component replacement rates based on radiation damage and erosion limits. Then, radioactive inventories were calculated and compared to a number of international criteria for {open_quote}near-surface{close_quote} burial. None of the components in either type of design would meet the Japanese LLW criterion (<1 Ci/m{sup 3}) within 10 years of shutdown, although the advanced (V/Li) blanket would do so soon afterwards. The vanadium first wall, divertor and blanket would satisfy the IAEA LLW criterion (<2 mSv/h contact dose) within about 10 years after shutdown, but none of the stainless steel or copper components would. All the components in the advanced data base designs except the stainless steel vacuum vessel and shield readily satisfy the US extended 10CFR61 intruder dose criterion, but none of the components in the {open_quotes}ITER data base{close_quotes} designs do so. It seems unlikely that a stainless steel first wall or a copper divertor plate could satisfy the US (class C) criterion for near surface burial, much less the more stringent international, criteria. On the other hand, the first wall, divertor and blanket of the V/Li system would still satisfy the intruder dose concentration limits even if the dose criterion was reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  14. 77 FR 62270 - Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Revision Treatment of Non-Safety Systems for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors AGENCY... Treatment of Non-Safety Systems (RTNSS) for Passive Advanced Light Water Reactors.'' The current SRP does not contain guidance on the proposed RTNSS for Passive Advance Light Water Reactors. DATES:...

  15. Advanced Technology Used to Monitor Ground Water in a Restricted Access Area of Fort Riley, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breedlove, J.D.; Finnegan, P.J.; Myers, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe how advanced communication technology is being used to overcome difficulties in collecting reliable ground-water data in areas with restricted access, such as at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas.

  16. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  17. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  18. Advances in soil and water conservation for the southeastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the conservation tillage of the recent past becomes the conventional tillage of the day, we look to new advances to make agriculture in the southeast more competitive in the international market, less dependent on high fuel prices, and more compatible with other sectors of the economy. To maintai...

  19. WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect

    ANNA, KNOX

    2004-08-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

  20. Advances in water resources assessment with SWAT - an overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper introduces a Special Issue containing 12 research articles which present current applications of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for water resources assessment. Firstly, an overview of selected recently published articles with application of SWAT is given. The articles address ...

  1. Effect of a water-based drilling waste on receiving soil properties and plants growth.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Ashtani, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the relative effects of recommended land spraying while drilling (LWD) loading rate application for a source of water-based drilling waste material on selected soil properties and phytotoxicity. Drilling waste material was obtained from a well where a nitrate gypsum water based product was used to formulate the drilling fluid. The fluid and associated drill cuttings were used as the drilling waste source to conduct the experiment. The study was carried out in triplicate and involved five plant species, four drilling waste loading rates and a representative agricultural soil type in Alberta. Plant growth was monitored for a period of ten days. Drilling waste applied at 10 times above the recommended loading rate improved the growth and germination rate of all plants excluding radish. Loading rates in excess of 40 and 50 times had a deleterious effect on radish, corn and oat but not on alfalfa and barley. Germination rate decreased as waste loading rate increased. Effects on soil physical and chemical properties were more pronounced at the 40 and 50 times exceeding recommended loading rate. Significant changes in soil parameters occurred at the higher rates in terms of increase in soil porosity, pH, EC, hydraulic conductivity, SAR and textural classification. This study indicates that the applications of this type of water based drill cutting if executed at an optimal loading rate, may improve soil quality and results in better plant growth. PMID:24117079

  2. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. PMID:26011615

  3. Reduction of chemical oxygen demand of industrial wastes using subcritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.C.; Chang, C.J. )

    1992-10-01

    If wastes have strong toxicity, high organic content, and a deep hue, they are difficult to handle in the waste disposal. It is very practical that waste of this kind is treated by Subcritical Water Oxidation (SWO). In our work, caprolactum (CPL) waste, purged from a petrochemical plant, and dyeing waste, purged from a textile plant, were individually treated by a semi-batch SWO process. Within a one-hour treatment, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction reached 89% for CPL waste (6.90 MPa, 260[degree]C) and 95% for dyeing waste (6.90 MPa, 240[degree]C). There is also a great improvement in hue, especially for the dyeing waste. When CPL wastewater was treated by the SWO process using a chromium metal powder as a catalyst, COD reduction improved further under the same operating conditions. A kinetic model was used to illustrate the oxidation mechanism and the effectiveness of the catalyst. The oxygen concentration in the effluent showed that oxygen consumption corresponded to COD reduction. With the monitoring of concentrations of total soluble chromium in the effluent, a suitable reaction period could be found in order to meet the standard of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  5. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. PMID:27039354

  6. Decommissioning the Romanian Water-Cooled Water-Moderated Research Reactor: New Environmental Perspective on the Management of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, G.; Giumanca, R.

    2006-07-01

    Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies were performed for decommissioning of the water-cooled water-moderated research reactor (WWER) located in Bucharest - Magurele, Romania. Using these studies as a starting point, the preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as for the rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and for the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and ecological reconstruction of the grounds need to be provided for, in accordance with national and international regulations. In accordance with IAEA recommendations at the time, the pre-feasibility study proposed three stages of decommissioning. However, since then new ideas have surfaced with regard to decommissioning. Thus, taking into account the current IAEA ideology, the feasibility study proposes that decommissioning of the WWER be done in one stage to an unrestricted clearance level of the reactor building in an Immediate Dismantling option. Different options and the corresponding derived preferred option for waste management are discussed taking into account safety measures, but also considering technical, logistical and economic factors. For this purpose, possible types of waste created during each decommissioning stage are reviewed. An approximate inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the recommended international basic safety standards identified in the previous phase of the project. The existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant (RWTP) from the Horia Hulubei Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering (IFIN-HH), which has been in service with no significant upgrade since 1974, will need refurbishing due to deterioration, as well as upgrading in order to ensure the

  7. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. PMID:27128189

  8. Microorganism levels in air near spray irrigation of municipal waste water: The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study

    SciTech Connect

    Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    PubMed

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials. PMID:20935373

  10. Biological processes for the treatment of waste water from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenbregt, L.H.J.; Potma, A.A.; Enoch, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    In The Netherlands, all coal-fired power stations are equipped with a wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installation, in order to meet the SO{sub 2} emission requirements. During wet desulfurization a waste water stream is produced containing among others suspended solids, heavy metals, nitrate and in some cases ammonia. Besides, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste water is increased if the FGD process is optimized by application of organic buffers. The traditional waste water treatment plant (WWTP) does not remove nitrate, ammonia and COD, and only poorly removes the anions of oxygenated metals such as selenium. In a previous research it was demonstrated that nitrate and ammonia can be removed biologically, even at the relatively extreme conditions of FGD waste water, which is characterized by a high chloride concentration (5 and 40 g/l) and relatively high temperatures (typically 35--50 C). However, the removal is no longer solely focused on nitrogen components, but also on COD removal and for the anions of some oxygenated metals target values are expected in the near future. In this paper attention is focused on two biological processes. One process is the combined removal of nitrate and COD in a fluid-bed reactor which can be applied upstream of the traditional WWTP. The application of this process was successfully demonstrated at a bench-scale fluid bed reactor. The optimal process conditions were determined in activated-sludge reactors on a laboratory scale. The second biological process is the combined removal of COD and metals from FGD waste water. An upflow sludge blanket reactor was successfully tested on laboratory scale at a wide range of process conditions with actual waste water. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the biological removal processes are discussed and compared with the well known chemical precipitation process.

  11. Advanced anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic waste for the melissa life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissens, G.; Verstraete, W.; Albrecht, T.; Brunner, G.; Creuly, C.; Dussap, G.; Kube, J.; Maerkl, H.; Lasseur, C.

