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Sample records for advanced word recognition

  1. Units of Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.; And Others

    Both psychologists and reading specialists have been interested in whether words are processed letter by letter or in larger units. A reaction time paradigm was used to evaluate these options with interest focused on potential units of word recognition which might be functional within single syllable words. The basic paradigm involved presenting…

  2. Teaching Word Recognition Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Mildred A., Comp.

    A series of articles with the chief emphasis on phonics as a means of analyzing words is presented. Various articles pertain to elementary, secondary, and college level instruction. The first of the five parts into which the volume is divided is comprised of a single article which gives an excellent overview of the field of word recognition. Part…

  3. Morphological Awareness and Early and Advanced Word Recognition and Spelling in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith E.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Reitsma, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relations of three aspects of morphological awareness to word recognition and spelling skills of Dutch speaking children. Tasks of inflectional and derivational morphology and lexical compounding, as well as measures of phonological awareness, vocabulary and mathematics were administered to 104 first graders (mean age 6…

  4. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  5. Sonority contours in word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Sean

    2003-04-01

    Contrary to the Generativist distinction between competence and performance which asserts that speech or perception errors are due to random, nonlinguistic factors, it seems likely that errors are principled and possibly governed by some of the same constraints as language. A preliminary investigation of errors modeled after the child's ``Chain Whisper'' game (a degraded stimulus task) suggests that a significant number of recognition errors can be characterized as an improvement in syllable sonority contour towards the linguistically least-marked, voiceless-stop-plus-vowel syllable. An independent study of sonority contours showed that approximately half of the English lexicon can be uniquely identified by their contour alone. Additionally, ``sororities'' (groups of words that share a single sonority contour), surprisingly, show no correlation to familiarity or frequency in either size or membership. Together these results imply that sonority contours may be an important factor in word recognition and in defining word ``neighborhoods.'' Moreover, they suggest that linguistic markedness constraints may be more prevalent in performance-related phenomena than previously accepted.

  6. Brain wave recognition of words.

    PubMed

    Suppes, P; Lu, Z L; Han, B

    1997-12-23

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness.

  7. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  8. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  9. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  10. Item Effects in Recognition Memory for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Emily; Heathcote, Andrew; Chalmers, Kerry; Hockley, William

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of word characteristics on episodic recognition memory using analyses that avoid Clark's (1973) "language-as-a-fixed-effect" fallacy. Our results demonstrate the importance of modeling word variability and show that episodic memory for words is strongly affected by item noise (Criss & Shiffrin, 2004), as measured by the…

  11. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition.

  12. Famous talker effects in spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Maibauer, Alisa M; Markis, Teresa A; Newell, Jessica; McLennan, Conor T

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that talker-specific representations affect spoken word recognition relatively late during processing. However, participants in these studies were listening to unfamiliar talkers. In the present research, we used a long-term repetition-priming paradigm and a speeded-shadowing task and presented listeners with famous talkers. In Experiment 1, half the words were spoken by Barack Obama, and half by Hillary Clinton. Reaction times (RTs) to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words only when repeated by the same talker. However, in Experiment 2, using nonfamous talkers, RTs to repeated words were shorter than those to unprimed words both when repeated by the same talker and when repeated by a different talker. Taken together, the results demonstrate that talker-specific details can affect the perception of spoken words relatively early during processing when words are spoken by famous talkers.

  13. Models of spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andrea; Scharenborg, Odette

    2012-05-01

    All words of the languages we know are stored in the mental lexicon. Psycholinguistic models describe in which format lexical knowledge is stored and how it is accessed when needed for language use. The present article summarizes key findings in spoken-word recognition by humans and describes how models of spoken-word recognition account for them. Although current models of spoken-word recognition differ considerably in the details of implementation, there is general consensus among them on at least three aspects: multiple word candidates are activated in parallel as a word is being heard, activation of word candidates varies with the degree of match between the speech signal and stored lexical representations, and activated candidate words compete for recognition. No consensus has been reached on other aspects such as the flow of information between different processing levels, and the format of stored prelexical and lexical representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:387-401. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1178 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  14. Automatic semantic feedback during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Jason F; Lorsbach, Thomas C; Bleakney, Dana M

    2008-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether semantic feedback spreads to orthographic and/or phonological representations during visual word recognition and whether such feedback occurs automatically. Three types of prime-target word pairs were used within the mediated-priming paradigm: (1) homophonically mediated (e.g.,frog-[toad]-towed), (2) orthographically mediated (e.g.,frog-[toad]-told), and (3) associatively related (e.g.,frog-toad). Using both brief (53 msec; Experiment 1) and long (413 msec; Experiment 3) prime exposure durations, significant facilitatory-priming effects were found in the response time data with orthographically, but not homophonically, mediated prime-target word pairs. When the prime exposure duration was shortened to 33 msec in Experiment 4, however, facilitatory priming was absent with both orthographically and homophonically mediated word pairs. In addition, with a brief (53-msec) prime exposure duration, direct-priming effects were found with associatively (e.g.,frog-toad), orthographically (e.g., toad-told), and homophonically (e.g., toad-towed) related word pairs in Experiment 2. Taken together, these results indicate that following the initial activation of semantic representations, activation automatically feeds back to orthographic, but not phonological, representations during the early stages of word processing. These findings were discussed in the context of current accounts of visual word recognition.

  15. Association among reading summarization, word recognition, and sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H

    2003-06-01

    Word recognition and sentence comprehension are initial and necessary processes to summarize a story. This study was conducted to investigate the relations among word recognition, sentence comprehension, and reading summarization. Analysis showed performance for word naming, an index of on-line word recognition, was correlated with the Latent Semantic Analysis scores, an index of reading summarization. These results indicate that the basic process of word recognition is a corner stone to better reading.

  16. Word Recognition: Theoretical Issues and Instructional Hints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward E.; Kleiman, Glenn M.

    Research on adult readers' word recognition skills is used in this paper to develop a general information processing model of reading. Stages of the model include feature extraction, interpretation, lexical access, working memory, and integration. Of those stages, particular attention is given to the units of interpretation, speech recoding and…

  17. Bilingual Word Recognition in English and Greek.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitiri, Helena-Fivi; Willows, Dale M.

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated word recognition processes of Greek/English bilinguals in relation to linguistic and syntactic differences in the languages, then compared those processes with those of monolinguals. Bilingual readers performed differently in the languages, conforming more to monolingual patterns in their native language (Greek), interpreted…

  18. Infant word recognition: Insights from TRACE simulations☆

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate results from the infant word recognition literature, to provide a unified, theoretical framework for interpreting these findings. In a first set of simulations, we demonstrate how TRACE can reconcile apparently conflicting findings suggesting, on the one hand, that consonants play a pre-eminent role in lexical acquisition (Nespor, Peña & Mehler, 2003; Nazzi, 2005), and on the other, that there is a symmetry in infant sensitivity to vowel and consonant mispronunciations of familiar words (Mani & Plunkett, 2007). In a second series of simulations, we use TRACE to simulate infants’ graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). An unexpected outcome is that TRACE fails to demonstrate graded sensitivity for White and Morgan’s stimuli unless the inhibitory parameters in TRACE are substantially reduced. We explore the ramifications of this finding for theories of lexical development. Finally, TRACE mimics the impact of phonological neighbourhoods on early word learning reported by Swingley and Aslin (2007). TRACE offers an alternative explanation of these findings in terms of mispronunciations of lexical items rather than imputing word learning to infants. Together these simulations provide an evaluation of Developmental (Jusczyk, 1993) and Familiarity (Metsala, 1999) accounts of word recognition by infants and young children. The findings point to a role for both theoretical approaches whereby vocabulary structure and content constrain infant word recognition in an experience-dependent fashion, and highlight the continuity in the processes and representations involved in lexical development during the second year of life. PMID:24493907

  19. Spoken word recognition without a TRACE

    PubMed Central

    Hannagan, Thomas; Magnuson, James S.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    How do we map the rapid input of spoken language onto phonological and lexical representations over time? Attempts at psychologically-tractable computational models of spoken word recognition tend either to ignore time or to transform the temporal input into a spatial representation. TRACE, a connectionist model with broad and deep coverage of speech perception and spoken word recognition phenomena, takes the latter approach, using exclusively time-specific units at every level of representation. TRACE reduplicates featural, phonemic, and lexical inputs at every time step in a large memory trace, with rich interconnections (excitatory forward and backward connections between levels and inhibitory links within levels). As the length of the memory trace is increased, or as the phoneme and lexical inventory of the model is increased to a realistic size, this reduplication of time- (temporal position) specific units leads to a dramatic proliferation of units and connections, begging the question of whether a more efficient approach is possible. Our starting point is the observation that models of visual object recognition—including visual word recognition—have grappled with the problem of spatial invariance, and arrived at solutions other than a fully-reduplicative strategy like that of TRACE. This inspires a new model of spoken word recognition that combines time-specific phoneme representations similar to those in TRACE with higher-level representations based on string kernels: temporally independent (time invariant) diphone and lexical units. This reduces the number of necessary units and connections by several orders of magnitude relative to TRACE. Critically, we compare the new model to TRACE on a set of key phenomena, demonstrating that the new model inherits much of the behavior of TRACE and that the drastic computational savings do not come at the cost of explanatory power. PMID:24058349

  20. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

    2011-03-15

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task.

  1. Brain wave recognition of words

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Han, Bing

    1997-01-01

    Electrical and magnetic brain waves of seven subjects under three experimental conditions were recorded for the purpose of recognizing which one of seven words was processed. The analysis consisted of averaging over trials to create prototypes and test samples, to both of which Fourier transforms were applied, followed by filtering and an inverse transformation to the time domain. The filters used were optimal predictive filters, selected for each subject and condition. Recognition rates, based on a least-squares criterion, varied widely, but all but one of 24 were significantly different from chance. The two best were above 90%. These results show that brain waves carry substantial information about the word being processed under experimental conditions of conscious awareness. PMID:9405722

  2. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  3. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  4. Nonword pronunciation and models of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Seidenberg, M S; Plaut, D C; Petersen, A S; McClelland, J L; McRae, K

    1994-12-01

    Nonword pronunciation is a form of generalization behavior that has been at the center of debates about models of word recognition, the role of rules in explaining behavior, and the adequacy of the parallel distributed processing approach. An experiment yielded data concerning the pronunciation of a large corpus of nonwords. The data were then used to assess 2 models of naming: a model developed by D. C. Plaut and J. L. McClelland (1993), which is similar to the one described by M. S. Seidenberg and J. L. McClelland (1989) but uses improved orthographic and phonological representations, and the grapheme-phoneme correspondence rules of M. Coltheart, B. Curtis, P. Atkins, and M. Haller's (1993) dual-route model. Both models generate plausible nonword pronunciations and match subjects' responses accurately. The dual-route model does so by using rules that generate correct output for most words but mispronounce a significant number of exceptions. The parallel distributed processing model does so by finding a set of weights that allow it to generate correct output for both "rule-governed" items and exceptions. Some ways in which the two approaches differ and other issues facing them are also discussed.

  5. Using pronunciation data to study word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Mark A.; Johnson, Keith

    2003-10-01

    Many of the mysteries of spoken word recognition have evolved out of the observation that pronunciation is highly variable yet perception is amazingly stable. Extreme forms of variation can even result in different phonetic percepts, such as consonant assimilation (e.g., ``green ball:'' ``greem ball'') and deletion (e.g., ``and:'' ``an''), yet listeners still perceive the intended word. The results from two lines of work will be presented in which we are studying the regularity of these production phenomena to evaluate models of how phonological variants are recognized. In one project we examined variation itself. Phonological and acoustic analyses of phonological variation in the Buckeye corpus of conversational speech were carried out in which we asked questions such as the following: How predictable and consistent is regressive assimilation? and How acoustically similar is the assimilated segment to an intended production of that same segment? In a related project, we examined the listener's sensitivity to the variation found in conversational speech. Results reveal the complexities of these production phenomena, the challenges models must overcome to account for how variants are recognized, and listeners' sensitivity to stochastic properties of pronunication variation. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  6. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  7. The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

    2010-01-01

    A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

  8. Confidence Limits for Maximum Word-Recognition Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubno, Judy R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This experiment sought to define a confidence limit for maximum word-recognition scores obtained from 212 young and elderly adults with confirmed cochlear hearing loss. A 95% confidence limit was found and supported through analysis, although it is suggested that, in some cases, word recognition should be measured at additional levels to obtain…

  9. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  10. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Rodríguez, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed.

  11. Neighborhood density effects in spoken word recognition in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    VITEVITCH, MICHAEL S.; RODRÍGUEZ, EVA

    2008-01-01

    The present work examined the relationships among familiarity ratings, frequency of occurrence, neighborhood density, and word length in a corpus of Spanish words. The observed relationships were similar to the relationships found among the same variables in English. An auditory lexical decision task was then performed to examine the influence of word frequency, neighborhood density, and neighborhood frequency on spoken word recognition in Spanish. In contrast to the competitive effect of phonological neighborhoods typically observed in English, a facilitative effect of neighborhood density and neighborhood frequency was found in Spanish. Implications for models of spoken word recognition and language disorders are discussed. PMID:19018293

  12. Morphological Structures in Visual Word Recognition: The Case of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Awwad, Jasmin (Shalhoub)

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the function within lexical access of the main morphemic units from which most Arabic words are assembled, namely roots and word patterns. The present study focused on the derivation of nouns, in particular, whether the lexical representation of Arabic words reflects their morphological structure and whether recognition of a…

  13. Modelling the Effects of Semantic Ambiguity in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Marslen-Wilson, William D.

    2004-01-01

    Most words in English are ambiguous between different interpretations; words can mean different things in different contexts. We investigate the implications of different types of semantic ambiguity for connectionist models of word recognition. We present a model in which there is competition to activate distributed semantic representations. The…

  14. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2010-01-01

    We employ a single-trial correlational MEG analysis technique to investigate early processing in the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. Three classes of affixed words were presented in a lexical decision task: free stems (e.g., taxable), bound roots (e.g., tolerable), and unique root words (e.g., vulnerable, the root of which…

  15. Morphological Influences on the Recognition of Monosyllabic Monomorphemic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baayen, R. H.; Feldman, L. B.; Schreuder, R.

    2006-01-01

    Balota et al. [Balota, D., Cortese, M., Sergent-Marshall, S., Spieler, D., & Yap, M. (2004). Visual word recognition for single-syllable words. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133," 283-316] studied lexical processing in word naming and lexical decision using hierarchical multiple regression techniques for a large data set of…

  16. Elements of the Word Recognition Process: A Two Part Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; DiStefano, Philip

    There are basically two different models for the word recognition process. One model postulates that a reader primarily uses sound/symbol cues to recognize a word; a second model states that a reader focuses mainly on whole-word characteristics. To determine which model best fits beginning and adult readers, a multiple regression analysis was…

  17. From Numbers to Letters: Feedback Regularization in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinaro, Nicola; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marin-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter "regularization" is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present…

  18. Embedded Words in Visual Word Recognition: Does the Left Hemisphere See the Rain in Brain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samantha F.; Davis, Colin J.; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in "gr*apple", "bull*et") or in the middle…

  19. Recognition of spoken words: semantic effects in lexical access.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Lee H; Vakoch, Douglas A; Seaman, Sean R

    2004-01-01

    Until recently most models of word recognition have assumed that semantic auditory naming effects come into play only after the identification of the word in question. What little evidence exists for early semantic effects in word recognition lexical decision has relied primarily on priming manipulations using the lexical decision task, and has used visual stimulus presentation. The current study uses semantics auditory stimulus presentation and multiple experimental tasks, and does not use priming. Response latencies for 100 common nouns were found to speech perception depend on perceptual dimensions identified by Osgood (1969): Evaluation, Potency, and Activity. In addition, the two-way interactions between these word recognition dimensions were significant. All effects were above and beyond the effects of concreteness, word length, frequency, onset phoneme characteristics, stress, and neighborhood density. Results are discussed against evidence from several areas of research suggesting a role of behaviorally important information in perception.

  20. Understanding individual differences in word recognition skills of ESL children.

    PubMed

    Geva, E; Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z; Schuster, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extent to which the development of ESL (English as a Second Language) word recognition skills mimics similar trajectories in same-aged EL1 (English as a First Language) children, and the extent to which phonological processing skills and rapid naming can be used to predict word recognition performance in ESL children. Two cohorts of Grade 1 ESL and EL1 primary-level children were followed for two consecutive years. Results indicated that vocabulary knowledge, a measure of language proficiency, and nonverbal intelligence were not significant predictors of word recognition in either group. Yet, by considering individual differences in phonological awareness and rapid naming, it was possible to predict substantial amounts of variance on word recognition performance six months and one year later in both language groups. Commonality analyses indicated that phonological awareness and rapid naming contributed unique variance to word recognition performance. Moreover, the profiles of not at-risk children in the EL1 and ESL groups were similar on all but the oral language measure, where EL1 children had the advantage. In addition, EL1 and ESL profiles of children who had word-recognition difficulty were similar, with low performance on rapid naming and phonological awareness. Results indicate that these measures are reliable indicators of potential reading disability among ESL children.

  1. The cingulo-opercular network provides word-recognition benefit.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Kenneth I; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Cute, Stephanie L; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2013-11-27

    Recognizing speech in difficult listening conditions requires considerable focus of attention that is often demonstrated by elevated activity in putative attention systems, including the cingulo-opercular network. We tested the prediction that elevated cingulo-opercular activity provides word-recognition benefit on a subsequent trial. Eighteen healthy, normal-hearing adults (10 females; aged 20-38 years) performed word recognition (120 trials) in multi-talker babble at +3 and +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios during a sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast was elevated in the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and frontal operculum in response to poorer speech intelligibility and response errors. These brain regions exhibited significantly greater correlated activity during word recognition compared with rest, supporting the premise that word-recognition demands increased the coherence of cingulo-opercular network activity. Consistent with an adaptive control network explanation, general linear mixed model analyses demonstrated that increased magnitude and extent of cingulo-opercular network activity was significantly associated with correct word recognition on subsequent trials. These results indicate that elevated cingulo-opercular network activity is not simply a reflection of poor performance or error but also supports word recognition in difficult listening conditions.

  2. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  3. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  4. Individual Differences in Online Spoken Word Recognition: Implications for SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have…

  5. Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

  6. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  7. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Word Recognition in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Marton, Klara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of phonotactic probability on word recognition in English-speaking toddlers. Typically developing toddlers completed a preferential looking paradigm using familiar words, which consisted of either high or low phonotactic probability sound sequences. The participants' looking behavior was recorded in response to…

  8. Effects of Age and Hearing Sensitivity on the Use of Prosodic Information in Spoken Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Arthur; Lindfield, Kimberly C.; Goodglass, Harold

    2000-01-01

    In this study, younger and older adults heard either just word onsets, word onsets followed by white noise indicating word duration, or word onsets followed by signals indicating word prosody. Older adults required longer stimulus durations for word recognition with hearing sensitivity a significant factor. Word recognition was facilitated equally…

  9. Influences of High and Low Variability on Infant Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Leher

    2008-01-01

    Although infants begin to encode and track novel words in fluent speech by 7.5 months, their ability to recognize words is somewhat limited at this stage. In particular, when the surface form of a word is altered, by changing the gender or affective prosody of the speaker, infants begin to falter at spoken word recognition. Given that natural speech is replete with variability, only some of which is determines the meaning of a word, it remains unclear how infants might ever overcome the effects of surface variability without appealing to meaning. In the current set of experiments, consequences of high and low variability are examined in preverbal infants. The source of variability, vocal affect, is a common property of infant-directed speech with which young learners have to contend. Across a series of four experiments, infants' abilities to recognize repeated encounters of words, as well as to reject similar-sounding words, are investigated in the context of high and low affective variation. Results point to positive consequences of affective variation, both in creating generalizable memory representations for words, but also in establishing phonologically precise memories for words. Conversely, low variability appears to degrade word recognition on both fronts, compromising infants' abilities to generalize across different affective forms of a word and to detect similar-sounding items. Findings are discussed in the context of principles of categorization, both of a linguistic and non-linguistic variety, which may potentiate the early growth of a lexicon. PMID:17586482

  10. Individual differences in online spoken word recognition: Implications for SLI

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Samelson, Vicki M.; Lee, Sung Hee; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years of research has uncovered the broad principles that characterize spoken word processing across listeners. However, there have been few systematic investigations of individual differences. Such an investigation could help refine models of word recognition by indicating which processing parameters are likely to vary, and could also have important implications for work on language impairment. The present study begins to fill this gap by relating individual differences in overall language ability to variation in online word recognition processes. Using the visual world paradigm, we evaluated online spoken word recognition in adolescents who varied in both basic language abilities and non-verbal cognitive abilities. Eye movements to target, cohort and rhyme objects were monitored during spoken word recognition, as an index of lexical activation. Adolescents with poor language skills showed fewer looks to the target and more fixations to the cohort and rhyme competitors. These results were compared to a number of variants of the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman, 1986) that were constructed to test a range of theoretical approaches to language impairment: impairments at sensory and phonological levels; vocabulary size, and generalized slowing. None were strongly supported, and variation in lexical decay offered the best fit. Thus, basic word recognition processes like lexical decay may offer a new way to characterize processing differences in language impairment. PMID:19836014

  11. Rapid Word Recognition as a Measure of Word-Level Automaticity and Its Relation to Other Measures of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Elizabeth M.; Gosky, Ross

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between rapid recognition of individual words (Word Recognition Test) and two measures of contextual reading: (1) grade-level Passage Reading Test (IRI passage) and (2) performance on standardized STAR Reading Test. To establish if time of presentation on the word recognition test was a factor in…

  12. Word Recognition Error Analysis: Comparing Isolated Word List and Oral Passage Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Lindsay J.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.; Robbins, Kelly P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between word recognition errors made at a letter-sound pattern level on a word list and on a curriculum-based measurement oral reading fluency measure (CBM-ORF) for typical and struggling elementary readers. The participants were second, third, and fourth grade typical and struggling readers…

  13. The Role of Derivative Suffix Productivity in the Visual Word Recognition of Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lázaro, Miguel; Sainz, Javier; Illera, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present two lexical decision experiments that examine the role of base frequency and of derivative suffix productivity in visual recognition of Spanish words. In the first experiment we find that complex words with productive derivative suffixes result in lower response times than those with unproductive derivative suffixes.…

  14. Learning of Letter Names and Sounds and Their Contribution to Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Shatil-Carmon, Sivan; Asif-Rave, Ornit

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their…

  15. Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yang; Moreno, Miguel A.; Park, Hyeongsaeng; Carello, Claudia; Turvey, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform…

  16. A familiar font drives early emotional effects in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kuchinke, Lars; Krause, Beatrix; Fritsch, Nathalie; Briesemeister, Benny B

    2014-10-01

    The emotional connotation of a word is known to shift the process of word recognition. Using the electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) approach it has been documented that early attentional processing of high-arousing negative words is shifted at a stage of processing where a presented word cannot have been fully identified. Contextual learning has been discussed to contribute to these effects. The present study shows that a manipulation of the familiarity with a word's shape interferes with these earliest emotional ERP effects. Presenting high-arousing negative and neutral words in a familiar or an unfamiliar font results in very early emotion differences only in case of familiar shapes, whereas later processing stages reveal similar emotional effects in both font conditions. Because these early emotion-related differences predict later behavioral differences, it is suggested that contextual learning of emotional valence comprises more visual features than previously expected to guide early visual-sensory processing.

  17. When word identification fails: ERP correlates of recognition without identification and of word identification failure.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Anthony J; Yadon, Carly A; Nomi, Jason S; Cleary, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) refers to people's ability to discriminate studied from unstudied items when the items themselves fail to be identified, as when people fail to identify words from fragments. We sought to identify the ERP correlates of word fragment RWI in an effort to better understand its underlying mechanisms; in so doing, we also examined the ERP correlates of word identification failure vs. success. We found the ERP correlate of the RWI effect to be the N300; greater negativity was shown for unidentified fragments of studied words than for unidentified fragments of unstudied words between 300-325 ms post test fragment onset. We further separated the ERPs according to whether subjects showed the behavioral RWI effect or not; the N300 effect emerged only among those subjects who showed the behavioral effect, suggesting that the N300 is related to the behavioral effect itself. With regard to the ERP correlates of word identification failure vs. success, we found very early indicators of later word identification success vs. failure (starting at 125 ms) that were independent of priming. These early effects may be preconscious markers of downstream word identification success vs. failure. We also found a later persistent negativity associated with successfully identified words that we propose to be associated with executive function and possibly the successful suppression of irrelevant words that might initially come to mind when attempting to complete a unique word fragment; word fragment identification failure may sometimes be due to a failure to suppress irrelevant or incorrect words.

  18. Estimating verbal intelligence in unipolar depression: comparison of word definition and word recognition.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.

  19. Brain signatures of meaning access in action word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury; Ilmoniemi, Risto

    2005-06-01

    The brain basis of action words may be neuron ensembles binding language- and action-related information that are dispersed over both language- and action-related cortical areas. This predicts fast spreading of neuronal activity from language areas to specific sensorimotor areas when action words semantically related to different parts of the body are being perceived. To test this, fast neurophysiological imaging was applied to reveal spatiotemporal activity patterns elicited by words with different action-related meaning. Spoken words referring to actions involving the face or leg were presented while subjects engaged in a distraction task and their brain activity was recorded using high-density magnetoencephalography. Shortly after the words could be recognized as unique lexical items, objective source localization using minimum norm current estimates revealed activation in superior temporal (130 msec) and inferior frontocentral areas (142-146 msec). Face-word stimuli activated inferior frontocentral areas more strongly than leg words, whereas the reverse was found at superior central sites (170 msec), thus reflecting the cortical somatotopy of motor actions signified by the words. Significant correlations were found between local source strengths in the frontocentral cortex calculated for all participants and their semantic ratings of the stimulus words, thus further establishing a close relationship between word meaning access and neurophysiology. These results show that meaning access in action word recognition is an early automatic process ref lected by spatiotemporal signatures of word-evoked activity. Word-related distributed neuronal assemblies with specific cortical topographies can explain the observed spatiotemporal dynamics reflecting word meaning access.

  20. Syllable Frequency and Spoken Word Recognition: An Inhibitory Effect.

    PubMed

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Angeles

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that syllables play a relevant role in lexical access in Spanish, a shallow language with a transparent syllabic structure. Syllable frequency has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on visual word recognition in Spanish. However, no study has examined the syllable frequency effect on spoken word recognition. The present study tested the effect of the frequency of the first syllable on recognition of spoken Spanish words. A sample of 45 young adults (33 women, 12 men; M = 20.4, SD = 2.8; college students) performed an auditory lexical decision on 128 Spanish disyllabic words and 128 disyllabic nonwords. Words were selected so that lexical and first syllable frequency were manipulated in a within-subject 2 × 2 design, and six additional independent variables were controlled: token positional frequency of the second syllable, number of phonemes, position of lexical stress, number of phonological neighbors, number of phonological neighbors that have higher frequencies than the word, and acoustical durations measured in milliseconds. Decision latencies and error rates were submitted to linear mixed models analysis. Results showed a typical facilitatory effect of the lexical frequency and, importantly, an inhibitory effect of the first syllable frequency on reaction times and error rates.

  1. Basic processes in reading: is visual word recognition obligatory?

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Stolz, Jennifer A; Besner, Derek

    2005-02-01

    Visual word recognition is commonly argued to be automatic in the sense that it is obligatory and ballistic. The present experiments combined Stroop and visual search paradigms to provide a novel test of this claim. An array of three, five, or seven words including one colored target (a word in Experiments 1 and 2, a bar in Experiment 3) was presented to participants. An irrelevant color word also appeared in the display and was either integrated with or separated from the colored target. The participants classified the color of the single colored item in Experiments 1 and 3 and determined whether a target color was present or absent in Experiment 2. A Stroop effect was observed in Experiment 1 when the color word and the color target were integral, but not when the color word and the color target were separated. No Stroop effect was observed in Experiment 2. Visual word recognition is contingent on both the distribution of spatial attention and task demands.

  2. How the clustering of phonological neighbors affects visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Yates, Mark

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, a new scientific field known as network science has been emerging. Network science is concerned with understanding the structure and properties of networks. One concept that is commonly used in describing a network is how the nodes in the network cluster together. The current research applied the idea of clustering to the study of how phonological neighbors influence visual word recognition. The results of 2 experiments converge to show that words with neighbors that are highly clustered (i.e., are closely related in terms of sound) are recognized more slowly than are those having neighbors that are less clustered. This result is explained in terms of the principles of interactive activation where the interplay between phoneme and phonological word units is affected by the neighborhood structure of the word. It is argued that neighbors in more clustered neighborhoods become more active and directly compete with the target word, thereby slowing processing.

  3. ERP Evidence of Hemispheric Independence in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemrodov, Dan; Harpaz, Yuval; Javitt, Daniel C.; Lavidor, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the capability of the left hemisphere (LH) and the right hemisphere (RH) to perform a visual recognition task independently as formulated by the Direct Access Model (Fernandino, Iacoboni, & Zaidel, 2007). Healthy native Hebrew speakers were asked to categorize nouns and non-words (created from nouns by transposing two middle…

  4. A Strategy for Assessing Problems in Word Recognition among Dyslexics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoien, Torleiv; Lundberg, Ingvar

    1989-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of studying word-recognition strategies in the assessment of dyslexia. The dual-route model is defended despite attacks from supporters of computational models of modern connectionism. A computer-based diagnostic test battery is described and illustrated via 2 case studies of 15-year-old dyslexic boys in…

  5. Hemispheric Differences in Indexical Specificity Effects in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Julio; McLennan, Conor T.

    2007-01-01

    Variability in talker identity, one type of indexical variation, has demonstrable effects on the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. Furthermore, neuropsychological evidence suggests that indexical and linguistic information may be represented and processed differently in the 2 cerebral hemispheres, and is consistent with findings from…

  6. A Welsh Word Recognition Test. Pamphlet No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, J. L.

    This pamphlet discusses the need for reliable standardized tests for the selection and classification of Welsh-dominant students in Wales and for the evaluation of their language skills. Because of the correlation in performance, the standardized word-recognition test described here applies to predominantly Welsh-background individuals and not to…

  7. Spoken Word Recognition in Toddlers Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the time course of spoken word recognition in 2-year-old children who use cochlear implants (CIs) in quiet and in the presence of speech competitors. Method: Children who use CIs and age-matched peers with normal acoustic hearing listened to familiar auditory labels, in quiet or in the presence of…

  8. Lexical Competition in Non-Native Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Four eye-tracking experiments examined lexical competition in non-native spoken-word recognition. Dutch listeners hearing English fixated longer on distractor pictures with names containing vowels that Dutch listeners are likely to confuse with vowels in a target picture name ("pencil," given target "panda") than on less confusable distractors…

  9. Automatization and Orthographic Development in Second Language Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kida, Shusaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated second language (L2) learners' acquisition of automatic word recognition and the development of L2 orthographic representation in the mental lexicon. Participants in the study were Japanese university students enrolled in a compulsory course involving a weekly 30-minute sustained silent reading (SSR) activity with…

  10. Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

  11. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  12. Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Three eye movement studies with novel lexicons investigated the role of semantic context in spoken word recognition, contrasting 3 models: restrictive access, access-selection, and continuous integration. Actions directed at novel shapes caused changes in motion (e.g., looming, spinning) or state (e.g., color, texture). Across the experiments,…

  13. Transfer Effect of Word Recognition Strategies: Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Lisbeth

    A study investigated the transfer effect of three different word recognition strategies. Subjects were 90 first- through fourth-grade children randomly drawn from an elementary school population to serve in the experimental group and a like number assigned to a non-instructed control group. Strategies taught to subjects were a graphophonic…

  14. Stretegies for Developing Readiness for Independence in Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Betty

    There are physical, social, emotional, mental, and language factors influencing the development of readiness for independence in word recognition. It is important to let the chld gain a variety of experiences prior to school entrance, such as the parents reading aloud to the child and allowing him to follow the lines with his eyes while listening.…

  15. The Influence of Semantic Neighbours on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Although it is assumed that semantics is a critical component of visual word recognition, there is still much that we do not understand. One recent way of studying semantic processing has been in terms of semantic neighbourhood (SN) density, and this research has shown that semantic neighbours facilitate lexical decisions. However, it is not clear…

  16. A Comparison of Two Flashcard Drill Methods Targeting Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Robert J.; Mule, Christina M.; Briesch, Amy M.; Joseph, Laurice M.; Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional drill and practice (TD) and incremental rehearsal (IR) are two flashcard drill instructional methods previously noted to improve word recognition. The current study sought to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods, as assessed by next day retention assessments, under 2 conditions (i.e., opportunities to respond…

  17. Recognition Without Identification for Words, Pseudowords and Nonwords

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Jason; Lee, Karen; Flora, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the representations underlying recognition memory familiarity can be episodic in nature. Recognition without identification (Cleary & Greene, 2000; Peynircioğlu, 1990) was used to isolate familiarity processes. In order to test whether the representations underlying familiarity can be episodic, participants were exposed to stimuli that should not have pre-experimental representations, pseudowords and nonwords. The first two studies found evidence of recognition without identification for pseudowords and nonwords, a result that is inconsistent with views proposing familiarity only arises from existing representations. The third study found evidence that recognition without identification for words, pseudowords, and nonwords is stronger when study and test modality match. These results are interpreted within the framework of global-matching views of recognition memory, which claim that familiarity arises from the matching of test items to episodic representations in memory. PMID:19802335

  18. Exploring the Neural Representation of Novel Words Learned through Enactment in a Word Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    Macedonia, Manuela; Mueller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning in a second language is enhanced if learners enrich the learning experience with self-performed iconic gestures. This learning strategy is called enactment. Here we explore how enacted words are functionally represented in the brain and which brain regions contribute to enhance retention. After an enactment training lasting 4 days, participants performed a word recognition task in the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Data analysis suggests the participation of different and partially intertwined networks that are engaged in higher cognitive processes, i.e., enhanced attention and word recognition. Also, an experience-related network seems to map word representation. Besides core language regions, this latter network includes sensory and motor cortices, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum. On the basis of its complexity and the involvement of the motor system, this sensorimotor network might explain superior retention for enactment. PMID:27445918

  19. An ERP Investigation of Visual Word Recognition in Syllabary Scripts

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The bi-modal interactive-activation model has been successfully applied to understanding the neuro-cognitive processes involved in reading words in alphabetic scripts, as reflected in the modulation of ERP components in masked repetition priming. In order to test the generalizability of this approach, the current study examined word recognition in a different writing system, the Japanese syllabary scripts Hiragana and Katakana. Native Japanese participants were presented with repeated or unrelated pairs of Japanese words where the prime and target words were both in the same script (within-script priming, Experiment 1) or were in the opposite script (cross-script priming, Experiment 2). As in previous studies with alphabetic scripts, in both experiments the N250 (sub-lexical processing) and N400 (lexical-semantic processing) components were modulated by priming, although the time-course was somewhat delayed. The earlier N/P150 effect (visual feature processing) was present only in Experiment 1 where prime and target words shared visual features. Overall, the results provide support for the hypothesis that visual word recognition involves a generalizable set of neuro-cognitive processes that operate in a similar manner across different writing systems and languages, as well as pointing to the viability of the bi-modal interactive activation framework for modeling such processes. PMID:23378278

  20. Chinese unknown word recognition for PCFG-LA parsing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuping; He, Liangye; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL), is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  1. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    PubMed Central

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no meaning); and (3) phonology-to-meaning (no orthography). Following learning, participants made meaning judgments on the learned words, familiar known words, and unpresented (unlearned) rare words while their ERPs were recorded. The behavioral results showed no significant effects of comprehension skill on meaning judgment performance. Contrastingly, the ERP results indicated comprehension skill differences in P600 amplitude; high-skilled readers showed stronger familiarity effects for learned words, whereas less-skilled readers did not distinguish between learned words, familiar words, and unlearned words. Evidence from the P600 and N400 illustrated superior learning of meaning when meaning information was coupled with orthography rather than phonology. These results suggest that the availability of word knowledge (orthography, phonology, and meaning) at learning affects subsequent word identification processes when the words are encountered in a new context. PMID:22399833

  2. Individual differences in involvement of the visual object recognition system during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Sacchi, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia often evince reduced activation during reading in left hemisphere (LH) language regions. This can be observed along with increased activation in the right hemisphere (RH), especially in areas associated with object recognition - a pattern referred to as RH compensation. The mechanisms of RH compensation are relatively unclear. We hypothesize that RH compensation occurs when the RH object recognition system is called upon to supplement an underperforming LH visual word form recognition system. We tested this by collecting ERPs while participants with a range of reading abilities viewed words, objects, and word/object ambiguous items (e.g., "SMILE" shaped like a smile). Less experienced readers differentiate words, objects, and ambiguous items less strongly, especially over the RH. We suggest that this lack of differentiation may have negative consequences for dyslexic individuals demonstrating RH compensation.