    The feasibility of nearly-complete conversion of lignocellulosic waste (70% food crops, 20% faecal matter and 10% green algae) into biogas was investigated in the context of the MELiSSA loop (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative). The treatment comprised a series of processes, i.e. a mesophilic laboratory scale CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor), an upflow biofilm reactor, a fiber liquefaction reactor employing the rumen bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes and a hydrothermolysis system in near-critical water. By the one-stage CSTR, a biogas yield of 75% with a specific biogas production of 0.37 l biogas g-1 VSS (volatile suspended solids) added at a RT (hydraulic retention time) of 20-25 d was obtained. Biogas yields could not be increased considerably at higher RT, indicating the depletion of readily available substrate after 25 d. The solids present in the CSTR-effluent were subsequently treated in two ways. Hydrothermal treatment (T ˜ 310-350C, p ˜ 240 bar) resulted in effective carbon liquefaction (50-60% without and 83% with carbon dioxide saturation) and complete sanitation of the residue. Application of the cellulolytic Fibrobacter succinogenes converted remaining cellulose contained in the CSTR-effluent into acetate and propionate mainly. Subsequent anaerobic digestion of the hydrothermolysis and the Fibrobacter hydrolysates allowed conversion of 48-60% and 30%, respectively. Thus, the total process yielded biogas corresponding with conversions up to 90% of the original organic matter. It appears that particularly mesophilic digestion in conjunction with hydrothermolysis offers interesting features for (nearly) the MELiSSA system. The described additional technologies show that complete and hygienic carbon and energy recovery from human waste within MELiSSA is technically feasible, provided that the extra energy needed for the thermal treatment is guaranteed.

  12. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality

  13. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Digby D. Macdonald; Brian M. Marx; Sejin Ahn; Julio de Ruiz; Balaji Soundararaja; Morgan Smith; and Wendy Coulson

    2008-01-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO{sub 3}, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair. The different tasks that are being carried out under the current program are as follows: (1) Theoretical and experimental assessment of general corrosion of iron/steel in borate buffer solutions by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), ellipsometry and XPS techniques; (2) Development of a damage function analysis (DFA) which would help in predicting the accumulation of damage due to pitting corrosion in an environment prototypical of DOE liquid waste systems; (3) Experimental measurement of crack growth rate, acoustic emission signals and coupling currents for fracture in carbon and low alloy steels as functions of mechanical (stress intensity), chemical (conductivity), electrochemical (corrosion potential, ECP), and microstructural (grain size, precipitate size, etc) variables in a systematic manner, with particular attention being focused on the structure of the noise in the current and its correlation with the acoustic emissions; (4) Development of fracture mechanisms for carbon and low alloy steels that are consistent with the crack growth rate, coupling current data and acoustic emissions; (5) Inserting advanced crack growth rate models for SCC into existing deterministic codes for predicting the evolution of corrosion damage in DOE liquid waste storage tanks; (6) Computer simulation of the anodic and cathodic activity on the surface of the steel samples

  14. Removal of chromium ions from waste waters using reverse osmosis AG and SWHR membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çimen, Aysel; Kılıçel, Fevzi; Arslan, Gülşin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate removal of chromium from waste waters. The effect of pH and concentration of the feed water and operating pressure on the chromium rejection were also investigated. In the study; the reverse osmosis (RO) technique and the sea water high rejection (SWHR) and high rejection brackish water (AG) membrane were used for the separation process. Results of the study indicated that chromium rejection mostly depends on the membrane type, pH of the feed water and operating pressure. Also pH of the feed water was found to be 3 for the effective removal of chromium. Furthermore the rejection efficiency of the membranes was found to be in the order of AG > SWHR. For two membranes, chromium rejection increased with increasing operating pressure. Finally, waste water sample containing 7542 mg/L (with 100 mg/L) of chromium was treated by using RO technique with AG membrane. RO could be efficiently used (with >91% rejection) for the removal of chromium from waste water sample.

  15. LCA of waste prevention activities: a case study for drinking water in Italy.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Simone; Rigamonti, Lucia; Grosso, Mario

    2012-10-15

    The strategic relevance of waste prevention has considerably increased worldwide during recent years, such that the current European legislation requires the preparation of national waste prevention programmes in which reduction objectives and measures are identified. In such a context, it is possible to recognise how, in order to correctly evaluate the environmental consequences of a prevention activity, a life cycle perspective should be employed. This allows us to go beyond the simple reduction of the generated waste which, alone, does not automatically imply achieving better overall environmental performance, especially when this reduction is not pursued through the simple reduction of consumption. In this study, the energetic and environmental performance of two waste prevention activities considered particularly meaningful for the Italian context were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The two activities were the utilisation of public network water (two scenarios) and of refillable bottled water (two scenarios) for drinking purposes, instead of one-way bottled water (three scenarios). The energy demand and specific potential impacts of the four waste prevention scenarios and of the three baseline scenarios were compared with the aim of evaluating whether, and under what conditions, the analysed prevention activities are actually associated with overall energetic and environmental benefits. In typical conditions, the use of public network water directly from the tap results in the best scenario, while if water is withdrawn from public fountains, its further transportation by private car can involve significant impacts. The use of refillable PET bottled water seems the preferable scenario for packaged water consumption, if refillable bottles are transported to local distributors along the same (or a lower) distance as one-way bottles to retailers. The use of refillable glass bottled water is preferable to one-way bottled water only if a

  16. Waste water/storm water characterization survey, Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility, Pennsylvania. Final report, 15-26 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility from 15-26 July 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative data were also collected after a rain event to assess the quality of the water in the storm water holding pond. Sampling of the oil/water separators was also performed and recommendations were made concerning good management practices to implement to maintain the separators. Slight contamination of the wastewater discharged from the Facility was found, indicating the base is using good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial wastes through the sanitary sewer system. Results of the storm water sampling showed that the quality of the water in the holding pond was not greatly impacted by storm water runoff from the industrial areas on the Facility. A recommendation was made to install a pollution control device on the drain at the Bulk Fuels Storage Area. One oil/water separator was found to contain oil that had hazardous waste characteristics. All others had oil that was suitable for energy recovery.

  17. Water-quality reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality sampling reconnaissance of the north Dade County solid-waste disposal facility (landfill) near Carol City, Florida, was conducted during 1977-78. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to determine selected quality characteristics of the surface- and ground-water of the landfill and contiguous area; and to assess, generally, if leachate produced by the decomposition of landfill wastes was adversely impacting the downgradient water quality. Sampling results indicated that several water-quality characteristics were present in landfill ground water at significantly higher levels than in ground water upgradient or downgradient from the landfill. Moreover, many of these water-quality characteristics were found at slightly higher levels at down gradient site 5 than at upgradient site 1 which suggested that some downgradient movement of landfill leachate had occurred. For example, chloride and alkalinity in ground water had average concentrations of 20 and 290 mg/L at background wells (site 1), 144 and 610 mg/L at landfill wells (sites 2 and 4), and 29 and 338 mg/L at downgradient wells (site 5). A comparison of the 1977-78 sampling results with the National Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Regulations indicated that levels of iron and color in ground water of the study area frequently exceeded national maximum contaminant levels, dissolved solids, turbidity, lead, and manganese occasionally exceeded regulations. Concentrations of iron and levels of color and turbidity in some surface water samples also exceeded National maximum contaminant levels. (USGS)

  18. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  19. Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, JoAnn; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S.; Wichman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This work-group, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:17384784

  20. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  1. Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Abundance in Correlation with Waste Water Effluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Dangerfield, L.; Minor, D.; Subedar, R.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pollutants such as ammonia and copper have had negative effects on marine invertebrate lifecycles. Along the Pacific Coast of California, a filter feeding invertebrate, the Pacific mole crab, Emerita analoga, is exposed to such pollutants regularly. In San Francisco, habitats for populations of Pacific mole crabs are located near the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant, which dumps waste water 4.5 miles off the coast. Due to this disturbance at the south end of Ocean Beach, we hypothesize that there is a negative correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and the levels of copper, zinc and ammonia in sewage released from the Oceanside plant each year. By analyzing four years of Pacific mole crab abundance data and utilizing yearly waste water discharge figures, we found that there is a slight negative correlation (-0.67057) between mole crab abundances and the total amount of waste water being released annually. The amount of copper released from 2007-2010 and the abundance of E. analoga also has a slight negative correlation (-0.6714). The correlation between Pacific mole crab abundance and the total amount of zinc is also a slightly negative (-0.48434). However, the correlation between the abundance of mole crabs and total amount of ammonia released is positive (0.4497). Further data are needed to ascertain the relationship between the abundance of the Pacific mole crab and the amount of pollutants released from nearby waste water treatment plants.