  3. Hemispheric asymmetry in recognition memory: effects of retention level on the recognition of Portuguese words.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jorge; Perea, Maria Victoria; Ladera, Valentina; Gamito, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Early findings from Broca and Wernicke led to the classical view of hemispheric specialization, where the main idea relates to left-hemisphere language capabilities compared to right-hemisphere visual capabilities. Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) have suggested that semantic encoding for verbal information in the right hemisphere can be more effective when memory demands are higher. In light of this, our main goal was to study the effect of retention level of verbal information on hemispheric processes. However, regarding the cross-linguistic differences in orthography and their subsequent effects on word recognition (Frost, Katz, & Bentin, 1987), our intent was also to test prior predictions of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) for a "shallow" orthography language, where words have a clear correspondence between graphemes and phonemes, as opposed to English, which is a "deep" orthography language. Portuguese concrete nouns were selected. The participants were submitted to a visual half-field word presentation using a continuous recognition memory paradigm. The retention level included 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 or 40 words. Results showed that recognition accuracy was higher for words studied in the right visual field, compared to those studied in the left visual field, when the retention interval included 2, 4, or 20 words. No significant differences were found for the remaining intervals. Further analysis on accuracy data for intermediate retention levels showed that recognition accuracy was higher for the 2 words retention level than for the levels including 4, 8, or 20 words; it was higher for left-hemisphere encoding as well. Our results also indicated that reaction times were slower for left-hemisphere encoding and for the 40 words retention level when compared to that of 20 words. In summary, the current results are in partial agreement with those of Federmeier and Benjamin (2005) and suggest different hemispheric memory strategies for the semantic encoding of verbal

  4. (Almost) Word for Word: As Voice Recognition Programs Improve, Students Reap the Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Voice recognition software is hardly new--attempts at capturing spoken words and turning them into written text have been available to consumers for about two decades. But what was once an expensive and highly unreliable tool has made great strides in recent years, perhaps most recognized in programs such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking…

  5. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children’s looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals’ word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children’s robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  6. Robotics control using isolated word recognition of voice input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A speech input/output system is presented that can be used to communicate with a task oriented system. Human speech commands and synthesized voice output extend conventional information exchange capabilities between man and machine by utilizing audio input and output channels. The speech input facility is comprised of a hardware feature extractor and a microprocessor implemented isolated word or phrase recognition system. The recognizer offers a medium sized (100 commands), syntactically constrained vocabulary, and exhibits close to real time performance. The major portion of the recognition processing required is accomplished through software, minimizing the complexity of the hardware feature extractor.

  7. Embedded words in visual word recognition: does the left hemisphere see the rain in brain?

    PubMed

    McCormick, Samantha F; Davis, Colin J; Brysbaert, Marc

    2010-09-01

    To examine whether interhemispheric transfer during foveal word recognition entails a discontinuity between the information presented to the left and right of fixation, we presented target words in such a way that participants fixated immediately left or right of an embedded word (as in gr*apple, bull*et) or in the middle of an embedded word (grapp*le, bu*llet). Categorization responses to target words were faster and more accurate in a congruent condition (in which the embedded word was associated with the same response; e.g., Does bullet refer to an item of clothing?) than in an incongruent condition (e.g., Does bullet refer to a type of animal?). However, the magnitude of this effect did not vary as a function of position of fixation, relative to the embedded word, as might be expected if information from the 2 visual fields was initially split over the cerebral hemispheres and integrated only late in the word identification process. Equivalent results were observed in Experiment 1 (long stimulus duration) and Experiment 2 (in which stimulus duration was 200 ms; i.e., less than the time required to initiate a refixation).

  8. A Demonstration of Improved Precision of Word Recognition Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Micheyl, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate improved precision of word recognition scores (WRSs) by increasing list length and analyzing phonemic errors. Method: Pure-tone thresholds (frequencies between 0.25 and 8.0 kHz) and WRSs were measured in 3 levels of speech-shaped noise (50, 52, and 54 dB HL) for 24 listeners with normal…

  9. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  10. Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

  11. Human actions recognition using bag of optical flow words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Lili

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an improved approach to recognize human action based on the BOW model and the pLSA model. We propose an improved feature with optical flow to build our bag of words. This feature is able to reduce the high dimension of the pure optical flow template and also has abundant motion information. Then, we use the topic model of pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) to classify human actions in a special way. We find that the existing methods lead to some mismatching of words due to the k-means clustering approach. To reduce the probability of mismatching, we add the spatial information to each word and improve the training and testing approach. Our approach of recognition is tested on two datasets, the KTH datasets and WEIZMANN datasets. The result shows its good performance.

  12. Cross-linguistic experiments in word-form recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihman, Marilyn

    2004-05-01

    When do children first represent word forms without experimental training or contextual support? Both English- and Welsh-learning children were tested, replicating Halle and Boysson-Bardies (1994: French, 11 months.). Twelve children acquiring English showed word-form recognition by 11 months (Vihman et al., in press); 12 Welsh children showed the effect at 12 months but a separate sample of 12 tested at 11 months did not (Vihman and DePaolis, 1999). A subsequent study of 16 children using event-related potentials (ERPs) showed word-form recognition within 250 ms for English at 11 months (Thierry et al., 2003). Attempts to locate the age of onset longitudinally proved problematic: Repeated tests of single samples of English and Welsh monolingual children (12 each) at 9, 10, 11, and 12 months showed that infant episodic memory interferes sufficiently with longitudinal observation based on a single set of stimuli to preclude drawing any conclusions. Cross-sectional samples of monolingual English and Welsh children (24 each) are currently being tested at 9 to12 months, using both head turn and ERPs, as are English/Welsh bilingual children at 11 months. These studies should yield solid information as to the age of onset of spontaneous word form representation. [ESRC support is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Caroline; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2015-02-01

    Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230 msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning.

  14. Team activity recognition in Association Football using a Bag-of-Words-based method.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Raúl; Martín-Félez, Raúl; Torres-Sospedra, Joaquín; Martínez-Usó, Adolfo

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is used to perform team activity recognition and analysis in Association Football. It is based on pattern recognition and machine learning techniques. In particular, a strategy based on the Bag-of-Words (BoW) technique is used to characterize short Football video clips that are used to explain the team's performance and to train advanced classifiers in automatic recognition of team activities. In addition to the neural network-based classifier, three more classifier families are tested: the k-Nearest Neighbor, the Support Vector Machine and the Random Forest. The results obtained show that the proposed methodology is able to explain the most common movements of a team and to perform the team activity recognition task with high accuracy when classifying three Football actions: Ball Possession, Quick Attack and Set Piece. Random Forest is the classifier obtaining the best classification results.

  15. Visual speech primes open-set recognition of spoken words

    PubMed Central

    Buchwald, Adam B.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Visual speech perception has become a topic of considerable interest to speech researchers. Previous research has demonstrated that perceivers neurally encode and use speech information from the visual modality, and this information has been found to facilitate spoken word recognition in tasks such as lexical decision (Kim, Davis, & Krins, 2004). In this paper, we used a cross-modality repetition priming paradigm with visual speech lexical primes and auditory lexical targets to explore the nature of this priming effect. First, we report that participants identified spoken words mixed with noise more accurately when the words were preceded by a visual speech prime of the same word compared with a control condition. Second, analyses of the responses indicated that both correct and incorrect responses were constrained by the visual speech information in the prime. These complementary results suggest that the visual speech primes have an effect on lexical access by increasing the likelihood that words with certain phonetic properties are selected. Third, we found that the cross-modality repetition priming effect was maintained even when visual and auditory signals came from different speakers, and thus different instances of the same lexical item. We discuss implications of these results for current theories of speech perception. PMID:21544260

  16. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences among Children with Early-Emerging and Late- Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173)…

  17. Tracking the Time Course of Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunelliere, Angele; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to…

  18. From numbers to letters: feedback regularization in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Nicola; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Marìn-Gutièrrez, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    Word reading in alphabetic languages involves letter identification, independently of the format in which these letters are written. This process of letter 'regularization' is sensitive to word context, leading to the recognition of a word even when numbers that resemble letters are inserted among other real letters (e.g., M4TERI4L). The present study investigates the electrophysiological correlates of number-to-letter regularization by means of the masked priming paradigm: target words (MATERIAL) were preceded by fully alphabetic primes (MATERIAL), primes with letter-like numbers (M4T3R14L), or primes with unrelated numbers (M7T6R28L). ERPs revealed three subsequent effects. Around 150 ms the unrelated numbers condition elicited a positive effect, compared to the other two conditions, in the occipital electrodes. Then, target words preceded by primes with numbers elicited a more negative N200 in the same electrodes compared to the fully alphabetic condition. Finally, both alphabetic primes and letter-like numbers elicited a posterior positive component peaking around 260 ms compared to unrelated numbers. Source analysis for each electrophysiological effect revealed a similar early increase of activity in the left occipito-temporal pathway for alphabetic primes and primes with letter-like numbers. Around 200 ms, the orthographic interference due to the numerical values correlated with an increase of activity in parietal areas; finally, a recursive effect in the left occipital cortex was found, reflecting abstract letter activation. These results indicate that direct feedback interaction from word units strongly influences the activation of the letter units at a format-independent abstract level.

  19. Large-Corpus Phoneme and Word Recognition and the Generality of Lexical Context in CVC Word Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfand, Jessica T.; Christie, Robert E.; Gelfand, Stanley A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech recognition may be analyzed in terms of recognition probabilities for perceptual wholes (e.g., words) and parts (e.g., phonemes), where j or the j-factor reveals the number of independent perceptual units required for recognition of the whole (Boothroyd, 1968b; Boothroyd & Nittrouer, 1988; Nittrouer & Boothroyd, 1990). For…

  20. The role of familiarity in associative recognition of unitized compound word pairs.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of unitization and contribution of familiarity in the recognition of word pairs. Compound words were presented as word pairs and were contrasted with noncompound word pairs in an associative recognition task. In Experiments 1 and 2, yes-no recognition hit and false-alarm rates were significantly higher for compound than for noncompound word pairs, with no difference in discrimination in both within- and between-subject comparisons. Experiment 2 also showed that item recognition was reduced for words from compound compared to noncompound word pairs, providing evidence of the unitization of the compound pairs. A two-alternative forced-choice test used in Experiments 3A and 3B provided evidence that the concordant effect for compound word pairs was largely due to familiarity. A discrimination advantage for compound word pairs was also seen in these experiments. Experiment 4A showed that a different pattern of results is seen when repeated noncompound word pairs are compared to compound word pairs. Experiment 4B showed that memory for the individual items of compound word pairs was impaired relative to items in repeated and nonrepeated noncompound word pairs, and Experiment 5 demonstrated that this effect is eliminated when the elements of compound word pairs are not unitized. The concordant pattern seen in yes-no recognition and the discrimination advantage in forced-choice recognition for compound relative to noncompound word pairs is due to greater reliance on familiarity at test when pairs are unitized.

  1. Asymmetries in Early Word Recognition: The Case of Stops and Fricatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Fikkert, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Toddlers' discrimination of native phonemic contrasts is generally unproblematic. Yet using those native contrasts in word learning and word recognition can be more challenging. In this article, we investigate perceptual versus phonological explanations for asymmetrical patterns found in early word recognition. We systematically investigated the…

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on word recognition and spelling deficits as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C; Wadsworth, Sally J; Olson, Richard K

    2007-05-01

    Previous twin studies have suggested a possible developmental dissociation between genetic influences on word recognition and spelling deficits, wherein genetic influence declined across age for word recognition, and increased for spelling recognition. The present study included two measures of word recognition (timed, untimed) and two measures of spelling (recognition, production) in younger and older twins. The heritability estimates for the two word recognition measures were .65 (timed) and .64 (untimed) in the younger group and .65 and .58 respectively in the older group. For spelling, the corresponding estimates were .57 (recognition) and .51 (production) in the younger group and .65 and .67 in the older group. Although these age group differences were not significant, the pattern of decline in heritability across age for reading and increase for spelling conformed to that predicted by the developmental dissociation hypothesis. However, the tests for an interaction between genetic influences on word recognition and spelling deficits as a function of age were not significant.

  3. The Impact of Left and Right Intracranial Tumors on Picture and Word Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Bram; Armstrong, Carol L.; Modestino, Edward; Ledakis, George; John, Cameron; Hunter, Jill V.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of left and right intracranial tumors on picture and word recognition memory. We hypothesized that left hemispheric (LH) patients would exhibit greater word recognition memory impairment than right hemispheric (RH) patients, with no significant hemispheric group picture recognition memory differences. The LH…

  4. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate information from the two most disparate domains: pragmatic inference and phonetic perception. Using contexts that trigger pragmatic expectations regarding upcoming coreference (expectations for either he or she), we test listeners' identification of phonetic category boundaries (using acoustically ambiguous words on the/hi/∼/∫i/continuum). The results indicate that, in addition to phonetic cues, word recognition also reflects pragmatic inference. These findings are consistent with evidence for top-down contextual effects from lexical, syntactic, and semantic cues, but they extend this previous work by testing cues at the pragmatic level and by eliminating a statistical-frequency confound that might otherwise explain the previously reported results. We conclude by exploring the time-course of this interaction and discussing how different models of cue integration could be adapted to account for our results. PMID:22250908

  5. Improved word recognition for observers with age-related maculopathies using compensation filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1988-01-01

    A method for improving word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies, which cause a loss of central vision, is discussed. It is found that the use of individualized compensation filters based on an person's normalized contrast sensitivity function can improve word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies. It is shown that 27-70 pct more magnification is needed for unfiltered words compared to filtered words. The improvement in word recognition is positively correlated with the severity of vision loss.

  6. Computational modeling and elementary process analysis in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Forster, K I

    1994-12-01

    An attempt is made to isolate the assumptions that make a connectionist approach to visual word recognition distinctive. These include the commitment to distributed representations, the claim that there is no distinction between lexical and nonlexical systems in the naming task, and the claim that it is possible to map from orthography to meaning without using localized representations. It is argued that merely demonstrating that a network model can perform these tasks is not sufficient and that a detailed theory of how the network performs its tasks must accompany the simulation, because a simulation is not equivalent to an explanation. It is argued that further progress requires detailed modeling and experimental study of the elementary processes assumed to be involved in networks and that it is premature to dismiss alternative models of lexical access such as serial search models.

  7. Specificity of Dimension-Based Statistical Learning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Idemaru, Kaori; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Speech perception flexibly adapts to short-term regularities of ambient speech input. Recent research demonstrates that the function of an acoustic dimension for speech categorization at a given time is relative to its relationship to the evolving distribution of dimensional regularity across time, and not simply to a fixed value along the dimension. Two experiments examine the nature of this dimension-based statistical learning in online word recognition, testing generalization of learning across phonetic categories. While engaged in a word recognition task guided by perceptually unambiguous voice-onset time (VOT) acoustics signaling stop voicing in either bilabial rhymes, beer and pier, or alveolar rhymes, deer and tear, listeners were exposed incidentally to an artificial “accent” deviating from English norms in its correlation of the pitch onset of the following vowel (F0) with VOT (Experiment 1). Exposure to the change in the correlation of F0 with VOT led listeners to down-weight reliance on F0 in voicing categorization, indicating dimension-based statistical learning. This learning was observed only for the “accented” contrast varying in its F0/VOT relationship during exposure; learning did not generalize to the other place of articulation. Another group of listeners experienced competing F0/VOT correlations across place of articulation such that the global correlation for voicing was stable, but locally correlations across voicing pairs were opposing (e.g., “accented” beer and pier, “canonical” deer and tear, Experiment 2). Listeners showed dimension-based learning only for the accented pair, not the canonical pair, indicating that they are able to track separate acoustic statistics across place of articulation, that is, for /b-p/ and /d-t/. This suggests that dimension-based learning does not operate obligatorily at the phonological level of stop voicing. PMID:24364708

  8. Evaluating Word Representation Features in Biomedical Named Entity Recognition Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Named Entity Recognition (BNER), which extracts important entities such as genes and proteins, is a crucial step of natural language processing in the biomedical domain. Various machine learning-based approaches have been applied to BNER tasks and showed good performance. In this paper, we systematically investigated three different types of word representation (WR) features for BNER, including clustering-based representation, distributional representation, and word embeddings. We selected one algorithm from each of the three types of WR features and applied them to the JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE II BNER tasks. Our results showed that all the three WR algorithms were beneficial to machine learning-based BNER systems. Moreover, combining these different types of WR features further improved BNER performance, indicating that they are complementary to each other. By combining all the three types of WR features, the improvements in F-measure on the BioCreAtIvE II GM and JNLPBA corpora were 3.75% and 1.39%, respectively, when compared with the systems using baseline features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to systematically evaluate the effect of three different types of WR features for BNER tasks. PMID:24729964

  9. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  10. The Effects of Explicit Word Recognition Training on Japanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Lance; Holsworth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study is a quantitative, quasi-experimental investigation focusing on the effects of word recognition training on word recognition fluency, reading speed, and reading comprehension for 151 Japanese university students at a lower-intermediate reading proficiency level. Four treatment groups were given training in orthographic, phonological,…

  11. Specifying Theories of Developmental Dyslexia: A Diffusion Model Analysis of Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeguers, Maaike H. T.; Snellings, Patrick; Tijms, Jurgen; Weeda, Wouter D.; Tamboer, Peter; Bexkens, Anika; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and auditory lexical decision data. The first study showed…

  12. Relations among Linguistic and Cognitive Skills and Spoken Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene Earley

    2004-01-01

    This study examined spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants (CIs) to determine the extent to which linguistic and cognitive abilities predict variability in speech-perception performance. Both a traditional consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC)-repetition measure and a gated-word recognition measure (F. Grosjean, 1996) were used.…

  13. Morphing Images: A Potential Tool for Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2005-01-01

    Children with severe learning difficulties who fail to begin word recognition can learn to recognise pictures and symbols relatively easily. However, finding an effective means of using pictures to teach word recognition has proved problematic. This research explores the use of morphing software to support the transition from picture to word…

  14. Modeling words with subword units in an articulatorily constrained speech recognition algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hogden, J.

    1997-11-20

    The goal of speech recognition is to find the most probable word given the acoustic evidence, i.e. a string of VQ codes or acoustic features. Speech recognition algorithms typically take advantage of the fact that the probability of a word, given a sequence of VQ codes, can be calculated.

  15. Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

  16. The Predictive Power of Phonemic Awareness and Naming Speed for Early Dutch Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Wim G. M.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of phonemic awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. Both the speed and accuracy of word recognition at the end of Grade 2 were predicted by naming speed from both kindergarten and Grade 1, after control for autoregressive relations, kindergarten…

  17. Concurrent Correlates of Chinese Word Recognition in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35…

  18. Discourse Context and the Recognition of Reduced and Canonical Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

    2013-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments we examined whether wider discourse information helps the recognition of reduced pronunciations (e.g., "puter") more than the recognition of canonical pronunciations of spoken words (e.g., "computer"). Dutch participants listened to sentences from a casual speech corpus containing canonical and reduced target words.…

  19. Concurrent correlates of Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness to Chinese word recognition in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Measures of word recognition, general intelligence, phonological, semantic radical, and morphological awareness were administered to 32 DHH and 35 hearing children in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that tone, semantic radical, and morphological awareness made independent contributions to word recognition in DHH children after the effects of age and intelligence were statistically controlled for. Semantic radical and morphological awareness was found to explain significantly more variance than tone awareness in predicting word recognition in DHH children. This study has replicated previous evidence regarding the importance of semantic radical and morphological awareness in Chinese word recognition in hearing children and extended its significance to DHH children.

  20. Is Early Word-form Processing Stress-full? How Natural Variability Supports Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bortfeld, Heather; Morgan, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In a series of studies, we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants’ recognition of words in fluent speech. We first collected samples of mothers’ infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. Using the headturn preference procedure, we then tested 7.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. Results indicated that, although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress, recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. PMID:20159653

  1. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  2. Critical Difference Table for Word Recognition Testing Derived Using Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Edward; Schlauch, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a table for upper and lower limits of the 95% critical range for changes in word recognition scores obtained with monosyllabic word lists (of lengths 10, 25, 50, and 100 words) using newly available methods. Although such a table has been available for nearly 30 years (A. R. Thornton & M. J. M. Raffin, 1978), the earlier…

  3. Recognition and Representation of Function Words in English-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Werker, Janet F.; Cutler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    We examined infants' recognition of functors and the accuracy of the representations that infants construct of the perceived word forms. Auditory stimuli were "Functor + Content Word" versus "Nonsense Functor + Content Word" sequences. Eight-, 11-, and 13-month-old infants heard both real functors and matched nonsense functors (prosodically…

  4. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  5. Morphological Processing during Visual Word Recognition in Hebrew as a First and a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether sublexical morphological processing takes place during visual word-recognition in Hebrew, and whether morphological decomposition of written words depends on lexical activation of the complete word. Furthermore, it examined whether morphological processing is similar when reading Hebrew as a first language (L1)…

  6. The illusory-letters phenomenon: an illustration of graphemic restoration in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T R; Thomas, S M; Scott-Brown, K C

    1999-01-01

    We present a demonstration of word perception in which stimuli containing very few letters (just 50% of their original number) are presented for unlimited durations and yet are seen unequivocally as complete words. The phenomenon suggests that recognition of words can be achieved even when perception of their component letters is prevented.

  7. Visual Discrimination: Implications for Reading Readiness and Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa, Carol M.

    Two experiments were conducted with children to determine the units of word perception used in recognizing isolated words. In the first experiment, kindergarten children practiced visually discriminating whole words (big, pig, dig), single letters (b, p, d), or geometric forms (triangle, circle, square) before learning to read three words (big,…

  8. Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

  9. Hemispheric specialization and independence for word recognition: a comparison of three computational models.

    PubMed

    Weems, Scott A; Reggia, James A

    2004-06-01

    Two findings serve as the hallmark for hemispheric specialization during lateralized lexical decision. First is an overall word advantage, with words being recognized more quickly and accurately than non-words (the effect being stronger in response latency). Second, a right visual field advantage is observed for words, with little or no hemispheric differences in the ability to identify non-words. Several theories have been proposed to account for this difference in word and non-word recognition, some by suggesting dual routes of lexical access and others by incorporating separate, and potentially independent, word and non-word detection mechanisms. We compare three previously proposed cognitive theories of hemispheric interactions (callosal relay, direct access, and cooperative hemispheres) through neural network modeling, with each network incorporating different means of interhemispheric communication. When parameters were varied to simulate left hemisphere specialization for lexical decision, only the cooperative hemispheres model showed both a consistent left hemisphere advantage for word recognition but not non-word recognition, as well as an overall word advantage. These results support the theory that neural representations of words are more strongly established in the left hemisphere through prior learning, despite open communication between the hemispheres during both learning and recall.

  10. The gender congruency effect during bilingual spoken-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Luis; Paolieri, Daniela; Dussias, Paola E.; Valdés kroff, Jorge R.; Gerfen, Chip; Bajo, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘gender-congruency’ effect during a spoken-word recognition task using the visual world paradigm. Eye movements of Italian–Spanish bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals were monitored while they viewed a pair of objects on a computer screen. Participants listened to instructions in Spanish (encuentra la bufanda / ‘find the scarf’) and clicked on the object named in the instruction. Grammatical gender of the objects’ name was manipulated so that pairs of objects had the same (congruent) or different (incongruent) gender in Italian, but gender in Spanish was always congruent. Results showed that bilinguals, but not monolinguals, looked at target objects less when they were incongruent in gender, suggesting a between-language gender competition effect. In addition, bilinguals looked at target objects more when the definite article in the spoken instructions provided a valid cue to anticipate its selection (different-gender condition). The temporal dynamics of gender processing and cross-language activation in bilinguals are discussed. PMID:28018132

  11. Phonetic discrimination and non-native spoken-word recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Andrea; Cutler, Anne

    2002-05-01

    When phoneme categories of a non-native language do not correspond to those of the native language, non-native categories may be inaccurately perceived. This may impair non-native spoken-word recognition. Weber and Cutler investigated the effect of phonetic discrimination difficulties on competitor activation in non-native listening. They tested whether Dutch listeners use English phonetic contrasts to resolve potential competition. Eye movements of Dutch participants were monitored as they followed spoken English instructions to click on pictures of objects. A target picture (e.g., picture of a paddle) was always presented along with distractor pictures. The name of a distractor picture either shared initial segments with the name of the target picture (e.g., target paddle, /paedl/ and competitor pedal, /pEdl/) or not (e.g., strawberry and duck). Half of the target-competitor pairs contained English vowels that are often confused by Dutch listeners (e.g., /ae/ and /E/ as in ``paddle-pedal''), half contained vowels that are unlikely to be confused (e.g., /ae/ and /aI/ as in ``parrot-pirate''). Dutch listeners fixated distractor pictures with confusable English vowels longer than distractor pictures with distinct vowels. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity of non-native listeners to phonetic contrasts can result in spurious competitors that should not be activated for native listeners.

  12. Cognitive control and word recognition speed influence the Stroop effect in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruiming; Fan, Xiaoyue; Liu, Cong; Cai, Zhenguang G

    2016-04-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to be less susceptible to Stroop interference in their first language than monolinguals, though the cause is currently being debated. In two experiments, we explored how cognitive control and word recognition contribute to the Stroop effect by contrasting cognitive control (via a Simon arrow task), word recognition speed (via a Chinese/English word recognition task) and Stroop susceptibility (via a verbal Stroop task) between proficient and non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Compared to non-proficient bilinguals, proficient bilinguals showed better cognitive control at inhibiting irrelevant information, and they were slower at recognising Chinese words but quicker at recognising English words. Critically, we also showed that proficient bilinguals showed a smaller Stroop effect than non-proficient bilinguals in Chinese but a comparable Stroop effect as non-proficient bilinguals in English. The results cannot be accounted for by cognitive control or word recognition speed alone; instead, they are best accommodated by assuming that cognitive control and word recognition speed jointly determine the Stroop effect. Thus, we conclude that enhanced cognitive control and delayed word recognition combine to reduce Stroop effect in bilinguals as compared to monolinguals.

  13. Does Imitation Facilitate Word Recognition in a Non-Native Regional Accent?

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Noël; Dufour, Sophie; Brunellière, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    We asked to what extent phonetic convergence across speakers may facilitate later word recognition. Northern-French participants showed both a clear phonetic convergence effect toward Southern French in a word repetition task, and a bias toward the phonemic system of their own variety in the recognition of single words. Perceptual adaptation to a non-native accent may be difficult when the native accent has a phonemic contrast that is associated with a single phonemic category in the non-native accent. Convergence toward a speaker of a non-native accent in production may not prevent each speaker’s native variety to prevail in word identification. Imitation has been found in previous studies to contribute to predicting upcoming words in sentences in adverse listening conditions, but may play a more limited role in the recognition of single words. PMID:23162514

  14. The influence of the phonological neighborhood clustering coefficient on spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Clustering coefficient-a measure derived from the new science of networks-refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words bat, hat, and can, all of which are neighbors of the word cat; the words bat and hat are also neighbors of each other. In a perceptual identification task, words with a low clustering coefficient (i.e., few neighbors are neighbors of each other) were more accurately identified than words with a high clustering coefficient (i.e., many neighbors are neighbors of each other). In a lexical decision task, words with a low clustering coefficient were responded to more quickly than words with a high clustering coefficient. These findings suggest that the structure of the lexicon (i.e., the similarity relationships among neighbors of the target word measured by clustering coefficient) influences lexical access in spoken word recognition. Simulations of the TRACE and Shortlist models of spoken word recognition failed to account for the present findings. A framework for a new model of spoken word recognition is proposed.

  15. Cingulo-Opercular Function during Word Recognition in Noise for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E.; Dubno, Judy R.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adaptive control, reflected by elevated activity in cingulo-opercular brain regions, optimizes performance in challenging tasks by monitoring outcomes and adjusting behavior. For example, cingulo-opercular function benefits trial-level word recognition in noise for normal hearing adults. Because auditory system deficits may limit the communicative benefit from adaptive control, we examined the extent to which cingulo-opercular engagement supports word recognition in noise for older adults with hearing loss (HL). Methods Participants were selected to form groups with Less HL (N = 12; PTA = 19.2 ± 4.8 dB HL) and More HL (N = 12; mean pure tone thresholds, PTA = 38.4 ± 4.5 dB HL, 0.25 to 8 kHz, both ears). A word recognition task was performed with words presented in multi-talker babble at +3 or +10 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) during a sparse acquisition fMRI experiment. The participants were middle-aged and older (ages: 64.1 ± 8.4 years) English speakers with no history of neurological or psychiatric diagnoses. Results Elevated cingulo-opercular activity occurred with increased likelihood of correct word recognition on the next trial (t(23) = 3.28, p = 0.003) and this association did not differ between hearing loss groups. During trials with word recognition errors, the More HL group exhibited higher Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast in occipital and parietal regions compared to the Less HL group. Across listeners, more pronounced cingulo-opercular activity during recognition errors was associated with better overall word recognition performance. Conclusion The trial-level word recognition benefit from cingulo-opercular activity was equivalent for both hearing loss groups. When speech audibility and performance levels are similar for older adults with mild to moderate hearing loss, cingulo-opercular adaptive control contributes to word recognition in noise. PMID:26683042

  16. A Comparison of Presentation Levels to Maximize Word Recognition Scores

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Leslie A.; Mackersie, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Background While testing suprathreshold word recognition at multiple levels is considered best practice, studies on practice patterns do not suggest that this is common practice. Audiologists often test at a presentation level intended to maximize recognition scores, but methods for selecting this level are not well established for a wide range of hearing losses. Purpose To determine the presentation level methods that resulted in maximum suprathreshold phoneme-recognition scores while avoiding loudness discomfort. Research Design Performance-intensity functions were obtained for 40 participants with sensorineural hearing loss using the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment. Participants had either gradually sloping (mild, moderate, moderately severe/severe) or steeply sloping losses. Performance-intensity functions were obtained at presentation levels ranging from 10 dB above the SRT to 5 dB below the UCL (uncomfortable level). In addition, categorical loudness ratings were obtained across a range of intensities using speech stimuli. Scores obtained at UCL – 5 dB (maximum level below loudness discomfort) were compared to four alternative presentation-level methods. The alternative presentation-level methods included sensation level (SL; 2 kHz reference, SRT reference), a fixed-level (95 dB SPL) method, and the most comfortable loudness level (MCL). For the SL methods, scores used in the analysis were selected separately for the SRT and 2 kHz references based on several criteria. The general goal was to choose levels that represented asymptotic performance while avoiding loudness discomfort. The selection of SLs varied across the range of hearing losses. Results Scores obtained using the different presentation-level methods were compared to scores obtained using UCL – 5 dB. For the mild hearing loss group, the mean phoneme scores were similar for all presentation levels. For the moderately severe/severe group, the highest mean score was obtained using

  17. Visual Word Recognition during Reading Is Followed by Subvocal Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiter, Brianna M.; Inhoff, Albrecht W.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the identification of a visual word is followed by its subvocal articulation during reading. An irrelevant spoken word (ISW) that was identical, phonologically similar, or dissimilar to a visual target word was presented when the eyes moved to the target in the course of sentence reading. Sentence reading was…

  18. Computational Modeling of Morphological Effects in Bangla Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar; Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we aim to model the organization and processing of Bangla polymorphemic words in the mental lexicon. Our objective is to determine whether the mental lexicon accesses a polymorphemic word as a whole or decomposes the word into its constituent morphemes and then recognize them accordingly. To address this issue, we adopted two…

  19. Comparison of crisp and fuzzy character networks in handwritten word recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gader, Paul; Mohamed, Magdi; Chiang, Jung-Hsien

    1992-01-01

    Experiments involving handwritten word recognition on words taken from images of handwritten address blocks from the United States Postal Service mailstream are described. The word recognition algorithm relies on the use of neural networks at the character level. The neural networks are trained using crisp and fuzzy desired outputs. The fuzzy outputs were defined using a fuzzy k-nearest neighbor algorithm. The crisp networks slightly outperformed the fuzzy networks at the character level but the fuzzy networks outperformed the crisp networks at the word level.

  20. Modeling Spoken Word Recognition Performance by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users using Feature Identification

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Stefan A.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Computational simulations were carried out to evaluate the appropriateness of several psycholinguistic theories of spoken word recognition for children who use cochlear implants. These models also investigate the interrelations of commonly used measures of closed-set and open-set tests of speech perception. Design A software simulation of phoneme recognition performance was developed that uses feature identification scores as input. Two simulations of lexical access were developed. In one, early phoneme decisions are used in a lexical search to find the best matching candidate. In the second, phoneme decisions are made only when lexical access occurs. Simulated phoneme and word identification performance was then applied to behavioral data from the Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten test and Lexical Neighborhood Test of open-set word recognition. Simulations of performance were evaluated for children with prelingual sensorineural hearing loss who use cochlear implants with the MPEAK or SPEAK coding strategies. Results Open-set word recognition performance can be successfully predicted using feature identification scores. In addition, we observed no qualitative differences in performance between children using MPEAK and SPEAK, suggesting that both groups of children process spoken words similarly despite differences in input. Word recognition ability was best predicted in the model in which phoneme decisions were delayed until lexical access. Conclusions Closed-set feature identification and open-set word recognition focus on different, but related, levels of language processing. Additional insight for clinical intervention may be achieved by collecting both types of data. The most successful model of performance is consistent with current psycholinguistic theories of spoken word recognition. Thus it appears that the cognitive process of spoken word recognition is fundamentally the same for pediatric cochlear implant users and children and adults with

  1. Clinical implications of word recognition differences in earphone and aided conditions

    PubMed Central

    McRackan, Theodore R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Clinkscales, William B.; Meyer, Ted A.; Dubno, Judy R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare word recognition scores for adults with hearing loss measured using earphones and in the sound field without and with hearing aids (HA) Study design Independent review of pre-surgical audiological data from an active middle ear implant (MEI) FDA clinical trial Setting Multicenter prospective FDA clinical trial Patients Ninety-four adult HA users Interventions/Main outcomes measured Pre-operative earphone, unaided and aided pure tone thresholds, word recognition scores, and speech intelligibility index. Results We performed an independent review of pre-surgical audiological data from a MEI FDA trial and compared unaided and aided word recognition scores with participants’ HAs fit according to the NAL-R algorithm. For 52 participants (55.3%), differences in scores between earphone and aided conditions were >10%; for 33 participants (35.1%), earphone scores were higher by 10% or more than aided scores. These participants had significantly higher pure tone thresholds at 250 Hz, 500 Hz, and 1000 Hz), higher pure tone averages, higher speech recognition thresholds, (and higher earphone speech levels (p=0.002). No significant correlation was observed between word recognition scores measured with earphones and with hearing aids (r=.14; p=0.16), whereas a moderately high positive correlation was observed between unaided and aided word recognition (r=0.68; p<0.001). Conclusion Results of the these analyses do not support the common clinical practice of using word recognition scores measured with earphones to predict aided word recognition or hearing aid benefit. Rather, these results provide evidence supporting the measurement of aided word recognition in patients who are considering hearing aids. PMID:27631832

  2. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

  3. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general.

  4. The slow developmental time course of real-time spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than 16-year-olds; however, both age groups ultimately fixated targets to the same degree. This contrasts with a prior study of adolescents with language impairment (McMurray, Samelson, Lee, & Tomblin, 2010) that showed a different pattern of real-time processes. These findings suggest that the dynamics of word recognition are still developing even at these late ages, and developmental changes may derive from different sources than individual differences in relative language ability.

  5. The slow developmental timecourse of real-time spoken word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental timecourse of spoken word recognition in older children using eye-tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that nine-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than 16 year olds; however, both age groups ultimately fixated targets to the same degree. This contrasts with a prior study of adolescents with language impairment (McMurray et al, 2010) which showed a different pattern of real-time processes. These findings suggest that the dynamics of word recognition are still developing even at these late ages, and differences due to developmental change may derive from different sources than individual differences in relative language ability. PMID:26479544

  6. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  7. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    PubMed

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level.

  8. Effect of Representational Distance between Meanings on Recognition of Ambiguous Spoken Words

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Strauss, Ted J.; Dixon, James A.; Magnuson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that mental representations of word meanings are distributed along both semantic and syntactic dimensions such that nouns and verbs are relatively distinct from one another. Two experiments examined the effect of representational distance between meanings on recognition of ambiguous spoken words by comparing recognition of unambiguous words, noun-verb homonyms, and noun-noun homonyms. In Experiment 1, auditory lexical decision was fastest for unambiguous words, slower for noun-verb homonyms, and slowest for noun-noun homonyms. In Experiment 2, response times for matching spoken words to pictures followed the same pattern and eye fixation time courses revealed converging, gradual time course differences between conditions. These results indicate greater competition between meanings of ambiguous words when the meanings are from the same grammatical class (noun-noun homonyms) than they when are from different grammatical classes (noun-verb homonyms). PMID:20354577

  9. Evaluating a Split Processing Model of Visual Word Recognition: Effects of Orthographic Neighborhood Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal; Hayes, Adrian; Shillcock, Richard; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    The split fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition of centrally presented words is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation being projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation being projected to the left hemisphere (LH). Two lexical decision experiments aimed to…

  10. Re-Evaluating Split-Fovea Processing in Word Recognition: A Critical Assessment of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have proposed that a fundamental component of the word recognition process is that each fovea is divided precisely at its vertical midline and that information either side of this midline projects to different, contralateral hemispheres. Thus, when a word is fixated, all letters to the left of the point of…

  11. The Temporal Dynamics of Ambiguity Resolution: Evidence from Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan, Delphine; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with…

  12. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  13. Spoken Word Recognition in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Spoken word recognition, during gating, appears intact in specific language impairment (SLI). This study used gating to investigate the process in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders plus language impairment (ALI). Adolescents with ALI, SLI, and typical language development (TLD), matched on nonverbal IQ listened to gated words that varied…

  14. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  15. The Roles of Tonal and Segmental Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Recognition: An Eyetracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2010-01-01

    We used eyetracking to examine how tonal versus segmental information influence spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese. Participants heard an auditory word and were required to identify its corresponding picture from an array that included the target item ("chuang2" "bed"), a phonological competitor (segmental: chuang1 "window"; cohort:…

  16. The Effects of Semantic Transparency and Base Frequency on the Recognition of English Complex Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Joe; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A visual lexical decision task was used to examine the interaction between base frequency (i.e., the cumulative frequencies of morphologically related forms) and semantic transparency for a list of derived words. Linear mixed effects models revealed that high base frequency facilitates the recognition of the complex word (i.e., a "base…

  17. Bilingual Word Recognition beyond Orthography: On Meaning, Linguistic Context and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Central questions in psycholinguistic studies on bilingualism are how bilinguals access words in their two languages, and how they control their language systems and solve the problem of cross-language competition. In their excellent paper "The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision", Dijkstra and…

  18. Age-of-Acquisition Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Expert Vocabularies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Damian, Markus F.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists…

  19. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…

  20. Coordination of Word Recognition and Oculomotor Control During Reading: The Role of Implicit Lexical Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of word-recognition and oculomotor processes during reading was evaluated in two eye-tracking experiments that examined how word skipping, where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading, is affected by the lexical status of a letter string in the parafovea and ease of recognizing that string. Ease of lexical recognition was manipulated through target-word frequency (Experiment 1) and through repetition priming between prime-target pairs embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). Using the gaze-contingent boundary technique the target word appeared in the parafovea either with full preview or with transposed-letter (TL) preview. The TL preview strings were nonwords in Experiment 1 (e.g., bilnk created from the target blink), but were words in Experiment 2 (e.g., sacred created from the target scared). Experiment 1 showed greater skipping for high-frequency than low-frequency target words in the full preview condition but not in the TL preview (nonword) condition. Experiment 2 showed greater skipping for target words that repeated an earlier prime word than for those that did not, with this repetition priming occurring both with preview of the full target and with preview of the target’s TL neighbor word. However, time to progress from the word after the target was greater following skips of the TL preview word, whose meaning was anomalous in the sentence context, than following skips of the full preview word whose meaning fit sensibly into the sentence context. Together, the results support the idea that coordination between word-recognition and oculomotor processes occurs at the level of implicit lexical decisions. PMID:23106372

  1. Beginning Word Recognition: Benefits of Training by Segmentation and Whole Word Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Betty Ann; Lysynchuk, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Compares effectiveness of four different methods for acquiring initial reading vocabulary--onset plus vowel, rimes, phoneme segmentation and blending, and simple repetition of whole words. Finds that beginning nonreaders acquired the trained words fastest in the onset and rime conditions, and most slowly in the whole word condition. Finds the same…

  2. Automatic Activation of Orthography in Spoken Word Recognition: Pseudohomograph Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus; Castles, Anne; Davis, Chris; Lazendic, Goran; Nguyen-Hoan, Minh

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that orthographic information has an impact on spoken word processing. However, much of this evidence comes from tasks that are subject to strategic effects. In the three experiments reported here, we examined activation of orthographic information during spoken word processing within a paradigm that is unlikely to…

  3. Neighborhood Density and Word Recognition: Effects of Phoneme Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Tiffany Joyce Conyers

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in how individuals process single words when they are heard. An examination of the literature reveals an interesting, yet little-explored contradiction between the assumptions underlying the neighborhood activation model (NAM) and contemporary models of word retrieval. In this study, participants listened to CVC…

  4. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated…

  5. Reading laterally: the cerebral hemispheric use of spatial frequencies in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Karine; Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-04

    It is generally accepted that the left hemisphere (LH) is more capable for reading than the right hemisphere (RH). Left hemifield presentations (initially processed by the RH) lead to a globally higher error rate, slower word identification, and a significantly stronger word length effect (i.e., slower reaction times for longer words). Because the visuo-perceptual mechanisms of the brain for word recognition are primarily localized in the LH (Cohen et al., 2003), it is possible that this part of the brain possesses better spatial frequency (SF) tuning for processing the visual properties of words than the RH. The main objective of this study is to determine the SF tuning functions of the LH and RH for word recognition. Each word image was randomly sampled in the SF domain using the SF bubbles method (Willenbockel et al., 2010) and was presented laterally to the left or right visual hemifield. As expected, the LH requires less visual information than the RH to reach the same level of performance, illustrating the well-known LH advantage for word recognition. Globally, the SF tuning of both hemispheres is similar. However, these seemingly identical tuning functions hide important differences. Most importantly, we argue that the RH requires higher SFs to identify longer words because of crowding.

  6. Rapid modulation of spoken word recognition by visual primes

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    In a masked cross-modal priming experiment with ERP recordings, spoken Japanese words were primed with words written in one of the two syllabary scripts of Japanese. An early priming effect, peaking at around 200ms after onset of the spoken word target, was seen in left lateral electrode sites for Katakana primes, and later effects were seen for both Hiragana and Katakana primes on the N400 ERP component. The early effect is thought to reflect the efficiency with which words in Katakana script make contact with sublexical phonological representations involved in spoken language comprehension, due to the particular way this script is used by Japanese readers. This demonstrates fast-acting influences of visual primes on the processing of auditory target words, and suggests that briefly presented visual primes can influence sublexical processing of auditory target words. The later N400 priming effects, on the other hand, most likely reflect cross-modal influences on activity at the level of whole-word phonology and semantics. PMID:26516296

  7. NESP: Nonlinear enhancement and selection of plane for optimal segmentation and recognition of scene word images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Anil Prasad, M. N.; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report a breakthrough result on the difficult task of segmentation and recognition of coloured text from the word image dataset of ICDAR robust reading competition challenge 2: reading text in scene images. We split the word image into individual colour, gray and lightness planes and enhance the contrast of each of these planes independently by a power-law transform. The discrimination factor of each plane is computed as the maximum between-class variance used in Otsu thresholding. The plane that has maximum discrimination factor is selected for segmentation. The trial version of Omnipage OCR is then used on the binarized words for recognition. Our recognition results on ICDAR 2011 and ICDAR 2003 word datasets are compared with those reported in the literature. As baseline, the images binarized by simple global and local thresholding techniques were also recognized. The word recognition rate obtained by our non-linear enhancement and selection of plance method is 72.8% and 66.2% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 word datasets, respectively. We have created ground-truth for each image at the pixel level to benchmark these datasets using a toolkit developed by us. The recognition rate of benchmarked images is 86.7% and 83.9% for ICDAR 2011 and 2003 datasets, respectively.

  8. Random Word Recognition Chart Helps Scotoma Assessment in Low Vision

    PubMed Central

    MacKeben, Manfred; Nair, Unni K.W.; Walker, Laura L.; Fletcher, Donald C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the use of SKread, a vision test based on random word sequences that prevents the prediction of upcoming words by linguistic criteria and is simple to score in a clinical setting. Methods SKread combines the standardized format of the MNread test with sequences of random words and letters like the Pepper Visual Skills for Reading test. A total of 231 subjects (aged 16 to 97 years) participated. We report data from 136 eyes of subjects with a maculopathy and 65 with normal or near-normal vision. Test reliability was investigated on an additional 30 eye-healthy subjects. We tested visual acuity and reading performance for continuous text and random words monocularly. Reading speed and all errors made are reported. Results Reading speed was always higher for continuous text than for random word sequences, even in normally sighted subjects for whom the median reading times per paragraph were 2.4 s (MNread) vs. 6.8 s (SKread). In patients with maculopathies, the medians were 4.2 s vs. 12.25 s. These differences were statistically significant. Number and type of errors made depended only negligibly on age and visual acuity. Patients with a dense scotoma right of fixation made more “right errors” by missing letters at the end of words, whereas those with a scotoma left of fixation made more “left errors” by missing letters at the beginning of words. The SKread test showed good test-retest repeatability. Conclusions The unpredictability of random word and letter sequences renders reading performance highly dependent on eyesight and less dependent on reading skill and educational level. Recurrent right or left errors can indicate the presence and location of a scotoma without expensive equipment. This knowledge can be used to teach patients about how the scotoma can interfere with their vision. PMID:25946100

  9. Is pupillary response a reliable index of word recognition? Evidence from a delayed lexical decision task.

    PubMed

    Haro, Juan; Guasch, Marc; Vallès, Blanca; Ferré, Pilar

    2016-12-06

    Previous word recognition studies have shown that the pupillary response is sensitive to a word's frequency. However, such a pupillary effect may be due to the process of executing a response, instead of being an index of word processing. With the aim of exploring this possibility, we recorded the pupillary responses in two experiments involving a lexical decision task (LDT). In the first experiment, participants completed a standard LDT, whereas in the second they performed a delayed LDT. The delay in the response allowed us to compare pupil dilations with and without the response execution component. The results showed that pupillary response was modulated by word frequency in both the standard and the delayed LDT. This finding supports the reliability of using pupillometry for word recognition research. Importantly, our results also suggest that tasks that do not require a response during pupil recording lead to clearer and stronger effects.

  10. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150–250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300–500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500–700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements. PMID:27180951

  11. Reassessing Word Frequency as a Determinant of Word Recognition for Skilled and Unskilled Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Van Dyke, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of vocabulary in reading comprehension emphasizes the need to accurately assess an individual's familiarity with words. The present article highlights problems with using occurrence counts in corpora as an index of word familiarity, especially when studying individuals varying in reading experience. We demonstrate via computational…

  12. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    DOEpatents

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  13. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    PubMed

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research.

  14. The role of native-language phonology in the auditory word identification and visual word recognition of Russian-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V

    2009-03-01

    Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological vowel contrasts (/i/-/u/,/I/-/A/,/i/-/I/,/epsilon/-/ae/). Experiment 2 assessed auditory identification accuracy of words containing these four contrasts. Both bilingual groups demonstrated reduced accuracy in auditory identification of two English vowel contrasts absent in their native phonology (/i/-/I/,epsilon/-/ae/). For late- bilinguals, auditory identification difficulty was accompanied by poor visual word recognition for one difficult contrast (/i/-/I/). Bilinguals' visual word recognition moderately correlated with their auditory identification of difficult contrasts. These results indicate that native language phonology can play a role in visual processing of second language words. However, this effect may be considerably constrained by orthographic systems of specific languages.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SYLLABIFICATION RULES IN L1 ON L2 WORD RECOGNITION.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2015-10-01

    Experiments with Korean learners of English and English monolinguals were conducted to examine whether knowledge of syllabification in the native language (Korean) affects the recognition of printed words in the non-native language (English). Another purpose of this study was to test whether syllables are the processing unit in Korean visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, 26 native Korean speakers and 19 native English speakers participated. In Experiment 2, 40 native Korean speakers participated. In two experiments, syllable length was manipulated based on the Korean syllabification rule and the participants performed a lexical decision task. Analyses of variance were performed for the lexical decision latencies and error rates in two experiments. The results from Korean learners of English showed that two-syllable words based on the Korean syllabification rule were recognized faster as words than various types of three-syllable words, suggesting that Korean learners of English exploited their L1 phonological knowledge in recognizing English words. The results of the current study also support the idea that syllables are a processing unit of Korean visual word recognition.

  16. Lexical leverage: category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in 2-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M; Evans, Julia L; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    Recent research suggests that infants tend to add words to their vocabulary that are semantically related to other known words, though it is not clear why this pattern emerges. In this paper, we explore whether infants leverage their existing vocabulary and semantic knowledge when interpreting novel label-object mappings in real time. We initially identified categorical domains for which individual 24-month-old infants have relatively higher and lower levels of knowledge, irrespective of overall vocabulary size. Next, we taught infants novel words in these higher and lower knowledge domains and then asked if their subsequent real-time recognition of these items varied as a function of their category knowledge. While our participants successfully acquired the novel label-object mappings in our task, there were important differences in the way infants recognized these words in real time. Namely, infants showed more robust recognition of high (vs. low) domain knowledge words. These findings suggest that dense semantic structure facilitates early word learning and real-time novel word recognition.

  17. Enhancement of Word-Recognition Performance with a Filtering Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Materials from the Northwestern University Auditory Test Number 6, spoken by a female speaker, were passed through a low-frequency notch filter, reducing the amplitude range within the spectrum. Data obtained from 12 normal-hearing listeners in filtered and unfiltered conditions demonstrated that alterations to words spoken by the same speaker…

  18. A Comparison of Four Methods of Teaching Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geeslin, Dorine H.; Mutchler, Virginia S.

    Twenty children between six and nine years of age and of average or above average intelligence were used in a study to determine whether methods that restrict pupil participation to visual attention or oral response are of more or less value in attempts to recognize words than methods that involve activity with the hands, such as tracing or…

  19. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the…

  20. Recognition of Perceived Word Units under Different Cuing Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNinch, George H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The effects of visual prompting, aural prompting, and visual/aural prompting on the representation of words or phrases received aurally were investigated. Results indicated that prereading children responded differently to phrases received in normal language versus the other cued conditions. (Author/GK)

  1. Integration of Pragmatic and Phonetic Cues in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Hannah; Ettlinger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Although previous research has established that multiple top-down factors guide the identification of words during speech processing, the ultimate range of information sources that listeners integrate from different levels of linguistic structure is still unknown. In a set of experiments, we investigate whether comprehenders can integrate…

  2. Masked Translation Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition by Trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Xavier; Lavaur, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how trilinguals process their two non-dominant languages and how those languages influence one another, as well as the relative importance of the dominant language on their processing. With this in mind, 24 French (L1)- English (L2)- and Spanish (L3)-unbalanced trilinguals, deemed equivalent in their L2 and L3 were recruited. They were asked to perform two series of lexical decisions in the two non-native languages (L2 and L3), with a masked translation priming paradigm. Target words in both languages were primed by either the same word (repetition), a translation (in one of the other languages) or an unrelated word (in L1, L2 or L3). The results highlighted a strong link between prime and target, with an effect of repetition for both target languages. Moreover, a translation priming effect was demonstrated, only when the primes belongs to the dominant L1, i.e. L2 and L3 target words were identified faster when they were primed by the L1 translation. No translation priming effects were found for L2 and L3 primes. These results are in line with a multilingual lexicon organized by the L1, with a lack of cross-language interactions between the two non-dominant languages.

  3. Word Learning under Adverse Listening Conditions: Context-Specific Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of word learning have presented the items to listeners under ideal conditions. Here we ask how listeners learn new vocabulary items under adverse listening conditions. Would listeners form acoustically-specific representations that incorporated the noise, base their representations on noise-free language knowledge, or both? To…

  4. Children's Spoken Word Recognition and Contributions to Phonological Awareness and Nonword Repetition: A 1-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsala, Jamie L.; Stavrinos, Despina; Walley, Amanda C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined effects of lexical factors on children's spoken word recognition across a 1-year time span, and contributions to phonological awareness and nonword repetition. Across the year, children identified words based on less input on a speech-gating task. For word repetition, older children improved for the most familiar words. There…

  5. Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

  6. Can associative information be strategically separated from item information in word-pair recognition?

    PubMed

    Jou, Jerwen

    2010-12-01

    Subjects learned word pairs either once or three times but were instructed to ignore the association of the two words in each pair and only to memorize the individual words at study and recognize them at test. The test word pairs included intact pairs, rearranged pairs made up of old words exchanged among the studied pairs, and new pairs consisting of one old and one new word. Subjects were instructed to respond yes to both intact and rearranged pairs and no to new pairs. Results showed that the rearranged test pairs, as compared with intact pairs, produced longer reaction times, lower discrimination (d'), and lower remember judgments. In addition, more learning either did not reduce or actually increased the pairing effect. These results are difficult to reconcile with the notion that associative information is retrieved in a slow, controlled, and effortful process but are consistent with the encoding specificity principle and the global activation theory of recognition.

  7. Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

  8. Spoken Idiom Recognition: Meaning Retrieval and Word Expectancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabossi, Patrizia; Fanari, Rachele; Wolf, Kinou

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates recognition of spoken idioms occurring in neutral contexts. Experiment 1 showed that both predictable and non-predictable idiom meanings are available at string offset. Yet, only predictable idiom meanings are active halfway through a string and remain active after the string's literal conclusion. Experiment 2 showed that…

  9. Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership

    PubMed Central

    White, Corey N.; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labeled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium, or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorized words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorized words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership. PMID:24303902

  10. Sink positive: linguistic experience with th substitutions influences nonnative word recognition.

    PubMed

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Weber, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    We used eyetracking, perceptual discrimination, and production tasks to examine the influences of perceptual similarity and linguistic experience on word recognition in nonnative (L2) speech. Eye movements to printed words were tracked while German and Dutch learners of English heard words containing one of three pronunciation variants (/t/, /s/, or /f/) of the interdental fricative /θ/. Irrespective of whether the speaker was Dutch or German, looking preferences for target words with /θ/ matched the preferences for producing /s/ variants in German speakers and /t/ variants in Dutch speakers (as determined via the production task), while a control group of English participants showed no such preferences. The perceptually most similar and most confusable /f/ variant (as determined via the discrimination task) was never preferred as a match for /θ/. These results suggest that linguistic experience with L2 pronunciations facilitates recognition of variants in an L2, with effects of frequency outweighing effects of perceptual similarity.

  11. Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership.

    PubMed

    White, Corey N; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M; Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labelled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorised words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorised words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership.

  12. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-02-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli were all two-character words. This effect was evaluated on targets with- and without-higher frequency neighbors with neighborhood size matched. Among the experiments, the patterns of the leading character frequency effect and word frequency effect in the naming and lexical decision tasks were compared. The results implied an inhibitory neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese word recognition. Accordingly, a possible cognitive mechanism of the neighborhood frequency effect was thus proposed.

  13. Orthographic Activation in L2 Spoken Word Recognition Depends on Proficiency: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Veivo, Outi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Porretta, Vincent; Hyönä, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64) and L1 French native speakers (n = 24) were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer ( vs. ) or a shorter word initial phonological overlap ( vs. ) and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer ( vs. ) or shorter word initial orthographic overlap ( vs. ) and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700 ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2. PMID:27512381

  14. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.

  15. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Darlene G.; da Silva, Patrícia B.; Dias, Natália M.; Seabra, Alessandra G.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8–13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear. PMID:25506331

  16. [Masked orthographic priming in the recognition of written words: empirical data and theoretical prospects].

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle

    2009-12-01

    The present paper reviews the main studies that have been conducted on the effects of masked orthographic priming in written word recognition. Empirical data accumulated over the last two decades are exposed by considering three factors that play a role in the effects of orthographic priming: prime lexicality, prime duration, and target and/or prime orthographic neighbourhood. The theoretical implications of these data are discussed in light of the two major frameworks of visual word recognition, the serial search and the interactive activation. As a whole, the interactive activation hypothesis seems to be more appropriate to account for the empirical data.

  17. The gating paradigm: effects of presentation format on spoken word recognition by children and adults.

    PubMed

    Walley, A C; Michela, V L; Wood, D R

    1995-04-01

    This study focused on the impact of stimulus presentation format in the gating paradigm with age. Two presentation formats were employed--the standard, successive format and a duration-blocked one, in which gates from word onset were blocked by duration (i.e., gates for the same word were not temporally adjacent). In Experiment 1, the effect of presentation format on adults' recognition was assessed as a function of response format (written vs. oral). In Experiment 2, the effect of presentation format on kindergarteners', first graders', and adults' recognition was assessed with an oral response format only. Performance was typically poorer for the successive format than for the duration-blocked one. The role of response perseveration and negative feedback in producing this effect is considered, as is the effect of word frequency and cohort size on recognition. Although the successive format yields a conservative picture of recognition, presentation format did not have a markedly different effect across the three age levels studied. Thus, the gating paradigm would seem to be an appropriate one for making developmental comparisons of spoken word recognition.

  18. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group's SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages.

  19. Effective connectivity of visual word recognition and homophone orthographic errors

    PubMed Central

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Zarabozo-Hurtado, Daniel; González-Garrido, Andrés A.; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    The study of orthographic errors in a transparent language like Spanish is an important topic in relation to writing acquisition. The development of neuroimaging techniques, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has enabled the study of such relationships between brain areas. The main objective of the present study was to explore the patterns of effective connectivity by processing pseudohomophone orthographic errors among subjects with high and low spelling skills. Two groups of 12 Mexican subjects each, matched by age, were formed based on their results in a series of ad hoc spelling-related out-scanner tests: a high spelling skills (HSSs) group and a low spelling skills (LSSs) group. During the f MRI session, two experimental tasks were applied (spelling recognition task and visuoperceptual recognition task). Regions of Interest and their signal values were obtained for both tasks. Based on these values, structural equation models (SEMs) were obtained for each group of spelling competence (HSS and LSS) and task through maximum likelihood estimation, and the model with the best fit was chosen in each case. Likewise, dynamic causal models (DCMs) were estimated for all the conditions across tasks and groups. The HSS group’s SEM results suggest that, in the spelling recognition task, the right middle temporal gyrus, and, to a lesser extent, the left parahippocampal gyrus receive most of the significant effects, whereas the DCM results in the visuoperceptual recognition task show less complex effects, but still congruent with the previous results, with an important role in several areas. In general, these results are consistent with the major findings in partial studies about linguistic activities but they are the first analyses of statistical effective brain connectivity in transparent languages. PMID:26042070

  20. Tracking the Emergence of the Consonant Bias in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Developing Readers

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called “consonant bias”). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2nd and 4th Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4th Grade children, whereas 2nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading. PMID:24523917

  1. Is nevtral NEUTRAL? Visual similarity effects in the early phases of written-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marcet, Ana; Perea, Manuel

    2016-11-21

    For simplicity, contemporary models of written-word recognition and reading have unspecified feature/letter levels-they predict that the visually similar substituted-letter nonword PEQPLE is as effective at activating the word PEOPLE as the visually dissimilar substituted-letter nonword PEYPLE. Previous empirical evidence on the effects of visual similarly across letters during written-word recognition is scarce and nonconclusive. To examine whether visual similarity across letters plays a role early in word processing, we conducted two masked priming lexical decision experiments (stimulus-onset asynchrony = 50 ms). The substituted-letter primes were visually very similar to the target letters (u/v in Experiment 1 and i/j in Experiment 2; e.g., nevtral-NEUTRAL). For comparison purposes, we included an identity prime condition (neutral-NEUTRAL) and a dissimilar-letter prime condition (neztral-NEUTRAL). Results showed that the similar-letter prime condition produced faster word identification times than the dissimilar-letter prime condition. We discuss how models of written-word recognition should be amended to capture visual similarity effects across letters.

  2. Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias"). Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd) and 4(th) Grade children) and skilled adult readers (college students) using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms) that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE]), a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA), a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA), or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA). Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th) Grade children, whereas 2(nd) graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th) graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental) models of visual-word recognition and reading.

  3. The word frequency effect in first- and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account.

    PubMed

    Diependaele, Kevin; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of differences in the word frequency effect between native speakers and second-language speakers. In a large-scale analysis of English word identification times we find that group-level differences are fully accounted for by the individual language proficiency scores. Furthermore, exactly the same quantitative relation between word frequency and proficiency is found for monolinguals and three different bilingual populations (Dutch-English, French-English, and German-English). We conclude that the larger frequency effects for second-language processing than for native-language processing can be explained by within-language characteristics and thus need not be the consequence of "being bilingual" (i.e., a qualitative difference). More specifically, we argue that language proficiency increases lexical entrenchment, which leads to a reduced frequency effect, irrespective of bilingualism, language dominance, and language similarity.

  4. Reconsidering the role of orthographic redundancy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chetail, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Humans are known to continuously extract regularities from the flow of stimulation. This occurs in many facets of behavior, including reading. In spite of the ubiquitous evidence that readers become sensitive to orthographic regularities after very little exposure to print, the role of orthographic regularities receives at best a peripheral status in current theories of orthographic processing. In the present article, after the presentation of previous evidence on orthographic redundancy, the hypothesis that orthographic regularities may play a prominent role in word perception is developed. PMID:26042074

  5. Asymmetries in tachistoscopic word recognition: scanning effects re-examined.

    PubMed

    Vaid, J

    1988-10-01

    To investigate the role of scanning biases in visual half field studies, native readers of Hindi (a language written and read from left-to-right) and Urdu (a language written and read from right to left) were tested in a language analogue of the Stroop paradigm. Subjects had to identify the script (Hindi vs. Urdu) in which the words referring to the two languages Hindi and Urdu were presented. Greater RVF than LVF interference was obtained in both groups, indicating a left hemisphere specialization for lexical functioning independent of scanning biases.

  6. A magnetic stimulation examination of orthographic neighborhood effects in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Lavidor, Michal; Walsh, Vincent

    2003-04-01

    The split-fovea theory proposes that visual word recognition is mediated by the splitting of the foveal image, with letters to the left of fixation projected to the right hemisphere (RH) and letters to the right of fixation projected to the left hemisphere (LH). We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left and right occipital cortex during a lexical decision task to investigate the extent to which word recognition processes could be accounted for according to the split-fovea theory. Unilateral rTMS significantly impaired lexical decision latencies to centrally presented words, supporting the suggestion that foveal representation of words is split between the cerebral hemispheres rather than bilateral. Behaviorally, we showed that words that have many orthographic neighbors sharing the same initial letters ("lead neighbors") facilitated lexical decision more than words with few lead neighbors. This effect did not apply to end neighbors (orthographic neighbors sharing the same final letters). Crucially, rTMS over the RH impaired lead-, but not end-neighborhood facilitation. The results support the split-fovea theory, where the RH has primacy in representing lead neighbors of a written word.

  7. An ERP investigation of the co-development of hemispheric lateralization of face and word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Dundas, Eva M.; Plaut, David C.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The adult human brain would appear to have specialized and independent neural systems for the visual processing of words and faces. Extensive evidence has demonstrated greater selectivity for written words in the left over right hemisphere, and, conversely, greater selectivity for faces in the right over left hemisphere. This study examines the emergence of these complementary neural profiles, as well as the possible relationship between them. Using behavioral and neurophysiological measures, in adults, we observed the standard finding of greater accuracy and a larger N170 ERP component in the left over right hemisphere for words, and conversely, greater accuracy and a larger N170 in the right over the left hemisphere for faces. We also found that, although children aged 7-12 years revealed the adult hemispheric pattern for words, they showed neither a behavioral nor a neural hemispheric superiority for faces. Of particular interest, the magnitude of their N170 for faces in the right hemisphere was related to that of the N170 for words in their left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the hemispheric organization of face recognition and of word recognition do not develop independently, and that word lateralization may precede and drive later face lateralization. A theoretical account for the findings, in which competition for visual representations unfolds over the course of development, is discussed. PMID:24933662

  8. Language Membership Identification Precedes Semantic Access: Suppression during Bilingual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research suggests that bilingual comprehenders access lexical representations of words in both languages nonselectively. However, it is unclear whether global language suppression plays a role in guiding attention to target language representations during ongoing lexico-semantic processing. To help clarify this issue, this study examined the relative timing of language membership and meaning activation during visual word recognition. Spanish-English bilinguals performed simultaneous semantic and language membership classification tasks on single words during EEG recording. Go/no-go ERP latencies provided evidence that language membership information was accessed before semantic information. Furthermore, N400 frequency effects indicated that the depth of processing of words in the nontarget language was reduced compared to the target language. These results suggest that the bilingual brain can rapidly identify the language to which a word belongs and subsequently use this information to selectively modulate the degree of processing in each language accordingly.

  9. Spoken Word Recognition and Serial Recall of Words from Components in the Phonological Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science uses mathematical techniques to study complex systems such as the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008). The phonological network consists of a "giant component" (the largest connected component of the network) and "lexical islands" (smaller groups of words that are connected to each other, but not to the giant…

  10. ASL Handshape Stories, Word Recognition and Signing Deaf Readers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gietz, Merrilee R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of using American Sign Language (ASL) handshape stories to teach word recognition in whole stories using a descriptive case study approach was explored. Four profoundly deaf children ages 7 to 8, enrolled in a self-contained deaf education classroom in a public school in the south participated in the story time five-week…

  11. Visual Word Recognition by Bilinguals in a Sentence Context: Evidence for Nonselective Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duyck, Wouter; Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research on bilingualism has shown that lexical access in visual word recognition by bilinguals is not selective with respect to language. In the present study, the authors investigated language-independent lexical access in bilinguals reading sentences, which constitutes a strong unilingual linguistic context. In the first experiment,…

  12. The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence. Points out problems with the model and proposes a new model, the BIA+. The new model extends the old one by adding phonological and semantic lexical representations to the available orthographic ones, and assigns a different role to the so-called…

  13. Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Severe Learning Difficulties: An Exploratory Comparison of Teaching Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehy, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some children with severe learning difficulties fail to begin word recognition. For these children there is a need for an effective and appropriate pedagogy. However, conflicting advice can be found regarding this derived from teaching approaches that are not based on a shared understanding of how reading develops or the skills that…

  14. Phonological Activation during Visual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Hendriks, Angelique; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Phonological activation during visual word recognition was studied in deaf and hearing children under two circumstances: (a) when the use of phonology was not required for task performance and might even hinder it and (b) when the use of phonology was critical for task performance. Method: Deaf children mastering written Dutch and Sign…

  15. The Reading Process--The Relationship Between Word Recognition and Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Warren S.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between word recognition and comprehension achieved by second and fifth grade students when reading material at various levels of readability. A random sample of twenty-five second and twenty-five fifth graders, taken from three middle class schools, was administered a…

  16. The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

  17. English Listeners Use Suprasegmental Cues to Lexical Stress Early during Spoken-Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Alexandra; Poellmann, Katja; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We used an eye-tracking technique to investigate whether English listeners use suprasegmental information about lexical stress to speed up the recognition of spoken words in English. Method: In a visual world paradigm, 24 young English listeners followed spoken instructions to choose 1 of 4 printed referents on a computer screen (e.g.,…

  18. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  19. Effects of Sensory Information and Processing Time in Spoken-Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Schriefers, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Current models of spoken-word recognition describe access to lexical representations in terms of activation and decay. This research investigated an important aspect of activation: the impact of processing time. The results showed a separable impact of time and signal on the activational state of lexical elements. (34 references) (Author/CK)

  20. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of lexical and sublexical variables on visual word recognition are often treated as homogeneous across participants and stable over time. In this study, we examine the modulation of frequency, length, syllable and bigram frequency, orthographic neighborhood, and graphophonemic consistency effects by (a) individual differences, and (b) item…

  1. Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

  2. EFFECTS OF A MODIFIED LINGUISTIC WORD RECOGNITION PROGRAM ON FOURTH-GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOLAN, SISTER MARY EDWARD

    THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS WHO WERE TAUGHT WORD RECOGNITION BY EITHER A BASAL APPROACH OR A BASAL APPROACH WITH LINGUISTIC EMPHASIS WAS INVESTIGATED. A SAMPLE OF 10 CLASSROOMS MATCHED ON INTELLIGENCE, CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS WAS SELECTED FROM SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN IOWA AND MICHIGAN. THE LORGE-THORNDIKE…

  3. Validating Models of Clinical Word Recognition Tests for Spanish/English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Shi and Sánchez (2010) developed models to predict the optimal test language for evaluating Spanish/English (S/E) bilinguals' word recognition. The current study intended to validate their conclusions in a separate bilingual listener sample. Method: Seventy normal-hearing S/E bilinguals varying in language profile were included.…

  4. Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

  5. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  6. Prediction of Word Recognition in the First Half of Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snel, M. J.; Aarnoutse, C. A. J.; Terwel, J.; van Leeuwe, J. F. J.; van der Veld, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of reading problems is important to prevent an enduring lag in reading skills. We studied the relationship between speed of word recognition (after six months of grade 1 education) and four kindergarten pre-literacy skills: letter knowledge, phonological awareness and naming speed for both digits and letters. Our sample consisted…

  7. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  8. Early Decomposition in Visual Word Recognition: Dissociating Morphology, Form, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic…

  9. The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

  10. fMRI of Two Measures of Phonological Processing in Visual Word Recognition: Ecological Validity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, William J.; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E.