  2. The Use of Waste Materials in the Passive Remediation of Mine Water Polution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, Lesley C.; Younger, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    The contamination and resulting degradation of water courses by effluents from abandoned and active mines is a world-wide problem. Traditional methods of remediating the discharges from mines involve the addition of chemicals and the utilisation of artificial energy sources. Over the last 15-20 years passive treatment systems have been developed that harness natural chemical and biological processes to ameliorate the potentially toxic effects of such discharges. There are many different types of passive system, including compost wetlands, reducing and alkalinity producing systems (RAPS), permeable reactive barriers and inorganic media passive systems. Different waste materials can be utilised as reactive media within each of these systems, dependent upon the type of mine water and treatment technology. In many cases the reactivity of these recycled waste materials is key to the remedial performance of these systems. The materials used may be organic (e.g., composts) or inorganic (e.g., blast furnace slag) and where possible are sourced locally in order to minimise transport costs. The remediation of mine waters in itself can produce large quantities of waste products in the form of iron oxide sludge. Potential uses of this material in the production of pigments and in the treatment of phosphate contaminated waters is also currently under investigation. The exploitation of what are traditionally thought of as waste materials within treatment systems for polluted waters is an expanding technology which provides great scope for recycling.

  3. Waste water treatment costs reduced by 50% with rotary vacuum precoat filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrozinski, W.; Short, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes a rotary vacuum precoat filter which reduces waste treatment costs by 50%. This filter was used to solve Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division's plant problem of high operating costs at the facility due to frequent cleaning, repair, and replacement of electric filters.The solids separation system at Linde's waste water treatment facility also had high operating, maintenance and sludge disposal costs. Installation of the rotary vacuum precoat filter with diatomite precoat performs the same functions as were previously accomplished with the high pressure filter and a centrifuge, and does these with less total horsepower, fewer water treatment chemicals, reduced maintenance, and lower water content in the sludge. All of these improvements have added up to a 50% reduction in the total cost of waste water treatment. On a trial-basis, the small rotary vacuum precoat flter satisfactorily handled all the waste water treatment required at present plant production rates. Based on full plant operating rates and the installation of an appropriate sized filter, total savings from using this system are estimated at $92,000/yr.

  4. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix F: Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Levin, A.; O`Kelley, M.

    1991-08-01

    This study characterizes potential greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste streams, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates their radionuclide content and distribution. Several types of low-level radioactive wastes produced by light water reactors were identified in an earlier study as being potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste, including specific activated metal components and certain process wastes in the form of cartridge filters and decontamination resins. Light water reactor operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants were reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of potential greater-than-Class C low-level waste generated per fuel cycle. The amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste were estimated as a function of fuel cycle. Component-specific radionuclide content and distribution was calculated for activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste streams were used to estimate radionuclide content and distribution for process wastes. The greater-than-Class C low-level waste volumes that could be generated through plant closure were also estimated, along with volumes and activities for potential greater-than-Class C activated metals generated at decommissioning.

  6. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water recovery from source-separated domestic waste(water).

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Grietje; Kujawa, Katarzyna; de Mes, Titia; Hernandez, Lucia; de Graaff, Marthe; Abu-Ghunmi, Lina; Mels, Adriaan; Meulman, Brendo; Temmink, Hardy; Buisman, Cees; van Lier, Jules; Lettinga, Gatze

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced. PMID:18469391

  7. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and... Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  8. ENTERPRISE SRS: LEVERAGING ONGOING OPERATIONS TO ADVANCE RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.; Wilmarth, W.; Marra, J.; Mcguire, P.; Wheeler, V.

    2013-05-16

    continue to accomplish DOE’s critical nuclear material missions (e.g., processing in H-Canyon and plutonium storage in K-Area). These demonstrations can be accomplished in a more cost-effective manner through the use of existing facilities in conjunction with ongoing missions. Essentially, the R&D program would not need to pay the full operational cost of a facility, just the incremental cost of performing the demonstration. Current Center activities have been focused on integrating advanced safeguards monitoring technology demonstrations into the SRS H-Canyon and advanced location technology demonstrations into K-Area Materials Storage. These demonstrations are providing valuable information to researchers and program owners. In addition these demonstrations are providing the Center with an improved protocol for demonstration management that can be exercised across the entire SRS (and to offsite venues) to ensure that future demonstrations are done efficiently and provide an opportunity to use these unique assets for multiple purposes involving national laboratories, academia, and commercial entities. Key among the envisioned future use of SRS assets is the demonstration of new radioactive waste management technologies critical for advancing the mission needs of the DOE-EM program offices in their efforts to cleanup 107 sites across the United States. Of particular interest is the demonstration of separations technologies in H-Canyon. Given the modular design of H-Canyon, those demonstrations would be accomplished using a process frame. The demonstration equipment would be installed on the process frame and that frame would then be positioned into an H-Canyon cell so that the demonstration is performed in a radiological environment involving prototypic nuclear materials.

  9. Fuzzy logic control of water level in advanced boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chaung; Lee, Chi-Szu; Raghavan, R.; Fahrner, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    The feedwater control system in the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is more challenging to design compared to other control systems in the plant, due to the possible change in level from void collapses and swells during transient events. A basic fuzzy logic controller is developed using a simplified ABWR mathematical model to demonstrate and compare the performance of this controller with a simplified conventional controller. To reduce the design effort, methods are developed to automatically tune the scaling factors and control rules. As a first step in developing the fuzzy controller, a fuzzy controller with a limited number of rules is developed to respond to normal plant transients such as setpoint changes of plant parameters and load demand changes. Various simulations for setpoint and load demand changes of plant performances were conducted to evaluate the modeled fuzzy logic design against the simplified ABWR model control system. The simulation results show that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is comparable to that of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller, However, the fuzzy logic controller produced shorter settling time for step setpoint changes compared to the simplified conventional controller.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR MONITORING THE ENVIRONMENT. WATER AND WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This first EPA manual contains uniform laboratory and field methods for microbiological analyses of waters and wastewaters, and is recommended in enforcement, monitoring and research activities. The procedures are prepared in detailed, stepwise form for the bench worker. The manu...

  11. Modeling water retention of sludge simulants and actual saltcake tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, C.S.

    1996-07-01

    The Ferrocyanide Tanks Safety Program managed by Westinghouse hanford Company has been concerned with the potential combustion hazard of dry tank wastes containing ferrocyanide chemical in combination with nitrate salts. Pervious studies have shown that tank waste containing greater than 20 percent of weight as water could not be accidentally ignited. Moreover, a sustained combustion could not be propagated in such a wet waste even if it contained enough ferrocyanide to burn. Because moisture content is a key critical factor determining the safety of ferrocyanide-containing tank wastes, physical modeling was performed by Pacific Northwest National laboratory to evaluate the moisture-retaining behavior of typical tank wastes. The physical modeling reported here has quantified the mechanisms by which two main types of tank waste, sludge and saltcake, retain moisture in a tank profile under static conditions. Static conditions usually prevail after a tank profile has been stabilized by pumping out any excess interstitial liquid, which is not naturally retained by the waste as a result of physical forces such as capillarity.

  12. The Challenges of Creating a Real-Time Data Management System for TRU-Mixed Waste at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Paff, S. W; Doody, S.