    2004-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the…

  11. The Development of Word Recognition and Its Significance for Comprehension and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Barros, Rossana

    2012-01-01

    When children start to learn to read English, they benefit from learning grapheme-phoneme correspondences. As they become more skilled, they use larger graphophonic units and morphemes in word recognition and spelling. We hypothesized that these 2 types of units in decoding make independent contributions to children's reading comprehension and…

  12. Peer Commentaries on "The Architecture of the Bilingual Word Recognition System: From Identification to Decision."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brysbaert, Marc; van Wijnendaele, Ilse; Duyck, Wouter; Jacquet, Maud; French, Robert M.; Green, David W.; van Hell, Janet G.; Li, Ping; Roelofs, Ardi; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Seven peer commentaries focus on an article that evaluated the BIA model of bilingual word recognition in the light of recent empirical evidence, pointed out problems with it, and proposed a new model, the BIA+. Raise several issues of concern. (Author/VWL)

  13. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  14. Building Fluency, Word-Recognition Ability, and Confidence in Struggling Readers: The Poetry Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a strategy called the Poetry Academy used to boost reading skills in elementary school students. The Poetry Academy paired struggling readers with a community volunteer to read poetry on a weekly schedule to practice fluency, work on word recognition abilities, and build confidence. A research study took…

  15. Letter Names: Effect on Letter Saying, Spelling, and Word Recognition in Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Iris; Patel, Sigal; Margalit, Tamar; Barad, Noa

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether letter names, which bridge the gap between oral and written language among English speaking children, have a similar function in Hebrew. In findings from studies of Israeli kindergartners and first graders, children were found to rely on letter names in performing a number of letter saying, spelling, and word recognition tasks.…

  16. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners’ use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task Method In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists were matched on context, target-word length, and median word segment length necessary for target recognition. In Experiment 2, TGW recognition was assessed in quiet and in noise among adults of various ages with normal hearing to moderate hearing loss. Linear regression models of the minimum word duration necessary for correct identification and identification failure rates were developed. Age and hearing thresholds were modeled as continuous predictors with corrections for correlations among multiple measurements of the same participants. Results While aging and hearing loss both had significant impacts on task performance in the most adverse listening condition (low context, in noise), for most conditions, performance was limited primarily by hearing loss. Conclusion Whereas hearing loss was strongly related to target-word recognition, the effect of aging was only weakly related to task performance. These results have implications for the design and evaluation of studies of hearing and aging. PMID:25815688

  17. Clustering of Farsi sub-word images for whole-book recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy of word and sub-word occurrences in large documents can be effectively utilized in an OCR system to improve recognition results. Most OCR systems employ language modeling techniques as a post-processing step; however these techniques do not use important pictorial information that exist in the text image. In case of large-scale recognition of degraded documents, this information is even more valuable. In our previous work, we proposed a subword image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. In our clustering method, the ideal case is when all equivalent sub-word images lie in one cluster. To overcome the issues of low print quality, the clustering method uses an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images. The measured distance with a set of simple shape features were used to cluster all sub-word images. In this paper, we analyze the effects of adding more shape features on processing time, purity of clustering, and the final recognition rate. Previously published experiments have shown the efficiency of our method on a book. Here we present extended experimental results and evaluate our method on another book with totally different font face. Also we show that the number of the new created clusters in a page can be used as a criteria for assessing the quality of print and evaluating preprocessing phases.

  18. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  19. An electrophysiological comparison of recollection for emotional words using an exclusion recognition paradigm.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Midori; Kamishima, Kyoko; Ohira, Hideki

    2007-02-16

    The positive-going shift of event-related potential (ERP) components that occur when recognizing emotional words has been thought to be due to valence effects on either recollection or familiarity. This study investigated the independent contributions of recollection and familiarity on recognition of emotional words in order to examine which is thus responsible for the greater magnitude of ERP components seen in response to recognition of emotional, as opposed to neutral words. ERPs were measured while participants completed an exclusion recognition task. In the test phase, participants were required to respond "old" only to target items, which were included in one of two lists that were presented in the study phase. They were also asked to respond "new" to distracters and non-target items that were in the other previously presented list. "Old" responses to targets and non-targets were contrasted with an ERP analysis. Results suggested that the late positivity reflected recollection. The magnitude of this positivity, elicited around the left parietal area, was greater for negative stimuli compared to neutral and positive stimuli. The findings of the present study suggested that enhanced recollection of negative words may contribute to increased magnitudes of components such as the LPC. The emotional valence of words may have separate behavioral and electrophysiological effects on recollection and familiarity.

  20. Relationships among vocabulary size, nonverbal cognition, and spoken word recognition in adults with cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Elizabeth A.; Munson, Benjamin; Carney, Arlene E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent research has attempted to identify the factors that predict speech perception performance among users of cochlear implants (CIs). Studies have found that approximately 20%-60% of the variance in speech perception scores can be accounted for by factors including duration of deafness, etiology, type of device, and length of implant use, leaving approximately 50% of the variance unaccounted for. The current study examines the extent to which vocabulary size and nonverbal cognitive ability predict CI listeners' spoken word recognition. Fifteen postlingually deafened adults with nucleus or clarion CIs were given standardized assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability and expressive vocabulary size: the Expressive Vocabulary Test, the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-III, and the Woodcock-Johnson-III Test of Cognitive Ability, Verbal Comprehension subtest. Two spoken word recognition tasks were administered. In the first, listeners identified isophonemic CVC words. In the second, listeners identified gated words varying in lexical frequency and neighborhood density. Analyses will examine the influence of lexical frequency and neighborhood density on the uniqueness point in the gating task, as well as relationships among nonverbal cognitive ability, vocabulary size, and the two spoken word recognition measures. [Work supported by NIH Grant P01 DC00110 and by the Lions 3M Hearing Foundation.

  1. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  2. Auditory Perception and Word Recognition in Cantonese-Chinese Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy K.; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical…

  3. Latent variable modeling of cognitive processes in true and false recognition of words: A developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7- to 12-year-old children (N = 151). Instead of a traditional analysis of variance, the authors used a relatively novel statistical analysis technique, latent class factor analysis, to test the hypotheses pertaining to the effect of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on children's true and false recognition given their low or high verbatim-trace and gist-trace level. The results showed that variation in true recognition of target words from semantically related and unrelated word lists that were either studied once or repeated could be explained well by variation in verbatim-trace and gist-trace level. Variation in false recognition of semantically related distractors also could be explained by variation in gist-trace level, but the recollection-rejection hypothesis was not confirmed. The variable age was positively but weakly related to gist-trace level, but no significant relationship was found between age and verbatim-trace level.

  4. Speech-perception training for older adults with hearing loss impacts word recognition and effort.

    PubMed

    Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Ahlstrom, Jayne B; Cute, Stephanie L; Humes, Larry E; Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The current pupillometry study examined the impact of speech-perception training on word recognition and cognitive effort in older adults with hearing loss. Trainees identified more words at the follow-up than at the baseline session. Training also resulted in an overall larger and faster peaking pupillary response, even when controlling for performance and reaction time. Perceptual and cognitive capacities affected the peak amplitude of the pupil response across participants but did not diminish the impact of training on the other pupil metrics. Thus, we demonstrated that pupillometry can be used to characterize training-related and individual differences in effort during a challenging listening task. Importantly, the results indicate that speech-perception training not only affects overall word recognition, but also a physiological metric of cognitive effort, which has the potential to be a biomarker of hearing loss intervention outcome.

  5. Lexical Influences on Spoken Spondaic Word Recognition in Hearing-Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, Annie; Richard, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Top-down contextual influences play a major part in speech understanding, especially in hearing-impaired patients with deteriorated auditory input. Those influences are most obvious in difficult listening situations, such as listening to sentences in noise but can also be observed at the word level under more favorable conditions, as in one of the most commonly used tasks in audiology, i.e., repeating isolated words in silence. This study aimed to explore the role of top-down contextual influences and their dependence on lexical factors and patient-specific factors using standard clinical linguistic material. Spondaic word perception was tested in 160 hearing-impaired patients aged 23–88 years with a four-frequency average pure-tone threshold ranging from 21 to 88 dB HL. Sixty spondaic words were randomly presented at a level adjusted to correspond to a speech perception score ranging between 40 and 70% of the performance intensity function obtained using monosyllabic words. Phoneme and whole-word recognition scores were used to calculate two context-influence indices (the j factor and the ratio of word scores to phonemic scores) and were correlated with linguistic factors, such as the phonological neighborhood density and several indices of word occurrence frequencies. Contextual influence was greater for spondaic words than in similar studies using monosyllabic words, with an overall j factor of 2.07 (SD = 0.5). For both indices, context use decreased with increasing hearing loss once the average hearing loss exceeded 55 dB HL. In right-handed patients, significantly greater context influence was observed for words presented in the right ears than for words presented in the left, especially in patients with many years of education. The correlations between raw word scores (and context influence indices) and word occurrence frequencies showed a significant age-dependent effect, with a stronger correlation between perception scores and word occurrence frequencies

  6. Dynamic and Contextual Information in HMM Modeling for Handwritten Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Bianne-Bernard, Anne-Laure; Menasri, Farès; Al-Hajj Mohamad, Rami; Mokbel, Chafic; Kermorvant, Christopher; Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

    2011-10-01

    This study aims at building an efficient word recognition system resulting from the combination of three handwriting recognizers. The main component of this combined system is an HMM-based recognizer which considers dynamic and contextual information for a better modeling of writing units. For modeling the contextual units, a state-tying process based on decision tree clustering is introduced. Decision trees are built according to a set of expert-based questions on how characters are written. Questions are divided into global questions, yielding larger clusters, and precise questions, yielding smaller ones. Such clustering enables us to reduce the total number of models and Gaussians densities by 10. We then apply this modeling to the recognition of handwritten words. Experiments are conducted on three publicly available databases based on Latin or Arabic languages: Rimes, IAM, and OpenHart. The results obtained show that contextual information embedded with dynamic modeling significantly improves recognition.

  7. Word recognition variability with cochlear implants: “perceptual attention” versus “auditory sensitivity”

    PubMed Central

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cochlear implantation does not automatically result in robust spoken language understanding for postlingually deafened adults. Enormous outcome variability exists, related to the complexity of understanding spoken language through cochlear implants (CIs), which deliver degraded speech representations. This investigation examined variability in word recognition as explained by “perceptual attention” and “auditory sensitivity” to acoustic cues underlying speech perception. Design Thirty postlingually deafened adults with CIs and 20 age-matched controls with normal hearing (NH) were tested. Participants underwent assessment of word recognition in quiet, and “perceptual attention” (cue-weighting strategies) based on labeling tasks for two phonemic contrasts: (1) “cop”-“cob”, based on a duration cue (easily accessible through CIs) or a dynamic spectral cue (less accessible through CIs), and (2) “sa”-“sha”, based on static or dynamic spectral cues (both potentially poorly accessible through CIs). Participants were also assessed for “auditory sensitivity” to the speech cues underlying those labeling decisions. Results Word recognition varied widely among CI users (20 to 96%), but was generally poorer than for NH participants. Implant users and NH controls showed similar “perceptual attention” and “auditory sensitivity” to the duration cue, while CI users showed poorer attention and sensitivity to all spectral cues. Both attention and sensitivity to spectral cues predicted variability in word recognition. Conclusions For CI users, both “perceptual attention” and “auditory sensitivity” are important in word recognition. Efforts should be made to better represent spectral cues through implants, while also facilitating attention to these cues through auditory training. PMID:26301844

  8. A neural-linguistic approach for the recognition of a wide Arabic word lexicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Cheikh, I.; Kacem, A.; Belaïd, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we have investigated the use of Arabic linguistic knowledge to improve the recognition of wide Arabic word lexicon. A neural-linguistic approach was proposed to mainly deal with canonical vocabulary of decomposable words derived from tri-consonant healthy roots. The basic idea is to factorize words by their roots and schemes. In this direction, we conceived two neural networks TNN_R and TNN_S to respectively recognize roots and schemes from structural primitives of words. The proposal approach achieved promising results. In this paper, we will focus on how to reach better results in terms of accuracy and recognition rate. Current improvements concern especially the training stage. It is about 1) to benefit from word letters order 2) to consider "sisters letters" (letters having same features), 3) to supervise networks behaviors, 4) to split up neurons to save letter occurrences and 5) to solve observed ambiguities. Considering theses improvements, experiments carried on 1500 sized vocabulary show a significant enhancement: TNN_R (resp. TNN_S) top4 has gone up from 77% to 85.8% (resp. from 65% to 97.9%). Enlarging the vocabulary from 1000 to 1700, adding 100 words each time, again confirmed the results without altering the networks stability.

  9. Age-of-acquisition effects in visual word recognition: evidence from expert vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Stadthagen-Gonzalez, Hans; Bowers, Jeffrey S; Damian, Markus F

    2004-08-01

    Three experiments assessed the contributions of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and frequency to visual word recognition. Three databases were created from electronic journals in chemistry, psychology and geology in order to identify technical words that are extremely frequent in each discipline but acquired late in life. In Experiment 1, psychologists and chemists showed an advantage in lexical decision for late-acquired/high-frequency words (e.g. a psychologist responding to cognition) over late-acquired/low-frequency words (e.g. a chemist responding to cognition), revealing a frequency effect when words are perfectly matched. However, contrary to theories that exclude AoA as a factor, performance was similar for the late-acquired/high-frequency and early-acquired/low-frequency words (e.g. dragon) even though their cumulative frequencies differed by more than an order of magnitude. This last finding was replicated with geologists using geology words matched with early-acquired words in terms of concreteness (Experiment 2). Most interestingly, Experiment 3 yielded the same pattern of results in naming while controlling for imageability, a finding that is particularly problematic for parallel distributed processing models of reading.

  10. The Interaction of Lexical Semantics and Cohort Competition in Spoken Word Recognition: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning…

  11. Recognition of Handwritten Arabic words using a neuro-fuzzy network

    SciTech Connect

    Boukharouba, Abdelhak; Bennia, Abdelhak

    2008-06-12

    We present a new method for the recognition of handwritten Arabic words based on neuro-fuzzy hybrid network. As a first step, connected components (CCs) of black pixels are detected. Then the system determines which CCs are sub-words and which are stress marks. The stress marks are then isolated and identified separately and the sub-words are segmented into graphemes. Each grapheme is described by topological and statistical features. Fuzzy rules are extracted from training examples by a hybrid learning scheme comprised of two phases: rule generation phase from data using a fuzzy c-means, and rule parameter tuning phase using gradient descent learning. After learning, the network encodes in its topology the essential design parameters of a fuzzy inference system.The contribution of this technique is shown through the significant tests performed on a handwritten Arabic words database.

  12. The influence of native language phonology on auditory and visual word recognition in Russian-English bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2005-09-01

    Visual and auditory recognition of English monosyllabic words was examined in 21 native Russian bilinguals and 12 monolingual speakers of American English. Stimuli comprised 40 CVC minimal pairs distinguishable by four vowel contrasts. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following a semantic categorization task. Sixty of the tested words were previously shown in the categorization task, and 60 were new words, 40 of which represented minimal pair alternatives to previously shown words. In experiment 2 participants listened to all words from each minimal pair spoken by one male and one female speaker, and selected one word from each pair. No significant differences were found in the number of errors made by the bilingual and monolingual participants during visual word recognition. In auditory word recognition, bilingual listeners made significantly more errors on the two vowel contrasts that cannot be differentiated based on their native phonological categories. Auditory errors on these categories strongly and significantly correlated with participant's age of arrival to the U.S.A. These results demonstrate the influence of native language phonology on auditory, but not visual word recognition by Russian-English bilinguals.

  13. [Word recognition test after general anesthesia: the influence of previous anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Skok, Ira; Sekulić, Ante; Mikulandra, Simon

    2012-03-01

    Among other higher brain functions such as consciousness and learning, general anesthesia also affects memory. A number of information retrieval tests are performed to determine the effects of drugs on explicit memory. In this study, we investigated the recognition of words before and after general anesthesia in subjects having and not having received anesthesia on one or more occasions before the present one. The study included 51 patients, ASA physical status I or II, median age 50, at least high-school graduates, without head trauma, known psychiatric or memory disorder, and taking no psychoactive medication. A standardized anesthesia technique, a single surgical procedure and a defined study-test interval were used. We designed our own test as a combination of story recall test and brief word learning test, both widely used in psychological and psychiatric examination. There was no significant difference in word recognition before and after general anesthesia in either patient group. Many studies indicate that anesthesia and surgery are associated with cognitive impairment lasting for 33 months in 10%-14% of elderly patients. We hypothesized that general anesthetics can cause prolonged cognitive alterations. Study results showed that previous anesthesia in addition to the current one had no significant influence on the word recognition test.

  14. Effects of sleep loss on emotion recognition: a dissociation between face and word stimuli.

    PubMed

    Maccari, Lisa; Martella, Diana; Marotta, Andrea; Sebastiani, Mara; Banaj, Nerisa; Fuentes, Luis J; Casagrande, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Short-term sleep deprivation, or extended wakefulness, adversely affects cognitive functions and behavior. However, scarce research has addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on emotional processing. In this study, we investigated the impact of reduced vigilance due to moderate sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize emotional expressions of faces and emotional content of words. Participants remained awake for 24 h and performed the tasks in two sessions, one in which they were not affected by sleep loss (baseline; BSL), and other affected by SD, according to a counterbalanced sequence. Tasks were carried out twice at 10:00 and 4:00 am, or at 12:00 and 6:00 am. In both tasks, participants had to respond to the emotional valence of the target stimulus: negative, positive, or neutral. The results showed that in the word task, sleep deprivation impaired recognition irrespective of the emotional valence of words. However, sleep deprivation impaired recognition of emotional face expressions mainly when they showed a neutral expression. Emotional face expressions were less affected by the sleep loss, but positive faces were more resistant than negative faces to the detrimental effect of sleep deprivation. The differential effects of sleep deprivation on recognition of the different emotional stimuli are indicative of emotional facial expressions being stronger emotional stimuli than emotional laden words. This dissociation may be attributed to the more automatic sensory encoding of emotional facial content.

  15. AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

  16. How does Arabic orthographic connectivity modulate brain activity during visual word recognition: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-04-01

    One of the unique features of the Arabic orthography that differentiates it from many other alphabetical ones is the fact that most letters connect obligatorily to each other. Hence, these letters change their forms according to the location in the word (i.e. beginning, middle, or end), leading to the suggestion that connectivity adds a visual load which negatively impacts reading in Arabic. In this study, we investigated the effects of the orthographic connectivity on the time course of early brain electric responses during the visual word recognition. For this purpose, we collected event-related potentials (ERPs) from adult skilled readers while performing a lexical decision task using fully connected (Cw), partially connected and non-connected words (NCw). Reaction times variance was higher and accuracy was lower in NCw compared to Cw words. ERPs analysis revealed significant amplitude and latency differences between Cw and NCw at posterior electrodes during the N170 component which implied the temporo-occipital areas. Our findings show that instead of slowing down reading, orthographic connectivity in Arabic skilled readers seems to impact positively the reading process already during the early stages of word recognition. These results are discussed in relation to previous observations in the literature.

  17. The Effect of Talker Variability on Word Recognition in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ryalls, Brigette Oliver; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments, the authors investigated the effects of talker variability on children’s word recognition. In Experiment 1, when stimuli were presented in the clear, 3- and 5-year-olds were less accurate at identifying words spoken by multiple talkers than those spoken by a single talker when the multiple-talker list was presented first. In Experiment 2, when words were presented in noise, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds again performed worse in the multiple-talker condition than in the single-talker condition, this time regardless of order; processing multiple talkers became easier with age. Experiment 3 showed that both children and adults were slower to repeat words from multiple-talker than those from single-talker lists. More important, children (but not adults) matched acoustic properties of the stimuli (specifically, duration). These results provide important new information about the development of talker normalization in speech perception and spoken word recognition. PMID:9149923

  18. Auditory perception and word recognition in Cantonese-Chinese speaking children with and without Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Joanna C; Shum, Kathy K; Wong, Anita M-Y; Ho, Connie S-H; Au, Terry K

    2017-01-01

    Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical age-matched controls were assessed with a speech-gating task to measure spoken word recognition, psychophysical tasks to measure auditory Frequency Modulation (FM) detection and Frequency Discrimination (FD), and standardized psychometric tests of phonological processing and oral language. As a group, children with SLI took significantly longer than language-typical controls to recognize words with high neighborhood density, perhaps reflecting subpar phonological representations. FM, but not FD, was significantly worse in SLI. However, while both poorer speech-gating performance and poorer auditory thresholds (FM) were evident in SLI, spoken word recognition did not mediate any relation between auditory perception and either phonological processing or oral language.

  19. A Bruner-Potter effect in audition? Spoken word recognition in adult aging.

    PubMed

    Lash, Amanda; Wingfield, Arthur

    2014-12-01

    Bruner and Potter (1964) demonstrated the surprising finding that incrementally increasing the clarity of images until they were correctly recognized (ascending presentation) was less effective for recognition than presenting images in a single presentation at that same clarity level. This has been attributed to interference from incorrect perceptual hypotheses formed on the initial presentations under ascending conditions. We demonstrate an analogous effect for spoken word recognition in older adults, with the size of the effect predicted by working memory span. This effect did not appear for young adults, whose group spans exceeded that of the older adults.

  20. A Study of Neural Word Embeddings for Named Entity Recognition in Clinical Text

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yonghui; Xu, Jun; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Clinical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a critical task for extracting important patient information from clinical text to support clinical and translational research. This study explored the neural word embeddings derived from a large unlabeled clinical corpus for clinical NER. We systematically compared two neural word embedding algorithms and three different strategies for deriving distributed word representations. Two neural word embeddings were derived from the unlabeled Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) II corpus (403,871 notes). The results from both 2010 i2b2 and 2014 Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) data showed that the binarized word embedding features outperformed other strategies for deriving distributed word representations. The binarized embedding features improved the F1-score of the Conditional Random Fields based clinical NER system by 2.3% on i2b2 data and 2.4% on SemEval data. The combined feature from the binarized embeddings and the Brown clusters improved the F1-score of the clinical NER system by 2.9% on i2b2 data and 2.7% on SemEval data. Our study also showed that the distributed word embedding features derived from a large unlabeled corpus can be better than the widely used Brown clusters. Further analysis found that the neural word embeddings captured a wide range of semantic relations, which could be discretized into distributed word representations to benefit the clinical NER system. The low-cost distributed feature representation can be adapted to any other clinical natural language processing research. PMID:26958273

  1. The interaction of lexical semantics and cohort competition in spoken word recognition: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2011-12-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning [Marslen-Wilson, W. D. Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition. Cognition, 25, 71-102, 1987]. We examined these potential interactions in an fMRI study by presenting participants with words and pseudowords for lexical decision. In a factorial design, we manipulated (a) cohort competition (high/low competitive cohorts which vary the number of competing word candidates) and (b) the word's semantic properties (high/low imageability). A previous behavioral study [Tyler, L. K., Voice, J. K., & Moss, H. E. The interaction of meaning and sound in spoken word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 320-326, 2000] showed that imageability facilitated word recognition but only for words in high competition cohorts. Here we found greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 47) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) with increased cohort competition, an imageability effect in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus (BA 39), and a significant interaction between imageability and cohort competition in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22). In words with high competition cohorts, high imageability words generated stronger activity than low imageability words, indicating a facilitatory role of imageability in a highly competitive cohort context. For words in low competition cohorts, there was no effect of imageability. These results support the behavioral data in showing that selection processes do not rely solely on bottom-up acoustic-phonetic cues but rather that the semantic properties of candidate words facilitate discrimination between competitors.

  2. Manipulating letter fluency for words alters electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Heather D.; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms that give rise to familiarity memory have received intense research interest. One current topic of debate concerns the extent to which familiarity is driven by the same fluency sources that give rise to certain implicit memory phenomena. Familiarity may be tied to conceptual fluency, given that familiarity and conceptual implicit memory can exhibit similar neurocognitive properties. However, familiarity can also be driven by perceptual factors, and its neural basis under these circumstances has received less attention. Here we recorded brain potentials during recognition testing using a procedure that has previously been shown to encourage a reliance on letter information when assessing familiarity for words. Studied and unstudied words were derived either from two separate letter pools or a single letter pool (“letter-segregated” and “normal” conditions, respectively) in a within-subjects contrast. As predicted, recognition accuracy was higher in the letter-segregated relative to the normal condition. Electrophysiological analyses revealed parietal old-new effects from 500–700 ms in both conditions. In addition, a topographically dissociable occipital old-new effect from 300–700 ms was present in the letter-segregated condition only. In a second experiment, we found that similar occipital brain potentials were associated with confident false recognition of words that shared letters with studied words but were not themselves studied. These findings indicate that familiarity is a multiply determined phenomenon, and that the stimulus dimensions on which familiarity is based can moderate its neural correlates. Conceptual and perceptual contributions to familiarity vary across testing circumstances, and both must be accounted for in theories of recognition memory and its neural basis. PMID:23871869

  3. Revisiting age-of-acquisition effects in Spanish visual word recognition: the role of item imageability.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Maximiliano A; Cuetos, Fernando; Davies, Rob; Burani, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Word age-of-acquisition (AoA) affects reading. The mapping hypothesis predicts AoA effects when input-output mappings are arbitrary. In Spanish, the orthography-to-phonology mappings required for word naming are consistent; therefore, no AoA effects are expected. Nevertheless, AoA effects have been found, motivating the present investigation of how AoA can affect reading in Spanish. Four experiments were run to examine reading with a factorial design manipulating AoA and frequency. In Experiments 1 and 2 (immediate and speeded naming), only word frequency affected word naming. In Experiment 3 (lexical decision), both AoA and frequency affected word recognition. In Experiment 4 (immediate naming with highly imageable items), both frequency and AoA affected naming. The results suggest that highly imageable items induce a larger reliance on semantics in reading aloud. Such reliance causes faster naming of earlier acquired words because the corresponding concepts have richer visual and sensory features acquired mainly through direct sensory experience.

  4. Word Recognition during Reading: The Interaction between Lexical Repetition and Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Choi, Wonil; Gordon, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Memory studies utilizing long-term repetition priming have generally demonstrated that priming is greater for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words and that this effect persists if words intervene between the prime and the target. In contrast, word-recognition studies utilizing masked short-term repetition priming typically show that the magnitude of repetition priming does not differ as a function of word frequency and does not persist across intervening words. We conducted an eye-tracking while reading experiment to determine which of these patterns more closely resembles the relationship between frequency and repetition during the natural reading of a text. Frequency was manipulated using proper names that were high-frequency (e.g., Stephen) or low-frequency (e.g., Dominic). The critical name was later repeated in the sentence, or a new name was introduced. First-pass reading times and skipping rates on the critical name revealed robust repetition-by-frequency interactions such that the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect was greater for low-frequency names than for high-frequency names. In contrast, measures of later processing showed effects of repetition that did not depend on lexical frequency. These results are interpreted within a framework that conceptualizes eye-movement control as being influenced in different ways by lexical- and discourse-level factors. PMID:23283808

  5. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  6. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  7. Do Diacritical Marks Play a Role at the Early Stages of Word Recognition in Arabic?

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Manuel; Abu Mallouh, Reem; Mohammed, Ahmed; Khalifa, Batoul; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question in the domain of visual word recognition is whether letter similarity plays a role in the early stages of visual word processing. Here we focused on Arabic because in this language there are various groups of letters that share the same basic shape and only differ in the number/location of diacritical points. We conducted a masked priming lexical decision experiment in which a target word was preceded by: (i) an identity prime; (ii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with the same shape that differed in the number of diacritics (e.g., ); or (iii) a prime in which the critical letter was replaced by a letter with different shape (e.g., ). Results showed a sizable advantage of the identity condition over the two substituted-letter priming conditions (i.e., diacritical information is rapidly processed). Thus, diacritical marks play an essential role in the “feature letter” level of models of visual word recognition in Arabic. PMID:27597838

  8. Spoken word recognition in young tone language learners: Age-dependent effects of segmental and suprasegmental variation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyi; Zhou, Peng; Singh, Leher; Gao, Liqun

    2017-02-01

    The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones.

  9. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 2: Appendixes. [flow charts and users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The users manual for the word recognition computer program contains flow charts of the logical diagram, the memory map for templates, the speech analyzer card arrangement, minicomputer input/output routines, and assembly language program listings.

  10. The Role of Semantic Diversity in Word Recognition across Aging and Bilingualism

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Brendan T.; Sheppard, Christine L.; Jones, Michael N.; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Frequency effects are pervasive in studies of language, with higher frequency words being recognized faster than lower frequency words. However, the exact nature of frequency effects has recently been questioned, with some studies finding that contextual information provides a better fit to lexical decision and naming data than word frequency (Adelman et al., 2006). Recent work has cemented the importance of these results by demonstrating that a measure of the semantic diversity of the contexts that a word occurs in provides a powerful measure to account for variability in word recognition latency (Johns et al., 2012, 2015; Jones et al., 2012). The goal of the current study is to extend this measure to examine bilingualism and aging, where multiple theories use frequency of occurrence of linguistic constructs as central to accounting for empirical results (Gollan et al., 2008; Ramscar et al., 2014). A lexical decision experiment was conducted with four groups of subjects: younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals. Consistent with past results, a semantic diversity variable accounted for the greatest amount of variance in the latency data. In addition, the pattern of fits of semantic diversity across multiple corpora suggests that bilinguals and older adults are more sensitive to semantic diversity information than younger monolinguals. PMID:27458392

  11. Knowledge of a second language influences auditory word recognition in the native language.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, Evelyne; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2011-07-01

    Many studies in bilingual visual word recognition have demonstrated that lexical access is not language selective. However, research on bilingual word recognition in the auditory modality has been scarce, and it has yielded mixed results with regard to the degree of this language nonselectivity. In the present study, we investigated whether listening to a second language (L2) is influenced by knowledge of the native language (L1) and, more important, whether listening to the L1 is also influenced by knowledge of an L2. Additionally, we investigated whether the listener's selectivity of lexical access is influenced by the speaker's L1 (and thus his or her accent). With this aim, Dutch-English bilinguals completed an English (Experiment 1) and a Dutch (Experiment 3) auditory lexical decision task. As a control, the English auditory lexical decision task was also completed by English monolinguals (Experiment 2). Targets were pronounced by a native Dutch speaker with English as the L2 (Experiments 1A, 2A, and 3A) or by a native English speaker with Dutch as the L2 (Experiments 1B, 2B, and 3B). In all experiments, Dutch-English bilinguals recognized interlingual homophones (e.g., lief [sweet]-leaf /li:f/) significantly slower than matched control words, whereas the English monolinguals showed no effect. These results indicate that (a) lexical access in bilingual auditory word recognition is not language selective in L2, nor in L1, and (b) language-specific subphonological cues do not annul cross-lingual interactions.

  12. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi.

    PubMed

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation - tone Sandhi - on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, 'flour mill' (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [(214) (214)]) undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [(35) (214)]. In the current study, preschoolers' sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: one set of words was labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post Sandhi), one set of words was labeled with an unaltered Sandhi form (Pre Sandhi), one set consisted of non Sandhi words (Correct Pronunciation, and one set were labeled with a tonal alternation not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation). Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation.

  13. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi

    PubMed Central

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D.; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation – tone Sandhi – on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, ‘flour mill’ (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [(214) (214)]) undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [(35) (214)]. In the current study, preschoolers’ sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: one set of words was labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post Sandhi), one set of words was labeled with an unaltered Sandhi form (Pre Sandhi), one set consisted of non Sandhi words (Correct Pronunciation, and one set were labeled with a tonal alternation not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation). Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation. PMID:27199855

  14. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  15. Function Words Constrain On-Line Recognition of Verbs and Nouns in French 18-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauvet, Elodie; Limissuri, Rita; Millotte, Severine; Skoruppa, Katrin; Cabrol, Dominique; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this experiment using the conditioned head-turn procedure, 18-month-old French-learning toddlers were trained to respond to either a target noun ("la balle"/"the ball") or a target verb ("je mange"/"I ea"t). They were then tested on target word recognition in two syntactic contexts: the target word was…

  16. Got Rhythm...For Better and for Worse. Cross-Modal Effects of Auditory Rhythm on Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brochard, Renaud; Tassin, Maxime; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate whether, as previously observed with pictures, background auditory rhythm would also influence visual word recognition. In a lexical decision task, participants were presented with bisyllabic visual words, segmented into two successive groups of letters, while an irrelevant strongly metric auditory…

  17. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What’s more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously. PMID:26154439

  18. Novel Blind Recognition Algorithm of Frame Synchronization Words Based on Soft-Decision in Digital Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiangyi; Huang, Zhiping; Liu, Chunwu; Su, Shaojing; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A novel blind recognition algorithm of frame synchronization words is proposed to recognize the frame synchronization words parameters in digital communication systems. In this paper, a blind recognition method of frame synchronization words based on the hard-decision is deduced in detail. And the standards of parameter recognition are given. Comparing with the blind recognition based on the hard-decision, utilizing the soft-decision can improve the accuracy of blind recognition. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) signal, an improved blind recognition algorithm based on the soft-decision is proposed. Meanwhile, the improved algorithm can be extended to other signal modulation forms. Then, the complete blind recognition steps of the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm are given in detail. Finally, the simulation results show that both the hard-decision algorithm and the soft-decision algorithm can recognize the parameters of frame synchronization words blindly. What's more, the improved algorithm can enhance the accuracy of blind recognition obviously.

  19. Assessing Multimodal Spoken Word-in-Sentence Recognition in Children with Normal Hearing and Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Kirk, Karen Iler; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine multimodal spoken word-in-sentence recognition in children. Method: Two experiments were undertaken. In Experiment 1, the youngest age with which the multimodal sentence recognition materials could be used was evaluated. In Experiment 2, lexical difficulty and presentation modality effects were examined, along with test-retest…

  20. Visual word recognition in deaf readers: lexicality is modulated by communication mode.

    PubMed

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects.

  1. Visual Word Recognition in Deaf Readers: Lexicality Is Modulated by Communication Mode

    PubMed Central

    Barca, Laura; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castrataro, Marianna; Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that adequate phonological abilities are necessary to develop proficient reading skills and that later in life phonology also has a role in the covert visual word recognition of expert readers. Impairments of acoustic perception, such as deafness, can lead to atypical phonological representations of written words and letters, which in turn can affect reading proficiency. Here, we report an experiment in which young adults with different levels of acoustic perception (i.e., hearing and deaf individuals) and different modes of communication (i.e., hearing individuals using spoken language, deaf individuals with a preference for sign language, and deaf individuals using the oral modality with less or no competence in sign language) performed a visual lexical decision task, which consisted of categorizing real words and consonant strings. The lexicality effect was restricted to deaf signers who responded faster to real words than consonant strings, showing over-reliance on whole word lexical processing of stimuli. No effect of stimulus type was found in deaf individuals using the oral modality or in hearing individuals. Thus, mode of communication modulates the lexicality effect. This suggests that learning a sign language during development shapes visuo-motor representations of words, which are tuned to the actions used to express them (phono-articulatory movements vs. hand movements) and to associated perceptions. As these visuo-motor representations are elicited during on-line linguistic processing and can overlap with the perceptual-motor processes required to execute the task, they can potentially produce interference or facilitation effects. PMID:23554976

  2. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  3. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  4. Word add-in for ontology recognition: semantic enrichment of scientific literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the current era of scientific research, efficient communication of information is paramount. As such, the nature of scholarly and scientific communication is changing; cyberinfrastructure is now absolutely necessary and new media are allowing information and knowledge to be more interactive and immediate. One approach to making knowledge more accessible is the addition of machine-readable semantic data to scholarly articles. Results The Word add-in presented here will assist authors in this effort by automatically recognizing and highlighting words or phrases that are likely information-rich, allowing authors to associate semantic data with those words or phrases, and to embed that data in the document as XML. The add-in and source code are publicly available at http://www.codeplex.com/UCSDBioLit. Conclusions The Word add-in for ontology term recognition makes it possible for an author to add semantic data to a document as it is being written and it encodes these data using XML tags that are effectively a standard in life sciences literature. Allowing authors to mark-up their own work will help increase the amount and quality of machine-readable literature metadata. PMID:20181245

  5. The Onset and Time Course of Semantic Priming During Rapid Recognition of Visual Words.

    PubMed

    Hoedemaker, Renske S; Gordon, Peter C

    2017-02-23

    In 2 experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (ocular lexical decision task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye movement responses on a sequence of 4 words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a metalinguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest observable effect (divergence point [DP]) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time. Together, these distributional effects of semantic priming suggest that the influence of the prime increases when target processing is more effortful. This effect does not require that the task include a metalinguistic judgment; manipulation of the task goals across experiments affected the overall response speed but not the location of the DP or the overall distributional pattern of the priming effect. These results are more readily explained as the result of a retrospective, rather than a prospective, priming mechanism and are consistent with compound-cue models of semantic priming. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Stimulus-driven changes in the direction of neural priming during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pas, Maciej; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-01-15

    Visual object recognition is generally known to be facilitated when targets are preceded by the same or relevant stimuli. For written words, however, the beneficial effect of priming can be reversed when primes and targets share initial syllables (e.g., "boca" and "bono"). Using fMRI, the present study explored neuroanatomical correlates of this negative syllabic priming. In each trial, participants made semantic judgment about a centrally presented target, which was preceded by a masked prime flashed either to the left or right visual field. We observed that the inhibitory priming during reading was associated with a left-lateralized effect of repetition enhancement in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), rather than repetition suppression in the ventral visual region previously associated with facilitatory behavioral priming. We further performed a second fMRI experiment using a classical whole-word repetition priming paradigm with the same hemifield procedure and task instruction, and obtained well-known effects of repetition suppression in the left occipito-temporal cortex. These results therefore suggest that the left IFG constitutes a fast word processing system distinct from the posterior visual word-form system and that the directions of repetition effects can change with intrinsic properties of stimuli even when participants' cognitive and attentional states are kept constant.

  7. The influence of lexical characteristics and talker accent on the recognition of English words by speakers of Japanese.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Kiyoko; Munson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Whether or not the influence of listeners' language proficiency on L2 speech recognition was affected by the structure of the lexicon was examined. This specific experiment examined the effect of word frequency (WF) and phonological neighborhood density (PND) on word recognition in native speakers of English and second-language (L2) speakers of English whose first language was Japanese. The stimuli included English words produced by a native speaker of English and English words produced by a native speaker of Japanese (i.e., with Japanese-accented English). The experiment was inspired by the finding of Imai, Flege, and Walley [(2005). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 896-907] that the influence of talker accent on speech intelligibility for L2 learners of English whose L1 is Spanish varies as a function of words' PND. In the currently study, significant interactions between stimulus accentedness and listener group on the accuracy and speed of spoken word recognition were found, as were significant effects of PND and WF on word-recognition accuracy. However, no significant three-way interaction among stimulus talker, listener group, and PND on either measure was found. Results are discussed in light of recent findings on cross-linguistic differences in the nature of the effects of PND on L2 phonological and lexical processing.

  8. The first letter position effect in visual word recognition: The role of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A; Weigand, Alexandra J; Scaltritti, Michele; Besner, Derek

    2017-04-01

    A prominent question in visual word recognition is whether letters within a word are processed in parallel or in a left to right sequence. Although most contemporary models posit parallel processing, this notion seems at odds with well-established serial position effects in word identification that indicate preferential processing for the initial letter. The present study reports 4 experiments designed to further probe the locus of the first position processing advantage. The paradigm involved masked target words presented for short durations and required participants to subsequently select from 2 alternatives, 1 which was identical to the target and 1 that differed by a single letter. Experiment 1 manipulated the case between the target and the alternatives to ensure that previous evidence for a first position effect was not due to simple perceptual matching. The results continued to yield a robust first position advantage. Experiment 2 attempted to eliminate postperceptual decision processes as the explanatory mechanism by presenting single letters as targets and requiring participants to select an entire word that contained the target letter at different positions. Here the first position advantage was eliminated, suggesting postperceptual decision processes do not underlie the effect. The final 2 experiments presented masked stimuli either all vertically (Experiment 3) or randomly intermixed vertical and horizontal orientation (Experiment 4). In both cases, a robust first position advantage was still obtained. The authors consider alternative interpretations of this effect and suggest that these results are consistent with a rapid deployment of spatial attention to the beginning of a target string which occurs poststimulus onset. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Automated Recognition of Advanced Vibration Features for Machinery Fault Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    fault " using transitional failure data for commercial grade gearboxes . Features will be extracted from accelerometer data obtained on the Mechanical...Machinery Fault Classification DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: New...thru ADP013516 UNCLASSIFIED AUTOMATED RECOGNITION OF ADVANCED VIBRATION FEATURES FOR MACHINERY FAULT CLASSIFICATION Katherine McClintic, Robert Campbell

  10. Serial and parallel processing in reading: investigating the effects of parafoveal orthographic information on nonisolated word recognition.

    PubMed

    Dare, Natasha; Shillcock, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel lexical decision task and three boundary paradigm eye-tracking experiments that clarify the picture of parallel processing in word recognition in context. First, we show that lexical decision is facilitated by associated letter information to the left and right of the word, with no apparent hemispheric specificity. Second, we show that parafoveal preview of a repeat of word n at word n + 1 facilitates reading of word n relative to a control condition with an unrelated word at word n + 1. Third, using a version of the boundary paradigm that allowed for a regressive eye movement, we show no parafoveal "postview" effect on reading word n of repeating word n at word n - 1. Fourth, we repeat the second experiment but compare the effects of parafoveal previews consisting of a repeated word n with a transposed central bigram (e.g., caot for coat) and a substituted central bigram (e.g., ceit for coat), showing the latter to have a deleterious effect on processing word n, thereby demonstrating that the parafoveal preview effect is at least orthographic and not purely visual.

  11. Early decomposition in visual word recognition: Dissociating morphology, form, and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Bozic, Mirjana; Randall, Billi

    2008-01-01

    The role of morphological, semantic, and form-based factors in the early stages of visual word recognition was investigated across different SOAs in a masked priming paradigm, focusing on English derivational morphology. In a first set of experiments, stimulus pairs co-varying in morphological decomposability and in semantic and orthographic relatedness were presented at three SOAs (36, 48, and 72 ms). No effects of orthographic relatedness were found at any SOA. Semantic relatedness did not interact with effects of morphological decomposability, which came through strongly at all SOAs, even for pseudo-suffixed pairs such as archer-arch. Derivational morphological effects in masked priming seem to be primarily driven by morphological decomposability at an early stage of visual word recognition, and are independent of semantic factors. A second experiment reversed the order of prime and target (stem-derived rather than derived-stem), and again found that morphological priming did not interact with semantic relatedness. This points to an early segmentation process that is driven by morphological decomposability and not by the structure or content of central lexical representations. PMID:18923643

  12. Heritability of word recognition in middle-aged men varies as a function of parental education.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Waterman, Brian; Toomey, Rosemary; Neale, Michael C; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Although it is of lifelong importance, reading ability is studied primarily in children and adolescents. We examined variation in word recognition in 347 middle-aged male twin pairs. Overall heritability (a2) was 0.45, and shared environmental influences (c2) were 0.28. However, parental education moderated heritability such that a2 was 0.21 at the lowest parental education level and 0.69 at the highest level; c2 was 0.52 and 0.00, respectively. This constitutes a parental education x environment interaction. The higher heritability was due to a decrease in the magnitude of shared environmental factors, rather than an increase in the magnitude of genetic factors. Other cognitive studies have reported gene x environment interactions, but patterns may differ as a function of age or specific cognitive abilities. Our results suggest that shared environmental factors in families with low parental education have long-lasting effects on word recognition ability, well beyond any critical period for developing reading proficiency.

  13. Learning words and learning sounds: Advances in language development.

    PubMed

    Vihman, Marilyn M

    2017-02-01

    Phonological development is sometimes seen as a process of learning sounds, or forming phonological categories, and then combining sounds to build words, with the evidence taken largely from studies demonstrating 'perceptual narrowing' in infant speech perception over the first year of life. In contrast, studies of early word production have long provided evidence that holistic word learning may precede the formation of phonological categories. In that account, children begin by matching their existing vocal patterns to adult words, with knowledge of the phonological system emerging from the network of related word forms. Here I review evidence from production and then consider how the implicit and explicit learning mechanisms assumed by the complementary memory systems model might be understood as reconciling the two approaches.

  14. Does viotin activate violin more than viocin? On the use of visual cues during visual-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of neural and computational models of visual-word recognition assume that lexical access is achieved via the activation of abstract letter identities. Thus, a word's overall shape should play no role in this process. In the present lexical decision experiment, we compared word-like pseudowords like viotín (same shape as its base word: violín) vs. viocín (different shape) in mature (college-aged skilled readers), immature (normally reading children), and immature/impaired (young readers with developmental dyslexia) word-recognition systems. Results revealed similar response times (and error rates) to consistent-shape and inconsistent-shape pseudowords for both adult skilled readers and normally reading children - this is consistent with current models of visual-word recognition. In contrast, young readers with developmental dyslexia made significantly more errors to viotín-like pseudowords than to viocín-like pseudowords. Thus, unlike normally reading children, young readers with developmental dyslexia are sensitive to a word's visual cues, presumably because of poor letter representations.

  15. Specificity data for the b Test, Dot Counting Test, Rey-15 Item Plus Recognition, and Rey Word Recognition Test in monolingual Spanish-speakers.

    PubMed

    Robles, Luz; López, Enrique; Salazar, Xavier; Boone, Kyle B; Glaser, Debra F

    2015-01-01

    The current study provides specificity data on a large sample (n = 115) of young to middle-aged, male, monolingual Spanish speakers of lower educational level and low acculturation to mainstream US culture for four neurocognitive performance validity tests (PVTs): the Dot Counting, the b Test, Rey Word Recognition, and Rey 15-Item Plus Recognition. Individuals with 0 to 6 years of education performed more poorly than did participants with 7 to 10 years of education on several Rey 15-Item scores (combination equation, recall intrusion errors, and recognition false positives), Rey Word Recognition total correct, and E-score and omission errors on the b Test, but no effect of educational level was observed for Dot Counting Test scores. Cutoff scores are provided that maintain approximately 90% specificity for the education subgroups separately. Some of these cutoffs match, or are even more stringent than, those recommended for use in US test takers who are primarily Caucasian, are tested in English, and have a higher educational level (i.e., Rey Word Recognition correct false-positive errors; Rey 15-Item recall intrusions and recognition false-positive errors; b Test total time; and Dot Counting E-score and grouped dot counting time). Thus, performance on these PVT variables in particular appears relatively robust to cultural/language/educational factors.

  16. Orthographic Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: New Evidence from Lexical Decision and Rime Detection

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Ana; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have repeatedly shown an orthographic consistency effect in the auditory lexical decision task. Words with phonological rimes that could be spelled in multiple ways (i.e., inconsistent words) typically produce longer auditory lexical decision latencies and more errors than do words with rimes that could be spelled in only one way (i.e., consistent words). These results have been extended to different languages and tasks, suggesting that the effect is quite general and robust. Despite this growing body of evidence, some psycholinguists believe that orthographic effects on spoken language are exclusively strategic, post-lexical, or restricted to peculiar (low-frequency) words. In the present study, we manipulated consistency and word-frequency orthogonally in order to explore whether the orthographic consistency effect extends to high-frequency words. Two different tasks were used: lexical decision and rime detection. Both tasks produced reliable consistency effects for both low- and high-frequency words. Furthermore, in Experiment 1 (lexical decision), an interaction revealed a stronger consistency effect for low-frequency words than for high-frequency words, as initially predicted by Ziegler and Ferrand (1998), whereas no interaction was found in Experiment 2 (rime detection). Our results extend previous findings by showing that the orthographic consistency effect is obtained not only for low-frequency words but also for high-frequency words. Furthermore, these effects were also obtained in a rime detection task, which does not require the explicit processing of orthographic structure. Globally, our results suggest that literacy changes the way people process spoken words, even for frequent words. PMID:22025916

  17. Case Studies of Re-Entering Students in Advanced Composition: Composing Using the Word Processor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunder, Eleanor Parks

    A qualitative study examined the revision of writing on the word processor of two re-entering students in advanced composition in comparison to three traditional-age students. Its purposes were to see whether there was any difference in adaptation to the word processor between the two groups and whether each writer had a consistent revision…

  18. Do fixation cues ensure fixation accuracy in split-fovea studies of word recognition?

    PubMed

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Kurtev, Stoyan; Xu, Mengyun

    2009-07-01

    Many studies have claimed that hemispheric processing is split precisely at the foveal midline and so place great emphasis on the precise location at which words are fixated. These claims are based on experiments in which a variety of fixation procedures were used to ensure fixation accuracy but the effectiveness of these procedures is unclear. We investigated this issue using procedures matched to the original studies and an eye-tracker to monitor the locations actually fixated. Four common types of fixation cues were used: cross, two vertical gapped lines, two vertical gapped lines plus a secondary task in which a digit was presented at the designated fixation point, and a dot. Accurate fixations occurred on <35% of trials for all fixation conditions. Moreover, despite the usefulness often attributed to a secondary task, no increase in fixation accuracy was produced in this condition. The indications are that split-fovea theory should not assume that fixation of specified locations occurs in experiments without appropriate eye-tracking control or, indeed, that consistent fixation of specified locations is plausible under normal conditions of word recognition.

  19. The roles of word concreteness and cognitive load on interhemispheric processes of recognition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Perea, M V; Ladera, V; Gamito, P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on hemispheric specialisation suggest that the cerebral hemispheres differ in the way verbal information is processed. There is also evidence that functional asymmetries are attributable to differences in stimulus properties and/or task complexity. To study these asymmetries in the domain of explicit recognition, concrete and abstract nouns were presented either in the right or left visual fields and recognised with foveal vision at different retention levels. We propose that different hemispheric mechanisms underlie the encoding of abstract and concrete information, which can be modulated by cognitive or mental load. To accomplish this goal, 92 right-handed undergraduate Portuguese students with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were randomly sampled from a university campus. The results showed that concrete words were discriminated better than abstract words when previously encoded in the right hemisphere for the longest retention interval between encoding and retrieval. These data suggest that there are different neural mechanisms for the semantic encoding of concrete and abstract concepts. The practical implications are discussed.

  20. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kevin J. Y.; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language. PMID:26074836

  1. Hybrid generative-discriminative human action recognition by combining spatiotemporal words with supervised topic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Boliang

    2011-02-01

    We present a hybrid generative-discriminative learning method for human action recognition from video sequences. Our model combines a bag-of-words component with supervised latent topic models. A video sequence is represented as a collection of spatiotemporal words by extracting space-time interest points and describing these points using both shape and motion cues. The supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA) topic model, which employs discriminative learning using labeled data under a generative framework, is introduced to discover the latent topic structure that is most relevant to action categorization. The proposed algorithm retains most of the desirable properties of generative learning while increasing the classification performance though a discriminative setting. It has also been extended to exploit both labeled data and unlabeled data to learn human actions under a unified framework. We test our algorithm on three challenging data sets: the KTH human motion data set, the Weizmann human action data set, and a ballet data set. Our results are either comparable to or significantly better than previously published results on these data sets and reflect the promise of hybrid generative-discriminative learning approaches.

  2. Word Frequency and Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Recognition Memory: Evidence for a Dual-Process Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Jason; Reder, Lynne M.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-process models of the word-frequency mirror effect posit that low-frequency words are recollected more often than high-frequency words, producing the hit rate differences in the word-frequency effect, whereas high-frequency words are more familiar, producing the false-alarm-rate differences. In this pair of experiments, the authors demonstrate that the analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves provides critical information in support of this interpretation. Specifically, when participants were required to discriminate between studied nouns and their plurality reversed complements, the ROC curve was accurately described by a threshold model that is consistent with recollection-based recognition. Further, the plurality discrimination ROC curves showed characteristics consistent with the interpretation that participants recollected low-frequency items more than high-frequency items. PMID:12219793

  3. Isolated word recognition of silent speech using magnetic implants and sensors.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, J M; Rybchenko, S I; Hofe, R; Ell, S R; Fagan, M J; Moore, R K; Green, P

    2010-12-01

    There are a number of situations where individuals wish to communicate verbally but are unable to use conventional means-so called 'silent speech'. These include speakers in noisy and covert situations as well as patients who have lost their voice as a result of a laryngectomy or similar procedure. This paper focuses on those who are unable to speak following a laryngectomy and assesses the possibility of speech recognition based on a magnetic implant/sensors system. Permanent magnets are placed on the tongue and lips and the changes in magnetic field resulting from movement during speech are monitored using a set of magnetic sensors. The sensor signals are compared to sets of pre-recorded templates using the dynamic time warping (DTW) method, and the best match is identified. Experimental trials are reported for subjects with intact larynx, typically using 500-1000 utterances used for speaker dependant training and testing. It is shown that recognition rates of over 90% are achievable for vocabularies of at least 57 isolated words: sufficient to drive command-and-control applications.

  4. Attention modulates specificity effects in spoken word recognition: Challenges to the time-course hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Luthra, Sahil

    2015-01-01

    Findings in the domain of spoken word recognition indicate that lexical representations contain both abstract and episodic information. It has been proposed that processing time determines when each source of information is recruited, with increased processing time required to access lower-frequency episodic instantiations. The time-course hypothesis of specificity effects thus identifies a strong role for retrieval mechanisms mediating the use of abstract versus episodic information. Here we conducted three recognition memory experiments to examine whether findings previously attributed to retrieval mechanisms might reflect attention during encoding. Results from Experiment 1 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when subjects attended to individual speakers during encoding, but not when they attended to lexical characteristics during encoding, even though processing time at retrieval was equivalent. Results from Experiment 2 showed that talker-specificity effects emerged when listeners attended to talker gender but not when they attended to syntactic characteristics, even though processing time at retrieval was significantly longer in the latter condition. Results from Experiment 3 showed no talker-specificity effects when attending to lexical characteristics even when processing at retrieval was slowed by the addition of background noise. Collectively, these results suggest that when processing time during retrieval is decoupled from encoding factors, it fails to predict the emergence of talker-specificity effects. Rather, attention during encoding appears to be the putative variable. PMID:25824889

  5. Intelligent Facial Recognition Systems: Technology advancements for security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    Insider problems such as theft and sabotage can occur within the security and surveillance realm of operations when unauthorized people obtain access to sensitive areas. A possible solution to these problems is a means to identify individuals (not just credentials or badges) in a given sensitive area and provide full time personnel accountability. One approach desirable at Department of Energy facilities for access control and/or personnel identification is an Intelligent Facial Recognition System (IFRS) that is non-invasive to personnel. Automatic facial recognition does not require the active participation of the enrolled subjects, unlike most other biological measurement (biometric) systems (e.g., fingerprint, hand geometry, or eye retinal scan systems). It is this feature that makes an IFRS attractive for applications other than access control such as emergency evacuation verification, screening, and personnel tracking. This paper discusses current technology that shows promising results for DOE and other security applications. A survey of research and development in facial recognition identified several companies and universities that were interested and/or involved in the area. A few advanced prototype systems were also identified. Sandia National Laboratories is currently evaluating facial recognition systems that are in the advanced prototype stage. The initial application for the evaluation is access control in a controlled environment with a constant background and with cooperative subjects. Further evaluations will be conducted in a less controlled environment, which may include a cluttered background and subjects that are not looking towards the camera. The outcome of the evaluations will help identify areas of facial recognition systems that need further development and will help to determine the effectiveness of the current systems for security applications.

  6. How Vocabulary Size in Two Languages Relates to Efficiency in Spoken Word Recognition by Young Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

    2010-01-01

    Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26 ; 2 ; 6). Between-language…

  7. Lexical Access in Early Stages of Visual Word Processing: A Single-Trial Correlational MEG Study of Heteronym Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomyak, Olla; Marantz, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We present an MEG study of heteronym recognition, aiming to distinguish between two theories of lexical access: the "early access" theory, which entails that lexical access occurs at early (pre 200 ms) stages of processing, and the "late access" theory, which interprets this early activity as orthographic word-form identification rather than…

  8. Effects of Employing the Text, SRA Decoding Strategies on the Word Recognition for a High School Student with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, Alyson; Wakeman, Julie; Neyman, Jennifer; McLaughlin, T. F.; Zumwalt, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of employing the SRA Decoding Strategies text on word recognition for a ninth grade male with a learning disability. The student was enrolled in a high school special education resource room in a large urban school district in the Pacific North west in a direct instruction reading resource…

  9. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  10. Enhanced Recognition and Recall of New Words in 7- and 12-Year-Olds Following a Period of Offline Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M.; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., "biscal") and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds…

  11. Word Recognition and Nonword Repetition in Children with Language Disorders: The Effects of Neighborhood Density, Lexical Frequency, and Phonotactic Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne; Duinmeijer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of neighborhood density (ND) and lexical frequency on word recognition and the effects of phonotactic probability (PP) on nonword repetition (NWR) were examined to gain insight into processing at the lexical and sublexical levels in typically developing (TD) children and children with developmental language problems. Method:…

  12. A Not-so-Simple View of Reading: How Oral Vocabulary and Visual-Word Recognition Complicate the Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette, Gene; Beers, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify the relations amongst serial decoding, irregular word recognition, listening comprehension, facets of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension in two cohorts of children differing in reading level. In the process, the components of the simple view of reading were evaluated. Students in grades 1 (n = 67) and 6…

  13. Morphological Structure Processing during Word Recognition and Its Relationship to Character Reading among Third-Grade Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Duo; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we explored the characteristics of morphological structure processing during word recognition among third grade Chinese children and its possible relationship with Chinese character reading. By using the modified priming lexical decision paradigm, a significant morphological structure priming effect was found in the subject…

  14. Automatic Activation of Phonological Code during Visual Word Recognition in Children: A Masked Priming Study in Grades 3 and 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauval, Karinne; Perre, Laetitia; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the development of automatic phonological processes involved in visual word recognition during reading acquisition in French. A visual masked priming lexical decision experiment was carried out with third, fifth graders and adult skilled readers. Three different types of partial overlap between the prime and…

  15. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  16. The Effects of Inter-Letter Spacing in Visual-Word Recognition: Evidence with Young Normal Readers and Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perea, Manuel; Panadero, Victoria; Moret-Tatay, Carmen; Gomez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that slight increases of inter-letter spacing have a positive impact on skilled readers' recognition of visually presented words. In the present study, we examined whether this effect generalises to young normal readers and readers with developmental dyslexia, and whether increased inter-letter spacing affects the…

  17. How does Interhemispheric Communication in Visual Word Recognition Work? Deciding between Early and Late Integration Accounts of the Split Fovea Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc; Davis, Colin J.

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been shown that interhemispheric communication is needed for the processing of foveally presented words. In this study, we examine whether the integration of information happens at an early stage, before word recognition proper starts, or whether the integration is part of the recognition process itself. Two lexical decision…

  18. Paap and Noel revisited: individual differences in independent word recognition tasks in relation to the dual-task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Maureen; Masterson, Jackie

    2002-07-01

    Paap and Noel (1991) found that participants' pronunciation latencies were faster for low-frequency irregular words when named under a concurrent high digit memory load than when named under a low load. The effects reported by Paap and Noel haveproved difficult to replicate in subsequent studies. The present research suggests that individual differences in word recognition skill relate to who will or will not show these effects. In two experiments, participants were allocated to skill groups on the basis of latency in tasks tapping lexical and sub-lexical reading processes. In both studies, only one group (the "intermediate skilled"), showed evidence of such effects. A combined analysis of the data from Experiments 1 and 2 was carried out. This confirmed and extended the analyses of the individual experiments. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary models of word recognition.

  19. Recognition of spoken words by native and non-native listeners: Talker-, listener-, and item-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken

  20. A universal approach to modeling visual word recognition and reading: Not only possible, but also inevitable

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ram

    2013-01-01

    I have argued that orthographic processing cannot be understood and modeled without considering the manner in which orthographic structure represents phonological, semantic and morphological information in a given writing system. A reading theory, therefore, must be a theory of the interaction of the reader with his/her linguistic environment. This outlines a novel approach to studying and modeling visual word recognition, an approach that focuses on the common cognitive principles involved in processing printed words across different writing systems. These claims were challenged by several commentaries that contested the merits of my general theoretical agenda, the relevance of the evolution of writing systems, and the plausibility of finding commonalities in reading across orthographies. Other commentaries extended the scope of the debate by bringing into the discussion additional perspectives. My response addresses all these issues. By considering the constraints of neurobiology on modeling reading, developmental data, and a large scope of cross-linguistic evidence, I argue that front-end implementations of orthographic processing that do not stem from a comprehensive theory of the complex information conveyed by writing systems do not present a viable approach for understanding reading. The common principles by which writing systems have evolved to represent orthographic, phonological and semantic information in a language reveal the critical distributional characteristics of orthographic structure that govern reading behavior. Models of reading should thus be learning models, primarily constrained by cross-linguistic developmental evidence that describes how the statistical properties of writing systems shape the characteristics of orthographic processing. When this approach is adopted a universal model of reading is possible. PMID:23251930

  1. Stimulus Onset Asynchrony and the Timeline of Word Recognition: Event-Related Potentials during Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambacher, Michael; Dimigen, Olaf; Braun, Mario; Wille, Kristin; Jacobs, Arthur M.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    Three ERP experiments examined the effect of word presentation rate (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA) on the time course of word frequency and predictability effects in sentence reading. In Experiments 1 and 2, sentences were presented word-by-word in the screen center at an SOA of 700 and 490ms, respectively. While these rates are typical…

  2. Impaired Word Recognition in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Herrera, Elena; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of word production in patients with Alzheimer's disease have identified the age of acquisition of words as an important predictor of retention or loss, with early acquired words remaining accessible for longer than later acquired words. If, as proposed by current theories, effects of age of acquisition reflect the involvement of semantic…

  3. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and…

  4. Evaluating the developmental trajectory of the episodic buffer component of working memory and its relation to word recognition in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shinmin; Allen, Richard J; Lee, Jun Ren; Hsieh, Chia-En

    2015-05-01

    The creation of temporary bound representation of information from different sources is one of the key abilities attributed to the episodic buffer component of working memory. Whereas the role of working memory in word learning has received substantial attention, very little is known about the link between the development of word recognition skills and the ability to bind information in the episodic buffer of working memory and how it may develop with age. This study examined the performance of Grade 2 children (8 years old), Grade 3 children (9 years old), and young adults on a task designed to measure their ability to bind visual and auditory-verbal information in working memory. Children's performance on this task significantly correlated with their word recognition skills even when chronological age, memory for individual elements, and other possible reading-related factors were taken into account. In addition, clear developmental trajectories were observed, with improvements in the ability to hold temporary bound information in working memory between Grades 2 and 3, and between the child and adult groups, that were independent from memory for the individual elements. These findings suggest that the capacity to temporarily bind novel auditory-verbal information to visual form in working memory is linked to the development of word recognition in children and improves with age.

  5. Encoding lexical tones in jTRACE: a simulation of monosyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Lan; Malins, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Despite its prevalence as one of the most highly influential models of spoken word recognition, the TRACE model has yet to be extended to consider tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. A key reason for this is that the model in its current state does not encode lexical tone. In this report, we present a modified version of the jTRACE model in which we borrowed on its existing architecture to code for Mandarin phonemes and tones. Units are coded in a way that is meant to capture the similarity in timing of access to vowel and tone information that has been observed in previous studies of Mandarin spoken word recognition. We validated the model by first simulating a recent experiment that had used the visual world paradigm to investigate how native Mandarin speakers process monosyllabic Mandarin words (Malins & Joanisse, 2010). We then subsequently simulated two psycholinguistic phenomena: (1) differences in the timing of resolution of tonal contrast pairs, and (2) the interaction between syllable frequency and tonal probability. In all cases, the model gave rise to results comparable to those of published data with human subjects, suggesting that it is a viable working model of spoken word recognition in Mandarin. It is our hope that this tool will be of use to practitioners studying the psycholinguistics of Mandarin Chinese and will help inspire similar models for other tonal languages, such as Cantonese and Thai.

  6. ERP profiles for face and word recognition are based on their status in semantic memory not their stimulus category.

    PubMed

    Nie, Aiqing; Griffin, Michael; Keinath, Alexander; Walsh, Matthew; Dittmann, Andrea; Reder, Lynne

    2014-04-04

    Previous research has suggested that faces and words are processed and remembered differently as reflected by different ERP patterns for the two types of stimuli. Specifically, face stimuli produced greater late positive deflections for old items in anterior compared to posterior regions, while word stimuli produced greater late positive deflections in posterior compared to anterior regions. Given that words have existing representations in subjects׳ long-term memories (LTM) and that face stimuli used in prior experiments were of unknown individuals, we conducted an ERP study that crossed face and letter stimuli with the presence or absence of a prior (stable or existing) memory representation. During encoding, subjects judged whether stimuli were known (famous face or real word) or not known (unknown person or pseudo-word). A surprise recognition memory test required subjects to distinguish between stimuli that appeared during the encoding phase and stimuli that did not. ERP results were consistent with previous research when comparing unknown faces and words; however, the late ERP pattern for famous faces was more similar to that for words than for unknown faces. This suggests that the critical ERP difference is mediated by whether there is a prior representation in LTM, and not whether the stimulus involves letters or faces.

  7. Advanced automatic target recognition for police helicopter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Christoph; Schoppmann, Paul

    2000-08-01

    The results of a case study about the application of an advanced method for automatic target recognition to infrared imagery taken from police helicopter missions are presented. The method consists of the following steps: preprocessing, classification, fusion, postprocessing and tracking, and combines the three paradigms image pyramids, neural networks and bayesian nets. The technology has been developed using a variety of different scenes typical for military aircraft missions. Infrared cameras have been in use for several years at the Bavarian police helicopter forces and are highly valuable for night missions. Several object classes like 'persons' or 'vehicles' are tested and the possible discrimination between persons and animals is shown. The analysis of complex scenes with hidden objects and clutter shows the potentials and limitations of automatic target recognition for real-world tasks. Several display concepts illustrate the achievable improvement of the situation awareness. The similarities and differences between various mission types concerning object variability, time constraints, consequences of false alarms, etc. are discussed. Typical police actions like searching for missing persons or runaway criminals illustrate the advantages of automatic target recognition. The results demonstrate the possible operational benefits for the helicopter crew. Future work will include performance evaluation issues and a system integration concept for the target platform.

  8. Synthetic Peptide templates for molecular recognition: recent advances and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yashveer; Dolphin, Gunnar T; Razkin, Jesus; Dumy, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The creation of molecular systems that can mimic some of the properties of natural macromolecules is one of the major endeavors in contemporary protein chemistry. However, the construction of artificial proteins with predetermined structure and function is difficult on account of complex folding pathways. The use of topological peptide templates has been suggested to induce and stabilize defined secondary and tertiary structures. This is because the recent advances in the chemistry of coupling reagents, protecting groups, and solid-phase synthesis have made the chemical synthesis of peptides with conformationally controlled and complex structures feasible. Besides their use as structure-inducing devices, these peptide templates can also be utilized to construct novel structures with tailor-made functions. Herein, we present recent advances in the field of peptide-template-based approaches with particular emphasis on the demonstrated utility of this approach in molecular recognition, along with related applications.

  9. Spoken word recognition by Latino children learning Spanish as their first language*

    PubMed Central

    HURTADO, NEREYDA; MARCHMAN, VIRGINIA A.; FERNALD, ANNE

    2010-01-01

    Research on the development of efficiency in spoken language understanding has focused largely on middle-class children learning English. Here we extend this research to Spanish-learning children (n=49; M=2;0; range=1;3–3;1) living in the USA in Latino families from primarily low socioeconomic backgrounds. Children looked at pictures of familiar objects while listening to speech naming one of the objects. Analyses of eye movements revealed developmental increases in the efficiency of speech processing. Older children and children with larger vocabularies were more efficient at processing spoken language as it unfolds in real time, as previously documented with English learners. Children whose mothers had less education tended to be slower and less accurate than children of comparable age and vocabulary size whose mothers had more schooling, consistent with previous findings of slower rates of language learning in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. These results add to the cross-linguistic literature on the development of spoken word recognition and to the study of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) factors on early language development. PMID:17542157

  10. Utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test and Word Choice Test.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Tyson, Bradley T; Abeare, Christopher A; Zuccato, Brandon G; Rai, Jaspreet K; Seke, Kristian R; Sagar, Sanya; Roth, Robert M

    2017-03-17

    This study was designed to examine the clinical utility of critical items within the Recognition Memory Test (RMT) and the Word Choice Test (WCT). Archival data were collected from a mixed clinical sample of 202 patients clinically referred for neuropsychological testing (54.5% male; mean age = 45.3 years; mean level of education = 13.9 years). The credibility of a given response set was psychometrically defined using three separate composite measures, each of which was based on multiple independent performance validity indicators. Critical items improved the classification accuracy of both tests. They increased sensitivity by correctly identifying an additional 2-17% of the invalid response sets that passed the traditional cutoffs based on total score. They also increased specificity by providing additional evidence of noncredible performance in response sets that failed the total score cutoff. The combination of failing the traditional cutoff, but passing critical items was associated with increased risk of misclassifying the response set as invalid. Critical item analysis enhances the diagnostic power of both the RMT and WCT. Given that critical items require no additional test material or administration time, but help reduce both false positive and false negative errors, they represent a versatile, valuable, and time- and cost-effective supplement to performance validity assessment.

  11. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  12. Design and performance of a large vocabulary discrete word recognition system. Volume 1: Technical report. [real time computer technique for voice data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The development, construction, and test of a 100-word vocabulary near real time word recognition system are reported. Included are reasonable replacement of any one or all 100 words in the vocabulary, rapid learning of a new speaker, storage and retrieval of training sets, verbal or manual single word deletion, continuous adaptation with verbal or manual error correction, on-line verification of vocabulary as spoken, system modes selectable via verification display keyboard, relationship of classified word to neighboring word, and a versatile input/output interface to accommodate a variety of applications.

  13. Word Recognition and Vocabulary Understanding Strategies for Literacy Success. Bill Harp Professional Teachers Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinatra, Richard

    This book lets readers see how children and youth learn words in the oral and written languages--and how teachers can best assist learners in the understanding, reading, and writing of words for successful literacy development. In the book teachers learn the differing rationales for using sound/symbol or phonics approaches in word learning, for…

  14. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  15. How Linearity and Structural Complexity Interact and Affect the Recognition of Italian Derived Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgers, Franca Ferrari; Kacinik, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The majority of words in most languages consist of derived poly-morphemic words but a cross-linguistic review of the literature (Amenta and Crepaldi in Front Psychol 3:232-243, 2012) shows a contradictory picture with respect to how such words are represented and processed. The current study examined the effects of linearity and structural…

  16. Common and Script-Specific Awareness in Relation to Word Recognition in English and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyoda, Etsuko; Scrimgeour, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of the script, in the process of learning to read words, readers develop awareness of the structural and functional properties of words with increased exposure to the script. However, as sub-word units that are critical for phonological or morphological processing or both are not uniform, the types of the awareness may vary from script…

  17. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  18. Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

  19. Maturational Changes in Ear Advantage for Monaural Word Recognition in Noise Among Listeners with Central Auditory Processing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Mohsin Ahmed; Fox-Thomas, Lisa; Tucker, Denise

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences between ears in performance on a monaural word recognition in noise test among individuals across a broad range of ages assessed for (C)APD. Word recognition scores in quiet and in speech noise were collected retrospectively from the medical files of 107 individuals between the ages of 7 and 30 years who were diagnosed with (C)APD. No ear advantage was found on the word recognition in noise task in groups less than ten years. Performance in both ears was equally poor. Right ear performance improved across age groups, with scores of individuals above age 10 years falling within the normal range. In contrast, left ear performance remained essentially stable and in the impaired range across all age groups. Findings indicate poor left hemispheric dominance for speech perception in noise in children below the age of 10 years with (C)APD. However, a right ear advantage on this monaural speech in noise task was observed for individuals 10 years and older. PMID:28286635

  20. Word recognition in noise at higher-than-normal levels: Decreases in scores and increases in masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubno, Judy R.; Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.