    2003-02-25

    This paper discusses the challenges associated with creating a data management system for waste tracking at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) at the Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEEL). The waste tracking system combines data from plant automation systems and decision points. The primary purpose of the system is to provide information to enable the plant operators and engineers to assess the risks associated with each container and determine the best method of treating it. It is also used to track the transuranic (TRU) waste containers as they move throughout the various processes at the plant. And finally, the goal of the system is to support paperless shipments of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the approach, methodologies, the underlying design of the database, and the challenges of creating the Data Management System (DMS) prior to completion of design and construction of a major plant. The system was built utilizing an Oracle database platform, and Oracle Forms 6i in client-server mode. The underlying data architecture is container-centric, with separate tables and objects for each type of analysis used to characterize the waste, including real-time radiography (RTR), non-destructive assay (NDA), head-space gas sampling and analysis (HSGS), visual examination (VE) and coring. The use of separate tables facilitated the construction of automatic interfaces with the analysis instruments that enabled direct data capture. Movements are tracked using a location system describing each waste container's current location and a history table tracking the container's movement history. The movement system is designed to interface both with radio-frequency bar-code devices and the plant's integrated control system (ICS). Collections of containers or information, such as batches, were created across the various types of analyses, which enabled a single, cohesive approach to be developed for verification and

  13. Waste-water treatment: lagoons. January 1977-May 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of waste waters in lagoons. The design, operation, equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. The treatment of waste water from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, and other industrial operations are considered. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. (This updated bibliography contains 401 citations, 26 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Effective utilization of waste water through recycling, reuse, and remediation for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Raman, Rajamani; Krishnamoorthy, Renga

    2014-01-01

    Water is vital for human, animal, and plant life. Water is one of the most essential inputs for the production of crops. Plants need it in enormous quantities continuously during their life. The role of water is felt everywhere; its scarcity causes droughts and famines, its excess causes floods and deluge. During the next two decades, water will increasingly be considered a critical resource for the future survival of the arid and semiarid countries. The requirement of water is increasing day by day due to intensive agriculture practices, urbanization, population growth, industrialization, domestic use, and other uses. On the other hand, the availability of water resources is declining and the existing water is not enough to meet the needs. To overcome this problem, one available solution is utilization of waste water by using recycling, reuse, and remediation process. PMID:24663224

  15. Advanced Off-Gas Control System Design For Radioactive And Mixed Waste Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of radioactive and mixed wastes is often required to destroy or immobilize hazardous constituents, reduce waste volume, and convert the waste to a form suitable for final disposal. These kinds of treatments usually evolve off-gas. Air emission regulations have become increasingly stringent in recent years. Mixed waste thermal treatment in the United States is now generally regulated under the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. These standards impose unprecedented requirements for operation, monitoring and control, and emissions control. Off-gas control technologies and system designs that were satisfactorily proven in mixed waste operation prior to the implementation of new regulatory standards are in some cases no longer suitable in new mixed waste treatment system designs. Some mixed waste treatment facilities have been shut down rather than have excessively restrictive feed rate limits or facility upgrades to comply with the new standards. New mixed waste treatment facilities in the U. S. are being designed to operate in compliance with the HWC MACT standards. Activities have been underway for the past 10 years at the INL and elsewhere to identify, develop, demonstrate, and design technologies for enabling HWC MACT compliance for mixed waste treatment facilities. Some specific off-gas control technologies and system designs have been identified and tested to show that even the stringent HWC MACT standards can be met, while minimizing treatment facility size and cost.

  16. ADVANCED TREATMENT FOR WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AT WATER FACTORY 21

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance and reliability of Water Factory 21 (WF21) in Orange County, California, for removal of a broad range of organic, inorganic, and biological contaminants from activated-sludge treated municipal wastewater was evaluated. This full-scale facility has a capacity of 0....

  17. Advances in Raman Lidar Measurements of Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Mielke, B.; Stein, B.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Tooman, T.; Turner, D.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent technology upgrades to the NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar have permitted significant improvements in the daytime and nighttime measurement of water vapor using Raman lidar. Numerical simulation has been used to study the temperature sensitivity of the narrow spectral band measurements presented here.

  18. Advanced Detector and Waveform Digitizer for Water Vapor DIAL Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Luck, William S., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor has become a major requirement for understanding moist-air processes. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is a technique best suited for the measurement of atmospheric water vapor. NASA Langley Research Center is continually developing improved DIAL systems. One aspect of current development is focused on the enhancement of a DIAL receiver by applying state-of-the-art technology in building a new compact detection system that will be placed directly on the DIAL receiver telescope. The newly developed detection system has the capability of being digitally interfaced with a simple personal computer, using a discrete input/output interface. This has the potential of transmitting digital data over relatively long distances instead of analog signals, which greatly reduces measurement noise. In this paper, we discuss some results from the new compact water vapor DIAL detection system which includes a silicon based avalanche photodiode (APD) detector, a 14-bit, 10-MHz waveform digitizer, a microcontroller and other auxiliary electronics. All of which are contained on a small printed-circuit-board. This will significantly reduce the weight and volume over the current CAMAC system and eventually will be used in a water vapor DIAL system on an unpiloted atmospheric vehicle (UAV) aircraft, or alternatively on an orbiting spacecraft.

  19. Recovery of fine coal from waste streams using advanced column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to evaluate the application of an advanced physical separation technique, namely Ken-Flote'' column flotation to recover clean coal with minimum sulfur and ash content at greater than 90 percent combustible recovery from two Illinois coal preparation plant fine waste streams. The project will optimize various operating parameters with particular emphasis on fine bubble generating devices and reagent packages to enhance the rejection of liberated ash and pyritic sulfur. During this contract period, column flotation testing was completed on the flotation feed slurry obtained from the Kerr-McGee Galatia Preparation Plant. The column flotation tests were conducted using three different bubble generating devices: Static, gas saver and foam jet spargers. Each of these devices was tested with three different frothers and various column operating variables to provide maximum combustible recovery, minimum product ash and maximum pyrite rejection. In general, the column flotation provided a clean coal containing about 4--6 percent ash at combustible recovery ranging from 88 to 92 percent while pyrite rejection was 70 to 75 percent. Flotation tests were also conducted on a slurry sample obtained from The Ziegler {number sign}26 Preparation Plant in Sesse, Illinois. Base-line flotation testing was completed using batch flotation to identify optimum reagent addition. Column flotation of the Ziegler slurry provided a clean coal containing 4--6 percent ash with a combustible recovery of 90--95 percent and pyrite rejection of 60--67 percent. Efforts are in progress in installing a 6-inc. I.D. pilot column at the Ziegler {number sign}26. 9 figs.

  20. Soil water repellency patterns following long-term irrigation with waste water in a sandy calcareous soil, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; García-Irles, L.; Morugán, A.; Doerr, S. H.; García-Orenes, F.; Atanassova, I.; Navarro, M. A.; Ayguadé, H.

    2009-04-01

    One of the consequences of long-term irrigation with waste water can be the development of soil water repellency (WR). Its emergence can affect soil-water balance, irrigation efficiency and crop yield. Water repellency development has been suggested to be controlled by parameters such as organic matter quantity and type present in the waste water, soil properties (particularly the texture), and the overall time period of irrigation. Here we examine the effect of long-term (~20 years) irrigation with low quality waste-water on soil wettability under a Populus alba tree stand used as a "green filter". The plot exhibited considerable micro-topography (ridges and furrows) and consisted of sandy calcareous soil (Xerofluvent). Water repellency and organic carbon content (OC) were studied in 160 samples taken from the plot and from an adjacent area used as control (no irrigated). From the control area 40 samples were taken from the first 5 cm of mineral soil (C samples). From the irrigated plot a total of 120 samples were collected. To account for the micro-topography of the terrain, 40 samples each were taken from ridges (R samples; 0-5 cm depth), furrows (F samples; 0-5 cm depth), and from furrows at depth (FD samples, 5-10 cm depth). Soil WR was assessed in the laboratory for all air dry samples using the water drop penetration time test (WDPT Test). Samples with WDPT ? 5 seconds were classified as non-repellent. Organic carbon content (OC) was analyzed in all samples by potassium dichromate oxidation method. We also carried out a detailed chemical characterisation of the organic matter in two furrow samples that exhibited contrasting wettability, but no major difference in OC content (F10: WDPT 9960s, OC 6.7%; F31: WDPT 10s, OC 7.5%). Following accelerated solvent extraction with Dichloro-methane/MeOH (95:5), the extract was analysed by GC-MS. All samples from the control area (C) were wettable (mean WDPT=1s). In the irrigated plot, water repellency was present for 48