    2005-08-01

    Under certain conditions, speech recognition in noise decreases above conversational levels when signal-to-noise ratio is held constant. The current study was undertaken to determine if nonlinear growth of masking and the subsequent reduction in ``effective'' signal-to-noise ratio accounts for this decline. Nine young adults with normal hearing listened to monosyllabic words at three levels in each of three levels of a masker shaped to match the speech spectrum. An additional low-level noise equated audibility by producing equivalent masked thresholds for all subjects. If word recognition was determined entirely by signal-to-noise ratio and was independent of overall speech and masker levels, scores at a given signal-to-noise ratio should remain constant with increasing level. Masked pure-tone thresholds measured in the speech-shaped maskers increased linearly with increasing masker level at lower frequencies but nonlinearly at higher frequencies, consistent with nonlinear growth of upward spread of masking that followed the peaks in the spectrum of the speech-shaped masker. Word recognition declined significantly with increasing level when signal-to-noise ratio was held constant which was attributed to nonlinear growth of masking and reduced ``effective'' signal-to-noise ratio at high speech-shaped masker levels, as indicated by audibility estimates based on the Articulation Index.

  1. Spectral resolution and English experience: effects on English phoneme and word recognition by non-native English speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Monica; Shannon, Robert V.

    2002-05-01

    Normal hearing listeners whose first language was Spanish were tested with English phonemes, words and sentences. Listeners were divided into four categories according to experience with the second language. Speech was presented in a sound treated booth at a level of 70 dBA. Listening conditions included noise (SNR of 15 dB, 10 dB, 5 dB, 0 dB, and 5 dB) and reduced spectral information (2, 4, 6, 8 and 16 frequency bands). Plomp's Model [J. Speech Hear. Res. 29, 146-154 (1986)] was applied to the data. The distortion factor ``D'' defined by Plomp was found to increase with an increased loss of spectral resolution. It was also found to increase with age of learning of the second language. An additional ``distortion'' seems to be introduced when a second language is learned at a later age. Non-native listeners had more difficulty understanding vowels, words and sentences. Surprisingly, English experience had less effect on word and sentence recognition than on vowel recognition. Significantly lower performance on vowel recognition was seen even for fully bilingual listeners with reduced spectral resolution which could probably be related to the conflicting vowel spaces of the two languages. [Work funded by NIDCD.

  2. Improving word recognition in noise among hearing-impaired subjects with a single-channel cochlear noise-reduction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fink, Nir; Furst, Miriam; Muchnik, Chava

    2012-09-01

    A common complaint of the hearing impaired is the inability to understand speech in noisy environments even with their hearing assistive devices. Only a few single-channel algorithms have significantly improved speech intelligibility in noise for hearing-impaired listeners. The current study introduces a cochlear noise reduction algorithm. It is based on a cochlear representation of acoustic signals and real-time derivation of a binary speech mask. The contribution of the algorithm for enhancing word recognition in noise was evaluated on a group of 42 normal-hearing subjects, 35 hearing-aid users, 8 cochlear implant recipients, and 14 participants with bimodal devices. Recognition scores of Hebrew monosyllabic words embedded in Gaussian noise at several signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were obtained with processed and unprocessed signals. The algorithm was not effective among the normal-hearing participants. However, it yielded a significant improvement in some of the hearing-impaired subjects under different listening conditions. Its most impressive benefit appeared among cochlear implant recipients. More than 20% improvement in recognition score of noisy words was obtained by 12, 16, and 26 hearing-impaired at SNR of 30, 24, and 18 dB, respectively. The algorithm has a potential to improve speech intelligibility in background noise, yet further research is required to improve its performances.

  3. Get rich quick: the signal to respond procedure reveals the time course of semantic richness effects during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Ian S; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-05-01

    According to several current frameworks, semantic processing involves an early influence of language-based information followed by later influences of object-based information (e.g., situated simulations; Santos, Chaigneau, Simmons, & Barsalou, 2011). In the present study we examined whether these predictions extend to the influence of semantic variables in visual word recognition. We investigated the time course of semantic richness effects in visual word recognition using a signal-to-respond (STR) paradigm fitted to a lexical decision (LDT) and a semantic categorization (SCT) task. We used linear mixed effects to examine the relative contributions of language-based (number of senses, ARC) and object-based (imageability, number of features, body-object interaction ratings) descriptions of semantic richness at four STR durations (75, 100, 200, and 400ms). Results showed an early influence of number of senses and ARC in the SCT. In both LDT and SCT, object-based effects were the last to influence participants' decision latencies. We interpret our results within a framework in which semantic processes are available to influence word recognition as a function of their availability over time, and of their relevance to task-specific demands.

  4. Distinct effects of perceptual quality on auditory word recognition, memory formation and recall in a neural model of sequential memory.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Wingfield, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Adults with sensory impairment, such as reduced hearing acuity, have impaired ability to recall identifiable words, even when their memory is otherwise normal. We hypothesize that poorer stimulus quality causes weaker activity in neurons responsive to the stimulus and more time to elapse between stimulus onset and identification. The weaker activity and increased delay to stimulus identification reduce the necessary strengthening of connections between neurons active before stimulus presentation and neurons active at the time of stimulus identification. We test our hypothesis through a biologically motivated computational model, which performs item recognition, memory formation and memory retrieval. In our simulations, spiking neurons are distributed into pools representing either items or context, in two separate, but connected winner-takes-all (WTA) networks. We include associative, Hebbian learning, by comparing multiple forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), which strengthen synapses between coactive neurons during stimulus identification. Synaptic strengthening by STDP can be sufficient to reactivate neurons during recall if their activity during a prior stimulus rose strongly and rapidly. We find that a single poor quality stimulus impairs recall of neighboring stimuli as well as the weak stimulus itself. We demonstrate that within the WTA paradigm of word recognition, reactivation of separate, connected sets of non-word, context cells permits reverse recall. Also, only with such coactive context cells, does slowing the rate of stimulus presentation increase recall probability. We conclude that significant temporal overlap of neural activity patterns, absent from individual WTA networks, is necessary to match behavioral data for word recall.

  5. Context effects in visual word recognition: lexical relatedness and syntactic context.

    PubMed

    Schriefers, H; Friederici, A D; Rose, U

    1998-11-01

    In three experiments, we investigated how associative word-word priming effects in German depend on different types of syntactic context in which the related words are embedded. The associative relation always concerned a verb as prime and a noun as target. Prime word and target word were embedded in visually presented strings of words that formed either a correct sentence, a scrambled list of words, or a sentence in which the target noun and the preceding definite article disagreed in syntactic gender. In contrast to previous studies (O'Seaghdha, 1989; Simpson, Peterson, Casteel, & Burgess, 1989), associative priming effects were not only obtained in correct sentences but also in scrambled word lists. Associative priming, however, was not obtained when the definite article and the target noun disagreed in syntactic gender. The latter finding suggests that a rather local violation of syntactic coherence reduces or eliminates word-word priming effects. The results are discussed in the context of related work on the effect of gender dis-/agreement between a syntactic context and a target noun.

  6. The ERP signature of the contextual diversity effect in visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Behavioral experiments have revealed that words appearing in many different contexts are responded to faster than words that appear in few contexts. Although this contextual diversity (CD) effect has been found to be stronger than the word-frequency (WF) effect, it is a matter of debate whether the facilitative effects of CD and WF reflect the same underlying mechanisms. The analysis of the electrophysiological correlates of CD may shed some light on this issue. This experiment is the first to examine the ERPs to high- and low-CD words when WF is controlled for. Results revealed that while high-CD words produced faster responses than low-CD words, their ERPs showed larger negativities (225-325 ms) than low-CD words. This result goes in the opposite direction of the ERP WF effect (high-frequency words elicit smaller N400 amplitudes than low-frequency words). The direction and scalp distribution of the CD effect resembled the ERP effects associated with "semantic richness." Thus, while apparently related, CD and WF originate from different sources during the access of lexical-semantic representations.

  7. Charting the Functional Relevance of Broca's Area for Visual Word Recognition and Picture Naming in Dutch Using fMRI-Guided TMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat, Katherine L.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Sack, Alexander T.; Schuhmann, Teresa; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown pseudohomophone priming effects at Broca's area (specifically pars opercularis of left inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus; LIFGpo/PCG) within [approximately]100 ms of viewing a word. This is consistent with Broca's area involvement in fast phonological access during visual word recognition. Here we…

  8. The Processing of Consonants and Vowels during Letter Identity and Letter Position Assignment in Visual-Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Marin, Alejandro; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a processing distinction between consonants and vowels in visual-word recognition. Here we conjointly examine the time course of consonants and vowels in processes of letter identity and letter position assignment. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in…

  9. The Mechanisms Underlying the Interhemispheric Integration of Information in Foveal Word Recognition: Evidence for Transcortical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Words are processed as units. This is not as evident as it seems, given the division of the human cerebral cortex in two hemispheres and the partial decussation of the optic tract. In two experiments, we investigated what underlies the unity of foveally presented words: A bilateral projection of visual input in foveal vision, or interhemispheric…

  10. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  11. The Role of Associative Elaboration in Word Recognition: Evidence for a Two Stage Test Elaboration Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Donald A.; Hellebusch, Stephen

    1974-01-01

    Two possible modifications of the Bousfield et al. (1958) RR-IAR memory model were proposed to explain why backward associations between critical stimulus and experimental words do not result in increased experimental word false positive rates, while forward associations do. (Author)

  12. Morphological Decomposition in the Recognition of Prefixed and Suffixed Words: Evidence from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Say Young; Wang, Min; Taft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Korean has visually salient syllable units that are often mapped onto either prefixes or suffixes in derived words. In addition, prefixed and suffixed words may be processed differently given a left-to-right parsing procedure and the need to resolve morphemic ambiguity in prefixes in Korean. To test this hypothesis, four experiments using the…

  13. Further Analysis of Picture Interference when Teaching Word Recognition to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittlinger, Laura Harper; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that pairing pictures with associated words when teaching sight-word reading may hinder acquisition (e.g., Didden, Prinsen, & Sigafoos, 2000; Singh & Solman, 1990; Solman & Singh, 1992). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether this phenomenon was due to a previously learned association between the…

  14. Is a Fan Always Fun? Phonological and Orthographic Effects in Bilingual Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Haywood, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    A visual semantic categorization task in English was performed by native English speakers (Experiment 1) and late bilinguals whose first language was Japanese (Experiment 2) or Spanish (Experiment 3). In the critical conditions, the target word was a homophone of a correct category exemplar (e.g., A BODY OF WATER-SEE; cf. SEA) or a word that…

  15. The Role of Saccade Preparation in Lateralized Word Recognition: Evidence for the Attentional Bias Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Dorine Vergilino; Lemoine, Christelle; Sieroff, Eric; Ergis, Anne-Marie; Bouhired, Redha; Rigault, Emilie; Dore-Mazars, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Words presented to the right visual field (RVF) are recognized more readily than those presented to the left visual field (LVF). Whereas the attentional bias theory proposes an explanation in terms of attentional imbalance between visual fields, the attentional advantage theory assumes that words presented to the RVF are processed automatically…

  16. Effects of Memory Load on Word Recognition: Are There Dual-Routers in Norway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lervag, Arne; Braten, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to replicate the release-from-competition effect (a difficult concurrent memory task speeds pronunciation of low-frequency irregular words but slows pronunciation of other word types) with mature normal readers of Norwegian (undergraduate education students) and thus tested the generalizability of dual-route models to a considerably more…

  17. Korean deaf adolescents' recognition of written words for taxonomic categories of different levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Degao; Yi, Kwangoh; Kim, Jung Yeon

    2011-04-01

    Deaf college students seem to have relatively stronger associations from words for taxonomic categories of basic (e.g., snake) to those of super-ordinate (e.g., reptiles) level than vice versa compared with hearing students in word association (Marschark, Convertino, McEvoy & Masteller, 2004). In deciding whether two sequentially presented words for taxonomic categories of different levels are conceptually related, deaf adolescents might therefore have a poorer performance when they see a category name before than when they see it after one of the corresponding exemplar words. Deaf Korean adolescents were found to recognize words for taxonomic categories of super-ordinate level with lower efficiencies than those of basic level. Their accuracy seemed to reflect a reversed typicality effect when they decided that first-presented words for taxonomic categories of basic level were conceptually related to second-presented words for those of super-ordinate level. It was argued that deaf Korean adolescents went through a temporary stage of having iconic representations of several exemplars of the category aroused in working memory before the abstract semantic representation was fully activated when they saw the word for a taxonomic category of super-ordinate level.

  18. The Shape of Things to Come: Evaluating Word Frequency as a Continuous Variable in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Pernille; Criss, Amy H.

    2013-01-01

    The role of experience in memory, specifically the word frequency (WF) mirror effect showing higher hit rates and lower false alarm rates for low-frequency words, is one of the hallmarks of memory. However, this "regularity of memory" is limited because normative WF has been treated as discrete (low vs. high). We evaluate the extent to…

  19. Developmental Changes in Infants' Ability to Cope with Dialect Variation in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmale, Rachel; Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda; Johnson, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    Toward the end of their first year of life, infants' overly specified word representations are thought to give way to more abstract ones, which helps them to better cope with variation not relevant to word identity (e.g., voice and affect). This developmental change may help infants process the ambient language more efficiently, thus enabling…

  20. See before You Jump: Full Recognition of Parafoveal Words Precedes Skips during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Peter C.; Plummer, Patrick; Choi, Wonil

    2013-01-01

    Serial attention models of eye-movement control during reading were evaluated in an eye-tracking experiment that examined how lexical activation combines with visual information in the parafovea to affect word skipping (where a word is not fixated during first-pass reading). Lexical activation was manipulated by repetition priming created through…

  1. Getting It Right? Using Aphasic Naming Errors to Evaluate Theoretical Models of Spoken Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickels, Lyndsey

    1995-01-01

    Different models of spoken word production make different predictions regarding the extent of effects of certain word properties on the output of that model. This article examines these predictions with regard to the effect of these variables on the production of semantic and phonological errors by aphasic subjects. (60 references) (Author/CK)

  2. There Is Something about Grammatical Category in Chinese Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Oi Yee

    2016-01-01

    The differential processing of nouns and verbs has been attributed to a combination of morphological, syntactic and semantic factors which are often intertwined with other general lexical properties. This study tested the noun-verb difference with Chinese disyllabic words controlled on various lexical parameters. As Chinese words are free from…

  3. Word Recognition and Syntactic Attachment in Reading: Evidence for a Staged Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the author examined how readers' eye movements are influenced by joint manipulations of a word's frequency and the syntactic fit of the word in its context. In the critical conditions of the first 2 experiments, a high- or low-frequency verb was used to disambiguate a garden-path sentence, while in the last experiment, a high- or…

  4. On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.

    PubMed

    Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence.

  5. Dichotic Word Recognition in Noise and the Right-Ear Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roup, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to compare dichotic right-ear advantages (REAs) of young adults to older adult data (C. M. Roup, T. L. Wiley, & R. H. Wilson, 2006) after matching for overall levels of recognition performance. Specifically, speech-spectrum noise was introduced in order to reduce dichotic recognition performance of young adults to a…

  6. Combined ERP/fMRI Evidence For Early Word Recognition Effects In The Posterior Inferior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S.; Molfese, Dennis L.; Gold, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus. Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel ERP/fMRI studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200–250 ms, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical Recognition Potential effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior fusiform gyrus near the visual word form area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA. PMID:23701693

  7. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Nelms, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah H.; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the next two decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For whole-word recognition, older relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs, but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as SNR decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments, and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy aging populations, and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex, word-recognition level of speech signals. PMID:25282337

  8. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in normal aging emerge at the level of whole-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Nelms, Caitlin E; Baum, Sarah H; Zurkovsky, Lilia; Barense, Morgan D; Newhouse, Paul A; Wallace, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Over the next 2 decades, a dramatic shift in the demographics of society will take place, with a rapid growth in the population of older adults. One of the most common complaints with healthy aging is a decreased ability to successfully perceive speech, particularly in noisy environments. In such noisy environments, the presence of visual speech cues (i.e., lip movements) provide striking benefits for speech perception and comprehension, but previous research suggests that older adults gain less from such audiovisual integration than their younger peers. To determine at what processing level these behavioral differences arise in healthy-aging populations, we administered a speech-in-noise task to younger and older adults. We compared the perceptual benefits of having speech information available in both the auditory and visual modalities and examined both phoneme and whole-word recognition across varying levels of signal-to-noise ratio. For whole-word recognition, older adults relative to younger adults showed greater multisensory gains at intermediate SNRs but reduced benefit at low SNRs. By contrast, at the phoneme level both younger and older adults showed approximately equivalent increases in multisensory gain as signal-to-noise ratio decreased. Collectively, the results provide important insights into both the similarities and differences in how older and younger adults integrate auditory and visual speech cues in noisy environments and help explain some of the conflicting findings in previous studies of multisensory speech perception in healthy aging. These novel findings suggest that audiovisual processing is intact at more elementary levels of speech perception in healthy-aging populations and that deficits begin to emerge only at the more complex word-recognition level of speech signals.

  9. Development of Open-Set Word Recognition in Children: Speech-Shaped Noise and Two-Talker Speech Maskers

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Nicole E.; Bonino, Angela Yarnell; Buss, Emily; Leibold, Lori J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to establish the developmental trajectories for children’s open-set recognition of monosyllabic words in each of two maskers: two-talker speech and speech-shaped noise. Design Listeners were 56 children (5 to 16 yrs) and 16 adults, all with normal hearing. Thresholds for 50% correct recognition of monosyllabic words were measured in a two-talker speech or a speech-shaped noise masker in the sound field using an open-set task. Target words were presented at a fixed level of 65 dB SPL throughout testing, while the masker level was adapted. A repeated-measures design was used to compare the performance of three age groups of children (5 to 7 yrs, 8 to 12 yrs, and 13 to 16 yrs) and a group of adults. The pattern of age-related changes during childhood was also compared between the two masker conditions. Results Listeners in all four age groups performed more poorly in the two-talker speech than the speech-shaped noise masker, but the developmental trajectories differed for the two masker conditions. For the speech-shaped noise masker, children’s performance improved with age until about 10 years of age, with little systematic child-adult differences thereafter. In contrast, for the two-talker speech masker, children’s thresholds gradually improved between 5 and 13 years of age, followed by an abrupt improvement in performance to adult-like levels. Children’s thresholds in the two masker conditions were uncorrelated. Conclusions Younger children require a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio than older children and adults to achieve 50% correct word recognition in both masker conditions. However, children’s ability to recognize words appears to take longer to mature and follows a different developmental trajectory for the two-talker speech masker than the speech-shaped noise masker. These findings highlight the importance of considering both age and masker type when evaluating children’s masked speech perception

  10. Does Top-Down Feedback Modulate the Encoding of Orthographic Representations During Visual-Word Recognition?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Marcet, Ana; Vergara-Martínez, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In masked priming lexical decision experiments, there is a matched-case identity advantage for nonwords, but not for words (e.g., ERTAR-ERTAR <  ertar-ERTAR; ALTAR-ALTAR = altar-ALTAR). This dissociation has been interpreted in terms of feedback from higher levels of processing during orthographic encoding. Here, we examined whether a matched-case identity advantage also occurs for words when top-down feedback is minimized. We employed a task that taps prelexical orthographic processes: the masked prime same-different task. For "same" trials, results showed faster response times for targets when preceded by a briefly presented matched-case identity prime than when preceded by a mismatched-case identity prime. Importantly, this advantage was similar in magnitude for nonwords and words. This finding constrains the interplay of bottom-up versus top-down mechanisms in models of visual-word identification.

  11. Does orthographic training on a phonemic contrast absent in the listener's dialect influence word recognition?

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noël; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2016-09-01

    This study examined whether the ability of southern French speakers to discriminate between standard French word forms such as /pike/ and /pikε/ can be improved by a training procedure in which participants were exposed to the orthographic representations of words forming /e/-/ε/ minimal pairs. The results of the training procedure showed that southern French speakers were able to perceive the /e/-/ε/ contrast in word final position when they associated words containing these vowels with their correct spelled form. Further, participants in a priming experiment, which was run immediately after training, no longer showed the priming effect on the trained minimal pairs that they had shown in the pre-test. However, a priming effect on the untrained minimal pairs was still observed immediately after training, showing that this training failed to transfer to untrained items. Finally, the benefits of the training procedure were no longer observed the day after training, since southern French speakers once again showed a priming effect on the trained minimal pair of words in a one day post-test. Implications of these findings for the locus of the difficulties of the southern French speakers with the word-final /e/-/ε/ contrast are discussed.

  12. Resolving the orthographic ambiguity during visual word recognition in Arabic: an event-related potential investigation

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Haitham; Khateb, Asaid

    2013-01-01

    The Arabic alphabetical orthographic system has various unique features that include the existence of emphatic phonemic letters. These represent several pairs of letters that share a phonological similarity and use the same parts of the articulation system. The phonological and articulatory similarities between these letters lead to spelling errors where the subject tends to produce a pseudohomophone (PHw) instead of the correct word. Here, we investigated whether or not the unique orthographic features of the written Arabic words modulate early orthographic processes. For this purpose, we analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) collected from adult skilled readers during an orthographic decision task on real words and their corresponding PHw. The subjects' reaction times (RTs) were faster in words than in PHw. ERPs analysis revealed significant response differences between words and the PHw starting during the N170 and extending to the P2 component, with no difference during processing steps devoted to phonological and lexico-semantic processing. Amplitude and latency differences were found also during the P6 component which peaked earlier for words and where source localization indicated the involvement of the classical left language areas. Our findings replicate some of the previous findings on PHw processing and extend them to involve early orthographical processes. PMID:24348367

  13. False memory in aging: effects of emotional valence on word recognition accuracy.

    PubMed

    Piguet, Olivier; Connally, Emily; Krendl, Anne C; Huot, Jessica R; Corkin, Suzanne

    2008-06-01

    Memory is susceptible to distortions. Valence and increasing age are variables known to affect memory accuracy and may increase false alarm production. Interaction between these variables and their impact on false memory was investigated in 36 young (18-28 years) and 36 older (61-83 years) healthy adults. At study, participants viewed lists of neutral words orthographically related to negative, neutral, or positive critical lures (not presented). Memory for these words was subsequently tested with a remember-know procedure. At test, items included the words seen at study and their associated critical lures, as well as sets of orthographically related neutral words not seen at study and their associated unstudied lures. Positive valence was shown to have two opposite effects on older adults' discrimination of the lures: It improved correct rejection of unstudied lures but increased false memory for critical lures (i.e., lures associated with words studied previously). Thus, increased salience triggered by positive valence may disrupt memory accuracy in older adults when discriminating among similar events. These findings likely reflect a source memory deficit due to decreased efficiency in cognitive control processes with aging.

  14. Recent advances in molecular recognition based on nanoengineered platforms.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bin; Zhang, Jingqing; McNicholas, Thomas P; Reuel, Nigel F; Kruss, Sebastian; Strano, Michael S

    2014-04-15

    Nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms have great potential for technologies involving biomoleuclar detection or cell-related biosensing, and have provided effective chemical interfaces for molecular recognition. Typically, chemists work on the modification of synthetic polymers or macromolecules, which they link to the nanoparticles by covalent or noncovalent approaches. The motivation for chemical modification is to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity, and to improve the biocompatibility for the in vivo applications. In this Account, we present recent advances in the development and application of chemical interfaces for molecular recognition for nanoparticles and nanoengineered platforms, in particular single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We discuss emerging approaches for recognizing small molecules, glycosylated proteins, and serum biomarkers. For example, we compare and discuss detection methods for ATP, NO, H2O2, and monosaccharides for recent nanomaterials. Fluorometric detection appears to have great potential for quantifying concentration gradients and determining their location in living cells. For macromolecular detection, new methods for glycoprofiling using such interfaces appear promising, and benefit specifically from the potential elimination of cumbersome labeling and liberation steps during conventional analysis of glycans, augmenting the currently used mass spectrometry (MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and liquid chromatography (LC) methods. In particular, we demonstrated the great potential of fluorescent SWNTs for glycan-lectin interactions sensing. In this case, SWNTs are noncovalently functionalized to introduce a chelated nickel group. This group provides a docking site for the His-tagged lectin and acts as the signal modulator. As the nickel proximity to the SWNT surface changes, the fluorescent signal is increased or attenuated. When a free glycan or glycosylated probe interacts with the lectin, the signal increases and

  15. Visual field differences in visual word recognition can emerge purely from perceptual learning: evidence from modeling Chinese character pronunciation.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Janet Hui-Wen

    2011-11-01

    In Chinese orthography, a dominant character structure exists in which a semantic radical appears on the left and a phonetic radical on the right (SP characters); a minority opposite arrangement also exists (PS characters). As the number of phonetic radical types is much greater than semantic radical types, in SP characters the information is skewed to the right, whereas in PS characters it is skewed to the left. Through training a computational model for SP and PS character recognition that takes into account of the locations in which the characters appear in the visual field during learning, but does not assume any fundamental hemispheric processing difference, we show that visual field differences can emerge as a consequence of the fundamental structural differences in information between SP and PS characters, as opposed to the fundamental processing differences between the two hemispheres. This modeling result is also consistent with behavioral naming performance. This work provides strong evidence that perceptual learning, i.e., the information structure of word stimuli to which the readers have long been exposed, is one of the factors that accounts for hemispheric asymmetry effects in visual word recognition.

  16. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  17. Combined ERP/fMRI evidence for early word recognition effects in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Dien, Joseph; Brian, Eric S; Molfese, Dennis L; Gold, Brian T

    2013-10-01

    Two brain regions with established roles in reading are the posterior middle temporal gyrus and the posterior fusiform gyrus (FG). Lesion studies have also suggested that the region located between them, the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG), plays a central role in word recognition. However, these lesion results could reflect disconnection effects since neuroimaging studies have not reported consistent lexicality effects in pITG. Here we tested whether these reported pITG lesion effects are due to disconnection effects or not using parallel Event-related Potentials (ERP)/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We predicted that the Recognition Potential (RP), a left-lateralized ERP negativity that peaks at about 200-250 msec, might be the electrophysiological correlate of pITG activity and that conditions that evoke the RP (perceptual degradation) might therefore also evoke pITG activity. In Experiment 1, twenty-three participants performed a lexical decision task (temporally flanked by supraliminal masks) while having high-density 129-channel ERP data collected. In Experiment 2, a separate group of fifteen participants underwent the same task while having fMRI data collected in a 3T scanner. Examination of the ERP data suggested that a canonical RP effect was produced. The strongest corresponding effect in the fMRI data was in the vicinity of the pITG. In addition, results indicated stimulus-dependent functional connectivity between pITG and a region of the posterior FG near the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) during word compared to nonword processing. These results provide convergent spatiotemporal evidence that the pITG contributes to early lexical access through interaction with the VWFA.

  18. What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Itamar; Armstrong, Blair C.; Frost, Ram

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the effects of letter transposition in Indo-European Languages has shown that readers are surprisingly tolerant of these manipulations in a range of tasks. This evidence has motivated the development of new computational models of reading that regard flexibility in positional coding to be a core and universal principle of the reading process. Here we argue that such approach does not capture cross-linguistic differences in transposed-letter effects, nor do they explain them. To address this issue, we investigated how a simple domain-general connectionist architecture performs in tasks such as letter-transposition and letter substitution when it had learned to process words in the context of different linguistic environments. The results show that in spite of of the neurobiological noise involved in registering letter-position in all languages, flexibility and inflexibility in coding letter order is also shaped by the statistical orthographic properties of words in a language, such as the relative prevalence of anagrams. Our learning model also generated novel predictions for targeted empirical research, demonstrating a clear advantage of learning models for studying visual word recognition. PMID:25431521

  19. The Effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on Item and Associative Recognition of Words and Pictures in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Keha, Eldad; Tiferet-Dweck, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal/pictorial) and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings) and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording) measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures) simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources. PMID:27148117

  20. The Effects of Word Frequency and Similarity on Recognition Judgments: The Role of Recollection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heekyeong; Reder, Lynne M.; Dickison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    K. J. Malmberg, J. Holden, and R. M. Shiffrin (2004) reported more false alarms for low- than high-frequency words when the foils were similar to the targets. According to the source of activation confusion (SAC) model of memory, that pattern is based on recollection of an underspecified episodic trace rather than the error-prone familiarity…

  1. Speech Reductions Change the Dynamics of Competition during Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Susanne; Mitterer, Holger; Huettig, Falk

    2012-01-01

    Three eye-tracking experiments investigated how phonological reductions (e.g., "puter" for "computer") modulate phonological competition. Participants listened to sentences extracted from a spontaneous speech corpus and saw four printed words: a target (e.g., "computer"), a competitor similar to the canonical form (e.g., "companion"), one similar…

  2. ERP Index of the Morphological Family Size Effect during Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Youan; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Yoonhyoung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the N400 is affected by the semantic richness of associated neighboring word members or by the density of the orthographic syllable neighborhood. Another purpose of this study was to investigate the source of the different LPC in respect to the semantic richness. To do so, the density of the…

  3. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners' use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task. Method: In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists…

  4. Visual Constraints in Written Word Recognition: Evidence from the Optimal Viewing-Position Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brysbaert, Marc; Nazir, Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we review the literature on visual constraints in written word processing. We notice that not all letters are equally visible to the reader. The letter that is most visible is the letter that is fixated. The visibility of the other letters depends on the distance between the letters and the fixation location, whether the letters are…

  5. Do Fixation Cues Ensure Fixation Accuracy in Split-Fovea Studies of Word Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Paterson, Kevin B.; Kurtev, Stoyan; Xu, Mengyun

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have claimed that hemispheric processing is split precisely at the foveal midline and so place great emphasis on the precise location at which words are fixated. These claims are based on experiments in which a variety of fixation procedures were used to ensure fixation accuracy but the effectiveness of these procedures is unclear. We…

  6. Teaching Word Recognition, Spelling, and Vocabulary: Strategies from "The Reading Teacher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V., Ed.; Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; Church, Brenda Weible, Ed.; Fawcett, Gay, Ed.; Hendershot, Judith, Ed.; Henry, Justina M., Ed.; Moss, Barbara G., Ed.; Peck, Jacqueline K., Ed.; Pryor, Elizabeth, Ed.; Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.

    This book, one of four in the Teaching Reading Collection, presents the "best of the best" classroom-tested ideas, approaches, and practical applications for helping students learn about words. The articles have been drawn from the journal "The Reading Teacher" from 1993-1999. The ideas and strategies are intended to provide possible building…

  7. Syllable Frequency Effects in Visual Word Recognition: Developmental Approach in French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the syllable's role in the normal reading acquisition of French children at three grade levels (1st, 3rd, and 5th), using a modified version of Cole, Magnan, and Grainger's (1999) paradigm. We focused on the effects of syllable frequency and word frequency. The results suggest that from the first to third years of reading…

  8. The Role of Orthographic Syllable Structure in Assigning Letters to Their Position in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus; Krebs-Lazendic, Lidija

    2013-01-01

    The way in which letters are assigned their position when recognizing a visually presented word was examined in three experiments using nonwords created by transposing the two medial consonants of a bisyllabic baseword (e.g., "nakpin," "semron"). The difficulty in responding to such "TL" nonwords in a lexical decision task was shown to be lower…

  9. The Role of Orthographic Neighborhood Size Effects in Chinese Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Meng-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Chou, Tai-Li; Yang, Fu-Ling; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the orthographic neighborhood size (NS) in Chinese have overlooked the morphological processing, and the co-variation between the character frequency and the the NS. The present study manipulated the word frequency and the NS simultaneously, with the leading character frequency controlled, to explore their influences on word…

  10. L2 Learners' Recognition of Unfamiliar Idioms Composed of Familiar Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Choonkyong

    2016-01-01

    Most second language (L2) learners are aware of the importance of vocabulary, and this awareness usually directs their attention to learning new words. By contrast, learners do not often recognise unfamiliar idioms if all the compositional parts look familiar to them such as "turn the corner" or "carry the day." College-level…

  11. When parallel processing in visual word recognition is not enough: new evidence from naming.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Martha Anne; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Besner, Derek

    2003-06-01

    Low-frequency irregular words are named more slowly and are more error prone than low-frequency regular words (the regularity effect). Rastle and Coltheart (1999) reported that this irregularity cost is modulated by the serial position of the irregular grapheme-phoneme correspondence, such that words with early irregularities exhibit a larger cost than words with late ones. They argued that these data implicate rule-based serial processing, and they also reported a successful simulation with a model that has a rule-based serial component--the DRC model of reading aloud (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). However, Zorzi (2000) also simulated these data with a model that operates solely in parallel. Furthermore, Kwantes and Mewhort (1999) simulated these data with a serial processing model that has no rules for converting orthography to phonology. The human data reported by Rastle and Coltheart therefore neither require a serial processing account, nor successfully discriminate among a number of computational models of reading aloud. New data are presented wherein an interaction between the effects of regularity and serial position of irregularity is again reported for human readers. The DRC model simulated this interaction; no other implemented computational model does so. The present results are thus consistent with rule-based serial processing in reading aloud.

  12. Semantic Radical Knowledge and Word Recognition in Chinese for Chinese as Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…

  13. The effect of encoding strategies on medial temporal lobe activations during the recognition of words: an event-related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2005-04-01

    It is known that manipulation of the encoding strategy affects behavioral and activation data during later retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we examined brain activity during the recognition of words encoded using three different strategies formed by the combination of two factors of relational and self-performed processes. The first encoding strategy involved subjects learning words using both relational and self-performed processes (R+S+). In the second, subjects learned words using only a relational process (R+S-). In the third, subjects learned words without using either process (R-S-). During fMRI after encoding, subjects were randomly presented with words encoded previously and with new words (New) and were required to judge whether or not the word presented had been previously encoded. The fMRI experiment was performed with the event-related design. Compared to New, activation of the left medial temporal lobe (MTL) occurred during the recognition of words encoded using R+S+ and R+S-, whereas right MTL activations only occurred with the R+S+ strategy. ROI analysis for the bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed a linear increase in left MTL activity (hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus) during the recognition of words encoded with the R-S-, R+S-, to R+S+, whereas right MTL activity (parahippocampal gyrus) was only increased with the R+S+ strategy. The findings suggest that the left and right MTL structures may contribute differentially to the processes involved in the recognition of stimuli and that these differential activities may depend on the encoding strategies formed by the two factors of relational and self-performed processes.

  14. Effect of stimulation rate on cochlear implant users' phoneme, word and sentence recognition in quiet and in noise.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Robert V; Cruz, Rachel J; Galvin, John J

    2011-01-01

    High stimulation rates in cochlear implants (CI) offer better temporal sampling, can induce stochastic-like firing of auditory neurons and can increase the electric dynamic range, all of which could improve CI speech performance. While commercial CI have employed increasingly high stimulation rates, no clear or consistent advantage has been shown for high rates. In this study, speech recognition was acutely measured with experimental processors in 7 CI subjects (Clarion CII users). The stimulation rate varied between (approx.) 600 and 4800 pulses per second per electrode (ppse) and the number of active electrodes varied between 4 and 16. Vowel, consonant, consonant-nucleus-consonant word and IEEE sentence recognition was acutely measured in quiet and in steady noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio). Subjective quality ratings were obtained for each of the experimental processors in quiet and in noise. Except for a small difference for vowel recognition in quiet, there were no significant differences in performance among the experimental stimulation rates for any of the speech measures. There was also a small but significant increase in subjective quality rating as stimulation rates increased from 1200 to 2400 ppse in noise. Consistent with previous studies, performance significantly improved as the number of electrodes was increased from 4 to 8, but no significant difference showed between 8, 12 and 16 electrodes. Altogether, there was little-to-no advantage of high stimulation rates in quiet or in noise, at least for the present speech tests and conditions.

  15. Effect of Stimulation Rate on Cochlear Implant Users’ Phoneme, Word and Sentence Recognition in Quiet and in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Robert V.; Cruz, Rachel J.; Galvin, John J.

    2011-01-01

    High stimulation rates in cochlear implants (CI) offer better temporal sampling, can induce stochastic-like firing of auditory neurons and can increase the electric dynamic range, all of which could improve CI speech performance. While commercial CI have employed increasingly high stimulation rates, no clear or consistent advantage has been shown for high rates. In this study, speech recognition was acutely measured with experimental processors in 7 CI subjects (Clarion CII users). The stimulation rate varied between (approx.) 600 and 4800 pulses per second per electrode (ppse) and the number of active electrodes varied between 4 and 16. Vowel, consonant, consonant-nucleus-consonant word and IEEE sentence recognition was acutely measured in quiet and in steady noise (+10 dB signal-to-noise ratio). Subjective quality ratings were obtained for each of the experimental processors in quiet and in noise. Except for a small difference for vowel recognition in quiet, there were no significant differences in performance among the experimental stimulation rates for any of the speech measures. There was also a small but significant increase in subjective quality rating as stimulation rates increased from 1200 to 2400 ppse in noise. Consistent with previous studies, performance significantly improved as the number of electrodes was increased from 4 to 8, but no significant difference showed between 8, 12 and 16 electrodes. Altogether, there was little-to-no advantage of high stimulation rates in quiet or in noise, at least for the present speech tests and conditions. PMID:20639631

  16. Lexical frequency and neighborhood density effects on the recognition of native and Spanish-accented words by native English and Spanish listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Satomi; Walley, Amanda C.; Flege, James E.

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the effect of presumed mismatches between speech input and the phonological representations of English words by native speakers of English (NE) and Spanish (NS). The English test words, which were produced by a NE speaker and a NS speaker, varied orthogonally in lexical frequency and neighborhood density and were presented to NE listeners and to NS listeners who differed in English pronunciation proficiency. It was hypothesized that mismatches between phonological representations and speech input would impair word recognition, especially for items from dense lexical neighborhoods which are phonologically similar to many other words and require finer sound discrimination. Further, it was assumed that L2 phonological representations would change with L2 proficiency. The results showed the expected mismatch effect only for words from dense neighborhoods. For Spanish-accented stimuli, the NS groups recognized more words from dense neighborhoods than the NE group did. For native-produced stimuli, the low-proficiency NS group recognized fewer words than the other two groups. The-high proficiency NS participants' performance was as good as the NE group's for words from sparse neighborhoods, but not for words from dense neighborhoods. These results are discussed in relation to the development of phonological representations of L2 words. (200 words). .

  17. Isolated Word Recognition From In-Ear Microphone Data Using Hidden Markov Models (HMM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    to more complicated and intrusive alternatives. The microphone earpiece contains a small passive 10 sensor, which is commercially available off-the...noisy surroundings and allow for a relatively simple speech recognition approach, an unconventional recording device, an earpiece microphone placed

  18. Sensitivity to Morphological Composition in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Grammatical and Lexical Identification Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwilliams, Laura E.; Monahan, Philip J.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    Access to morphological structure during lexical processing has been established across a number of languages; however, it remains unclear which constituents are held as mental representations in the lexicon. The present study examined the auditory recognition of different noun types across 2 experiments. The critical manipulations were…

  19. Neuronal Spoken Word Recognition: The Time Course of Processing Variation in the Speech Signal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Ulrike; Roder, Brigitte; Friedrich, Claudia K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent neurobiological studies revealed evidence for lexical representations that are not specified for the coronal place of articulation (PLACE; Friedrich, Eulitz, & Lahiri, 2006; Friedrich, Lahiri, & Eulitz, 2008). Here we tested when these types of underspecified representations influence neuronal speech recognition. In a unimodal…

  20. Exploring word recognition in a semi-alphabetic script: the case of Devanagari.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Jyotsna; Gupta, Ashum

    2002-01-01

    Unlike other writing systems that are readily classifiable as alphabetic or syllabic in their structure, the Indic Devanagari script (of which Hindi is an example) has properties of both syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. Whereas Devanagari consonants are written in a linear left-to-right order, vowel signs are positioned nonlinearly above, below, or to either side of the consonants. This fact results in certain words in Hindi for which, in a given syllable, the vowel precedes the consonant in writing but follows it in speech. The current research exploited this property of the script to examine when the disparity between spatial and temporal sequencing would incur a processing cost and the implications of the findings from naming speed, accuracy, and writing order for the level at which words in Devanagari are segmented. The results support a partly phonemic and partly syllabic level of segmentation, consistent with the structural hybridity of the script.

  1. Adult aging effects on semantic and episodic priming in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Laver, Gary D

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments compared automatic semantic and episodic priming effects in adult aging. In the 1st experiment, target words were semantically primed; in the 2nd experiment, targets were primed by repetition of semantically unrelated words. Both experiments involved a pronunciation task with response signals at fixed times following target onset. Consequently, priming was measured as improvement in the percentage of correct responses. Priming was also calculated with speed-accuracy measures of intercept and slope. Both types of priming effect were significant in the percentage correct and slope measures, but no age group differences were found. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the priming effects were equivalent. The age-resistant nature of semantic and episodic priming, as well as evidence for a common theoretical mechanism, is discussed.

  2. Semantic transparency in free stems: The effect of Orthography-Semantics Consistency on word recognition.

    PubMed

    Marelli, Marco; Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    A largely overlooked side effect in most studies of morphological priming is a consistent main effect of semantic transparency across priming conditions. That is, participants are faster at recognizing stems from transparent sets (e.g., farm) in comparison to stems from opaque sets (e.g., fruit), regardless of the preceding primes. This suggests that semantic transparency may also be consistently associated with some property of the stem word. We propose that this property might be traced back to the consistency, throughout the lexicon, between the orthographic form of a word and its meaning, here named Orthography-Semantics Consistency (OSC), and that an imbalance in OSC scores might explain the "stem transparency" effect. We exploited distributional semantic models to quantitatively characterize OSC, and tested its effect on visual word identification relying on large-scale data taken from the British Lexicon Project (BLP). Results indicated that (a) the "stem transparency" effect is solid and reliable, insofar as it holds in BLP lexical decision times (Experiment 1); (b) an imbalance in terms of OSC can account for it (Experiment 2); and

  3. Comparative Study of Nonlinear Time Warping Techniques in Isolated Word Speech Recognition Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-17

    all modules are loaded under a flexible research oriented supervisor, " Cicada ". Cicada allows for the integration of experimental ideas, extensions...evaluate alternate recognition methods. More detailed information about Cicada can be found in7 . In the following we limit our discussion to the design of...43.70 37.78 32.47 44.44 44.32 38 8. Figures Cicada - a flexible research oriented supervisor ReferenceSTernpl ates Front End Matching Digital Signal

  4. Drifting through Basic Subprocesses of Reading: A Hierarchical Diffusion Model Analysis of Age Effects on Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Eva; Liebig, Johanna; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Braun, Mario; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i.e., sublexical, orthographic, phonological and lexico-semantic processing. The aim of the present study was therefore to systematically investigate the impact of age on each of these subprocesses. A total of 1,807 participants (young, N = 384; old, N = 1,423) performed four decision tasks specifically designed to tap one of the subprocesses. To account for the behavioral heterogeneity in older adults, this subsample was split into high and low performing readers. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modeling approach, which provides more information than standard response time/accuracy analyses. Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion modeling allowed us to differentiate between age-related changes in decision threshold, non-decision time and the speed of information uptake. We observed longer non-decision times for older adults and a more conservative decision threshold. More importantly, high-performing older readers outperformed younger adults at the speed of information uptake in orthographic and lexico-semantic processing, whereas a general age-disadvantage was observed at the sublexical and phonological levels. Low-performing older readers were slowest in information uptake in all four subprocesses. Discussing these results in terms of computational models of word recognition, we propose age

  5. Drifting through Basic Subprocesses of Reading: A Hierarchical Diffusion Model Analysis of Age Effects on Visual Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Eva; Liebig, Johanna; Ziegler, Johannes C; Braun, Mario; Lindenberger, Ulman; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-01-01

    Reading is one of the most popular leisure activities and it is routinely performed by most individuals even in old age. Successful reading enables older people to master and actively participate in everyday life and maintain functional independence. Yet, reading comprises a multitude of subprocesses and it is undoubtedly one of the most complex accomplishments of the human brain. Not surprisingly, findings of age-related effects on word recognition and reading have been partly contradictory and are often confined to only one of four central reading subprocesses, i.e., sublexical, orthographic, phonological and lexico-semantic processing. The aim of the present study was therefore to systematically investigate the impact of age on each of these subprocesses. A total of 1,807 participants (young, N = 384; old, N = 1,423) performed four decision tasks specifically designed to tap one of the subprocesses. To account for the behavioral heterogeneity in older adults, this subsample was split into high and low performing readers. Data were analyzed using a hierarchical diffusion modeling approach, which provides more information than standard response time/accuracy analyses. Taking into account incorrect and correct response times, their distributions and accuracy data, hierarchical diffusion modeling allowed us to differentiate between age-related changes in decision threshold, non-decision time and the speed of information uptake. We observed longer non-decision times for older adults and a more conservative decision threshold. More importantly, high-performing older readers outperformed younger adults at the speed of information uptake in orthographic and lexico-semantic processing, whereas a general age-disadvantage was observed at the sublexical and phonological levels. Low-performing older readers were slowest in information uptake in all four subprocesses. Discussing these results in terms of computational models of word recognition, we propose age

  6. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity). PMID:27074013

  7. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845

  8. Emotion Recognition of Weblog Sentences Based on an Ensemble Algorithm of Multi-label Classification and Word Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Ren, Fuji

    Weblogs have greatly changed the communication ways of mankind. Affective analysis of blog posts is found valuable for many applications such as text-to-speech synthesis or computer-assisted recommendation. Traditional emotion recognition in text based on single-label classification can not satisfy higher requirements of affective computing. In this paper, the automatic identification of sentence emotion in weblogs is modeled as a multi-label text categorization task. Experiments are carried out on 12273 blog sentences from the Chinese emotion corpus Ren_CECps with 8-dimension emotion annotation. An ensemble algorithm RAKEL is used to recognize dominant emotions from the writer's perspective. Our emotion feature using detailed intensity representation for word emotions outperforms the other main features such as the word frequency feature and the traditional lexicon-based feature. In order to deal with relatively complex sentences, we integrate grammatical characteristics of punctuations, disjunctive connectives, modification relations and negation into features. It achieves 13.51% and 12.49% increases for Micro-averaged F1 and Macro-averaged F1 respectively compared to the traditional lexicon-based feature. Result shows that multiple-dimension emotion representation with grammatical features can efficiently classify sentence emotion in a multi-label problem.

  9. Cognates Facilitate Word Recognition in Young Spanish-English Bilinguals’ Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Anita Méndez; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to determine whether bilingual children of kindergarten and first grade age were able to recognize cognates of Spanish words, and whether the ability to recognize cognates changed the score on a measure of English vocabulary. Methods 89 bilingual children were administered all of the items on the Test of Language Development-Primary:3 (TOLD-P:3) Picture Vocabulary Subtest (Newcomer & Hammill, 1997). Parents and teachers provided information about the child’s English and Spanish exposure. Data analysis using repeated measures ANOVA compared performance in bilingual children divided by level of relative exposure to Spanish and English on cognate verses noncognate items. Results Sensitivity to cognate status was related to the amount of language exposure. Children exposed to more Spanish knew more of the English cognates of Spanish words than children who were exposed to balanced amounts of Spanish and English and those exposed to more English. Standard scores differences on the TOLD-P:3 across all levels of Spanish-English exposure were found using ceiling rules and total raw scores. Conclusions Findings suggest a transfer of vocabulary knowledge from the students’ first language (Spanish) to receptive vocabulary in English. Children as early as kindergarten are sensitive to the Spanish/English cognates. Results have implications for understanding bilingual children’s’ performance on assessment, and for developing intervention strategies to enhance vocabulary in English language learners. PMID:23565068

  10. Phonological and syntactic competition effects in spoken word recognition: evidence from corpus-based statistics

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jie; Devereux, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As spoken language unfolds over time the speech input transiently activates multiple candidates at different levels of the system – phonological, lexical, and syntactic – which in turn leads to short-lived between-candidate competition. In an fMRI study, we investigated how different kinds of linguistic competition may be modulated by the presence or absence of a prior context (Tyler 1984; Tyler et al. 2008). We found significant effects of lexico-phonological competition for isolated words, but not for words in short phrases, with high competition yielding greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions. This suggests that phrasal contexts reduce lexico-phonological competition by eliminating form-class inconsistent cohort candidates. A corpus-derived measure of lexico-syntactic competition was associated with greater activation in LIFG for verbs in phrases, but not for isolated verbs, indicating that lexico-syntactic information is boosted by the phrasal context. Together, these findings indicate that LIFG plays a general role in resolving different kinds of linguistic competition. PMID:28164141

  11. Phonological and syntactic competition effects in spoken word recognition: evidence from corpus-based statistics.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Devereux, Barry J

    2017-02-07

    As spoken language unfolds over time the speech input transiently activates multiple candidates at different levels of the system - phonological, lexical, and syntactic - which in turn leads to short-lived between-candidate competition. In an fMRI study, we investigated how different kinds of linguistic competition may be modulated by the presence or absence of a prior context (Tyler 1984; Tyler et al. 2008). We found significant effects of lexico-phonological competition for isolated words, but not for words in short phrases, with high competition yielding greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal regions. This suggests that phrasal contexts reduce lexico-phonological competition by eliminating form-class inconsistent cohort candidates. A corpus-derived measure of lexico-syntactic competition was associated with greater activation in LIFG for verbs in phrases, but not for isolated verbs, indicating that lexico-syntactic information is boosted by the phrasal context. Together, these findings indicate that LIFG plays a general role in resolving different kinds of linguistic competition.

  12. Correlation between word recognition score and intracochlear new bone and fibrous tissue after cochlear implantation in the human.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Takefumi; Nadol, Joseph B

    2016-09-01

    Cochlear implantation is an effective, established procedure for patients with profound deafness. Although implant electrodes have been considered as biocompatible prostheses, surgical insertion of the electrode induces various changes within the cochlea. Immediate changes include insertional trauma to the cochlea. Delayed changes include a tissue response consisting of inflammation, fibrosis and neo-osteogenesis induced by trauma and an immunologic reaction to a foreign body. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of these delayed changes on the word recognition scores achieved post-operatively. Seventeen temporal bones from patients who in life had undergone cochlear implantation were prepared for light microscopy. We digitally calculated the volume of fibrous tissue and new bone within the cochlea using Amira(®) three-dimensional reconstruction software and assessed the correlations of various clinical and histologic factors. The postoperative CNC word score was positively correlated with total spiral ganglion cell count. Fibrous tissue and new bone were found within the cochlea of all seventeen specimens. The postoperative CNC word score was negatively correlated with the % volume of new bone within the scala tympani, scala media/vestibuli and the cochlea, but not with the % volume of fibrous tissue. The % volume of new bone in the scala media/vestibuli was positively correlated with the degree of intracochlear insertional trauma, especially trauma to the basilar membrane. Our results revealed that the % volume of new bone as well as residual total spiral ganglion cell count are important factors influencing post-implant hearing performance. New bone formation may be reduced by limiting insertional trauma and increasing the biocompatibility of the electrodes.

  13. Priming and interference effects can be dissociated in the Stroop task: new evidence in favor of the automaticity of word recognition.

    PubMed

    Catena, Andrés; Fuentes, Luis J; Tudela, Pío

    2002-03-01

    Recently, Besner, Stolz, and Boutilier (1997) showed that by coloring a single letter instead of the whole word, Stroop interference is reduced or even eliminated, a result that is at odds with the widely accepted assumption that word recognition is automatic. In a replication of the Besner et al. study, we computed priming effects in addition to the standard Stroop interference. Interference results replicated those of Besner et al. Also, negative priming in the all-letter-colored condition and positive priming in the single-letter-colored condition were obtained. Priming findings demonstrate that word processing can take place in the absence of interference effects. These results support the view of automatic processing of words in the Stroop task and call for priming as a more appropriate measure of word processing than interference.

  14. Enhanced recognition and recall of new words in 7- and 12-year-olds following a period of offline consolidation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Weighall, Anna; Henderson, Lisa M; Gareth Gaskell, M

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies of adults have found evidence for consolidation effects in the acquisition of novel words, but little is known about whether such effects are found developmentally. In two experiments, we familiarized children with novel nonwords (e.g., biscal) and tested their recognition and recall of these items. In Experiment 1, 7-year-olds were then retested on either the same day or the following day to examine changes in performance after a short delay compared with a longer delay that included sleep. Experiment 2 used two age groups (7- and 12-year-olds), with all participants being retested 24h later. The 12-year-olds accurately recognized the novel nonwords immediately after exposure, as did the 7-year-olds in Experiment 2 (but not in Experiment 1), suggesting generally good initial rates of learning. Experiment 1 revealed improved recognition of the novel nonwords after both short (3- to 4-h) and longer (24-h) delays. In contrast, recall was initially poor but showed improvements only when children were retested 24h later, not after a 3- to 4-h delay. Similar improvements were observed in both age groups despite better overall performance in 12-year-olds. We argue that children, like adults, exhibit offline consolidation effects on the formation of novel phonological representations.

  15. Stimulus- and response-locked neuronal generator patterns of auditory and visual word recognition memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Gil, Roberto B; Bruder, Gerard E

    2009-09-01

    Examining visual word recognition memory (WRM) with nose-referenced EEGs, we reported a preserved ERP 'old-new effect' (enhanced parietal positivity 300-800 ms to correctly-recognized repeated items) in schizophrenia ([Kayser, J., Bruder, G.E., Friedman, D., Tenke, C.E., Amador, X.F., Clark, S.C., Malaspina, D., Gorman, J.M., 1999. Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in schizophrenia during a word recognition memory task. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 34(3), 249-265.]). However, patients showed reduced early negative potentials (N1, N2) and poorer WRM. Because group differences in neuronal generator patterns (i.e., sink-source orientation) may be masked by choice of EEG recording reference, the current study combined surface Laplacians and principal components analysis (PCA) to clarify ERP component topography and polarity and to disentangle stimulus- and response-related contributions. To investigate the impact of stimulus modality, 31-channel ERPs were recorded from 20 schizophrenic patients (15 male) and 20 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy adults during parallel visual and auditory continuous WRM tasks. Stimulus- and response-locked reference-free current source densities (spherical splines) were submitted to unrestricted Varimax-PCA to identify and measure neuronal generator patterns underlying ERPs. Poorer (78.2+/-18.7% vs. 87.8+/-11.3% correct) and slower (958+/-226 vs. 773+/-206 ms) performance in patients was accompanied by reduced stimulus-related left-parietal P3 sources (150 ms pre-response) and vertex N2 sinks (both overall and old/new effects) but modality-specific N1 sinks were not significantly reduced. A distinct mid-frontal sink 50-ms post-response was markedly attenuated in patients. Reductions were more robust for auditory stimuli. However, patients showed increased lateral-frontotemporal sinks (T7 maximum) concurrent with auditory P3 sources. Electrophysiologic correlates of WRM deficits in schizophrenia suggest functional impairments of

  16. The Time Course of the Syllable Frequency Effect in Visual Word Recognition: Evidence for Both Facilitatory and Inhibitory Effects in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    The present study tracked the time course of the syllable frequency effect in French visual word recognition, by varying the strength of spreading activation between letters and phonological syllables. The frequency of phonological first syllables and the frequency of orthographic first syllables were conjointly manipulated in two lexical decision…

  17. Recognition memory across the lifespan: the impact of word frequency and study-test interval on estimates of familiarity and recollection

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Beat; Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Rothen, Nicolas; Graf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate recognition memory performance across the lifespan and to determine how estimates of recollection and familiarity contribute to performance. In each of three experiments, participants from five groups from 14 up to 85 years of age (children, young adults, middle-aged adults, young-old adults, and old-old adults) were presented with high- and low-frequency words in a study phase and were tested immediately afterwards and/or after a one day retention interval. The results showed that word frequency and retention interval affected recognition memory performance as well as estimates of recollection and familiarity. Across the lifespan, the trajectory of recognition memory followed an inverse u-shape function that was neither affected by word frequency nor by retention interval. The trajectory of estimates of recollection also followed an inverse u-shape function, and was especially pronounced for low-frequency words. In contrast, estimates of familiarity did not differ across the lifespan. The results indicate that age differences in recognition memory are mainly due to differences in processes related to recollection while the contribution of familiarity-based processes seems to be age-invariant. PMID:24198796

  18. Effects of An Integrated Format for Reading Instruction on the Comprehension and Word-Recognition Performance of Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students Who Exhibit Severe Reading Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmer, Lavada Jacumin; Thames, Dana G.; Kazelskis, Richard

    A study examined the effectiveness of an integrated language arts instructional format for teaching reading compared with the effectiveness of the typical traditional reading program. The study investigated the effectiveness of approaches that are representative of both viewpoints of the reading process (i.e., word recognition and the construction…

  19. Teaching Word Recognition to Young Children Who Are at Risk Using Microsoft[R] Powerpoint[TM] Coupled with Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Boeckmann, Nichole M.; Watts, Emily H.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on use of Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM] paired with direct instruction (DI) to teach word recognition to young children at risk. DI has been a widely used teaching method for over 40 years, and is often used to teach emergent literacy skills. Recent DI research with preschoolers at risk has suggested the potential for using…

  20. The Modulation of Visual and Task Characteristics of a Writing System on Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Recognition--A Computational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Janet H.; Lam, Sze Man

    2013-01-01

    Through computational modeling, here we examine whether visual and task characteristics of writing systems alone can account for lateralization differences in visual word recognition between different languages without assuming influence from left hemisphere (LH) lateralized language processes. We apply a hemispheric processing model of face…

  1. The Role of Word Recognition, Oral Reading Fluency and Listening Comprehension in the Simple View of Reading: A Study in an Intermediate Depth Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadime, Irene; Rodrigues, Bruna; Santos, Sandra; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina; Chaves-Sousa, Séli; do Céu Cosme, Maria; Ribeiro, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Empirical research has provided evidence for the simple view of reading across a variety of orthographies, but the role of oral reading fluency in the model is unclear. Moreover, the relative weight of listening comprehension, oral reading fluency and word recognition in reading comprehension seems to vary across orthographies and schooling years.…

  2. The Role of Secondary-Stressed and Unstressed-Unreduced Syllables in Word Recognition: Acoustic and Perceptual Studies with Russian Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banzina, Elina; Dilley, Laura C.; Hewitt, Lynne E.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of secondary-stressed (SS) and unstressed-unreduced (UU) syllable accuracy for spoken word recognition in English is as yet unclear. An acoustic study first investigated Russian learners' of English production of SS and UU syllables. Significant vowel quality and duration reductions in Russian-spoken SS and UU vowels were found,…

  3. The Effects of Modeling and Repeated Taped Reading Instruction on the Learning Disabled Child as Ways To Improve Reading Comprehension Fluency and Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokicki, Anne L.

    This practicum focused on the use of repeated taped reading instruction with modeling to improve fluency, comprehension, and automatic word recognition in five students (ages 11-13 years) with learning disabilities for a period of 10 weeks. The instruction also involved the teacher giving corrective feedback and having the students answer story…

  4. Authorship recognition via fluctuation analysis of network topology and word intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amancio, Diego R.

    2015-03-01

    Statistical methods have been widely employed in many practical natural language processing applications. More specifically, complex network concepts and methods from dynamical systems theory have been successfully applied to recognize stylistic patterns in written texts. Despite the large number of studies devoted to representing texts with physical models, only a few studies have assessed the relevance of attributes derived from the analysis of stylistic fluctuations. Because fluctuations represent a pivotal factor for characterizing a myriad of real systems, this study focused on the analysis of the properties of stylistic fluctuations in texts via topological analysis of complex networks and intermittency measurements. The results showed that different authors display distinct fluctuation patterns. In particular, it was found that it is possible to identify the authorship of books using the intermittency of specific words. Taken together, the results described here suggest that the patterns found in stylistic fluctuations could be used to analyze other related complex systems. Furthermore, the discovery of novel patterns related to textual stylistic fluctuations indicates that these patterns could be useful to improve the state of the art of many stylistic-based natural language processing tasks.

  5. Author’s response: A universal approach to modeling visual word recognition and reading: not only possible, but also inevitable.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ram

    2012-10-01

    I have argued that orthographic processing cannot be understood and modeled without considering the manner in which orthographic structure represents phonological, semantic, and morphological information in a given writing system. A reading theory, therefore, must be a theory of the interaction of the reader with his/her linguistic environment. This outlines a novel approach to studying and modeling visual word recognition, an approach that focuses on the common cognitive principles involved in processing printed words across different writing systems. These claims were challenged by several commentaries that contested the merits of my general theoretical agenda, the relevance of the evolution of writing systems, and the plausibility of finding commonalities in reading across orthographies. Other commentaries extended the scope of the debate by bringing into the discussion additional perspectives. My response addresses all these issues. By considering the constraints of neurobiology on modeling reading, developmental data, and a large scope of cross-linguistic evidence, I argue that front-end implementations of orthographic processing that do not stem from a comprehensive theory of the complex information conveyed by writing systems do not present a viable approach for understanding reading. The common principles by which writing systems have evolved to represent orthographic, phonological, and semantic information in a language reveal the critical distributional characteristics of orthographic structure that govern reading behavior. Models of reading should thus be learning models, primarily constrained by cross-linguistic developmental evidence that describes how the statistical properties of writing systems shape the characteristics of orthographic processing. When this approach is adopted, a universal model of reading is possible.

  6. Receptor architecture of visual areas in the face and word-form recognition region of the posterior fusiform gyrus.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Caspers, Svenja; Schleicher, Axel; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two extrastriate visual areas on the posterior fusiform gyrus, areas FG1 and FG2, were identified based on cytoarchitectonical criteria (Caspers et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:511-526, 2013a). They are located within the object-related ventral visual stream at the transition between early and higher-order (category-specific) visual areas. FG2 has a topographical position which is best comparable to the face or visual word-form recognition area. However, the precise function of FG2 is presently unknown. Since transmitter receptors are key molecules of neurotransmission, we analysed the regional and laminar distribution of 15 different receptor binding sites by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Significant differences between receptor densities of both areas were found for NMDA, GABAB, M3, nicotinic α4/β2 and 5-HT1A receptors as well as for GABAA associated benzodiazepine binding sites. These results support the cytoarchitectonic segregation of FG1 and FG2 into two distinct cortical areas. In addition, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of the multireceptor data of both fusiform areas and 24 visual, auditory, somatosensory and multimodal association areas not only revealed the typical receptor architectonic characteristics of visual areas for FG1 and FG2, but also suggest their putative function as object recognition regions due to the similarity of their receptor fingerprints with those of areas of the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, FG1 and FG2 build a cluster with the multimodal association areas of the inferior parietal lobule. This underlines their hierarchically high position in the visual system of the human cerebral cortex.

  7. Automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition in bilingual children: A cross-language masked priming study in grades 3 and 5.

    PubMed

    Sauval, Karinne; Perre, Laetitia; Duncan, Lynne G; Marinus, Eva; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-02-01

    Previous masked priming research has shown automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition in monolingual skilled adult readers. Activation also occurs across languages in bilingual adult readers, suggesting that the activation of phonological representations is not language specific. Less is known about developing readers. First, it is unclear whether there is automatic phonological activation during visual word recognition among children in general. Second, no empirical data exist on whether the activation of phonological representations is language specific or not in bilingual children. The current study investigated these issues in bilingual third and fifth graders using cross-language phonological masked priming in a lexical decision task. Targets were French words, and primes were English pseudowords of three types: (a) phonological primes, which share phonological information with the target beginning (e.g., dee-DIMANCHE [Sunday], pronounced /di:/-/dimãʃ/); (b) orthographic control primes, which control for letters shared by the phonological prime and target (e.g., d) and their position (e.g., doo-DIMANCHE, pronounced /du:/-/dimãʃ/); and (c) unrelated primes, which share no phonological or orthographic information with the target beginning (e.g., pow-DIMANCHE, pronounced /paʊ/-/dimãʃ/). Significant phonological priming was observed, suggesting that (a) phonological representations are rapidly and automatically activated by print during visual word recognition from Grade 3 onward and that (b) the activation of phonological representations is not language specific in bilingual children.

  8. The Temporal Order of Word Presentation Modulates the Amplitudes of P2 and N400 during Recognition of Causal Relations

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiuling; Xiao, Feng; Wu, Lijun; Chen, Qingfei; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The processing of causal relations has been constantly found to be asymmetrical once the roles of cause and effect are assigned to objects in interactions. We used a relationship recognition paradigm and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) signals to explore the neural mechanism underlying the asymmetrical representations of causal relations in semantic memory. The results revealed that the verification of causal relations is faster if two words appear in “cause-effect” order (e.g., virus-epidemic) than if they appear in “effect-cause” order (e.g., epidemic-virus), whereas no such asymmetrical representation was found for the verification of hierarchical relations with reverse orders (e.g., bird-sparrow vs. sparrow-bird) in Experiment 1. Furthermore, the P2 amplitude elicited by “superordinate-subordinate” order was larger than that when in reverse order, whereas the N400 effect elicited by “cause-effect” order was smaller (more positive) than when in reverse order. However, no such asymmetry, as well as P2 and N400 components, were observed when verifying the existence of a general associative relation in Experiment 2. We suggested that the smaller N400 in cause-effect order indicates their increased salience in semantic memory relative to the effect-cause order. These results provide evidence for dissociable neural processes, which are related to role binding, contributing to the generation of causal asymmetry. PMID:27994564

  9. Anion Recognition in Water: Recent Advances from a Supramolecular and Macromolecular Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The recognition of anions in water remains a key challenge in modern supramolecular chemistry, and is essential if proposed applications in biological, medical, and environmental arenas that typically require aqueous conditions are to be achieved. However, synthetic anion receptors that operate in water have, in general, been the exception rather than the norm to date. Nevertheless, a significant step change towards routinely conducting anion recognition in water has been achieved in the past few years, and this Review highlights these approaches, with particular focus on controlling and using the hydrophobic effect, as well as more exotic interactions such as C−H hydrogen bonding and halogen bonding. We also look beyond the field of small‐molecule recognition into the macromolecular domain, covering recent advances in anion recognition based on biomolecules, polymers, and nanoparticles. PMID:26612067

  10. On the Path to 2X Learning: Exploring the Possibilities of Advanced Speech Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocca, Stephen A.; Morgan, John J.; Bellinger, Sherri M.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that automatic speech recognition (ASR) can effectively increase students' learning twofold over conventional self-study materials. Past and current efforts at the U.S. Military Academy are described that are aimed at integrating advanced ASR into courseware-authoring systems. (Author/VWL)

  11. Advanced Molecular Probes for Sequence-Specific DNA Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertucci, Alessandro; Manicardi, Alex; Corradini, Roberto

    DNA detection can be achieved using the Watson-Crick base pairing with oligonucleotides or oligonucleotide analogs, followed by generation of a physical or chemical signal coupled with a transducer device. The nature of the probe is an essential feature which determines the performances of the sensing device. Many synthetic processes are presently available for "molecular engineering" of DNA probes, enabling label-free and PCR-free detection to be performed. Furthermore, many DNA analogs with improved performances are available and are under development; locked nucleic acids (LNA), peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and their analogs, morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) and other modified probes have shown improved properties of affinity and selectivity in target recognition compared to those of simple DNA probes. The performances of these probes in sensing devices, and the requirements for detection of unamplified DNA will be discussed in this chapter. Chemistry and architectures for conjugation of probes to reporter units, surfaces and nanostructures will also be discussed. Examples of probes used in ultrasensitive detection of unamplified DNA are listed.

  12. Constraining Second Language Word Order Optionality: Scrambling in Advanced English?German and Japanese?German Interlanguage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2005-01-01

    This study documents knowledge of UG-mediated aspects of optionality in word order in the second language (L2) German of advanced English and Japanese speakers (n = 39). A bimodal grammaticality judgement task, which controlled for context and intonation, was administered to probe judgements on a set of scrambling, topicalization and remnant…

  13. Code-Switching Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition: A Masked Priming Study with Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or…

  14. Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following…

  15. Never Seem to Find the Time: Evaluating the Physiological Time Course of Visual Word Recognition with Regression Analysis of Single Item ERPs.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Federmeier, Kara D

    2014-01-01

    Visual word recognition is a process that, both hierarchically and in parallel, draws on different types of information ranging from perceptual to orthographic to semantic. A central question concerns when and how these different types of information come online and interact after a word form is initially perceived. Numerous studies addressing aspects of this question have been conducted with a variety of techniques (e.g., behavior, eye-tracking, ERPs), and divergent theoretical models, suggesting different overall speeds of word processing, have coalesced around clusters of mostly method-specific results. Here, we examine the time course of influence of variables ranging from relatively perceptual (e.g., bigram frequency) to relatively semantic (e.g., number of lexical associates) on ERP responses, analyzed at the single item level. Our results, in combination with a critical review of the literature, suggest methodological, analytic, and theoretical factors that may have led to inconsistency in results of past studies; we will argue that consideration of these factors may lead to a reconciliation between divergent views of the speed of word recognition.

  16. Words, Hemispheres, and Dissociable Subsystems: The Effects of Exposure Duration, Case Alternation, Priming, and Continuity of Form on Word Recognition in the Left and Right Visual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.; Ansorge, Lydia; Lavidor, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments explore aspects of the dissociable neural subsystems theory of hemispheric specialisation proposed by Marsolek and colleagues, and in particular a study by [Deason, R. G., & Marsolek, C. J. (2005). A critical boundary to the left-hemisphere advantage in word processing. "Brain and Language," 92, 251-261]. Experiment 1A showed…

  17. An fMRI Study of Concreteness Effects during Spoken Word Recognition in Aging. Preservation or Attenuation?

    PubMed Central

    Roxbury, Tracy; McMahon, Katie; Coulthard, Alan; Copland, David A.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether healthy aging influences concreteness effects (i.e., the processing advantage seen for concrete over abstract words) and its associated neural mechanisms. We conducted an fMRI study on young and older healthy adults performing auditory lexical decisions on concrete vs. abstract words. We found that spoken comprehension of concrete and abstract words appears relatively preserved for healthy older individuals, including the concreteness effect. This preserved performance was supported by altered activity in left hemisphere regions including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, angular gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. This pattern is consistent with age-related compensatory mechanisms supporting spoken word processing. PMID:26793097

  18. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  19. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  20. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST's measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform.

  1. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST’s measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform. PMID:26401431

  2. Code-switching effects in bilingual word recognition: a masked priming study with event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, Krysta; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2008-06-01

    Two experiments tested language switching effects with bilingual participants in a priming paradigm with masked primes (duration of 50ms in Experiment 1 and 100ms in Experiment 2). Participants had to monitor target words for animal names, and ERPs were recorded to critical (non-animal) words in L1 and L2 primed by unrelated words from the same or the other language. Both experiments revealed language priming (switching) effects that depended on target language. For target words in L1, most of the language switch effect appeared in the N400 ERP component, with L2 primes generating a more negative going wave than L1 primes. For L2 target words, on the other hand, the effects of a language switch appeared mainly in an earlier ERP component (N250) peaking at approximately 250ms post-target onset, and showing greater negativity following an L1 prime than an L2 prime. This is the first evidence for fast-acting language-switching effects occurring in the absence of overt task switching.