  1. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quarterly report, May 1995--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This fourth quarterly report describes work done during the fourth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh`s project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quote} Participating with the university on this project are Dravo Lime Company, Mill Service, Inc., and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research. This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focussed upon the production of six sets of samples with high water content for solidification testing and the mixing of five dry samples for solidification testing by the Proctor method. Twenty-eight day compressive strengths are reported for five of the six sets of samples with high water content. The report also discusses completion of the format of the database and the inclusion in it of all data collected to date. Special reports presented during the quarter include the Continuation Application, a News Release, and modification to the Test Plan. Work is progressing on the NEPA report and the Topical Report. The activity on the project during the fourth quarter of Phase one, as presented in the following sections, has fallen into six major areas: (1) Completion of by-product evaluations, (2) Completion of analyses of six wastes, (3) Initiation of eleven solidification tests, (4) Continued extraction and extract analysis of solidified samples, (5) Development of the database, and (6) Production of reports.

  2. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  3. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases.

  4. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  5. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by a mechanical method using a water medium.

    PubMed

    Duan, Chenlong; Wen, Xuefeng; Shi, Changsheng; Zhao, Yuemin; Wen, Baofeng; He, Yaqun

    2009-07-15

    Research on the recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) is at the forefront of environmental pollution prevention and resource recycling. To effectively crush waste PCB and to solve the problem of secondary pollution from fugitive odors and dust created during the crushing process, a wet impacting crusher was employed to achieve comminution liberation of the PCB in a water medium. The function of water in the crushing process was analyzed. When using slippery hammerheads, a rotation speed of 1470 rpm, a water flow of 6m(3)/h and a sieve plate aperture of 2.2mm, 95.87% of the crushed product was sized less than 1mm. 94.30% of the metal was in this grade of product. Using smashed material graded -1mm for further research, a Falcon concentrator was used to recover the metal from the waste PCB. Engineering considerations were the liberation degree, the distribution ratio of the metal and a way to simplify the technology. The separation mechanism for fine particles of different densities in a Falcon concentrator was analyzed in detail and the separation process in the segregation and separation zones was deduced. Also, the magnitude of centrifugal acceleration, the back flow water pressure and the feed slurry concentration, any of which might affect separation results, were studied. A recovery model was established using Design-Expert software. Separating waste PCB, crushed to -1mm, with the Falcon separator gave a concentrated product graded 92.36% metal with a recovery of 97.05%. To do this the reverse water pressure was 0.05 MPa, the speed transducer frequency was set at 30 Hz and the feed density was 20 g/l. A flow diagram illustrating the new technique of wet impact crushing followed by separation with a Falcon concentrator is provided. The technique will prevent environmental pollution from waste PCB and allow the effective recovery of resources. Water was used as the medium throughout the whole process. PMID:19121892

  6. Destruction of representative submarine food waste using supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiying; Qu, Xuan; Zhang, Rong; Bi, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 13 types of organic materials were oxidized using H2O2 in a continuous flow reactor under the condition of supercritical water. The effect of the operational parameters on the conversion of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) was investigated, and the resulting quality of treated water was analyzed. It was found that these materials were easily oxidized with a TOC conversion achieving 99% at temperature of 460 °C and TN conversion reaching 94% at temperature of 500 °C. Rice decomposition was rapid, with TOC and TN decomposition rates of 99% obtained within residence of 100 s at temperature of 460 °C. At temperature of 460 °C, pressure of 24 MPa, residence time of 100 s, and excess oxygen of 100%, the quality of treated water attained levels commensurate with China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. Reaction rate equation parameters were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the differential equation obtained using the Runge-Kutta algorithm. The decrease of the TOC in water samples exhibited reaction orders of 0.95 for the TOC concentration and 0.628 for the oxygen concentration. The activation energy was 83.018 kJ/mol. PMID:25315932

  7. Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste)water treatment.

    PubMed

    Dular, Matevž; Griessler-Bulc, Tjaša; Gutierrez-Aguirre, Ion; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Oder, Martina; Petkovšek, Martin; Rački, Nejc; Ravnikar, Maja; Šarc, Andrej; Širok, Brane; Zupanc, Mojca; Žitnik, Miha; Kompare, Boris

    2016-03-01

    The use of acoustic cavitation for water and wastewater treatment (cleaning) is a well known procedure. Yet, the use of hydrodynamic cavitation as a sole technique or in combination with other techniques such as ultrasound has only recently been suggested and employed. In the first part of this paper a general overview of techniques that employ hydrodynamic cavitation for cleaning of water and wastewater is presented. In the second part of the paper the focus is on our own most recent work using hydrodynamic cavitation for removal of pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, carbamazepine), toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), bacteria (Legionella pneumophila) and viruses (Rotavirus) from water and wastewater. As will be shown, hydrodynamic cavitation, like acoustic, can manifest itself in many different forms each having its own distinctive properties and mechanisms. This was until now neglected, which eventually led to poor performance of the technique. We will show that a different type of hydrodynamic cavitation (different removal mechanism) is required for successful removal of different pollutants. The path to use hydrodynamic cavitation as a routine water cleaning method is still long, but recent results have already shown great potential for optimisation, which could lead to a low energy tool for water and wastewater cleaning. PMID:26515938

  8. Evolutionary/advanced light water reactor data report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    The US DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition is examining options for placing fissile materials that were produced for fabrication of weapons, and now are deemed to be surplus, into a condition that is substantially irreversible and makes its use in weapons inherently more difficult. The principal fissile materials subject to this disposition activity are plutonium and uranium containing substantial fractions of plutonium-239 uranium-235. The data in this report, prepared as technical input to the fissile material disposition Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) deal only with the disposition of plutonium that contains well over 80% plutonium-239. In fact, the data were developed on the basis of weapon-grade plutonium which contains, typically, 93.6% plutonium-239 and 5.9% plutonium-240 as the principal isotopes. One of the options for disposition of weapon-grade plutonium being considered is the power reactor alternative. Plutonium would be fabricated into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and fissioned (``burned``) in a reactor to produce electric power. The MOX fuel will contain dioxides of uranium and plutonium with less than 7% weapon-grade plutonium and uranium that has about 0.2% uranium-235. The disposition mission could, for example, be carried out in existing power reactors, of which there are over 100 in the United States. Alternatively, new LWRs could be constructed especially for disposition of plutonium. These would be of the latest US design(s) incorporating numerous design simplifications and safety enhancements. These ``evolutionary`` or ``advanced`` designs would offer not only technological advances, but also flexibility in siting and the option of either government or private (e.g., utility) ownership. The new reactor designs can accommodate somewhat higher plutonium throughputs. This data report deals solely with the ``evolutionary`` LWR alternative.

  9. Advancements in water vapor electrolysis technology. [for Space Station ECLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Heppner, Dennis B.; Sudar, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a technology development program whose goal is to develop water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hardware that can be used selectively as localized topping capability in areas of high metabolic activity without oversizing the central air revitalization system on long-duration manned space missions. The WVE will be used primarily to generate O2 for the crew cabin but also to provide partial humidity control by removing water vapor from the cabin atmosphere. The electrochemically based WVE interfaces with cabin air which is controlled in the following ranges: dry bulb temperature of 292 to 300 K; dew point temperature of 278 to 289 K; relative humidity of 25 to 75 percent; and pressure of 101 + or - 1.4 kPa. Design requirements, construction details, and results for both single-cell and multicell module testing are presented, and the preliminary sizing of a multiperson subsystem is discussed.

  10. Advancing towards universal screening for organic pollutants in waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Félix; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Cervera, María I; Sancho, Juan V; López, Francisco J

    2015-01-23

    Environmental analytical chemists face the challenge of investigating thousands of potential organic pollutants that may be present in the aquatic environment. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) hyphenated to chromatography offers the possibility of detecting a large number of contaminants without pre-selection of analytes due to its accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition at good sensitivity. Interestingly, large screening can be made even without reference standards, as the valuable information provided by HRMS allows the tentative identification of the compound detected. In this work, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) MS was combined with both liquid and gas chromatography (using a single instrument) for screening of around 2000 compounds in waters. This was feasible thanks to the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in GC. The screening was qualitatively validated for around 300 compounds at three levels (0.02, 0.1, 0.5μg/L), and screening detection limits were established. Surface, ground water and effluent wastewater samples were analyzed, detecting and identifying a notable number of pesticides and transformation products, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and illicit drugs, among others. This is one of the most universal approaches in terms of comprehensive measurement for broad screening of organic contaminants within a large range of polarity and volatility in waters. PMID:25204505

  11. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26612563

  12. Natural radioactivity in drinking underground waters in Upper Silesia and solid wastes produced during treatment.

    PubMed

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Chałupnik, Stanisław; Bonczyk, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Content of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and uranium isotopes in waters from subsurface aquifers was studied. The sampling points were chosen for having the elevated natural content of iron and manganese. Measurements of radium were made by LSC, while uranium was measured by alpha spectrometry. Waste sludge was measured by gamma spectrometry and three-stage BCR sequential extraction was performed. Radon activity concentration in the air at water treatment plants was determined and dose adsorbed by staff was calculated. PMID:24565994

  13. The evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test procedure.

    PubMed

    Smaka-Kincl, V; Stegnar, P; Lovka, M; Toman, M J

    1996-07-01

    The bulbs of Allium cepa were grown in test liquids of various pollution levels as follows: undiluted industrial and municipal waste water; biological treatment plant output water; water from the Drava river upstream and downstream of the city of Maribor; and non-chlorinated drinking water as a negative control test. The paper presents the response of the Allium cepa genetic material to the presence of potential cytotoxic and genotoxic substances in test liquids and the suitability of the Allium cepa testing procedure as a method for short-term determination of water pollution level. The suitability of the Allium test procedure as a system for environmental monitoring is presented. The influence of water pollution on macroscopic and cytologic parameters of the common onion by application of the biological testing method was examined. The macroscopic parameter was inhibition of root growth. The cytological parameters were: aberrant cells in metaphase and anaphase, index of micronuclei appearance and inhibition of cell division. The possibility of categorization the different polluted test liquids into quality classes is presented according to the influence of the test liquids on macroscopic and cytologic parameters. Test liquids are divided into 8 quality classes: the first class is the least polluted surface waters, the second and the third classes are more polluted surface water, the fourth and the fifth classes are biological treatment plant output waters, the sixth till the eighth quality classes are untreated waste waters. The most polluted test liquids (untreated industrial and municipal waste waters) caused sublethal and even lethal effects. The most polluted tested liquids cause the inhibition of root growth over 50% (even up to 74%), decrease of mitotic index over 36% (even up to 66%), increase of presence of interphase cells with micronuclei over 3% and increase of presence of aberrant cells for more than 10 times in comparison to control test. PMID

  14. Study on shrimp waste water and vermicompost as a nutrient source for bell peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture industry generates significant nutrient-rich wastewater that is released into streams and rivers causing environmental concern. The objective of this controlled environment study was to evaluate the effect of waste shrimp water (SW), vermicompost (VC), at rates of 10%, 20%, 40%, and ...

  15. Using a Macroalgal δ15N Bioassay to Detect Cruise Ship Waste Water Effluent Inputs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking sources of N to marine ecosystems. I used green macroalgae as a bioassay organism to evaluate if the δ15N signature of cruise ship waste water effluent (CSWWE) could be detected in Skagway Harbor, AK. Opportunistic green...

  16. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Removal of two antibacterial compounds triclocarban and triclosan in a waste water treatment plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigates the fate of Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Our goal was to identify the most effective removal step and to determine the amount on the solid phase versus degraded. Our influent contained higher TCS than TCC concentrations (8....

  18. TREATMENT AND PRODUCT RECOVERY: SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION OF NYLON MONOMER MANUFACTURING WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R822721C569
    Title: Treatment and Product Recovery: Supercritical Water Oxidation of Nylon Monomer Manufacturing Waste
    Investigator: Earnest F. Gloyna
    Institution: University of Texas at Austin
    EPA Project Officer:<...

  19. Biodegradation studies of aniline and nitrobenzene in aniline plant waste water by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, S.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1988-10-01

    A gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for studying the biodegradation of aniline and/or nitrobenzene in aniline plant waste water. The effects of various parameters have been reported and critically discussed. The results are precise and afford simultaneous determination of aniline and nitrobenzene.

  20. Production of Methane and Water from Crew Plastic Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Parrish, Clyde; Strayer, Richard F.; Garland, Jay L.

    2008-01-01

    Recycling is a technology that will be key to creating a self sustaining lunar outpost. The plastics used for food packaging provide a source of material that could be recycled to produce water and methane. The recycling of these plastics will require some additional resources that will affect the initial estimate of starting materials that will have to be transported from earth, mainly oxygen, energy and mass. These requirements will vary depending on the recycling conditions. The degredation products of these plastics will vary under different atmospheric conditions. An estimate of the the production rate of methane and water using typical ISRU processes along with the plastic recycling will be presented.

  1. PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR METALS IN SURFACE WATER, SOIL, AND WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents metal partition coefficients for the surface water pathway and for the source model used in the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Partition ...

  2. Trade study for water and waste management concepts. Task 7: Support special analysis. [cost analysis of life support systems for waste utilization during space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost analyses and tradeoff studies are given for waste management in the Space Station, Lunar Surface Bases, and interplanetary space missions. Crew drinking water requirements are discussed and various systems to recycle water are examined. The systems were evaluated for efficiency and weight savings. The systems considered effective for urine water recovery were vapor compression, flash evaporation, and air evaporation with electrolytic pretreatment. For wash water recovery, the system of multifiltration was selected. A wet oxidation system, which can process many kinds of wastes, is also considered.

  3. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rector, Tony; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A water loop maintenance device and process to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been undergoing a performance evaluation. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the water recirculation maintenance device and process is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance process further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware. This

  4. Decontamination of Nuclear Liquid Wastes Status of CEA and AREVA R and D: Application to Fukushima Waste Waters - 12312

    SciTech Connect

    Fournel, B.; Barre, Y.; Lepeytre, C.; Peycelon, H.; Grandjean, A.; Prevost, T.; Valery, J.F.; Shilova, E.; Viel, P.

    2012-07-01

    Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale results obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in

  5. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, F. C.; Schubert, F. H.

    1977-01-01

    Some results are presented of a research and development program to continue the development of a method to generate oxygen for crew metabolic consumption during extended manned space flights. The concept being pursued is that of static feed water electrolysis. Specific major results of the work included: (1) completion of a 30-day electrode test using a Life Systems, Inc.-developed high performance catalyst. During startup the cell voltages were as low as 1.38 V at current densities of 108 mA/sq cm (100 ASF) and temperatures of 355 K (180 F). At the end of 30 days of testing the cell voltages were still only 1.42 V at 108 mA/sq cm, (2) determination that the Static Feed Water Electrolysis Module does not release an aerosol of the cell electrolyte into the product gas streams after a break-in period of 24 hours following a new electrolyte charge, and (3) completion of a detailed design analysis of an electrochemical Oxygen Generation Subsystem at a three-man level (4.19 kg/day (9.24 lb/day) of oxygen).

  6. TECHNICAL REPORT - ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is
    a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques
    because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to<...

  7. ADVANCES IN ENCAPSULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although industrial and commercial uses of mercury have been curtailed in recent times, there is a demonstrated need for the development of reliable hazardous waste management techniques because of ongoing hazardous waste generation and historic operations that have led to signif...

  8. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date.

  9. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  10. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between

  11. [Study advance on haloacetic acids in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ye, Bi-Xiong; Wang, Wu-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Yong-Hua

    2006-05-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water have attracted more and more attention of researchers due to their higher potential combination of chlorine, their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects and higher carcinogenic. The formation mechanism, analytical methods, the effects of many factors on HAAs formation such as precursor types, chlorine doses, pH, temperature, bromide, reaction time and seasonal change, toxicological character and the minimizing technology of HAAs in resent studies about HAAs are discussed in details in this paper. Further researches are still needed to clarify the formation mechanism of HAAs and find a feasible minimizing technology. New concerns including toxicological characters that correlate with human and other HAAs exposure routes besides oral ingestion (i.e., inhalation and dermal adsorption) should be put forward. PMID:16921773

  12. Water quality at and adjacent to the south Dade County solid-waste disposal facility, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    A water-quality reconnaissance was conducted at the south Dade County solid-waste landfill near Goulds, Florida, from December 1977 through August 1978. The landfill is located directly on the unconfined Biscayne aquifer, which, in the study area, is affected by saltwater intrusion. Water samples collected from six monitor well sites at two depths and four surface-water sites were analyzed to determine the chemical, physical, and biological conditions of the ground water and surface water of the study area. Results indicated that water quality beneath the landfill was highly variable with location and depth. Leachate was generally more evident in the shallow wells and during the dry-season sampling, but was greatly diluted and dispersed in the deep wells and during the wet season. High concentrations of contaminants were generated primarily in areas of the landfill with the most recent waste deposits. Chloride (limited to the shallow wells and the dry season), alkalinity, ammonia, iron, manganese, lead, phosphorus, and organic nitrogen indicate leachate contamination of the aquifer. Water-quality characteristics in the surface waters were generally only slightly above background levels. (USGS)

  13. Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene waste in subcritical water optimized by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wong, S L; Ngadi, N; Amin, N A S; Abdullah, T A T; Inuwa, I M

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste from local waste separation company in subcritical water was conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time, temperature, as well as the mass ratio of water to polymer on the liquid yield. The data obtained from the study were used to optimize the liquid yield using response surface methodology. The range of reaction temperature used was 162-338°C, while the reaction time ranged from 37 min to 143 min, and the ratio of water to polymer ranged from 1.9 to 7.1. It was found that pyrolysis of LDPE waste in subcritical water produced hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, while the liquid product contained alkanes and alkenes with 10-50 carbons atoms, as well as heptadecanone, dichloroacetic acid and heptadecyl ester. The optimized conditions were 152.3°C, reaction time of 1.2 min and ratio of water solution to polymer of 32.7, with the optimum liquid yield of 13.6 wt% and gases yield of 2.6 wt%. PMID:26150081

  14. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Roseboom, E.H. Jr.

    1983-12-31

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository`s performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous {sup 129}I and {sup 14}C to the atmosphere.

  15. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository's performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous iodine-129 and carbon-14 to the atmosphere.

  16. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; Saaltink, Maarten W.

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  17. Polyurethane waste recycling; glycolysis and hydroglycolysis of water-blown foams

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlock, J.; Braslaw, J.; Zinbo, M.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, glycolysis of toluenediisocyanate based water-blown polyurethane foam has been examined by high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography to determine the product distribution. Glycolysis with diethylene glycol (DEG) yields toluenediamine (TDA), TDA mono- and di- DEG carbamates, a series of urea-linked mono- and di- DEG carbamate TDA oligomers, and polyether triol (polyol). The complexity of the product mixture suggests problems in applying simple glycolysis to the recovery of mixed and/or contaminated polyurethane wastes. A simpler product mixture results when water and a base catalyst are added to the glycolysis reaction (hydroglycolysis). Hydroglycolysis yields TDA and polyol as principal products. Data for the rate of the hydroglycolysis reaction are presented in the temperature range of 150 to 190/sup 0/C. These results suggest that hydroglycolysis could be used to recover polyols from mixed and/or contaminated water-blown polyurethane wastes.

  18. Characterization and electrical properties of chitosan for waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saengkaew, Phannee; Chantanachai, Kanittha; Cheewajaroen, Kulthawat; Nimsiri, Woraporn

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste was characterized in order to use for the industrial wastewater treatment. By XRF technique, the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of pure chitosan were performed with the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Al, and Na of 0.321%, 0.738%, 0.713%, 0.363%, 0.338%, and 3.858%, respectively. In the case of two types of the contaminated chitosan from the wastewater treatment before and after a process of a primary H2O2-treatment, the relative compositions of Ca, Mg, Si and Fe were obtained with an increasing of 0.356%, 1.321%, 1.536%, 0.451% and 0.406%, 1.105%, 1.178%, 0.591%, respectively. This shows that the suspended materials in the wastewater were absorbed by chitosan. By I-V Measurements, the across-through voltage of the pure chitosan disc was 0.245V±0.053 at the applied voltage of 17V, and resistance of 53.9MΩ ±10.3 at the applied voltage of 590V. After the utilization for the wastewater treatment, the across voltage of chitosan discs from two cases were 0.133V±0.047 and 0.223V±0.063, and the resistance of 122.8MΩ ±16.1 and 24.8MΩ ±5.1. The used chitosan has a lower conductivity because of a decreasing in the chitosan's electrical dipoles by combining with the suspended ions in the wastewater. Moreover, the adsorption efficiencies of chitosan for formaldehyde in the wastewater of two cases were 31.08% and 25.40%. In summary, chitosan is efficiently utilized in the wastewater treatment by absorption of the suspended materials and formaldehyde due to its molecular structure providing a good electrical property.

  19. Abatement of waste gases and water during the processes of semiconductor fabrication.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rui-mei; Liang, Jun-wu

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the methods and equipment for abating waste gases and water produced during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. Three separating methods and equipment are used to control three different groups of electronic wastes. The first group includes arsine and phosphine emitted during the processes of semiconductor materials manufacture. The abatement procedure for this group of pollutants consists of adding iodates, cupric and manganese salts to a multiple shower tower (MST) structure. The second group includes pollutants containing arsenic, phosphorus, HF, HCl, NO2, and SO3 emitted during the manufacture of semiconductor materials and devices. The abatement procedure involves mixing oxidants and bases in an oval column with a separator in the middle. The third group consists of the ions of As, P and heavy metals contained in the waste water. The abatement procedure includes adding CaCO3 and ferric salts in a flocculation-sedimentation compact device equipment. Test results showed that all waste gases and water after the abatement procedures presented in this article passed the discharge standards set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. PMID:12491721

  20. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    PubMed

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. PMID:24946772

  1. Personal viewpoint: hemodialysis--water, power, and waste disposal: rethinking our environmental responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2012-01-01

    While medical health professionals are trained to detect, treat, and comfort, they are not trained to consider the environmental impact of the services they provide. Dialysis practitioners seem particularly careless in the use of natural resources—especially water and power—and seem broadly ignorant of the profound medical waste issues created by single use dialysis equipment. If the data we have collected is an indication, then extrapolation of this data to a dialysis population currently estimated at ~2 million patients worldwide, a “world dialysis service” would use ~156 billion liters of water and discard ~2/3 of that during reverse osmosis. This waste occurs, despite the discarded water being high-grade “gray water” of potable standard. The same world dialysis service would consume 1.62 billion kWh of power—mostly generated from coal and other environmentally damaging sources. Our world dialysis service, based on ~2 kg of waste from each dialysis treatment, would generate ~625,000 tonnes of plastic waste—waste that would be potentially reusable if simple sterilizing techniques were applied to it at the point of generation. Dialysis services must begin to explore eco-dialysis potentials. The continued plundering of resources without considering reuse or recycling, exploration of renewable energy options, or the reduction of the carbon footprint of the dialysis process . . . is unsustainable. Sustainable dialysis practices should be a global goal in the coming decade. PMID:22098705

  2. Testing of the cytotoxic effects of sulfate pulp mill waste waters.

    PubMed

    Cernáková, M; Golis, E

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 22 technological waste water samples and of some standards was tested on bacteria, fungi, chlorococcal algae, flagellata, plant cells, cells of Tubifex tubifex, hamster cells V79 and the fish Lebistes reticulatus. Of these 22 samples, some inhibition of cell life processes was displayed by the black liquor formed in the production of paper pulp and viscose pulp, by the waste solution produced during the preparation of bleaching agents for paper pulp and viscose pulp, and by the residual liquor after hypochlorite treatment of paper pulp. PMID:7729767

  3. Managing water and salinity with desalination, conveyance, conservation, waste-water treatment and reuse to counteract climate variability in Gaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Aljuaidi, A. E.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We include demands for water of different salinity concentrations as input parameters and decision variables in a regional hydro-economic optimization model. This specification includes separate demand functions for saline water. We then use stochastic non-linear programming to jointly identify the benefit maximizing set of infrastructure expansions, operational allocations, and use of different water quality types under climate variability. We present a detailed application for the Gaza Strip. The application considers building desalination and waste-water treatment plants and conveyance pipelines, initiating water conservation and leak reduction programs, plus allocating and transferring water of different qualities among agricultural, industrial, and urban sectors and among districts. Results show how to integrate a mix of supply enhancement, conservation, water quality improvement, and water quality management actions into a portfolio that can economically and efficiently respond to changes and uncertainties in surface and groundwater availability due to climate variability. We also show how to put drawn-down and saline Gaza aquifer water to more sustainable and economical use.

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  5. Performance of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device and Process for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2013-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  6. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Seismic Soil Structure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Coleman, Justin Leigh

    2015-06-01

    of interest. The specific nonlinear soil behavior included in the NLSSI calculation presented in this report is gapping and sliding. Other NLSSI effects are not included in the calculation. The results presented in this report document initial model runs in the linear and nonlinear analysis process. Final comparisons between traditional and advanced SPRA will be presented in the September 30th deliverable.

  8. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rickard, W H; Kirby, L J

    1987-02-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow. PMID:3818287

  9. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  10. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  11. Laboratory Methods for the Measurement of Pollutants in Water and Waste Effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballinger, Dwight G.

    1971-01-01

    The requirement for accurate, precise, and rapid analytical procedures for the examination of water and waste samples requires the use of a variety of instruments. The instrumentation in water laboratories includes atomic absorption, UV-visible. and infrared spectrophotometers, automatic colorimetric analyzers, gas chromatographs and mass spectrometers. Because of the emphasis on regulatory action, attention is being directed toward quality control of analytical results. Among the challenging problems are the differentiation of metallic species in water at nanogram concentrations, rapid measurement of free cyanide and free ammonia, more sensitive methods for arsenic and selenium and improved characterization of organic contaminants.

  12. Waste water processing technology for Space Station Freedom - Comparative test data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Shah, Burt H.; Mcgriff, Cindy F.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative tests were conducted to choose the optimum technology for waste water processing on SSF. A thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation (TIMES) subsystem and a vapor compression distillation subsystem (VCD) were built and tested to compare urine processing capability. Water quality, performance, and specific energy were compared for conceptual designs intended to function as part of the water recovery and management system of SSF. The VCD is considered the most mature and efficient technology and was selected to replace the TIMES as the baseline urine processor for SSF.

  13. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  14. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  15. Prototype Development of Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press (ROHUP) to Fabricate Advanced Tc-99 Bearing Ceramic Waste Forms - 13381

    SciTech Connect

    Alaniz, Ariana J.; Delgado, Luc R.; Werbick, Brett M.; Hartmann, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this senior student project is to design and build a prototype construction of a machine that simultaneously provides the proper pressure and temperature parameters to sinter ceramic powders in-situ to create pellets of rather high densities of above 90% (theoretical). This ROHUP (Remote Operated Hot Uniaxial Press) device is designed specifically to fabricate advanced ceramic Tc-99 bearing waste forms and therefore radiological barriers have been included in the system. The HUP features electronic control and feedback systems to set and monitor pressure, load, and temperature parameters. This device operates wirelessly via portable computer using Bluetooth{sup R} technology. The HUP device is designed to fit in a standard atmosphere controlled glove box to further allow sintering under inert conditions (e.g. under Ar, He, N{sub 2}). This will further allow utilizing this HUP for other potential applications, including radioactive samples, novel ceramic waste forms, advanced oxide fuels, air-sensitive samples, metallic systems, advanced powder metallurgy, diffusion experiments and more. (authors)

  16. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  17. Predicting Water Activity for Complex Wastes with Solvation Cluster Equilibria (SCE) - 12042

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, S.F.; Reynolds, J.G.; Johnston, C.T.

    2012-07-01

    Predicting an electrolyte mixture's water activity, i.e. the ratio of water vapor pressure over a solution with that of pure water, in principle reveals both boiling point and solubilities for that mixture. Better predictions of these properties helps support the ongoing missions to concentrate complex nuclear waste mixtures in order to conserve tank space and improved predictions of water activity will help. A new approach for predicting water activity, the solvation cluster equilibria (SCE) model, uses pure electrolyte water activities to predict water activity for a complex mixture of those electrolytes. An SCE function based on electrolyte hydration free energy and a standard Debye- Hueckel (DH) charge compression fits each pure electrolyte's water activity with three parameters. Given these pure electrolyte water activities, the SCE predicts any mixture water activity over a large range of concentration with an additional parameter for each mixture vector, the multinarity. In contrast to ionic strength, which scales with concentration, multinarity is related to the relative proportion of electrolytes in a mixture and can either increase or decrease the water activity prediction over a broad range of concentration for that mixture. The SCE model predicts water activity for complex electrolyte mixtures based on the water activities of pure electrolytes. Three parameter SCE functions fit the water activities of pure electrolytes and along with a single multinarity parameter for each mixture vector then predict the mixture water activity. Predictions of water activity can in principle predict solution electrolyte activity and this relationship will be explored in the future. Predicting electrolyte activities for complex mixtures provides a means of determining solubilities for each electrolyte. Although there are a number of reports [9, 10, 11] of water activity models for pure and binary mixtures of electrolytes, none of them compare measured versus calculated

  18. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  19. Advanced water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This program was conducted to improve the performance and minimize the cost of existing water-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks for electric utility and on-site applications. The goals for the electric utility stack technology were a power density of at least 175 watts per square foot over a 40,000-hour useful life and a projected one-of-a-kind, full-scale manufactured cost of less than $400 per kilowatt. The program adapted the existing on-site Configuration-B cell design to electric utility operating conditions and introduced additional new design features. Task 1 consisted of the conceptual design of a full-scale electric utility cell stack that meets program objectives. The conceptual design was updated to incorporate the results of material and process developments in Tasks 2 and 3, as well as results of stack tests conducted in Task 6. Tasks 2 and 3 developed the materials and processes required to fabricate the components that meet the program objectives. The design of the small area and 10-ft{sup 2} stacks was conducted in Task 4. Fabrication and assembly of the short stacks were conducted in Task 5 and subsequent tests were conducted in Task 6. The management and reporting functions of Task 7 provided DOE/METC with program visibility through required documentation and program reviews. This report describes the cell design and development effort that was conducted to demonstrate, by subscale stack test, the technical achievements made toward the above program objectives.

  20. Development of Advanced Electrochemical Emission Spectroscopy for Monitoring Corrosion in Simulated DOE Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonal, Digby D.; Marx, Brian M.; Ahn, Sejin; Ruiz, Julio de; Soundararajan, Balaji; Smith, Morgan; Coulson, Wendy

    2005-06-15

    Various forms of general and localized corrosion represent principal threats to the integrity of DOE liquid waste storage tanks. These tanks, which are of a single wall or double wall design, depending upon their age, are fabricated from welded carbon steel and contain a complex waste-form comprised of NaOH and NaNO3, along with trace amounts of phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and chloride. Because waste leakage can have a profound environmental impact, considerable interest exists in predicting the accumulation of corrosion damage, so as to more effectively schedule maintenance and repair.