  3. Hippocampus and nucleus accumbens activity during neutral word recognition related to trait physical anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Suk; Chun, Ji Won; Kang, Jee In; Kang, Dong-Il; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2012-07-30

    Emotional memory dysfunction may be associated with anhedonia in schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the neurobiological basis of emotional memory and its relationship with anhedonia in schizophrenia specifically in emotional memory relate brain regions of interest (ROIs) including the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Fourteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy subjects performed a word-image associative encoding task, during which a neutral word was presented with a positive, neutral, or control image. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing the recognition task. Correlation analyses were performed between the percent signal change (PSC) in the ROIs and the anhedonia scores. We found no group differences in recognition accuracy and reaction time. The PSC of the hippocampus in the positive and neutral conditions, and the PSC in the nucleus accumbens in the control condition, appeared to be negatively correlated with the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS) scores in patients with schizophrenia, while significant correlations with the PAS scores were not observed in healthy subjects. This study provides further evidences of the role of the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens in trait physical anhedonia and possible associations between emotional memory deficit and trait physical anhedonia in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. A landmark recognition and tracking experiment for flight on the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory (ATL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an experiment for landmark recognition and tracking from the Shuttle/Advanced Technology Laboratory is described. It makes use of parallel coherent optical processing to perform correlation tests between landmarks observed passively with a telescope and previously made holographic matched filters. The experimental equipment including the optics, the low power laser, the random access file of matched filters and the electro-optical readout device are described. A real time optically excited liquid crystal device is recommended for performing the input non-coherent optical to coherent optical interface function. A development program leading to a flight experiment in 1981 is outlined.

  5. Speech recognition in advanced rotorcraft - Using speech controls to reduce manual control overload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Bortolussi, Michael R.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment has been conducted to ascertain the usefulness of helicopter pilot speech controls and their effect on time-sharing performance, under the impetus of multiple-resource theories of attention which predict that time-sharing should be more efficient with mixed manual and speech controls than with all-manual ones. The test simulation involved an advanced, single-pilot scout/attack helicopter. Performance and subjective workload levels obtained supported the claimed utility of speech recognition-based controls; specifically, time-sharing performance was improved while preparing a data-burst transmission of information during helicopter hover.

  6. Recent Advances in Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy for Chiral Recognition of Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Márcio S

    2017-02-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool for the elucidation of chemical structure and chiral recognition. In the last decade, the number of probes, media, and experiments to analyze chiral environments has rapidly increased. The evaluation of chiral molecules and systems has become a routine task in almost all NMR laboratories, allowing for the determination of molecular connectivities and the construction of spatial relationships. Among the features that improve the chiral recognition abilities by NMR is the application of different nuclei. The simplicity of the multinuclear NMR spectra relative to ¹H, the minimal influence of the experimental conditions, and the larger shift dispersion make these nuclei especially suitable for NMR analysis. Herein, the recent advances in multinuclear ((19)F, (31)P, (13)C, and (77)Se) NMR spectroscopy for chiral recognition of organic compounds are presented. The review describes new chiral derivatizing agents and chiral solvating agents used for stereodiscrimination and the assignment of the absolute configuration of small organic compounds.

  7. Individual differences in language ability are related to variation in word recognition, not speech perception: Evidence from eye-movements

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Bob; Munson, Cheyenne; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined speech perception deficits associated with individual differences in language ability contrasting auditory, phonological or lexical accounts by asking if lexical competition is differentially sensitive to fine-grained acoustic variation. Methods 74 adolescents with a range of language abilities (including 35 impaired) participated in an experiment based on McMurray, Tanenhaus and Aslin (2002). Participants heard tokens from six 9-step Voice Onset Time (VOT) continua spanning two words (beach/peach, beak/peak, etc), while viewing a screen containing pictures of those words and two unrelated objects. Participants selected the referent while eye-movements to each picture were monitored as a measure of lexical activation. Fixations were examined as a function of both VOT and language ability. Results Eye-movements were sensitive to within-category VOT differences: as VOT approached the boundary, listeners made more fixations to the competing word. This did not interact with language ability, suggesting that language impairment is not associated with differential auditory sensitivity or phonetic categorization. Listeners with poorer language skills showed heightened competitors fixations overall, suggesting a deficit in lexical processes. Conclusions Language impairment may be better characterized by a deficit in lexical competition (inability to suppress competing words), rather than differences phonological categorization or auditory abilities. PMID:24687026

  8. Comparison of the Effects of SMART Board Technology and Flash Card Instruction on Sight Word Recognition and Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Gast, David L.; Thompson, Kimberly L.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of SMART Board, interactive whiteboard technology and traditional flash cards in teaching reading in a small-group instructional arrangement. Three students with moderate intellectual disabilities were taught to read grocery store aisle marker words under each condition. Observational learning (students…

  9. Examining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 and Word Memory Test Immediate Recognition as Screening Tools for Insufficient Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Lyndsey; O'Bryant, Sid E.; Lynch, Julie K.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Fisher, Jerid M.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing effort level during neuropsychological evaluations is critical to support the accuracy of cognitive test scores. Many instruments are designed to measure effort, yet they are not routinely administered in neuropsychological assessments. The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are commonly administered symptom…

  10. Age Acquisition Norms from Elderly Spanish People: Characteristics and the Prediction of Word Recognition Performance in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Samartino, Tamara; Ellis, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Age of acquisition is possibly the single most potent variable affecting lexical access. It is also a variable that determines the retention or loss of words in patients who have suffered brain injury, and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. But the norms of age of acquisition currently available have largely been obtained from university…

  11. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Flashcard Drill Instructional Methods on Urban First-Graders' Word Recognition, Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Lindsay; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation built upon previous studies that compared effectiveness and efficiency among instructional methods. Instructional effectiveness and efficiency were compared among three conditions: an incremental rehearsal, a more challenging ratio of known to unknown interspersal word procedure, and a traditional drill and practice flashcard…

  12. From Perception to Recognition Memory: Time Course and Lateralization of Neural Substrates of Word and Abstract Picture Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillard, Louis; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Baumann, Cedric; Koessler, Laurent; Benar, Christian; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Through study of clinical cases with brain lesions as well as neuroimaging studies of cognitive processing of words and pictures, it has been established that material-specific hemispheric specialization exists. It remains however unclear whether such specialization holds true for all processes involved in complex tasks, such as recognition…

  13. Evaluating cognitive models of visual word recognition using fMRI: Effects of lexical and sublexical variables.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanassios; Orfanidou, Eleni; Taylor, J S H; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Kapnoula, Efthymia C; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Velonakis, Georgios; Poulou, Loukia S; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2016-03-01

    In this study predictions of the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of word reading were tested using fMRI. Specifically, patterns of co-localization were investigated: (a) between pseudoword length effects and a pseudowords vs. fixation contrast, to reveal the sublexical grapho-phonemic conversion (GPC) system; and (b) between word frequency effects and a words vs. pseudowords contrast, to reveal the orthographic and phonological lexicon. Forty four native speakers of Greek were scanned at 3T in an event-related lexical decision task with three event types: (a) 150 words in which frequency, length, bigram and syllable frequency, neighborhood, and orthographic consistency were decorrelated; (b) 150 matched pseudowords; and (c) fixation. Whole-brain analysis failed to reveal the predicted co-localizations. Further analysis with participant-specific regions of interest defined within masks from the group contrasts revealed length effects in left inferior parietal cortex and frequency effects in the left middle temporal gyrus. These findings could be interpreted as partially consistent with the existence of the GPC system and phonological lexicon of the model, respectively. However, there was no evidence in support of an orthographic lexicon, weakening overall support for the model. The results are discussed with respect to the prospect of using neuroimaging in cognitive model evaluation.

  14. Word Function and Dictionary Use; A Work-Book for Advanced Learners of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Neile

    The present volume is designed as a workbook for advanced learners of English as a second or foreign language which will train them through instruction and exercises to use an all-English dictionary. The contents are based on the second edition of Hornby, Gatenby, and Wakefield's "The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English," 1963, Oxford…

  15. Word prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  16. Phonological priming in auditory word recognition: when both controlled and automatic processes are responsible for the effects.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie

    2008-03-01

    The phonological priming paradigm provides an interesting methodological tool for studying various components of the speech recognition process. However, concerns about response biases distorting the effects have been repeatedly voiced. This article reviews the main studies on priming and aims to distinguish effects under automatic processes from those under some level of strategic control. Both controlled and automatic processes appear to be responsible for the effects observed in phonological priming experiments. Nonetheless, with careful procedures, it is possible to separate them.

  17. A VLSI Architecture with Multiple Fast Store-Based Block Parallel Processing for Output Probability and Likelihood Score Computations in HMM-Based Isolated Word Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Shimazaki, Ryo; Yamamoto, Masatoshi; Takagi, Kazuyoshi; Takagi, Naofumi

    This paper presents a memory-efficient VLSI architecture for output probability computations (OPCs) of continuous hidden Markov models (HMMs) and likelihood score computations (LSCs). These computations are the most time consuming part of HMM-based isolated word recognition systems. We demonstrate multiple fast store-based block parallel processing (MultipleFastStoreBPP) for OPCs and LSCs and present a VLSI architecture that supports it. Compared with conventional fast store-based block parallel processing (FastStoreBPP) and stream-based block parallel processing (StreamBPP) architectures, the proposed architecture requires fewer registers and less processing time. The processing elements (PEs) used in the FastStoreBPP and StreamBPP architectures are identical to those used in the MultipleFastStoreBPP architecture. From a VLSI architectural viewpoint, a comparison shows that the proposed architecture is an improvement over the others, through efficient use of PEs and registers for storing input feature vectors.

  18. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation.

  19. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M.; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance. PMID:28018201

  20. Social Media and Language Processing: How Facebook and Twitter Provide the Best Frequency Estimates for Studying Word Recognition.

    PubMed

    Herdağdelen, Amaç; Marelli, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Corpus-based word frequencies are one of the most important predictors in language processing tasks. Frequencies based on conversational corpora (such as movie subtitles) are shown to better capture the variance in lexical decision tasks compared to traditional corpora. In this study, we show that frequencies computed from social media are currently the best frequency-based estimators of lexical decision reaction times (up to 3.6% increase in explained variance). The results are robust (observed for Twitter- and Facebook-based frequencies on American English and British English datasets) and are still substantial when we control for corpus size.

  1. Finding Words in a Language that Allows Words without Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Aissati, Abder; McQueen, James M.; Cutler, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Across many languages from unrelated families, spoken-word recognition is subject to a constraint whereby potential word candidates must contain a vowel. This constraint minimizes competition from embedded words (e.g., in English, disfavoring "win" in "twin" because "t" cannot be a word). However, the constraint would be counter-productive in…

  2. Words: What Goes with What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph A.

    Techniques for teaching collocation and word-association recognition as applied to the English as a second language class are suggested. Collocations are defined as phrases made of words which usually occur together, like "for the time being." Collocations and word associations are treated as synonymous. It is suggested that some words ought to be…

  3. Masked priming and ERPs dissociate maturation of orthographic and semantic components of visual word recognition in children.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Marianna D; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J; Mitra, Priya; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the time-course of reading single words in children and adults using masked repetition priming and the recording of event-related potentials. The N250 and N400 repetition priming effects were used to characterize form- and meaning-level processing, respectively. Children had larger amplitude N250 effects than adults for both shorter and longer duration primes. Children did not differ from adults on the N400 effect. The difference on the N250 suggests that automaticity for form processing is still maturing in children relative to adults, while the lack of differentiation on the N400 effect suggests that meaning processing is relatively mature by late childhood. The overall similarity in the children's repetition priming effects to adults' effects is in line with theories of reading acquisition, according to which children rapidly transition to an orthographic strategy for fast access to semantic information from print.

  4. Macrophage recognition of toxic advanced glycosylation end products through the macrophage surface-receptor nucleolin.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuichi; Dambara, Hikaru; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Kazuya; Konishi, Mio; Beppu, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) are non-enzymatically glycosylated proteins that play an important role in several diseases and aging processes, including angiopathy, renal failure, diabetic complications, and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, glyceraldehyde (GCA)- and glycolaldehyde (GOA)-derived AGEs are deemed toxic AGEs, due to their cytotoxicity. Recently, the shuttling-protein nucleolin has been shown to possess scavenger receptor-activity. Here, we investigated whether or not macrophages recognize toxic AGEs through nucleolin receptors expressed on their surface. Free amino acid groups and arginine residues found in bovine serum albumin (BSA) were time-dependently modified by incubation with GCA and GOA. In addition, average molecular size was increased by incubation with GCA and GOA. While GCA-treated BSA (GCA-BSA) and GOA-treated BSA (GOA-BSA) were recognized by thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages in proportion to their respective aldehyde-modification ratios, aldehyde-untreated control-BSA was not. Surface plasmon-resonance analysis revealed that nucleolin strongly associated with GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA, but not with control-BSA. Further, pretreating macrophages with anti-nucleolin antibody, but not control-Immunoglobulin G, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA by macrophages. Additionally, AGRO, a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer, inhibited recognition of GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA. Moreover, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells recognized more GCA-BSA and GOA-BSA than control HEK cells did. Binding of nucleolin and GCA-BSA/GOA-BSA was also blocked by anti-nucleolin antibody at molecular level. These results indicate that nucleolin is a receptor that allows macrophages to recognize toxic AGEs.

  5. Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon

    2009-01-01

    The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

  6. Effects of advanced aging on the neural correlates of successful recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tracy H.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Rugg, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have reported that the neural correlates of retrieval success (old>new effects) are larger and more widespread in older than in young adults. In the present study we investigated whether this pattern of age-related ‘over-recruitment’ continues into advanced age. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), retrieval-related activity from two groups (N = 18 per group) of older adults aged 84–96 yrs (‘old-old’) and 64–77 yrs (‘young-old’) was contrasted. Subjects studied a series of pictures, half of which were presented once, and half twice. At test, subjects indicated whether each presented picture was old or new. Recognition performance of the old-old subjects for twice-studied items was equivalent to that of the young-old subjects for once-studied items. Old>new effects common to the two groups were identified in several cortical regions, including medial and lateral parietal and prefrontal cortex. There were no regions where these effects were of greater magnitude in the old-old group, and thus no evidence of over-recruitment in this group relative to the young-old individuals. In one region of medial parietal cortex, effects were greater (and only significant) in the young-old group. The failure to find evidence of over-recruitment in the old-old subjects relative to the young-old group, despite their markedly poorer cognitive performance, suggests that age-related over-recruitment effects plateau in advanced age. The findings for the medial parietal cortex underscore the sensitivity of this cortical region to increasing age. PMID:19428399

  7. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations.

  8. Lexical tone and word recognition in noise of Mandarin-speaking children who use cochlear implants and hearing aids in opposite ears.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kevin C P; Cao, Ke-Li; Wei, Chao-Gang; Luan, Lan; Li, Huan; Zhang, Zhi-Yong

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of bimodal hearing (cochlear implant and hearing aid in opposite ears) in children are well documented in English-speaking populations (Ching et al., 2000; Holt et al., 2005) but not much evidence has been reported from populations using tonal languages. The lexical tones in tonal languages are heavily loaded with semantic and grammatical information, which are essentially represented by the fundamental frequency (F0) and low-order harmonics of the speech signal. This unique linguistic feature means that tonal language-speaking CI recipients may achieve more bimodal benefits than their non-tonal language peers may. Twenty Mandarin-speaking children using the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system and a hearing aid on the non-implant ear were assigned to either one of the two groups to investigate the head-shadow and binaural redundancy effects. A computerized speech test - MAPPID-N (Yuen et al., 2007) was used to present Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words, and disyllabic words with a four- and eight-alternative forced choice picture-identification task, respectively. Individualized signal-to-noise ratio was used to capture the speech scores in the 30%-70% range and was fixed throughout the CI alone and bimodal experimental conditions. Hearing aid fitting was optimized before the first test phase, which was followed by the second test phase after three months. Significant head shadow but not binaural redundancy benefits were observed, suggesting that subjects have not yet developed central binaural processing abilities to improve speech recognition when speech and noise are mixed, in the bimodal condition, in this group of Mandarin-speaking paediatric CI recipients. No subject experienced any degradation of performance in the bimodal versus the CI-only test condition. This may be the first study that demonstrated the bimodal benefits in CI paediatric recipients speaking tonal language, particularly in lexical tone perception. Hearing aid

  9. Identification of Sub-Types of Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading and Its Implications for Chinese Word Recognition and Instructional Methods in Hong Kong Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Fuk-chuen; Siegel, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of three studies. The first study aimed to identify sub-types of students with learning disabilities in reading. Based on the dual-route model of reading, words may be read using either a lexical (words are recognized as wholes) or a sub-lexical (words are recognized through grapheme-phoneme correspondence) procedure. Castles…

  10. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis; Tomaschek, Fabian; Sering, Konstantin; Lopez, Florence; Baayen, R Harald

    2017-01-01

    Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%), without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  11. How and to What Extent Do Two Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling Interventions Contribute to Spelling, Word Recognition, and Vocabulary Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaspers, Kathryn E.; Williams, Robert L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cihak, David; McCallum, R. Steve; Ciancio, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    We used an adapted alternating treatments design to evaluate and compare the effects of 2 spelling interventions on spelling acquisition and maintenance, word reading, and vocabulary in three first-grade students. The first intervention, Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC), involved having participants look at a word, cover it, write it, then compare…

  12. Instructional Design for Advanced Learners: Training Recognition Skills to Hasten Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadde, Peter Jae

    2009-01-01

    Expertise in domains ranging from sports to surgery involves a process of recognition-primed decision-making (RPD) in which experts make rapid, intuitive decisions based on recognizing critical features of dynamic performance situations. While the development of expert RPD is assumed to require years of domain experience, the transition from…

  13. Interpreting Chicken-Scratch: Lexical Access for Handwritten Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Anthony S.; Goldinger, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Handwritten word recognition is a field of study that has largely been neglected in the psychological literature, despite its prevalence in society. Whereas studies of spoken word recognition almost exclusively employ natural, human voices as stimuli, studies of visual word recognition use synthetic typefaces, thus simplifying the process of word…

  14. Fifty years of progress in speech and speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    2004-10-01

    Speech and speaker recognition technology has made very significant progress in the past 50 years. The progress can be summarized by the following changes: (1) from template matching to corpus-base statistical modeling, e.g., HMM and n-grams, (2) from filter bank/spectral resonance to Cepstral features (Cepstrum + DCepstrum + DDCepstrum), (3) from heuristic time-normalization to DTW/DP matching, (4) from gdistanceh-based to likelihood-based methods, (5) from maximum likelihood to discriminative approach, e.g., MCE/GPD and MMI, (6) from isolated word to continuous speech recognition, (7) from small vocabulary to large vocabulary recognition, (8) from context-independent units to context-dependent units for recognition, (9) from clean speech to noisy/telephone speech recognition, (10) from single speaker to speaker-independent/adaptive recognition, (11) from monologue to dialogue/conversation recognition, (12) from read speech to spontaneous speech recognition, (13) from recognition to understanding, (14) from single-modality (audio signal only) to multi-modal (audio/visual) speech recognition, (15) from hardware recognizer to software recognizer, and (16) from no commercial application to many practical commercial applications. Most of these advances have taken place in both the fields of speech recognition and speaker recognition. The majority of technological changes have been directed toward the purpose of increasing robustness of recognition, including many other additional important techniques not noted above.

  15. Automatic speech recognition technology development at ITT Defense Communications Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, George M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the applications of automatic speech recognition to defense communication systems is presented. Future research efforts include investigations into the following areas: (1) dynamic programming; (2) recognition of speech degraded by noise; (3) speaker independent recognition; (4) large vocabulary recognition; (5) word spotting and continuous speech recognition; and (6) isolated word recognition.

  16. Advanced Materials for the Recognition and Capture of Whole Cells and Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Bole, Amanda L; Manesiotis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Selective cell recognition and capture has recently attracted significant interest due to its potential importance for clinical, diagnostic, environmental, and security applications. Current methods for cell isolation from complex samples are largely dependent on cell size and density, with limited application scope as many of the target cells do not exhibit appreciable differences in this respect. The most recent and forthcoming developments in the area of selective recognition and capture of whole cells, based on natural receptors, as well as synthetic materials utilising physical and chemical properties of the target cell or microorganism, are highlighted. Particular focus is given to the development of cell complementary surfaces using the cells themselves as templating agents, by means of molecular imprinting, and their combination with sensing platforms for rapid cell detection in complex media. The benefits and challenges of each approach are discussed and a perspective of the future of this research area is given.

  17. Advancing the Accuracy of Protein Fold Recognition by Utilizing Profiles From Hidden Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Heffernan, Rhys; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi; Sharma, Alok; Paliwal, Kuldip

    2015-10-01

    Protein fold recognition is an important step towards solving protein function and tertiary structure prediction problems. Among a wide range of approaches proposed to solve this problem, pattern recognition based techniques have achieved the best results. The most effective pattern recognition-based techniques for solving this problem have been based on extracting evolutionary-based features. Most studies have relied on the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) to extract these features. However it is known that profile-profile sequence alignment techniques can identify more remote homologs than sequence-profile approaches like PSIBLAST. In this study we use a profile-profile sequence alignment technique, namely HHblits, to extract HMM profiles. We will show that unlike previous studies, using the HMM profile to extract evolutionary information can significantly enhance the protein fold prediction accuracy. We develop a new pattern recognition based system called HMMFold which extracts HMM based evolutionary information and captures remote homology information better than previous studies. Using HMMFold we achieve up to 93.8% and 86.0% prediction accuracies when the sequential similarity rates are less than 40% and 25%, respectively. These results are up to 10% better than previously reported results for this task. Our results show significant enhancement especially for benchmarks with sequential similarity as low as 25% which highlights the effectiveness of HMMFold to address this problem and its superiority over previously proposed approaches found in the literature. The HMMFold is available online at: http://sparks-lab.org/pmwiki/download/index.php?Download =HMMFold.tar.bz2.

  18. Advanced vapor recognition materials for selective and fast responsive surface acoustic wave sensors: a review.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana

    2013-07-17

    The necessity of selectively detecting various organic vapors is primitive not only with respect to regular environmental and industrial hazard monitoring, but also in detecting explosives to combat terrorism and for defense applications. Today, the huge arsenal of micro-sensors has revolutionized the traditional methods of analysis by, e.g. replacing expensive laboratory equipment, and has made the remote screening of atmospheric threats possible. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors - based on piezoelectric crystal resonators - are extremely sensitive to even very small perturbations in the external atmosphere, because the energy associated with the acoustic waves is confined to the crystal surface. Combined with suitably designed molecular recognition materials SAW devices could develop into highly selective and fast responsive miniaturized sensors, which are capable of continuously monitoring a specific organic gas, preferably in the sub-ppm regime. For this purpose, different types of recognition layers ranging from nanostructured metal oxides and carbons to pristine or molecularly imprinted polymers and self-assembled monolayers have been applied in the past decade. We present a critical review of the recent developments in nano- and micro-engineered synthetic recognition materials predominantly used for SAW-based organic vapor sensors. Besides highlighting their potential to realize real-time vapor sensing, their limitations and future perspectives are also discussed.

  19. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  20. Word Stress in German Single-Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyermann, Sandra; Penke, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a lexical-decision experiment that was conducted to investigate the impact of word stress on visual word recognition in German. Reaction-time latencies and error rates of German readers on different levels of reading proficiency (i.e., third graders and fifth graders from primary school and university students) were compared…

  1. Advances in the behavioural testing and network imaging of rodent recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Kinnavane, Lisa; Albasser, Mathieu M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Research into object recognition memory has been galvanised by the introduction of spontaneous preference tests for rodents. The standard task, however, contains a number of inherent shortcomings that reduce its power. Particular issues include the problem that individual trials are time consuming, so limiting the total number of trials in any condition. In addition, the spontaneous nature of the behaviour and the variability between test objects add unwanted noise. To combat these issues, the ‘bow-tie maze’ was introduced. Although still based on the spontaneous preference of novel over familiar stimuli, the ability to give multiple trials within a session without handling the rodents, as well as using the same objects as both novel and familiar samples on different trials, overcomes key limitations in the standard task. Giving multiple trials within a single session also creates new opportunities for functional imaging of object recognition memory. A series of studies are described that examine the expression of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Object recognition memory is associated with increases in perirhinal cortex and area Te2 c-fos activity. When rats explore novel objects the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to the dentate gyrus and CA3, is engaged. In contrast, when familiar objects are explored the pathway from the perirhinal cortex to lateral entorhinal cortex, and then to CA1, takes precedence. The switch to the perforant pathway (novel stimuli) from the temporoammonic pathway (familiar stimuli) may assist the enhanced associative learning promoted by novel stimuli. PMID:25106740

  2. The Word Part Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasao, Yosuke; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of English affixes plays a significant role in increasing knowledge of words. However, few attempts have been made to create a valid and reliable measure of affix knowledge. The Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was developed to measure three aspects of affix knowledge: form (recognition of written affix forms), meaning (knowledge of affix…

  3. COMPUTER-AIDED WORD RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SILIAKUS, H.J.

    IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL FREQUENCY WORD LIST IN GERMAN DESIGNED TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED LEVELS OF READING IN THE GERMAN CURRICULUM, A COMPUTER-BASED WORD COUNT WAS BEGUN IN AUSTRALIA'S UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE. USING MAGNETIC TAPES CONTAINING (1) A TEXT OF OVER 100,000 RUNNING WORDS, (2) 1,000 MOST…

  4. Is the time course of lexical activation and competition in spoken word recognition affected by adult aging? An event-related potential (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Cynthia R

    2016-10-01

    Adult aging is associated with decreased accuracy for recognizing speech, particularly in noisy backgrounds and for high neighborhood density words, which sound similar to many other words. In the current study, the time course of neighborhood density effects in young and older adults was compared using event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioral responses in a lexical decision task for spoken words and nonwords presented either in quiet or in noise. Target items sounded similar either to many or to few other words (neighborhood density) but were balanced for the frequency of their component sounds (phonotactic probability). Behavioral effects of density were similar across age groups, but the event-related potential effects of density differed as a function of age group. For young adults, density modulated the amplitude of both the N400 and the later P300 or late positive complex (LPC). For older adults, density modulated only the amplitude of the P300/LPC. Thus, spreading activation to the semantics of lexical neighbors, indexed by the N400 density effect, appears to be reduced or delayed in adult aging. In contrast, effects of density on P300/LPC amplitude were present in both age groups, perhaps reflecting attentional allocation to items that resemble few words in the mental lexicon. The results constitute the first evidence that ERP effects of neighborhood density are affected by adult aging. The age difference may reflect either a unitary density effect that is delayed by approximately 150ms in older adults, or multiple processes that are differentially affected by aging.

  5. 3D passive photon counting automatic target recognition using advanced correlation filters.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myungjin; Mahalanobis, Abhijit; Javidi, Bahram

    2011-03-15

    In this Letter, we present results for detecting and recognizing 3D objects in photon counting images using integral imaging with maximum average correlation height filters. We show that even under photon starved conditions objects may be automatically recognized in passively sensed 3D images using advanced correlation filters. We show that the proposed filter synthesized with ideal training images can detect and recognize a 3D object in photon counting images, even in the presence of occlusions and obscuration.

  6. Learning and Consolidation of Novel Spoken Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matthew H.; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Macdonald, Mark J. E.; Gaskell, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments explored the neural mechanisms underlying the learning and consolidation of novel spoken words. In Experiment 1, participants learned two sets of novel words on successive days. A subsequent recognition test revealed high levels of familiarity for both sets. However, a lexical decision task showed that only novel words learned on…

  7. Lexical mediation of phonotactic frequency effects on spoken word recognition: A Granger causality analysis of MRI-constrained MEG/EEG data

    PubMed Central

    Gow, David W.; Olson, Bruna B.

    2015-01-01

    Phonotactic frequency effects play a crucial role in a number of debates over language processing and representation. It is unclear however, whether these effects reflect prelexical sensitivity to phonotactic frequency, or lexical “gang effects” in speech perception. In this paper, we use Granger causality analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to understand how phonotactic frequency influences neural processing dynamics during auditory lexical decision. Effective connectivity analysis showed weaker feedforward influence from brain regions involved in acoustic-phonetic processing (superior temporal gyrus) to lexical areas (supramarginal gyrus) for high phonotactic frequency words, but stronger top-down lexical influence for the same items. Low entropy nonwords (nonwords judged to closely resemble real words) showed a similar pattern of interactions between brain regions involved in lexical and acoustic-phonetic processing. These results contradict the predictions of a feedforward model of phonotactic frequency facilitation, but support the predictions of a lexically mediated account. PMID:25883413

  8. Lexical mediation of phonotactic frequency effects on spoken word recognition: A Granger causality analysis of MRI-constrained MEG/EEG data.

    PubMed

    Gow, David W; Olson, Bruna B

    2015-07-01

    Phonotactic frequency effects play a crucial role in a number of debates over language processing and representation. It is unclear however, whether these effects reflect prelexical sensitivity to phonotactic frequency, or lexical "gang effects" in speech perception. In this paper, we use Granger causality analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to understand how phonotactic frequency influences neural processing dynamics during auditory lexical decision. Effective connectivity analysis showed weaker feedforward influence from brain regions involved in acoustic-phonetic processing (superior temporal gyrus) to lexical areas (supramarginal gyrus) for high phonotactic frequency words, but stronger top-down lexical influence for the same items. Low entropy nonwords (nonwords judged to closely resemble real words) showed a similar pattern of interactions between brain regions involved in lexical and acoustic-phonetic processing. These results contradict the predictions of a feedforward model of phonotactic frequency facilitation, but support the predictions of a lexically mediated account.

  9. Confidence and rejection in automatic speech recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colton, Larry Don

    Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is performed imperfectly by computers. For some designated part (e.g., word or phrase) of the ASR output, rejection is deciding (yes or no) whether it is correct, and confidence is the probability (0.0 to 1.0) of it being correct. This thesis presents new methods of rejecting errors and estimating confidence for telephone speech. These are also called word or utterance verification and can be used in wordspotting or voice-response systems. Open-set or out-of-vocabulary situations are a primary focus. Language models are not considered. In vocabulary-dependent rejection all words in the target vocabulary are known in advance and a strategy can be developed for confirming each word. A word-specific artificial neural network (ANN) is shown to discriminate well, and scores from such ANNs are shown on a closed-set recognition task to reorder the N-best hypothesis list (N=3) for improved recognition performance. Segment-based duration and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) features are shown to perform well for such ANNs. The majority of the thesis concerns vocabulary- and task-independent confidence and rejection based on phonetic word models. These can be computed for words even when no training examples of those words have been seen. New techniques are developed using phoneme ranks instead of probabilities in each frame. These are shown to perform as well as the best other methods examined despite the data reduction involved. Certain new weighted averaging schemes are studied but found to give no performance benefit. Hierarchical averaging is shown to improve performance significantly: frame scores combine to make segment (phoneme state) scores, which combine to make phoneme scores, which combine to make word scores. Use of intermediate syllable scores is shown to not affect performance. Normalizing frame scores by an average of the top probabilities in each frame is shown to improve performance significantly. Perplexity of the wrong-word

  10. The Processing of Compound Words in English: Effects of Word Length on Eye Movements during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments are reported which investigated morphological processing in English using bilexemic compound words. Long and short compound words were presented in neutral sentences and eye movements were recorded while participants read the sentences to investigate the time course of compound word recognition. In Experiment 1, the frequency of…

  11. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  12. A DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WORDS ON A MEMORY TASK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELZEN, ENID

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE DEVELOPMENTALLY THE FEATURES OF WORDS USED IN THE PROCESS OF ORGANIZING RELATED WORDS TOGETHER. A CONTINUOUS RECOGNITION MEMORY TASK OF 121 WORDS WAS USED IN WHICH SOME OF THE WORDS (EXPERIMENTAL WORDS) PRESENTED ONLY ONCE IN THE LIST WERE SEMANTICALLY OR PHONETICALLY RELATED TO OTHER LIST WORDS. EIGHTY THIRD-…

  13. Signal Words

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. The signal word can be ei- ther: DANGER,WARNING or CAUTION. Products with the DANGER signal word are the most toxic. Products with ... causes moderate eye or skin irritation. 2,4 DANGER means that the pesticide product is highly toxic ...

  14. Critical Word Factor in Texts for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Fisher, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    "The Critical Word Factor," based on word recognition demands of texts, is a measure of text difficulty designed specifically for texts used by beginning readers. The measure is a function of the number of new, unique words per 100 running words of text that fall outside a designated curriculum. The authors investigated the validity of the…

  15. SUBTLEX-ESP: Spanish Word Frequencies Based on Film Subtitles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuetos, Fernando; Glez-Nosti, Maria; Barbon, Analia; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that word frequency estimates obtained from films and television subtitles are better to predict performance in word recognition experiments than the traditional word frequency estimates based on books and newspapers. In this study, we present a subtitle-based word frequency list for Spanish, one of the most widely spoken…

  16. Developmental models of learning to read Chinese words.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    What is the nature of learning to read Chinese across grade levels? This study tested 199 kindergartners, 172 second graders, and 165 fifth graders on 12 different tasks purportedly tapping constructs representing phonological awareness, morphological awareness, orthographic processing, and subcharacter processing. Confirmatory factor analyses comparing alternative models of these 4 constituents of Chinese word reading revealed different patterns of metalinguistic underpinnings of children's word recognition across grade levels: The best-fitting model for kindergartners represented a print-nonprint dichotomy of constructs. In contrast, 2nd graders showed a fine-grained sensitivity to all 4 hypothesized constructs. Finally, the best-fitting model for 5th graders consisted of a phonological sensitivity construct and a broad lexical morphological-orthographic processing construct. Findings suggest that Hong Kong Chinese children progress from a basic understanding of print versus nonprint to a diversified sensitivity to varied word-reading skills, to a focus on meaning-based word recognition, to the relative exclusion of phonological sensitivity in more advanced readers.

  17. The Ins and Outs of Meaning: Behavioral and Neuroanatomical Dissociation of Semantically-Driven Word Retrieval and Multimodal Semantic Recognition in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Ze; Coslett, H. Branch; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2015-01-01

    Theories about the architecture of language processing differ with regard to whether verbal and nonverbal comprehension share a functional and neural substrate and how meaning extraction in comprehension relates to the ability to use meaning to drive verbal production. We (re-)evaluate data from 17 cognitive-linguistic performance measures of 99 participants with chronic aphasia using factor analysis to establish functional components and support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping to determine the neural correlates of deficits on these functional components. The results are highly consistent with our previous findings: production of semantic errors is behaviorally and neuroanatomically distinct from verbal and nonverbal comprehension. Semantic errors were most strongly associated with left ATL damage whereas deficits on tests of verbal and non-verbal semantic recognition were most strongly associated with damage to deep white matter underlying the frontal lobe at the confluence of multiple tracts, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the anterior thalamic radiations. These results suggest that traditional views based on grey matter hub(s) for semantic processing are incomplete and that the role of white matter in semantic cognition has been underappreciated. PMID:25681739

  18. The ins and outs of meaning: Behavioral and neuroanatomical dissociation of semantically-driven word retrieval and multimodal semantic recognition in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mirman, Daniel; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wang, Ze; Coslett, H Branch; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2015-09-01

    Theories about the architecture of language processing differ with regard to whether verbal and nonverbal comprehension share a functional and neural substrate and how meaning extraction in comprehension relates to the ability to use meaning to drive verbal production. We (re-)evaluate data from 17 cognitive-linguistic performance measures of 99 participants with chronic aphasia using factor analysis to establish functional components and support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping to determine the neural correlates of deficits on these functional components. The results are highly consistent with our previous findings: production of semantic errors is behaviorally and neuroanatomically distinct from verbal and nonverbal comprehension. Semantic errors were most strongly associated with left ATL damage whereas deficits on tests of verbal and non-verbal semantic recognition were most strongly associated with damage to deep white matter underlying the frontal lobe at the confluence of multiple tracts, including the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the anterior thalamic radiations. These results suggest that traditional views based on grey matter hub(s) for semantic processing are incomplete and that the role of white matter in semantic cognition has been underappreciated.

  19. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    PubMed

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  20. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts

    PubMed Central

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C.; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity