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Sample records for advancing crack tip

  1. Fatigue crack tip deformation and fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of stress ratio, prestress cycling and plate thickness on the fatigue crack propagation rate are studied on 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. Fatigue crack propagation rate increases with the plate thickness and the stress ratio. Prestress cycling below the static yield strength has no noticeable effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate. However, prestress cycling above the static yield strength causes the material to strain harden and increases the fatigue crack propagation rate. Crack tip deformation is used to study the fatigue crack propagation. The crack tip strains and the crack opening displacements were measured from moire fringe patterns. The moire fringe patterns were obtained by a double exposure technique, using a very high density master grille (13,400 lines per inch).

  2. TEM observations of crack tip: cavity interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, J.A.; Ohr, S.M.; Jesser, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Crack tip-cavity interactions have been studied by performing room temperature deformation experiments in a transmission electron microscope on ion-irradiated type 316 stainless steel with small helium containing cavities. Slip dislocations emitted from a crack tip cut, sheared, and thereby elongated cavities without a volume enlargement. As the crack tip approached, a cavity volume enlargement occurred. Instead of the cavities continuing to enlarge until they touch, the walls between the cavities fractured. Fracture surface dimples do not correlate in size or density with these enlarged cavities.

  3. Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes associated with variable amplitude fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.; Chan, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading when linear damage accumulation procedures are employed. Crack closure is believed to control the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is debatable. Information on the relative contributions to crack closure from: (1) plasticity left in the wake of the advancing crack and (2) crack tip residual stresses is provided. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overloads are systematically measured as a function of load ratio (R) and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth as measured by crack tip opening loads and delta K sub eff. The latter measurements are obtained using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cyclic loading stage; measurements are quantified using a relatively new stereoimaging technique. Combining experimental results with analytical predictions suggests that both plastic wake and residual stress mechanism are operative, the latter becoming predominate as R increases.

  4. Crack tip plasticity in single crystal UO2: Atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks; Bulent Biner; Xiang-Yang Liu; David A. Andersson

    2012-11-01

    The fracture behavior of single crystal uranium dioxide is studied using molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Initially, an elliptical notch is created on either {111} or {110} planes, and tensile loading is applied normal to the crack planes. For cracks on both planes, shielding of crack tips by plastic deformation is observed, and crack extension occurs for crack on {111} planes only. Two plastic processes, dislocation emission and phase transformation are identified at crack tips. The dislocations have a Burgers vector of ?110?/2, and glide on {100} planes. Two metastable phases, the so-called Rutile and Scrutinyite phases, are identified during the phase transformation, and their relative stability is confirmed by separate density- functional-theory calculations. Examination of stress concentration near crack tips reveals that dislocation emission is not an effective shielding mechanism. The formation of new phases may effectively shield the crack provided all phase interfaces formed near the crack tips are coherent, as in the case of cracks residing on {110} planes.

  5. Stress corrosion crack tip microstructure in nickel-based alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shei, S.A.; Yang, W.J.

    1994-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behavior of several nickel-base alloys in high temperature caustic environments has been evaluated. The crack tip and fracture surfaces were examined using Auger/ESCA and Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) to determine the near crack tip microstructure and microchemistry. Results showed formation of chromium-rich oxides at or near the crack tip and nickel-rich de-alloying layers away from the crack tip. The stress corrosion resistance of different nickel-base alloys in caustic may be explained by the preferential oxidation and dissolution of different alloying elements at the crack tip. Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) shows good general corrosion and intergranular attack resistance in caustic because of its high nickel content. Thermally treated Alloy 690 (UNS N06690) and Alloy 600 provide good stress corrosion cracking resistance because of high chromium contents along grain boundaries. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) does not show as good stress corrosion cracking resistance as Alloy 690 or Alloy 600 because of its high molybdenum content.

  6. Determining fatigue crack opening loads from near-crack-tip displacement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Riddell, W.T.; Piascik, R.S.; Sutton, M.A.; Zhao, W.; McNeill, S.R.; Helm, J.D.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a near-crack-tip measurement method that quantifies crack closure levels in the near-threshold fatigue crack growth regime--a regime where crack closure is not well characterized by remote compliance methods. Further understanding of crack closure mechanics was gained by performing novel crack growth experiments in conjunction with numerical simulations of three-dimensional crack-front propagation. Steady-state (i.e., constant growth rate) fatigue crack growth rates were characterized by performing constant cyclic stress intensity range ({Delta}K) experiments over a wide range of stress ratios (R). Near-crack-tip (less than 0.3 mm behind) load-versus-displacement measurements were conducted on the specimen surface using a novel noncontact experimental technique (Digital Imaging Displacement System--DIDS). The experiments and simulations revealed that the three-dimensional aspects of fatigue crack closure must be considered to determine correct opening load levels from near-crack-tip load-versus-displacement data. It was shown that near-crack-front, but increase near the free surface. The interior opening load was found to collapse closure-affected data to intrinsic rates, and thus shown to relate to the true crack-front driving force parameter. Surface opening load DIDS measurements made at an optimal distance behind the crack tip were used to correlate da/dN with {Delta}K{sub eff}. Opening load determinations made less than the optimal distance behind the crack tip were shown to be too high to correlate fatigue crack growth rates.

  7. Intergranular strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. L.; Gao, Y. F.; Lee, S. Y.; Barabash, R. I.; Lee, J. H.; Liaw, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress multiaxiality, material properties, and history of stress intensity factor and crack growth rate. An in situ, full-field, non-destructive measurement of lattice strain (which relies on the intergranular interactions of the inhomogeneous deformation fields in neighboring grains) by neutron diffraction techniques has been performed for the fatigue test of a Ni-based superalloy compact tension specimen. These microscopic grain level measurements provided unprecedented information on the fatigue growth mechanisms. A two-scale model is developed to predict the lattice strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline materials. An irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model is adopted to simulate a steady fatigue crack, which allows us to generate the stress/strain distribution and history near the fatigue crack tip. The continuum deformation history is used as inputs for the micromechanical analysis of lattice strain evolution using the slip-based crystal plasticity model, thus making a mechanistic connection between macro- and micro-strains. Predictions from perfect grain-boundary simulations exhibit the same lattice strain distributions as in neutron diffraction measurements, except for discrepancies near the crack tip within about one-tenth of the plastic zone size. By considering the intergranular damage, which leads to vanishing intergranular strains as damage proceeds, we find a significantly improved agreement between predicted and measured lattice strains inside the fatigue process zone. Consequently, the intergranular damage near fatigue crack tip is concluded to be responsible for fatigue crack growth.

  8. Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Lili; Gao, Yanfei; Lee, Sooyeol; Barabash, Rozaliya; Lee, Jinhaeng; Liaw, Peter K

    2011-01-01

    The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress multiaxiality, material properties, and history of stress intensity factor and crack growth rate. An in situ, full-field, non-destructive measurement of lattice strain (which relies on the intergranular interactions of the inhomogeneous deformation fields in neighboring grains) by neutron diffraction techniques has been performed for the fatigue test of a Ni-based superalloy compact tension specimen. These microscopic grain level measurements provided unprecedented information on the fatigue growth mechanisms. A two-scale model is developed to predict the lattice strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline materials. An irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model is adopted to simulate a steady fatigue crack, which allows us to generate the stress/strain distribution and history near the fatigue crack tip. The continuum deformation history is used as inputs for the micromechanical analysis of lattice strain evolution using the slip-based crystal plasticity model, thus making a mechanistic connection between macro- and micro-strains. Predictions from perfect grain-boundary simulations exhibit the same lattice strain distributions as in neutron diffraction measurements, except for discrepancies near the crack tip within about one-tenth of the plastic zone size. By considering the intergranular damage, which leads to vanishing intergranular strains as damage proceeds, we find a significantly improved agreement between predicted and measured lattice strains inside the fatigue process zone. Consequently, the intergranular damage near fatigue crack tip is concluded to be responsible for fatigue crack growth.

  9. Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.

  10. Tritium distribution at the crack tip of high-strength steels submitted to stress corrosion cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, A. M.; Chêne, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    1994-06-01

    The experimental results presented in this article are the first direct evidence of hydrogen diffusion in 4120 and 4130 high-strength steels undergoing a stress corrosion cracking (SCC) test with an enhancement of the hydrogen concentration at the crack tip. The hydrogen entry is evidenced by electrochemical permeation experiments performed either at the corrosion potential or under cathodic polarization in selected microstructures. The autoradiography of tritium associated with microdensitometric measurements allows measurement of the hydrogen distribution and local concentration at the crack tip of specimens undergoing SCC in a tritiated aqueous medium. The small enhancement in the tritium concentration measured at the crack tip of the 4120 steel may be a consequence of a strong contribution of trapping sites throughout the microstructure, prevailing on the effect of the stress state on the local concentration of tritium.

  11. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  12. Near tip stress and strain fields for short elastic cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soediono, A. H.; Kardomateas, G. A.; Carlson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental fatigue crack growth studies have concluded an apparent anomalous behavior of short cracks. To investigate the reasons for this unexpected behavior, the present paper focuses on identifying the crack length circumstances under which the requirements for a single parameter (K(sub I) or delta K(sub I) if cyclic loading is considered) characterization are violated. Furthermore, an additional quantity, the T stress, as introduced by Rice, and the related biaxiality ratio, B, are calculated for several crack lengths and two configurations, the single-edge-cracked and the centrally-cracked specimen. It is postulated that a two-parameter characterization by K and T (or B) is needed for the adequate description of the stress and strain field around a short crack. To further verify the validity of this postulate, the influence of the third term of the Williams series on the stress, strain and displacement fields around the crack tip and in particular on the B parameter is also examined. It is found that the biaxiality ratio would be more negative if the third term effects are included in both geometries. The study is conducted using the finite element method with linearly elastic material and isoparametric elements and axial (mode I) loading. Moreover, it is clearly shown that it is not proper to postulate the crack size limits for 'short crack' behavior as a normalized ratio with the specimen width, a/w; it should instead be stated as an absolute, or normalized with respect to a small characteristic dimension such as the grain size. Finally, implications regarding the prediction of cyclic (fatigue) growth of short cracks are discussed.

  13. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  14. Creep deformation at crack tips in elastic-viscoplastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, H.

    1981-02-01

    THE EVALUATION of crack growth tests under creep conditions must be based on the stress analysis of a cracked body taking into account elastic, plastic and creep deformation. In addition to the well-known analysis of a cracked body creeping in secondary (steady-state) creep, the stress field at the tip of a stationary crack is calculated for primary (strain-hardening) or tertiary (strain-softening) creep of the whole specimen. For the special hardening creep-law considered, a path-independent integral C∗h, can be defined which correlates the near-tip field to the applied load. It is also shown how, after sudden load application, creep strains develop in the initially elastic or, for a higher load level, plastic body. Characteristic times are derived to distinguish between short times when the creep-zones, in which creep strains are concentrated, are still small, and long times when the whole specimen creeps extensively in primary and finally in secondary and tertiary creep. Comparing the creep-zone sizes with the specimen dimensions or comparing the characteristic times with the test duration, one can decide which deformation mechanism prevails in the bulk of the specimen and which load parameter enters into the near-tip stress field and determines crack growth behavior. The governing load parameter is the stress intensity factor K 1 if the bulk of the specimen is predominantly elastic and it is the J-integral in a fully-plastic situation when large creep strains are still confined to a small zone. The C∗h-integral applies if the bulk of the specimen deforms in primary or tertiary creep, and C∗ is the relevant load parameter for predominantly secondary creep of the whole specimen.

  15. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  16. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Withers, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored. PMID:25624521

  17. Microstructure characterization and thermal behavior around crack tip under electropulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shaopeng; Wang, Gang; Deng, Dewei; Rong, Yiming

    2015-10-01

    Electropulsing treatment is a practical method to arrest crack propagation. The microstructure characterization and research on the forming mechanism are difficult due to the small affected area (0.01-1 mm2), high-temperature gradient (102 K/mm) and change rate (104-107 K/s). In this paper, the 1045 steel plate with a preexisting crack subjected to high-voltage pulses was investigated. The surface morphologies and microstructure around the crack tip were observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results showed that the material around the tip melted, splashed and blunted under electropulsing treatment. The microstructure around the molten hole was divided into four distinct regions. An electro-thermal coupled model considering material ejection, cavity formation, current oscillation and temperature-dependent material properties was proposed to investigate the dynamic formation process of molten hole and gradient microstructure. The uneven temperature distribution, high cooling rate and insufficient carbon diffusion led to the formation of gradient microstructure.

  18. Nanoscale void nucleation and growth and crack tip stress evolution ahead of a growing crack in a single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaowen; Deng, Xiaomin

    2008-03-01

    A constrained three-dimensional atomistic model of a cracked aluminum single crystal has been employed to investigate the growth behavior of a nanoscale crack in a single crystal using molecular dynamics simulations with the EAM potential. This study is focused on the stress field around the crack tip and its evolution during fast crack growth. Simulation results of the observed nanoscale fracture behavior are presented in terms of atomistic stresses. Major findings from the simulation results are the following: (a) crack growth is in the form of void nucleation, growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip, thus resembling that of ductile fracture at the continuum scale; (b) void nucleation occurs at a certain distance ahead of the current crack tip or the forward edge of the leading void ahead of the crack tip; (c) just before void nucleation the mean atomic stress (or equivalently its ratio to the von Mises effective stress, which is called the stress constraint or triaxiality) has a high concentration at the site of void nucleation; and (d) the stress field ahead of the current crack tip or the forward edge of the leading void is more or less self-similar (so that the forward edge of the leading void can be viewed as the effective crack tip).

  19. Effects of crack tip plastic zone on corrosion fatigue cracking of alloy 690(TT) in pressurized water reactor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, J.; Qiu, S. Y.; Chen, Y.; Fu, Z. H.; Lin, Z. X.; Xu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Alloy 690(TT) is widely used for steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactor (PWR), where it is susceptible to corrosion fatigue. In this study, the corrosion fatigue behavior of Alloy 690(TT) in simulated PWR environments was investigated. The microstructure of the plastic zone near the crack tip was investigated and labyrinth structures were observed. The relationship between the crack tip plastic zone and fatigue crack growth rates and the environment factor Fen was illuminated.

  20. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  1. A dynamic model of a cantilever beam with a closed, embedded horizontal crack including local flexibilities at crack tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Charalambides, P. G.; Shao, Y. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Fang, X. M.

    2016-11-01

    As one of major failure modes of mechanical structures subjected to periodic loads, embedded cracks due to fatigue can cause catastrophic failure of machineries. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of a structure with an embedded crack is helpful for early crack detection and diagnosis. In this work, a new three-segment beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the vibration of a cantilever beam with a closed, fully embedded horizontal crack, which is assumed to be not located at its clamped or free end or distributed near its top or bottom side. The three-segment beam model is assumed to be a linear elastic system, and it does not account for the nonlinear crack closure effect; the top and bottom segments always stay in contact at their interface during the beam vibration. It can model the effects of local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips, which cannot be captured by previous methods in the literature. The middle segment of the beam containing the crack is modeled by a mechanically consistent, reduced bending moment. Each beam segment is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the compliances at the crack tips are analytically determined using a J-integral approach and verified using commercial finite element software. Using compatibility conditions at the crack tips and the transfer matrix method, the nature frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are obtained. The three-segment beam model is used to investigate the effects of local flexibilities at crack tips on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. A stationary wavelet transform (SWT) method is used to process the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam; jumps in single-level SWT decomposition detail coefficients can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack.

  2. The structure of the near-tip field during transient elastodynamic crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, L. B.; Rosakis, A. J.

    T HE PROCESS of dynamic crack growth in a nominally elastic malerial under conditions of plane strain or plane stress is considered. Of particular concern is the influence of the transient nature of the process on the stress field in the immediate vicinity of the crack tip during nonsteady growth. Asymptotically, the crack tip stress field is square root singular at the crack tip, with the angular variation of the singular field depending weakly on the instantaneous crack tip speed and with the instantaneous stress intensity factor being a scalar multiplier of the singular field. However, for a material particle at a small distance from the moving crack, the local stress field depends not only on instantaneous values of crack speed and stress intensity factor, but also on the past history of these lime-dependent quantities. A representation of the crack tip field is obtained in the form of an expansion about the crack up in powers of radial coordinate, with the coefficients depending on the time rates of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factor. This representation is used to interpret some experimental observations, with the conclusion that the higher-order expansion provides an accurate description of crack tip fields under fairly severe transient conditions. In addition, some estimates are made of the practical limits of using a stress intensity factor field alone to characterize the local fields.

  3. The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy to Study Crack Tips in Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhorn, Sheldon M.; Guin, Jean-Pierre; Fett, Theo

    2011-02-01

    This article presents a review of the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to crack-tip corrosion during subcritical crack growth in glass. The two principal experimental techniques used in this type of study are (1) the direct observation of crack motion by scanning the tip of a crack during crack growth and (2) the examination of fracture surfaces once the specimen has been fractured in two. The first technique has been used to demonstrate and quantify water condensation at crack tips during subcritical crack growth and is particularly useful at low crack velocities. The second technique has been used to quantify the crack-tip corrosion process and the shape of the crack tip during crack growth. In this article, we discuss experimental results showing that the environment that develops at the tips of freshly fractured glass surfaces in soda lime glass can corrode the glass surfaces near the crack tip. Soda lime silicate glass contains mobile alkali ions that will exchange with hydronium ions in solution at the crack tip, forming a highly basic solution that is corrosive to glass. Experimental evidence for such corrosion has been obtained by the atomic force microscope, which demonstrates a displacement of the two fracture surfaces near the crack tip that can be as much as 20 nm, depending on how long the crack is held open at the fatigue limit. Despite the corrosion and displacement of the crack surfaces, the crack tip itself appears to remain sharp, suggesting that the fatigue limit in soda lime silicate glass is not due to crack-tip blunting. Most likely, the fatigue limit is a consequence of ion exchange at the crack tip, in which hydronium ions in the crack-tip solution exchange with sodium ions in the glass. As hydronium ions are larger than sodium ions, this exchange process leaves a compressive stress within the fresh fracture surface of the glass that resists crack motion and results in a stress-corrosion fatigue limit, as first proposed by Bunker

  4. Crack-tip-opening angle measurements and crack tunneling under stable tearing in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The stable tearing behavior of thin sheets 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied for middle crack tension specimens having initial cracks that were: flat cracks (low fatigue stress) and 45 degrees through-thickness slant cracks (high fatigue stress). The critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) values during stable tearing were measured by two independent methods, optical microscopy and digital image correlation. Results from the two methods agreed well. The CTOA measurements and observations of the fracture surfaces showed that the initial stable tearing behavior of low and high fatigue stress tests is significantly different. The cracks in the low fatigue stress tests underwent a transition from flat-to-slant crack growth, during which the CTOA values were high and significant crack tunneling occurred. After crack growth equal to about the thickness, CTOA reached a constant value of 6 deg and after crack growth equal to about twice the thickness, crack tunneling stabilized. The initial high CTOA values, in the low fatigue crack tests, coincided with large three-dimensional crack front shape changes due to a variation in the through-thickness crack tip constraint. The cracks in the high fatigue stress tests reach the same constant CTOA value after crack growth equal to about the thickness, but produced only a slightly higher CTOA value during initial crack growth. For crack growth on the 45 degree slant, the crack front and local field variables are still highly three-dimensional. However, the constant CTOA values and stable crack front shape may allow the process to be approximated with two-dimensional models.

  5. Crack tip fracture toughness of base glasses for dental restoration glass-ceramics using crack opening displacements.

    PubMed

    Deubener, J; Höland, M; Höland, W; Janakiraman, N; Rheinberger, V M

    2011-10-01

    The critical stress intensity factor, also known as the crack tip toughness K(tip), was determined for three base glasses, which are used in the manufacture of glass-ceramics. The glasses included the base glass for a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, the base glass for a fluoroapatite glass-ceramic and the base glass for a leucite glass-ceramic. These glass-ceramic are extensively used in the form of biomaterials in restorative dental medicine. The crack tip toughness was established by using crack opening displacement profiles under experimental conditions. The crack was produced by Vickers indentation. The crack tip toughness parameters determined for the three glass-ceramics differed quite significantly. The crack tip parameters of the lithium disilicate base glass and the leucite base glass were higher than that of the fluoroapatite base glass. This last material showed glass-in-glass phase separation. The discussion of the results clearly shows that the droplet glass phase is softer than the glass matrix. Therefore, the authors conclude that a direct relationship exists between the chemical nature of the glasses and the crack tip parameter.

  6. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  7. Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  8. Three-Orthogonal-Direction Stress Mapping around a Fatigue-Crack Tip Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, E.-Wen; Lee, Soo Yeol; Woo, Wanchuck; Lee, Kuan-Wei

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative determination of the stress fields around the crack tip is a challenging and important subject to understand the fatigue crack-growth mechanism. In the current study, we measured the distribution of residual stresses and the evolution of the stress fields around a fatigue crack tip subjected to the constant-amplitude cyclic loading in a 304L stainless steel compact-tension (CT) specimen. The three orthogonal stress components ( i.e., crack growth, crack opening, and through thickness) of the CT specimen were determined as a function of distance from the crack tip with 1-mm spatial resolution along the crack-propagation direction. In-situ neutron-diffraction results show that the enlarged tensile stresses were developed during loading along the through-thickness direction at a localized volume close to the crack tip, resulting in the lattice expansion in all three orthogonal directions during P max. The current study suggests that the atypical plane strainlike behavior observed at the midthickness position might be the reason for the mechanism of the faster crack-growth rate inside the interior than that near the surface.

  9. Interpretation of warm prestress-induced fracture toughness based on crack-tip constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, D.K.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using J-Q-related crack-tip constraint concepts to provide a basis for both the interpretation of warm prestress (WPS)-induced fracture toughness and their transferability to structural applications. A finite-element boundary-layer formulation based on small-scale yielding (SSY), remote mode I K-dominant assumptions is adopted. Effects of WPS-induced crack-tip constraint are quantified in terms of deviation in either the opening-mode or the mean stress component of the WPS crack-tip fields relative to the reference K-dominant SSY state associated with monotonic-loading conditions. Over the range of WPS load-paths considered the WPS-induced crack-tip constraint closely resembles a spatially varying hydrostatic stress field. Interpretation and transferability of WPS fracture toughness under SSY conditions are specified in terms of the unload and reload ratio.

  10. Electrochemical model of local corrosion at the tip of a loaded crack

    SciTech Connect

    Andreikiv, O.E.; Tym`yak, N.I.

    1994-07-01

    A model of electrochemical processes near a crack tip in a stressed metal subjected to corrosion with hydrogen depolarization is suggested. It is shown that, in order to describe the kinetics of hydrogenation of the prefracture area, it is necessary to take into account the type of passivation layer on the newly formed metal surface near the crack tip and the mechanism of its formation.

  11. The role of crack tip plasticity on the propagation of fracture in rocks and other brittle solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, R. I.; Rahmani, H.; Liu, F.; Aydin, A.

    2009-12-01

    Small-scale plastic yielding around a crack tip plays a key role in the propagation of fractures in brittle materials such as rocks. Linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) quantifies the asymptotic strain field around a crack tip under the assumptions of linear elasticity and infinitesimal deformation. However, no material can withstand an infinite stress, and plastic yielding is expected to take place near and around a crack tip. Plastic yielding governs the extension of an existing crack, as well as determines the direction of propagation of splay cracks. Unlike in LEFM, however, no closed-form solution is available for the asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip in the presence of inelastic deformation. In this work, we resort to finite element modeling for capturing plastic yielding and asymptotic strain field near and around a crack tip. Novel features of the modeling include an enhanced finite element around the crack tip that captures the expected asymptotic strain field, and an elastoplastic constitutive law for near-tip yielding. Through numerical simulations, we infer the likely orientation of splay cracks from the prevailing crystal orientation and overall stress field around the crack tip. We also compare the angular variation of the crack-tip enrichment function in the presence of plastic yielding with the closed-form solution derived from LEFM for different loading conditions and elastoplastic bulk constitutive laws.

  12. Higher-order analysis of crack tip fields in elastic power-law hardening materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Wang, T. C.; Shih, C. F.

    1993-04-01

    A HIGHER-ORDER asymptotic analysis of a stationary crack in an elastic power-law hardening material has been carried out for plane strain, Mode I. The extent to which elasticity affects the near-tip fields is determined by the strain hardening exponent n. Five terms in the asymptotic series for the stresses have been derived for n = 3. However, only three amplitudes can be independently prescribed. These are K1, K2 and K5 corresponding to amplitudes of the first-, second- and fifth-order terms. Four terms in the asymptotic series have been obtained for n = 5, 7 and 10; in these cases, the independent amplitudes are K1, K2 and K4. It is found that appropriate choices of K2 and K4 can reproduce near-tip fields representative of a broad range of crack tip constraints in moderate and low hardening materials. Indeed, fields characterized by distinctly different stress triaxiality levels (established by finite element analysis) have been matched by the asymptotic series. The zone of dominance of the asymptotic series extends over distances of about 10 crack openings ahead of the crack tip encompassing length scales that are microstructurally significant. Furthermore, the higher-order terms collectively describe a spatially uniform hydrostatic stress field (of adjustable magnitude) ahead of the crack. Our results lend support to a suggestion that J and a measure of near-tip stress triaxiality can describe the full range of near-tip states.

  13. Description of crack growth using the strip-yield model for computation of crack opening loads, crack tip stretch, and strain rates

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, A.U. de; Hoeve, H.J. ten; Henriksen, T.K.

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, application of the strip-yield model for computation of crack opening load levels is well known. In this paper the incremental formulation of a fatigue crack growth law is used to demonstrate the role of the crack opening load level in time-independent fatigue crack growth. Less known is the ability of the strip-yield model to define the strain rate at the crack tip. A threshold level {dot {var{underscore}epsilon}}{sub th} of this strain rate is introduced and used to formulate a criterion for initiation of time-dependent accelerated fatigue crack growth. This process is called corrosion fatigue. To account for effects of environment and frequency on the crack growth rate a time-dependent part is added to the incremental fatigue crack growth law. The resulting incremental crack growth equation is integrated to obtain the crack growth rate for a load cycle. The model discussed in this paper is a mechanical model. Physical aspects other than strain rate, loading frequency and load wave shape are not modeled in an explicit way. Hence, the model is valid for specific environment/base metal combinations. However, in consideration of the effects of small variations of environment, temperature, and other variables on the crack growth rates, it can be used as a reference solution. The fatigue crack growth model has been implemented in the NASGRO (ESACRACK) software. The time-dependent part is still subject to further evaluation.

  14. Effects of Tip Mass on Stability of Rotating Cantilever Pipe Conveying Fluid with Crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, In Soo; Yoon, Han Ik; Lee, Sang Pil; Kim, Dong Jin

    In this paper, the dynamic stability of a rotating cantilever pipe conveying fluid with a crack and tip mass is investigated by numerical method. That is, the effects of the rotating the rotating angular velocity, the mass ratio, the crack and tip mass on the critical flow velocity for flutter instability of system are studied. The equations of motion of rotating pipe are derived by using the extended Hamilton's principle. The crack section of pipe is represented by a local flexibility matrix connecting two undamaged pipe segments. The crack is assumed to be in the first mode of fracture and always opened during the vibrations. Finally, the stability maps of the cracked rotating pipe system as a rotating angular velocity and mass ratio β are presented.

  15. In situ SEM observation of microscale strain fields around a crack tip in polycrystalline molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Li, W. C.; Jin, Y. J.; Wang, L. F.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.; Lang, F. C.; Yan, L.; Yang, S. T.

    2016-06-01

    In situ scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the crack initiation and propagation in polycrystalline molybdenum under uniaxial tensile load at room temperature. The microscale grid pattern was fabricated using the sputtering deposition technology on the specimen surface covered with a fine square mesh copper grid. The microscale strain fields around the crack tip were measured by geometric phase analysis technique and compared with the theoretical solutions based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. The results showed that as the displacement increases, the crack propagated mainly perpendicular to the tensile direction during the fracture process of molybdenum. The normal strain ɛ xx and shear strain ɛ xy are relatively small, and the normal strain ɛ yy holds a dominant position in the deformation fields and plays a key role in the whole fracture process of molybdenum. With the increase in displacement, the ɛ yy increases rapidly and the two lobes grow significantly but maintain the same shape and orientation. The experimental ɛ yy is in agreement with the theoretical solution. Along the x-axis in front of the crack tip, there is minor discrepancy between the experimental ɛ yy and theoretical ɛ yy within 25 μm from the crack tip, but the agreement between them is very good far from the crack tip (>25 μm).

  16. Phase Transformation Surfaces Analysis for SMA Around a Crack Tip with Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laydi, Mohamed Rachid; Lexcellent, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Under loading, for a shape memory alloy, the stress concentration around the crack tip, inside a plate, is a serious fracture problem. The tip shape constitutes an important data. In a recent paper (Lexcellent et al. in Int J Fract 169:1-13, 2011), the determination of phase transformation surfaces around a crack tip without curvature was investigated. For crack with curvature, the approximate stress field solution proposed by Creager and Paris is used (Int J Fract 3:247-252, 1967). The knowledge of phase transformation surfaces dimensions and shapes can help us to define a fracture criterion. The study is focussed on mode I because this opening mode is the most dangerous for the structure. Also, comparisons between experiments and computing can be made. Qualitative agreement was obtained.

  17. Dugdale plastic zone size and CTOD equations for the compact specimen. [Crack Tip Opening Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Mall, S.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of applying the Dugdale model to the compact specimen, the equations for stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement are obtained for a pair of pin loads and a uniform stress acting on a segment of the crack surface. The plastic zone size is calculated from the 'finiteness' condition of Dugdale, and the results agree well with collocation results from Terada (1983). The load that causes incipient yielding at the compression point of the compact specimen is calculated from a finite element strip yield analysis for an elastic-perfectly plastic material. The crack tip opening displacement for the compact specimen is calculated by adding the displacement at the tip of the physical crack length due to the pin load and due to the uniform stress. The results are within 1.5 percent of current collocation results.

  18. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  19. Dynamic calibration and analysis of crack tip propagation in energetic materials using real-time radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, Ali

    Crack propagation in a solid rocket motor environment is difficult to measure directly. This experimental and analytical study evaluated the viability of real-time radiography for detecting bore regression and propellant crack propagation speed. The scope included the quantitative interpretation of crack tip velocity from simulated radiographic images of a burning, center-perforated grain and actual real-time radiographs taken on a rapid-prototyped model that dynamically produced the surface movements modeled in the simulation. The simplified motor simulation portrayed a bore crack that propagated radially at a speed that was 10 times the burning rate of the bore. Comparing the experimental image interpretation with the calibrated surface inputs, measurement accuracies were quantified. The average measurements of the bore radius were within 3% of the calibrated values with a maximum error of 7%. The crack tip speed could be characterized with image processing algorithms, but not with the dynamic calibration data. The laboratory data revealed that noise in the transmitted X-Ray intensity makes sensing the crack tip propagation using changes in the centerline transmitted intensity level impractical using the algorithms employed.

  20. Thermal activation of crack-tip plasticity: The brittle or ductile response of a stationary crack loaded to failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmaier, Alexander; Gumbsch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Metals with a body centered cubic crystal structure, like tungsten, exhibit a pronounced semibrittle regime at intermediate temperatures. In this regime their fracture toughness strongly depends on loading rate and temperature. Crack-tip plasticity has been studied with two-dimensional numerical simulations on different length scales. The method of discrete dislocation dynamics has been employed to test various assumptions made on the deformation mechanisms and the origin of the strong loading rate and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in this regime. A continuum elasticity-viscoplasticity model capable of describing larger plastic deformations yields complementary information with respect to the discrete dislocation method. Despite of their fundamental differences, both simulations consistently show that crack-tip plasticity can be described as a time-dependent microplastic deformation with well-defined activation energy and that the blunting of the crack tip plays an important role for the transition from semibrittle to ductile behavior. Based on general findings of the numerical simulations an Arrheniuslike relation between loading rate and temperature at points of constant fracture toughness is derived. This scaling relation shows the dominance of dislocation mobility as the rate limiting factor for fracture toughness and for the brittle-to-ductile transition itself. The results of our simulations are also consistent with experimental data gathered on tungsten single crystals. Thus, the proposed scaling relation can be used to predict fracture toughnesses in a wide range of temperatures and loading rates, based on only a small number of experiments.

  1. Crack tip process zone domain switching in a soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J. L.; Motahari, S. M.; Varlioglu, M.; Lienert, U.; Bernier, J. V.; Hoffman, M.; Ustundag, E.; Univ. of Florida; Iowa State Univ.; The Univ. of New South Wales

    2007-09-01

    Non-180{sup o} domain switching leads to fracture toughness enhancement in ferroelastic materials. Using a high-energy synchrotron X-ray source and a two-dimensional detector in transmission geometry, non-180{sup o} domain switching and crystallographic lattice strains were measured in situ around a crack tip in a soft tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramic. At K{sub 1} = 0.71 MPa m{sup 1/2} and below the initiation toughness, the process zone size, spatial distribution of preferred domain orientations, and lattice strains near the crack tip are a strong function of direction within the plane of the compact tension specimen. Deviatoric stresses and strains calculated using a finite element model and projected to the same directions measured in diffraction correlate with the measured spatial distributions and directional dependencies. Some preferred orientations remain in the crack wake after the crack has propagated; within the crack wake, the tetragonal 0 0 1 axis has a preferred orientation both perpendicular to the crack face and toward the crack front.

  2. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of Mode-I stress intensity to Mode-II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  3. Mode I crack analysis in single crystals with anisotropic discrete dislocation plasticity: II. Stationary crack-tip fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleymani Shishvan, Siamak; Van der Giessen, Erik

    2013-09-01

    Small-scale yielding around a stationary mode I crack in a cubic single crystal is analyzed in terms of plane-strain elastically anisotropic discrete dislocation plasticity (DDP). Two symmetric crack orientations are considered with two objectives in mind. First, we study the sensitivity to materials aspects such as dislocation source density and elastic anisotropy as well as orientation dependence. Plastic deformation around the crack tip in a single crystal is a patchy field due to the discreteness of the slip systems, as demonstrated in analytical solutions and experimental observations. While these solutions/observations have in common that the plastic zone is composed of sectors with specific slip system(s) active inside each sector, detailed comparisons—recapitulated in this paper—reveal a few, yet significant, discrepancies. In an attempt to resolve these issues, the second objective of this paper is to construct sector arrangements of active slip system(s) from the present DDP simulations and compare those with the analytical solutions. We find that the estimated sector arrangements are in best agreement with the hardening analytical solutions of Saeedvafa and Rice (1989 J. Mech. Phys. Solids 37 673-91) indeed, angular variations of stresses around the crack tip confirm this observation.

  4. An Enriched Radial Point Interpolation Method (e-RPIM) for the Analysis of Crack Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y. T.; Wang, W. L.; Fu, Q.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, an enriched radial point interpolation method (e-RPIM) is developed for the determination of crack tip fields. The conventional RBF interpolation is novelly augmented by the suitable trigonometric basis functions to reflect the properties of stresses for the crack tip fields. The performance of the enriched meshfree RBF shape functions is firstly investigated using the surface fitting. The surface fitting results have proven that, comparing with the conventional RBF, the enriched RBF interpolation has: 1) a similar accuracy to fit a polynomial surface; and 2) a much better accuracy to fit a trigonometric surface then the conventional RBF interpolation. It has proven that the enriched RBF shape function will not only possess all advantages of conventional RBF interpolation, but also can accurately reflect the properties of stresses for the crack tip fields. The system of equations for the crack analysis is then derived based on the enriched RBF shape function and the meshfree weak-form. Crack problems are simulated using this newly developed e-RPIM method. It has been demonstrated that the present e-RPIM is very accurate and stable, and it has very good potential to develop a practical simulation tool for fracture mechanics problems.

  5. Crack-tip chemistry modeling of stage I stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1991-10-01

    Stage I stress corrosion cracking usually exhibits a very strong K dependence with Paris law exponents of up to 30. 2 Model calculations indicate that the crack velocity in this regime is controlled by transport through a salt film and that the K dependence results from crack opening controlled salt film dissolution. An ionic transport model that accounts for both electromigration through the resistive salt film and Fickian diffusion through the aqueous solution was used for these predictions. Predicted crack growth rates are in excellent agreement with measured values for Ni with P segregated to the grain boundaries and tested in IN H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at +900 mV. This salt film dissolution may be applicable to stage I cracking of other materials.

  6. A Relationship Between Constraint and the Critical Crack Tip Opening Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; James, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Of the various approaches used to model and predict fracture, the Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA) fracture criterion has been successfully used for a wide range of two-dimensional thin-sheet and thin plate applications. As thicker structure is considered, modeling the full three-dimensional fracture process will become essential. This paper investigates relationships between the local CTOA evaluated along a three-dimensional crack front and the corresponding local constraint. Previously reported tunneling crack front shapes were measured during fracture by pausing each test and fatigue cycling the specimens to mark the crack surface. Finite element analyses were run to model the tunneling shape during fracture, with the analysis loading conditions duplicating those tests. The results show an inverse relationship between the critical fracture value and constraint which is valid both before maximum load and after maximum load.

  7. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A program to develop and evaluate fracture methodologies for the assessment of crack-tip constraint effects on fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels has been initiated in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program. Crack-tip constraint is an issue that significantly impacts fracture mechanics technologies employed in safety assessment procedures for commercially licensed nuclear RPVs. The focus of studies described herein is on the evaluation of two stressed-based methodologies for quantifying crack-tip constraint (i.e., J-Q theory and a micromechanical scaling model based on critical stressed volumes) through applications to experimental and fractographic data. Data were utilized from single-edge notch bend (SENB) specimens and HSST-developed cruciform beam specimens that were tested in HSST shallow-crack and biaxial testing programs. Results from applications indicate that both the J-Q methodology and the micromechanical scaling model can be used successfully to interpret experimental data from the shallow- and deep-crack SENB specimen tests. When applied to the uniaxially and biaxially loaded cruciform specimens, the two methodologies showed some promising features, but also raised several questions concerning the interpretation of constraint conditions in the specimen based on near-tip stress fields. Fractographic data taken from the fracture surfaces of the SENB and cruciform specimens are used to assess the relevance of stress-based fracture characterizations to conditions at cleavage initiation sites. Unresolved issues identified from these analyses require resolution as part of a validation process for biaxial loading applications. This report is designated as HSST Report No. 142.

  8. In-situ SEM investigation of sub-microscale deformation fields around a crack-tip in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.; Hou, X. H.; Fan, Z. C.; Jin, Y. J.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A combination of in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA) was used to study the deformation fields around a crack-tip in single-crystal silicon under uniaxial tensile load. The sub-microscale silicon pillars grating was fabricated using holographic lithography followed by inductively coupled plasma etching. A series of SEM images of dynamic crack with the sub-microscale grating were obtained during tensile testing. The strain fields around the crack-tip were mapped by GPA. The strain fields were compared with the linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions. It was determined that the deformation is performed around the crack-tip area. The normal strain εxx and shear strain εxy are nearly zero, and the strain fields are dominated by the normal strain εyy component. With the increase of displacement load, the crack propagated mainly along the [010] crystal direction and the strains around the crack-tip increased gradually. It is noted that the theoretical prediction is lower than the experimental results from 0 to 2 μm ahead of the crack-tip. However, the agreement between experimental results and theoretical prediction is very good far from the crack-tip (>2 μm).

  9. Stress-Induced Martensite in Front of Crack Tips in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling Versus Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletta, C.; Young, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit an unusual stress distribution at the crack tip as compared to common engineering materials, due to a stress-induced martensitic transformation resulting from highly localized stresses. Understanding the fracture mechanics of NiTi-based SMAs is critical to many of their applications. Here, we develop an analytical model, which predicts the boundaries of the transformation region in the crack tip vicinity of NiTi-based SMAs. The proposed model is based on a recent analytical approach which uses modified linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts to predict the crack tip stress distribution and transformation region in SMAs but, unfortunately, it applies only to the plane stress condition. To overcome this limitation, the proposed model accounts for stress triaxiality, which plays an important role in restricting crack tip plastic deformations in common ductile metals as well as the stress-induced martensite in NiTi SMAs. The effects of triaxial stress at the crack tip are taken into account by including a new parameter, the transformation constraint factor, which is based on the plastic constraint factor of elasto-plastic materials. The predictions of the model are compared with synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction observations and satisfactory agreement is observed between the two results. Finally, the evolution of crack tip transformation boundaries during fracture tests of miniature compact tension specimens is predicted and the effects of applied load and crack length are discussed.

  10. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1993-12-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracture-toughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies.

  11. Biaxial loading and shallow-flaw effects on crack-tip constraint and fracture-toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Pennell, W.E.; Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.; McAfee, W.J.; Theiss, T.J.; Rao, M.C.

    1994-04-01

    Uniaxial tests of single-edged notched bend (SENB) specimens with both deep- and shallow-flaws have shown elevated fracturetoughness for the shallow flaws. The elevation in fracture-toughness for shallow flaws has been shown to be the result of reduced constraint at the crack-tip. Biaxial loading has the potential to increase constraint at the crack-tip and thereby reduce some of the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation. Biaxial fracture-toughness tests have shown that the shallow-flaw, fracture-toughness elevation is reduced but not eliminated by biaxial loading. Dual-parameter, fracture-toughness correlations have been proposed to reflect the effect of crack-tip constraint on fracture-toughness. Test results from the uniaxial and biaxial tests were analyzed using the dual-parameter technology. Discrepancies between analysis results and cleavage initiation site data from fractographic examinations indicate that the analysis models are in need of further refinement. Addition of a precleavage, ductile-tearing element to the analysis model has the potential to resolve the noted discrepancies.

  12. ERRATUM: Genetic identification of crack-tip parameters using thermoelastic isopachics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu-Barton, J. M.; Worden, K.

    2003-10-01

    There are a number of unfortunate mistakes in the paper. This is entirely the fault of the authors who regretfully failed to agree on the coordinate system used for the curve-fit. In some detail, the errors are: (1) Page 177, column 2, line 7: Should read tanphi = K2/K1 not tan-1phi = K2/K1 as stated in the thermoelastic data section. This is purely a typographical error and has no effect on the results presented in the paper. (2) Page 178, column 1, line 2: Should read 8 MPa not 12.5 MPa for the 30° crack. This is purely a typographical error and has no effect on the results presented in the paper. (3) The legend 2phi in tables 2, 4, 6 and 8 should simply be phi. The effect of this on the various mode 1 examples is minimal because the value of phi is not used in the SIF determination. Relevant errata are: (4) Page 180, column 1, line 21: Instead of 'The mean estimated angle of rotation is 0.008 rad corresponding to 0.17°.' this should read 'The mean estimated angle of rotation is 0.017 rad corresponding to 0.97°.' (5) Page 181, column 1, line 10: Instead of 'The orientation value obtained was 0.05 rad corresponding to 9.17°.' this should read 'The orientation value obtained was 0.16 rad corresponding to 9.17°.' (6) Page 181, column 2, last line: Instead of 'Here the average of the three phi values is 1.9°.' this should read 'Here the average of the three phi values is 3.7°.' The most serious effect of the phi/2phi confusion is felt on the mixed-mode results in section 7 because the value of phi is used in the calculation of the SIFs. (7) Table 9 should read: corrected table Because of the changes to table 9 the text in section 7 from: ''Once again the most accurate value of phi is derived...'' to the end of that section should be disregarded. The following commentary is applicable: Here the most accurate value of phi is derived from the cardioid furthest from the crack-tip. The computed SIFs are as shown in table 9, where only the cardioid furthest from the

  13. Anodic dissolution of a crack tip at AA2024-T351 in 3.5wt% NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Hai; Dong, Chao-fang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiao-gang; Lu, Lin

    2012-10-01

    The anodic dissolution process of a crack tip at 2024-T351 aluminium alloy (AA2024-T351) was determined by means of scanning Kelvin probe (SKP). Wedge-open loading (WOL) specimens were immersed in a 3.5wt% NaCl solution. After various durations of immersion, the Volta potential distributions around the crack were measured by SKP and the surface morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is found that there is a nonuniform distribution of Volta potential around the crack. Before immersion, the Volta potential at crack tip is more negative than that in other regions. However, after immersion, a converse result occurs with the most positive Volta potential measured at the crack tip. SEM observations demonstrate that the noticeable positive shift of Volta potential results from the formation of corrosion products which deposit around the crack tip. Energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis shows that the corrosion products are mainly Al oxide and Cu-rich particles. These observations implicate that the applied stress contributes to the preferential anodic dissolution of the crack tip and the redistribution of Cu.

  14. Advanced blade tip seal system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the endurance and performance engine tests conducted on monocrystal/abrasive-tipped CF6-50 Stage 1 HPT blades fabricated in Task VII of MATE Project 3 are presented. Two engine tests are conducted. The endurance engine test is conducted for 1000 C cycles. The performance engine test is conducted on a variable cycle core engine. Posttest evaluation and analyses of the blades and shrouds included visual, dimensional, and destructive evaluations.

  15. Slip-weakening constitutive relation and the structure in the vicinity of a shear crack tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Changrong

    1995-09-01

    Shear-crack model with a cohesive zone (or breakdown zone) is appropriate for the analysis of a fault surface in which slip distribution is strongly nonuniform. As the slipped portion advances, slip-weakening occurs over the so-called cohesive zone, a distance behind the fault tip. For a prescribed strength vs. displacement constitutive relation, however, the zone structure is difficult to determine by an analytical method except for some simple cases, thus it often requires a certain numerical procedure. This work proposes a numerical procedure to obtain approximated solutions of the problem by combining a series of elastic solutions derived by Smith (1974). The series is linearly combined and the unknown coefficients are determined by a nonlinear least square method. This method can fit a wide range of prescribed strength vs. displacement relations which may be simple algebraic relations or curves obtained by laboratory tests. By examining the residual errors and in comparison with a derived result in which linear stress is assumed within the zone, it could be concluded that the results provide good accuracy. Moreover, because the results are written in formulae, they can be easily referred to or used. By fitting constitutive curves in many different shapes, it is found that the stress distribution within the zone is more sensitive to the constitutive curve shape than the displacement. The most interesting fact is that the zone size is not sensitive to the curve shape, i.e., the zone size can be estimated by 24_2004_Article_BF00879598_TeX2GIFE1.gif R = 3μ ζ \\upsilon _c /\\{ 2(1 - \\upsilon )(tau _c - tau _f )\\} with ζ=1±0.11 for most cases.

  16. Stress relaxation at crack tip: An alternative to blunting in configurations close to that of the two dimensional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyola de Oliveira, M. A.; Michot, G.

    1995-11-01

    Due to geometrical limitations of available slip systems by crystallography, it appears statistically that plastic activity is more likely to take place on planes which cut the crack front (jogging planes) than on planes which contain the crack front (blunting planes), as usually put forward by the 2D models. This paper emphasises the fact that in the absence of increase in the crack tip radius, an enhanced shielding can be achieved through a cross-slip mechanism.

  17. Development of crystallographic-orientation-dependent internal strains around a fatigue-crack tip during overloading and underloading

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Huang, E.-W.; Wu, W.; Liaw, P.K.; Paradowska, A.M.

    2013-05-15

    In-situ neutron diffraction was employed to directly measure the crystallographic-orientation-dependent (i.e. hkl) internal strains as a function of distance from the crack tip on the pre-cracked Hastelloy C-2000 compact-tension specimen. Both in-plane (IP) and through-thickness (TT) strain evolutions for various grain orientations were examined during tensile overloading and compressive underloading cycles. After overloading, underloading and their combination loadings were applied and unloaded, the significantly different (hkl) residual strain profiles were obtained in the vicinity of the crack tip. The load responses of the (200) grain orientation in both the IP and TT directions were more significant than those of any other orientations. It is suggested that the different orientation-dependent strain distributions around the crack tip are caused by the combined effects of elastic and plastic anisotropy of each (hkl) reflection upon loading and the subsequent development of residual stresses generated near the crack tip during unloading as a result of the plastic deformation. - Highlights: ► (hkl) strains are examined in situ using neutron diffraction. ► Distinct strain responses are developed around the crack tip under loading. ► The strain response of the (200) grain orientation is more significant. ► Possible mechanisms for the orientation-dependent strain responses are provided.

  18. The elastostatic plane strain mode I crack tip stress and displacement fields in a generalized linear neo-Hookean elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begley, Matthew R.; Creton, Costantino; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2015-11-01

    A general asymptotic plane strain crack tip stress field is constructed for linear versions of neo-Hookean materials, which spans a wide variety of special cases including incompressible Mooney elastomers, the compressible Blatz-Ko elastomer, several cases of the Ogden constitutive law and a new result for a compressible linear neo-Hookean material. The nominal stress field has dominant terms that have a square root singularity with respect to the distance of material points from the crack tip in the undeformed reference configuration. At second order, there is a uniform tension parallel to the crack. The associated displacement field in plane strain at leading order has dependence proportional to the square root of the same coordinate. The relationship between the amplitude of the crack tip singularity (a stress intensity factor) and the plane strain energy release rate is outlined for the general linear material, with simplified relationships presented for notable special cases.

  19. Dynamic fracture-toughness evaluation by measurement of CTOD (Crack Tip Opening Displacement). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, W.N.; Douglas, A.S.; Shapiro, J.M.

    1988-03-15

    Quantification of the dynamic fracture toughness of structural materials is essential to a wide range of problems - from nuclear accidents to ordnance applications. However, the difficulties associated with accurate measurements of cracks under dynamic loading are considerable. Thus there are no standardized procedures and few reliable results. This work describes a systematic study of the dynamic fracture toughness of SAE-01 tool steel, 4340 and HY100 steels and a tungsten, using the ISDG (Interferometric Strain/Displacement Gage) system which has very-high-frequency resolution. The major advantage of the method is that information is obtained very close to the crack tip, so that stress wave loading effects are accounted for. A detailed error analysis gives an uncertainty of -10% to +20% in the determination of fracture toughness, which compares with + or - 20% for published work.

  20. Analytical Modeling of Pressure Wall Hole Size and Maximum Tip-to-Tip Crack Length for Perforating Normal and Oblique Orbital Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Mohamed, Essam

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study whose objective was to develop first-principles-based models of hole size and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for a spacecraft module pressure wall that has been perforated in an orbital debris particle impact. The hole size and crack length models are developed by sequentially characterizing the phenomena comprising the orbital debris impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the pressure wall, the deformation of the pressure wall due to debris cloud impact loading prior to crack formation, pressure wall crack initiation, propagation, and arrest, and finally pressure wall deformation following crack initiation and growth. The model development has been accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory, as well as the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The predictions of the model developed herein are compared against the predictions of empirically-based equations for hole diameters and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for three International Space Station wall configurations. The ISS wall systems considered are the baseline U.S. Lab Cylinder, the enhanced U.S. Lab Cylinder, and the U.S. Lab Endcone. The empirical predictor equations were derived from experimentally obtained hole diameters and crack length data. The original model predictions did not compare favorably with the experimental data, especially for cases in which pressure wall petalling did not occur. Several modifications were made to the original model to bring its predictions closer in line with the experimental results. Following the adjustment of several empirical constants, the predictions of the modified analytical model were in much closer agreement with the experimental results.

  1. A generalized DGS method for studying the deformation field around a crack tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Ran; Cheng, Heming

    2016-04-01

    A generalized method for calculating the stress intensity factor from angular deflection of light rays is proposed. The method is based on 2D digital image correlation (DIC) to measure angular deflection of light rays, however, when a specimen is subjected to loading, deformation measurement from DIC is not perfect because of the existence of small in-plane and out-of-plane motions of the test sample surface that occurred after loading. These disadvantages will lead to errors in the measured angular deflections and fracture parameters. The influence of unavoidable in-plane and out-of-plane motions is discussed, and a generalized method to eliminate them to show the pure stress gradient of the crack tip of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) is demonstrated. At the same time, the fracture parameter of stress intensity was calculated. The experimental angular deflection of light rays was compared with the theoretical angular deflection predicted by generalized model using data points in an array around the crack tip region. To show the potential and efficacy of the method, K values were obtained from experimental data during tests conducted in a PMMA three-point-bend specimen. Results show an excellent level of agreement with K values predicted from FEM, highlighting the potential of the proposed methodology.

  2. Detecting Gear Tooth Fatigue Cracks in Advance of Complete Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Results of using vibration-based methods to detect gear tooth fatigue cracks are presented. An experimental test rig was used to fail a number of spur gear specimens through bending fatigue. The gear tooth fatigue crack in each test was initiated through a small notch in the fillet area of a tooth on the gear. The primary purpose of these tests was to verify analytical predictions of fatigue crack propagation direction and rate as a function of gear rim thickness. The vibration signal from a total of three tests was monitored and recorded for gear fault detection research. The damage consisted of complete rim fracture on the two thin rim gears and single tooth fracture on the standard full rim test gear. Vibration-based fault detection methods were applied to the vibration signal both on-line and after the tests were completed. The objectives of this effort were to identify methods capable of detecting the fatigue crack and to determine how far in advance of total failure positive detection was given. Results show that the fault detection methods failed to respond to the fatigue crack prior to complete rim fracture in the thin rim gear tests. In the standard full rim gear test all of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in advance of tooth fracture; however, only three of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in the early stages of crack propagation.

  3. Near-tip dual-length scale mechanics of mode-I cracking in laminate brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Islam, S.; Charalambides, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an on-going study of the near-tip mechanics of mode-I cracking in brittle matrix composite laminates. A finite element model is developed within the context of two competing characteristic lengths present in the composite: the microstructural length (the thickness of the layers) and a macro-length (crack-length, uncracked ligament size, etc.). For various values of the parameters which describe the ratio of these lengths and the constituent properties, the stresses ahead of a crack perpendicular to the laminates are compared with those predicted by assuming the composite is homogeneous orthotropic. The results can be used to determine the conditions for which homogenization can provide a sufficiently accurate description of the stresses in the vicinity of the crack-tip.

  4. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  5. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  6. Visualizing In Situ Microstructure Dependent Crack Tip Stress Distribution in IN-617 Using Nano-mechanical Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Mohanty, Debapriya P.; Tomar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Inconel 617 (IN-617) is a solid solution alloy, which is widely used in applications that require high-temperature component operation due to its high-temperature stability and strength as well as strong resistance to oxidation and carburization. The current work focuses on in situ measurements of stress distribution under 3-point bending at elevated temperature in IN-617. A nanomechanical Raman spectroscopy measurement platform was designed and built based on a combination of a customized open Raman spectroscopy (NMRS) system incorporating a motorized scanning and imaging system with a nanomechanical loading platform. Based on the scanning of the crack tip notch area using the NMRS notch tip, stress distribution under applied load with micron-scale resolution for analyzed microstructures is predicted. A finite element method-based formulation to predict crack tip stresses is presented and validated using the presented experimental data.

  7. Eigenspectra and orders of stress singularity at a mode I crack tip for a power-law medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Larisa

    2008-01-01

    In this Note eigenspectra and orders of singularity of the stress field near a mode I crack tip in a power-law material are discussed. The perturbation theory technique is employed to pose the required asymptotic solution. The whole set of eigenvalues is obtained. It is shown that the eigenvalues of the nonlinear problem are fully determined by the corresponding eigenvalues of the linear problem and by the hardening exponent. To cite this article: L. Stepanova, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  8. The equilibrium concentration of hydrogen atoms ahead of a mixed mode I-mode III crack tip in single crystal iron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.Y.; Hack, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium hydrogen concentration profiles about a mixed ode I-mode III crack in single crystal iron were performed. Both material anisotropy and the tetragonal nature of the distortion induced in the iron crystal structure by interstitial hydrogen were incorporated. Results show that, unlike the case of a spherical distortion, a strong coupling exists between the strain field of the interstitial hydrogen and the stress field of the crack for orientations of the crack plane that are not coincident with the cube axes of the lattice. As a result, the predicated enhancement of hydrogen in the crack tip region increases with increasing levels of mode III loading for those orientations. The results may help reconcile conflicting observations concerning the potential role of shear stresses in hydrogen embrittlement and preferential cracking of grains ahead of loaded crack tips in sustained load cracking experiments.

  9. Prediction of stable tearing of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy using the crack-tip opening angle approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) approach was incorporated into a damage growth finite element program, MADGIC (Micromechanics Analysis and Damage Growth in Composites), and was used to predict stable tearing in a middle-crack tension 2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimen. The MADGIC code is a displacement based finite element program implemented with an incremental elastic-plastic algorithm used to model elastic-plastic behavior and a nodal splitting and nodal force relaxation algorithm used to generate crack surfaces. Predictions of the applied stress as a function of crack extension and applied stress as a function of load-line displacement were in good agreement with experiments and with similar predictions made using an existing finite element program, ZIP2D. In addition, path integrals, namely, the J-integral and T*-integral, were also evaluated and compared with the CTOA approach. There appears to be a weak relationship between the CTOA and the T*-integral evaluated on a specific integration path during crack extension beyond maximum applied stress. This study further verifies that the CTOA can be used as an effective elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter to predict crack growth.

  10. A model emitting dislocation group from crack tip with stress singularity and its application to brittle-ductile transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Toshimitsu A.Jr. . Dept. of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering); Isogai, Takeshi; Yokobori, Takeo . School of Science and Engineering)

    1993-05-01

    Taking into account the stress singularity near the crack tip, computer simulation of dislocation emission and motion has been carried out. A model is proposed in which the source emitting the dislocation group is located near by the crack tip. The numerical method has been used by programming to adjust time increment automatically. By this model and the analytical method, the converged solution has been obtained. The main results are as follows: The region where any dislocation does not exist along the slip plane near the stressed source, namely, dislocation free zone (DFZ) is found to appear. Also it has been found that inverse pile-up of dislocation against the tip of DFZ will appear. The formula is obtained correlating the maximum dislocation density with DFZ length. With increase of stress rate and decrease of the value of [mu]/[tau][sup *][sub 0], the inverse pile-up at the tip of DFZ becomes more significant. Based on these results, a new fracture criterion for brittle fracture is proposed assuming critical local stress requisite within DFZ, where high stress concentration is induced by dynamic inverse pile-up of dislocations.

  11. Observation of deformation and damage at the tip of a crack in adhesive bonds loaded in shear and assessment of a criterion for fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Herzl

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of damage at the tip of a crack in adhesive bonds deforming in shear was monitored in real time using a high-magnification video camera. Brittle and ductile epoxy resins were evaluated, with the bond thickness, t, being an experimental variable. An extensive zone of plastic deformation was developed ahead of the crack tip, prior to fracture. In the case of the brittle adhesive, for relatively thick bonds, tensile microcracks formed within that zone. Increased loading caused the microcracks to grow from the interlayer to the metal/matrix interface, which led to a complete bond separation following the interlinking of interface cracks emanating from adjacent microcracks. In contrast, for the ductile adhesive, the crack always grew from the tip. Strain gradients tended to develop there when the bond thickness was large. The adhesive shear strain was determined from fine lines scratched on the specimen edge. For both adhesives, the critical average crack tip shear strain rapidly decreased with increasing t. This effect was attributed to the changing sensitivity of the bond to the presence of flaws; thicker bonds can accommodate larger microcracks or microvoids, which cause greater stress concentration. For a given bond thickness, the critical crack tip shear strain agreed well with the ultimate shear strain of the unflawed adhesive, gamma(sub f), previously determined by means of the napkin ring shear test. This suggests that the ultimate shear strain is a key material property, controlling crack growth.

  12. Finite strain stress fields near the tip of an interface crack between a soft incompressible elastic material and a rigid substrate.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, V R; Hui, C-Y

    2009-05-01

    We present a numerical study of finite strain stress fields near the tip of an interface crack between a rigid substrate and an incompressible hyperelastic solid using the finite element method (FEM). The finite element (FE) simulations make use of a remeshing scheme to overcome mesh distortion. Analyses are carried out by assuming that the crack tip is either pinned, i.e., the elastic material is perfectly bonded (no slip) to the rigid substrate, or the crack lies on a frictionless interface. We focus on a material which hardens exponentially. To explore the effect of geometric constraint on the near tip stress fields, simulations are carried out under plane stress and plane strain conditions. For both the frictionless interface and the pinned crack under plane stress deformation, we found that the true stress field directly ahead of the crack tip is dominated by the normal opening stress and the crack face opens up smoothly. This is also true for an interface crack along a frictionless boundary in plane strain deformation. However, for a pinned interface crack under plane strain deformation, the true opening normal stress is found to be lower than the shear stress and the transverse normal stress. Also, the crack opening profile for a pinned crack under plane strain deformation is completely different from those seen in plane stress and in plane strain (frictionless interface). The crack face flips over and the tip angle is almost tangential to the interface. Our results suggest that interface friction can play a very important role in interfacial fracture of soft materials on hard substrates. PMID:19437055

  13. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Solomon, N. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Forty-one material systems were evaluated for potential use in turbine blade tip seal applications at 1370 C. Both ceramic blade tip inserts and abradable ceramic tip shoes were tested. Hot gas erosion, impact resistance, thermal stability, and dynamic rub performance were the criteria used in rating the various materials. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride were used, both as blade tips and abradables. The blade tip inserts were fabricated by hot pressing while low density and honeycomb abradables were sintered or reaction bonded.

  14. Advances in crack-arrest technology for reactor pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is continuing to improve the understanding of conditions that govern the initiation, rapid propagation, arrest, and ductile tearing of cracks in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This paper describes recent advances in a coordinated effort being conducted under the HSST Program by ORNL and several subcontracting groups to develop the crack-arrest data base and the analytical tools required to construct inelastic dynamic fracture models for RPV steels. Large-scale tests are being carried out to generate crack-arrest toughness data at temperatures approaching and above the onset of Charpy upper-shelf behavior. Small- and intermediate-size specimens subjected to static and dynamic loading are being developed and tested to provide additional fracture data for RPV steels. Viscoplastic effects are being included in dynamic fracture models and computer programs and their utility validated through analyses of data from carefully controlled experiments. Recent studies are described that examine convergence problems associated with energy-based fracture parameters in viscoplastic-dynamic fracture applications. Alternative techniques that have potential for achieving convergent solutions for fracture parameters in the context of viscoplastic-dynamic models are discussed. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy: Recent advance in tip production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yasuhiko; Walke, Peter; De Feyter, Steven; Uji-i, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) microscopy is a technique that combines the chemical sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy with the resolving power of scanning probe microscopy. The key component of any TERS setup is a plasmonically-active noble metal tip, which serves to couple far-field incident radiation with the near-field. Thus, the design and implementation of reproducible probes are crucial for the continued development of TERS as a tool for nanoscopic analysis. Here we discuss conventional methods for the fabrication of TERS-ready tips, highlighting the problems therein, as well as detailing more recent developments to improve reducibility. In addition, the idea of remote excitation-TERS is enlightened upon, whereby TERS sensitivity is further improved by using propagating surface plasmons to separate the incident radiation from the tip apex, as well as how this can be incorporated into the fabrication process.

  16. The puzzle of whip cracking - uncovered by a correlation of whip-tip kinematics with shock wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehl, P.; Engemann, S.; Schwenkel, D.

    During whip cracking the whip-tip reaches a supersonic velocity for a period of about 1.2 ms, thereby emitting a head wave with a parabolic-shaped geometry. A detailed study of this mechanism which encompasses the motion analysis of the whip-tip as well as the determination of the local origin of the shock emission requires a sophisticated recording technique. A pre-trigger framing high-speed video camera system was used which was triggered by an acoustical sensor and synchronized with a pulsed copper-vapour laser. The phenomena were visualized by the direct shadowgraph method and recorded cinematographically as digital images at a frame rate of 9 kHz using a CCD-matrix with 256(H)× 128(V) pixels. The resulting series of frames allowed, for the first time, (i) a reconstruction of the whip-tip trajectory, (ii) a determination of the tuft velocity and acceleration, (iii) a correlation of whip-tip kinematics with shock wave emission, and (iv) a motion analysis of the turning and unfolding mechanism of the tuft. The tuft at the whip-tip was accelerated within a distance of about 45 cm from a Mach number of M=1 to a maximum of M=2.19, thereby reaching a maximum acceleration of 50,000 g. The shock is emitted at the moment when the cracker, arriving at the turning point of the lash, is rapidly turned around. After emission of the shock wav M<1 within a short distance of only 20 cm.

  17. An I-integral method for crack-tip intensity factor variation due to domain switching in ferroelectric single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongjun; Wang, Jie; Shimada, Takahiro; Wu, Huaping; Wu, Linzhi; Kuna, Meinhard; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, an I-integral method is established for solving the crack-tip intensity factors of ferroelectric single-crystals. The I-integral combined with the phase field model is successfully used to investigate crack-tip intensity factor variations due to domain switching in ferroelectricity subjected to electromechanical loadings, which exhibits several advantages over previous methods based on small-scale switching. First, the shape of the switching zone around a crack tip is predicted by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which does not require preset energy-based switching criterion. Second, the I-integral can directly solve the crack-tip intensity factors and decouple the crack-tip intensity factors of different modes based on superimposing an auxiliary state onto an actual state. Third, the I-integral is area-independent, namely, the I-integral is not affected by the integral area size, the polarization distributions, or domain walls. This makes the I-integral applicable to large-scale domain switching. To this end, the electro-elastic field intensity factors of an impermeable crack in PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals are evaluated under electrical, mechanical, and combined loading. The intensity factors obtained by the I-integral agree well with those obtained by the extrapolation technique. From numerical results, the following conclusions can be drawn with respect to fracture behavior of ferroelectrics under large-scale switching. Under displacement controlled mechanical loading, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) decrease monotonically due to the domain switching process, which means a crack tip shielding or effective switching-induced toughening occurs. If an external electric field is applied, the electric displacement intensity factor (EDIF) increases in all cases, i.e., the formed domain patterns enhance the electric crack tip loading. The energy release rate, expressed by the crack-tip J-integral, is reduced by the domain

  18. Influence of Crack-Tip Configurations on the Fracture Response of 0.04-Inch Thick 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; Newman, James C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of fracture tests were conducted on Middle-crack tension M(T) and compact tension C(T) specimens to determine the effects of specimen type, specimen width, notch tip sharpness and buckling on the fracture behavior of cracked thin sheet (0.04 inch thick) 2024-T3 aluminum alloy material. A series of M(T) specimens were tested with three notch tip configurations: (1) a fatigue pre-cracked notch, (2) a 0.010-inch-diameter wire electrical discharge machined (EDM) notch, and (3) a EDM notch sharpened with a razor blade. The test procedures are discussed and the experimental results for failure stress, load vs. crack extension and the material stress-strain response are reported.

  19. Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.

  20. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  1. Microscopic study of stress effects around micro-crack tips using a non-contact stress-induced light scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Y.; Terasaki, N.; Nonaka, K.

    2016-09-01

    Fine-polishing techniques may cause micro-cracks under glass substrate surfaces. According to highly requirement from production field, a thermal stress-induced light scattering method (T-SILSM) was successfully developed for a non-contact inspection to detect the micro-cracks through changing in the intensity of light scattering accompanied by applying thermal stress at the responding position of the micro-cracks. In this study, in order to investigate that the origin of the measuring principle in microscopic order, a newly developed microscopic T-SILSM system with a rotation stage and a numerical simulation analysis were used to investigate the following; (1) the scattering points and surface in the micro-crack, (2) the stress concentration points in the micro-crack, and (3) the relationship between these information and the point in which intensity of the light scattering changes in the micro-crack through T-SILSM. Light scattering was observed at the responding position of the micro-crack with selectivity in the direction of laser irradiation even in the microscopic order. In addition, the position of the changes in the light scattering in was at both tips in the micro-crack, and it was consistent with the stress concentration point in the micro-crack. Therefore, it can be concluded that the intentional change in light scattering though T-SILSM is originated from light scattering at micro-crack and also from stress concentration and consecutive change in refractive index at both tips in micro-crack.

  2. Observation of crack tip vicinity by the high-speed camera and research on dynamic fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichinose, Kensuke; Moriwaki, Fumitaka; Gomi, Kenji

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, plastic region growing process which appeared in crack tip was visualized by stretcher strain, and it was observed using high-speed camera. Then, the fracture toughness value was calculated from the largest plastic region size. It was assumed that the relation equal to the case in which it is static under dynamic load was established, and we carried out dynamic experiment. The dynamic load was measured using piezo load-cell which is difficult to receive the effect of stress wave, the fracture toughness value was decided by the strain gauge method. For comparison, we also carried out static experiment comply ASTM E399-90. Then, the relationship between fracture toughness value calculated from the maximum load and it calculated from the largest plastic region size was investigated.

  3. Modeling Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Nano- to Micro-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jake D.; Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2010-01-01

    Several efforts that are aimed at understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related to crack propagation at the nano-, meso- and micro-length scales including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity are discussed. The paper focuses on discussion of newly developed methodologies and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys. Examination of plastic mechanisms as a function of increasing length scale illustrates increasingly complex phenomena governing plasticity

  4. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  5. Crack

    MedlinePlus

    ... sound the drug makes as it heats up. Short-Term Effects Crack is a stimulant that is absorbed through ... quickly, after about 5 or 10 minutes. Other short-term effects include: higher heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , ...

  6. Modeling and Characterization of Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Micro- to Nano-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob; Smith, Stephen W.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Gupta, Vipul

    2011-01-01

    Methodologies for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related 10 crack propagation at the nano, meso- and micro-length scales are being developed. These efforts include the development and application of several computational methods including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity; and experimental methods including electron backscattered diffraction and video image correlation. Additionally, methodologies for multi-scale modeling and characterization that can be used to bridge the relevant length scales from nanometers to millimeters are being developed. The paper focuses on the discussion of newly developed methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys.

  7. Modeling and Characterization of Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Micro- to Nano-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob; Smith, Stephen W.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Gupta, Vipul

    2010-01-01

    Methodologies for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related to crack propagation at the nano-, meso- and micro-length scales are being developed. These efforts include the development and application of several computational methods including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity; and experimental methods including electron backscattered diffraction and video image correlation. Additionally, methodologies for multi-scale modeling and characterization that can be used to bridge the relevant length scales from nanometers to millimeters are being developed. The paper focuses on the discussion of newly developed methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys.

  8. Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.

  9. Advanced Finite Element Modeling of Low Cycle Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document (a viewgraph presentation) assumes a crack-like defect of a size which may be missed in inspection will exist in most critical location of any critical structure or component. Flaw existence assumption is usually, but not always, conservative based on past experiences in NASA and knowledge of manufacturing processes. Cyclic, environmental, and sustained loads used to generate stresses on models. Fracture Mechanics analysis used to predict crack growth and residual strength. Must show that defective structure will still provide four times required mission lifetime. Special exemptions cover redundant structures, low risk parts, etc. Assessments require specialized software tools, experienced analysts, and reliable material crack growth rate test database.

  10. Evidence concerning crack-tip constraint and strain-rate effects in fracture-toughness testing

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The procedures for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness, K/sub Ic/, of metals were originally developed for relatively high yield strength materials, the toughnesses of which were not affected by stain rate. The application of these procedures to lower yield strength and higher toughness structural and pressure vessel steels have since revealed a perplexing combination of problems involving the effects of geometry, stable crack growth and strain rate on the measured values of toughness. Only the geometric problems were encountered in the development of the procedures for measuring K/sub Ic/. For fracture in the linear elastic range of the load-displacement curve, these problems were overcome by specifying specimen dimensions sufficiently large with respect of the plastic zone size at fracture. However, in the case of structural and pressure vessel steels, it is not always possible to test specimens large enough for fracture to occur prior to general yielding. Therefore, in these cases, the effects of large-scale yielding prior to fracture cannot be avoided, but since they presently have no analytical explanation they are being treated empirically.

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE: Active control for stress intensity of crack-tips under mixed mode by shape memory TiNi fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, A.; Zhao, H.; Azakami, T.

    2007-06-01

    The paper presented the effectiveness of a shape memory alloy hybrid composite. It was designed to actively suppress stress intensity in the vicinity of a crack-tip. A shape memory alloy (SMA) TiNi fiber reinforced epoxy composite was fabricated based on the proposed design concept and its material and mechanical properties were investigated by photoelastic examinations. The stress intensity factors, KI and KII, at a crack-tip decreased temperatures greater than Af under mixed mode. The phenomenon was caused by the recovery force of the TiNi fiber. The relationship of the stress intensity factors with the prestrain in the SMA fiber as well as with the ambient temperature in an isothermal furnace was clarified. On this basis, the active control for stress intensity by a shape memory composite was discussed.

  12. Aeroelastic behavior of composite helicopter rotor blades with advanced geometry tips

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.P.; Yuan, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    A new structural and aeroelastic model capable of representing the aeroelastic stability and response of composite helicopter rotor blades with advanced geometry tips is presented. Where it is understood that advanced geometry tips are blade tips having sweep, anhedral and taper in the outboard 10% segment of the blade. The blade is modeled by beam finite elements. A single element is used to represent the swept tip. The nonlinear equations of motion are derived using the Hamilton`s principle and are based on moderate deflection theory. Thus, the nonlinearities are of the geometric type. The important structural blade attributes captured by the model are arbitrary cross-sectional shape, general anisotropic material behavior, transverse shear and out-of-plane warping. The aerodynamic loads are based on quasi-steady Greenberg theory with reverse flow effects, using an implicit formulation. The nonlinear aeroelastic response of the blade is obtained from a fully coupled propulsive trim/aeroelastic response analysis. Aeroelastic stability is obtained from linearizing the equations of motion about the steady state response of the blade and using Floquet theory. Numerical results for the aeroelastic stability and response of a hingeless composite blade with two cell type cross section are presented, together with vibratory hub shears and moments. The influence of ply orientation and tip sweep is clearly illustrated by the results.

  13. Small, short and long fatigue crack growth in an advanced silicon nitride ceramic material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Edwards, L.

    1996-05-15

    In metallic materials, a number of workers have reported that the growth rates of small fatigue cracks cannot be correlated with the stress intensity factor range, {Delta}K. Small cracks normally exhibit faster growth rates than long cracks and often show growth rate minima. This anomalous behavior has been attributed to the failure of the linear elastic fracture mechanics parameter {Delta}K to characterize small, or short fatigue crack growth. Ceramic materials combine a lack of dislocation deformation and a very small grain size and thus the reasons for any observed anomalous small or short crack growth effect are less clear. Previous work on small or short fatigue crack growth in ceramics is limited, and work on silicon nitride which is one of the most promising structural ceramics is particularly sparse. As the majority of the fatigue lifetime of any silicon nitride component will be controlled by the propagation of a preexisting small flaw to a critical size, the presence of any short or small crack effect in this material is of engineering importance. Thus, the objective of the work presented here is to investigate the small, short and long crack growth in an advanced silicon nitride material.

  14. Experimental and theoretical strain distributions for stationary and growing cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerberich, W. W.; Davidson, D. L.; Kaczorowski, M.

    E XPERIMENTAL strain distributions are determined very near the crack tip in Fe-3wt.%Si single crystals. Both in situ stereoimaging and electron channeling techniques give reasonably reproducible distributions. By growing fatigue cracks on a {100} cleavage plane, the singularity strengths have been determined for both growing and stationary cracks under relatively plane stress and plane strain conditions. This has allowed a comparison to existing theoretical models. It is shown that the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren, 1968) for stationary cracks is very good to within I μm of the crack tip and a hardening model for the growing crack (gao and hwang, Advances in Fracture Research, edited by D. Francois. 5th Int. Conf. on Fracture, Cannes, France, 2, 669, 1981) is surprisingly good. Other issues such as fracture criteria are discussed since strains greater than unity were measured at the crack tip in this relatively brittle material.

  15. A finite element analysis of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments have shown that fatigue cracks close at positive loads during constant-amplitude load cycling. The crack-closure phenomenon is caused by residual plastic deformations remaining in the wake of an advancing crack tip. The present paper is concerned with the application of a two-dimensional, nonlinear, finite-element analysis for predicting crack-closure and crack-opening stresses during cyclic loading. A two-dimensional finite-element computer program, which accounts for both elastic-plastic material behavior and changing boundary conditions associated with crack extension and intermittent contact of the crack surfaces under cyclic loading, has been developed. An efficient technique to account for changing boundary conditions was also incorporated into the nonlinear analysis program. This program was subsequently used to study crack extension and crack closure under constant-amplitude and two-level block loading. The calculated crack-closure and crack-opening stresses were qualitatively consistent with experimental observations.

  16. Advanced fatigue-crack detection system in steel bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Marvin F.; Hersh, S.; Chase, Steven B.

    1995-05-01

    The Federal Highway Administration has sponsored the development of a new system for fatigue crack detection and quantification of fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The NDE technology selected for the new system is based on earlier studies that have identified the best methods for this task. The new system that has been developed is based on previous work which produced two portable instruments that were field tested but were not widely accepted. The best characteristics from these systems have been integrated into a single instrument, using portable computer technology and adapted to the bridge inspection environment. The new system, which has come to be known as the New Ultrasonic-Magnetic Detection System (NUMAC), is configured as a backpack with a heads-up display that leaves the inspectors hands free to climb the structure and to view the inspection site simultaneously while viewing the ultrasonic or magnetic signals. The operation of the system controlled with a mouse or a keyboard. Importantly, the accuracy and repeatability of the NUMAC is combined with the ability to store inspection data. The stored data can be used to document condition, demonstrate and identity important trends, and efficiently channel resources. The flexibility of the portable computer based NDE system is intended to provide a basic, reliable and cost- effective instrument for steel bridge inspection.

  17. Power Law Versus Exponential Form of Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Dynamic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the strength versus In (stress rate) relation was found to be very reasonable for most of the materials. It was also found that preloading technique was equally applicable for the case of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n > 30. The major limitation in the exponential crack velocity formulation, however, was that an inert strength of a material must be known priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared to the conventional power-law crack velocity formulation.

  18. Theoretical Model of the Effect of Crack Tip Blunting on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Welds in 2219-T87 Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model representing blunting of a crack tip radius through diffusion of vacancies is presented. The model serves as the basis for a computer program which calculates changes, due to successive weld heat passes, in the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T81 aluminum. In order for the model to yield changes of the same order in the ultimate tensile strength as that observed experimentally, a crack tip radius of the order of .001 microns is required. Such sharp cracks could arise in the fusion zone of a weld from shrinkage cavities or decohered phase boundaries between dendrites and the eutectic phase, or, possibly, from plastic deformation due to thermal stresses encountered during the welding process. Microstructural observations up to X2000 (resolution of about .1 micron) did not, in the fusion zone, show structural details which changed significantly under the influence of a heat pass, with the exception of possible small changes in the configuration of the interdendritic eutectic and in porosity build-up in the remelt zone.

  19. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  20. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  1. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  2. Crack Branching and Fracture Mirror Data of Glasses and Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1998-01-01

    The fracture mirror and crack branching constants were determined from three glasses and nine advanced ceramics tested under various loading and specimen configurations in an attempt to use the constants as a data base for fractography. The ratios of fracture mirror or crack branching constant to fracture toughness were found to be approximately two for most ceramic materials tested. A demonstration of how to use the two constants as a tool for verifying stress measurements was presented for silicon nitride disk specimens subjected to high-temperature, constant stress-rate biaxial flexure testing.

  3. Subsurface detection and characterization of Hertzian cracks in advanced ceramic materials using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkansky, Mark; Reintjes, John F.

    2002-06-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an active optical imaging technique that is capable of three-dimensional resolution better than 10 microns in all dimensions. OCT was originally developed as a non-invasive technique in biomedical field. It also found uses in the NDE of various materials including ceramics, plastics and composites. In various ceramics OCT can be used to detect microscopic, subsurface defects at depths approaching hundreds of microns. The depth of penetration depends on the material and on the wavelength of light. Here we demonstrate an application of OCT to the subsurface imaging in various materials and, in particular, to the detection of a surface-penetrating Hertzian crack in a Si3N4 ceramic ball. We present measured subsurface trajectory of the crack and compare it to theoretical predictions. These cracks represent one of the most important failure mechanisms in advanced ceramic materials. The ability to map subsurface trajectories of cracks is a valuable tool in the evaluation of different existing theories. Better theoretical understanding of various properties of crack initiation and propagation can lead to engineering of improved ceramic materials.

  4. Tips and tricks of ureteroscopy: consensus statement. Part II. Advanced ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rukin, Nicholas J.; Patterson, Jake; Grey, Ben R.; Finch, William; McClinton, Sam; Parys, Bo; Young, Graham; Syed, Haider; Myatt, Andy; Samsudin, Azi; Inglis, John A.; Smith, Daron

    2015-01-01

    Our “tips and tricks” focuses on all aspects of upper tract endourology and we hope these will be of use to all trainees and consultants who perform ureteroscopy. We report an “expert consensus view” from experienced endourological surgeons, on all aspects of advanced ureteroscopic techniques, with a particular focus on avoiding and getting out of trouble while performing ureteroscopy. In this paper we provide a summary of placing ureteric access sheath, flexible ureteroscopy, intra renal stone fragmentation and retrieval, maintaining visual clarity and biopsy of ureteric and pelvicalyceal tumours. PMID:27123335

  5. Crack propagation in bamboo's hierarchical cellular structure.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Meisam K; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-07

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  6. Recent advances in the modelling of crack growth under fatigue loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekoning, A. U.; Tenhoeve, H. J.; Henriksen, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth associated with cyclic (secondary) plastic flow near a crack front is modelled using an incremental formulation. A new description of threshold behaviour under small load cycles is included. Quasi-static crack extension under high load excursions is described using an incremental formulation of the R-(crack growth resistance)- curve concept. The integration of the equations is discussed. For constant amplitude load cycles the results will be compared with existing crack growth laws. It will be shown that the model also properly describes interaction effects of fatigue crack growth and quasi-static crack extension. To evaluate the more general applicability the model is included in the NASGRO computer code for damage tolerance analysis. For this purpose the NASGRO program was provided with the CORPUS and the STRIP-YIELD models for computation of the crack opening load levels. The implementation is discussed and recent results of the verification are presented.

  7. Innovative Approach to Establish Root Causes for Cracking in Aggressive Reactor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.; Vetrano, John S.; Simonen, Edward P.

    2003-10-31

    The research focuses on the high-resolution characterization of degradation microstructures and microchemistries in specimens tested under controlled conditions for the environment and for the material where in-service complexities can be minimized. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of crack-tip processes is employed to analyze corrosion-induced structures and gain insights into degradation mechanisms. Novel mechanistic ''fingerprinting'' of crack-tip structures is used to isolate causes of environmental cracking in tandem with quantitative measurements of crack growth. Sample preparation methods and advanced analytical techniques are used to characterize corrosion/oxidation reactions and crack-tip structures at near atomic dimensions in order to gain insight into fundamental environmental cracking mechanisms. Reactions at buried interfaces, not accessible by conventional approaches, are being systematically interrogated. Crack-growth experiments in high-temperature water environments are evaluating and isolating the effects of material condition (matrix strength, grain boundary composition and precipitation) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The fundamental understanding of crack advance mechanisms will establish the basis to design new corrosion-resistant alloys for current light-water reactors and advanced reactor systems.

  8. Stable Crack Growth During Thermal Actuation of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jape, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-03-01

    A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in shape memory alloys subjected to thermal variations under plane strain, mode I, constant applied loading. The crack is assumed to propagate at a critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate which is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique. The load level, applied at a high temperature at which the austenite phase is stable, is assumed sufficiently low so that the resulting crack-tip energy release rate is smaller than the critical value but sufficiently high so that the critical value is reached during cooling, initiating crack growth (Baxevanis and Lagoudas in Int J Fract 191:191-213, 2015). Stable crack growth is observed, mainly associated with the shielding effect of the transformed material left in the wake of the advancing crack. Results pertaining to the near-tip mechanical fields and fracture toughness are presented and their sensitivity to phase transformation metrics and bias load levels is investigated.

  9. Multiscale modeling of crack initiation and propagation at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiari, Behrouz; Miller, Ronald E.

    2016-03-01

    Fracture occurs on multiple interacting length scales; atoms separate on the atomic scale while plasticity develops on the microscale. A dynamic multiscale approach (CADD: coupled atomistics and discrete dislocations) is employed to investigate an edge-cracked specimen of single-crystal nickel, Ni, (brittle failure) and aluminum, Al, (ductile failure) subjected to mode-I loading. The dynamic model couples continuum finite elements to a fully atomistic region, with key advantages such as the ability to accommodate discrete dislocations in the continuum region and an algorithm for automatically detecting dislocations as they move from the atomistic region to the continuum region and then correctly "converting" the atomistic dislocations into discrete dislocations, or vice-versa. An ad hoc computational technique is also applied to dissipate localized waves formed during crack advance in the atomistic zone, whereby an embedded damping zone at the atomistic/continuum interface effectively eliminates the spurious reflection of high-frequency phonons, while allowing low-frequency phonons to pass into the continuum region. The simulations accurately capture the essential physics of the crack propagation in a Ni specimen at different temperatures, including the formation of nano-voids and the sudden acceleration of the crack tip to a velocity close to the material Rayleigh wave speed. The nanoscale brittle fracture happens through the crack growth in the form of nano-void nucleation, growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip, and as such resembles fracture at the microscale. When the crack tip behaves in a ductile manner, the crack does not advance rapidly after the pre-opening process but is blunted by dislocation generation from its tip. The effect of temperature on crack speed is found to be perceptible in both ductile and brittle specimens.

  10. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth arid/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a Function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test material&

  11. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress- rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the rest materials.

  12. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case 1 loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case 1 loading history, and alumina for the Case 3 loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test materials.

  13. Assessment of Crack Detection in Cast Austenitic Piping Components Using Advanced Ultrasonic Methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Cast stainless steel pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employed a zone-focused, multi-incident angle inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging capabilities. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at 500 kHz and composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Re¬sults from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization and sizing effectiveness are discussed in this paper.

  14. Advancing the Message: Tips and Suggestions for Communications People in Child Welfare Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Mary J.

    Nonprofit agencies involved in child welfare are increasingly interested in generating publicity for their work and improving their organization's public image. This booklet compiles information, tips, and resources helpful to public relations and communications professionals and agency personnel responsible for handling media relations for child…

  15. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  16. Chemistry and electrochemistry of environment-assisted cracking of an aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Kevin Richard

    2001-11-01

    The mechanism of environment-assisted cracking (EAC) of 7xxx-series alloys is unclear, involving uncertain contributions of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and anodic dissolution (AD). Fundamental understanding of the EAC mechanism is lacking in part because the role of the crack environment is not well understood. The objective of this research was to characterize and understand the role of the crack chemistry and electrochemistry during aqueous EAC of AA 7050. The crack environment can differ significantly from bulk conditions. Cations, produced by AD, hydrolyze causing local acidification; anions from the bulk electrolyte concentrate within the crack to maintain charge neutrality; ohmic potential drop results from ion migration and diffusion. A positive correlation exists between da/dt and [Al3+]Tip in chromate-chloride electrolyte wherein tip dissolution dominates flank corrosion in establishing the crack chemistry. Tip pH was 2 to 4 and determined by the reaction Al3+ + H 2O = AlOH2+ + H+. The tip potential (ETip) was approximately -0.90 VSCE and independent of EApp . The low ETip and pH promote H+ reduction, generating atomic and molecular H. Hydrogen bubbles restrict ion movement, substantially increasing the effective crack resistance over bulk conditions. Absorbed atomic hydrogen facilitates HE. The spontaneous transition from slow, incubation to high-rate da/dt coincides with the establishment of a critical aggressive tip chemistry and tip depolarization. Development of the critical occluded chemistry necessary for accelerated da/dt is a competitive process between opposing forces: AD, hydrolysis and migration promote an aggressive environment whereas diffusion reduces concentration gradients, thereby retarding the formation of an aggressive chemistry. Quantitative assessment of the contribution of tip dissolution to crack advance is hindered by a lack of knowledge of two key parameters: the tip corrosion front height and the effective crack conductivity

  17. Gear crack propagation investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.

  18. Development of a Low Data Event Timer for Monitoring an Advancing Crack in Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macon, D. J.; Totman, P. D.; Bodily, M. L.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring the crack position and velocity in a fracture specimen can be difficult and laborious. In addition, the data storage requirements can be considerable depending upon the testing conditions. A low data event timer was developed to alleviate these problems. The test apparatus was applied to cantilever beams bonded with a structural epoxy and tested under different conditions such as stable to unstable transitions and different temperature extremes. The results indicate that the approach eliminates problems associated with other types of crack measurement and greatly simplifies the measuring process.

  19. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  20. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  1. Electrochemical situation in corrosion-mechanical cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, L.N.; Kalinkov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the electrochemical situation in corrosion cracks is determined by the electromotive force of local galvanic cells at the crack tip and the polarization resistance of anodic processes.

  2. Development of Advanced Life Prediction Tools for Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to develop a systematic approach to improving the fracture control process, including analytical tools, standards, guidelines, and awareness. Analytical tools specifically for elastic-plastic fracture analysis is a regime that is currently empirical for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) and is handled by simulated service testing of pre-cracked panels.

  3. Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.

  4. Lessons from the tip of the spear: medical advancements from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Schrager, Jason J; Branson, Richard D; Johannigman, Jay A

    2012-08-01

    The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have seen the advancement of combat medicine. The nature of the conflicts, with troops located in remote areas and faced with explosive ordinance designed to focus massive injuries on dismounted personnel, have forced military medical personnel to adapt accordingly. There has been a rekindling of interest in the use of tourniquets to stop exsanguination from extremity wounds, as well as in the transfusion of fresh whole blood from walking blood banks. These previously discarded techniques, born on battlefields long ago, have been refined and perfected and have led to an unprecedented survival for our wounded warriors. New developments in the field of applied hemostatic agents, damage control surgical techniques, and the implementation of an efficient evacuation system have also contributed to these results. The field of combat medicine has taken several concepts initially designed in civilian settings, such as temporary abdominal packing and vascular shunting, and adapted them to the military setting to provide state of the art trauma management to our troops in combat. In turn, developments in the resuscitation of the trauma patient, using increased blood and plasma products and less crystalloid, have been pioneered in conflict and transitioned to the civilian sector. Advancements made during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as those still being developed, will shape the care of the injured patient, in both civilian and military settings, for the foreseeable future.

  5. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  6. Atomic simulation of cracks under mixed mode loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M.

    1984-01-01

    A discrete atomic model of a crack tip in iron under mixed mode loads is examined. The results indicate that the behavior of the crack at the atomic scale as a function of the ratio of mode I to mode II component of load is quite complex. In general, crack tip plasticity appears to increase as the mode II component of load increases.

  7. Advanced control improves MHC-VGO unit operation. [Mild HydroCracking-Vacuum Gas Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, L.; Watson, D. ); Danzinger, F.; Tuppinger, D.; Schuster, R.; Wilmsen, W. )

    1995-03-01

    Constraint and multivariable predictive (MPC) controllers were implemented on an FCC preheater (MHC-VGO unit), which runs in mild hydrocracking (MHC) mode. In only a few weeks following commissioning, better control provided an average reduction in steam use of 38%, an average reduction of 22% in DEA use and a 5 to 10% reduction in fuel consumption. OMV's refinery in Schwechat was commissioned in 1960 and is now one of the largest and most complex inland-refineries in Europe with an annual crude oil processing capacity of 10 million metric tons. Every product stream is desulfurized by hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units. As part of a refinery-wide advanced control (ADVC) project which includes 27 units implemented on four process computers and two DCSs, advanced controls were installed on the MHC-VGO unit. The entire project was executed over a period of two and a half years. The paper describes the process, advanced control, the weighted average bed temperature controller, feed maximization control, stripper feed temperature control, stripping steam/feed ratio controller, stripper pressure minimization, H[sub 2]/oil controller, recycle/DEA ratio controller, stripper bottoms level controller, and advanced control benefits.

  8. Initiation and propagation of small corner cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellyin, Ferdnand; Kujawski, Daniel; Craig, David F.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of small corner cracks, inclined or perpendicular to loading direction, is presented. There are two aspects to this investigation: initiation of small cracks and monitoring their subsequent growth. An initial pre-cracking procedure under cyclic compression is adopted to minimize the residual damage at the tip of the growing and self-arresting crack under cyclic compression. A final fatigue specimen, cut from the larger pre-cracked specimen, has two corner flaws. The opening load of corner flaw is monitored using a novel strain gauge approach. The behaviour of small corner cracks is described in terms of growth rate relative to the size of the crack and its shape.

  9. Effect of Measured Welding Residual Stresses on Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Drew; Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in thin plate A516-70 steel and 2219-T87 aluminum butt weldments were measured by the strain-gage hole drilling and X-ray diffraction methods. The residual stress data were used to construct 3D strain fields which were modeled as thermally induced strains. These 3D strain fields were then analyzed with the WARP31) FEM fracture analysis code in order to predict their effect on fatigue and on fracture. For analyses of fatigue crack advance and subsequent verification testing, fatigue crack growth increments were simulated by successive saw-cuts and incremental loading to generate, as a function of crack length, effects on crack growth of the interaction between residual stresses and load induced stresses. The specimen experimental response was characterized and compared to the WARM linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis predictions. To perform the fracture analysis, the plate material's crack tearing resistance was determined by tests of thin plate M(T) specimens. Fracture analyses of these specimen were performed using WARP31D to determine the critical Crack Tip Opening Angle [CTOA] of each material. These critical CTOA values were used to predict crack tearing and fracture in the weldments. To verify the fracture predictions, weldment M(T) specimen were tested in monotonic loading to fracture while characterizing the fracture process.

  10. Mode III fatigue crack propagation in low alloy steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, R. O.; McClintock, F. A.; Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; Ritter, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    To provide a basis for estimating fatigue life in large rotating generator shafts subjected to transient oscillations, a study is made of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) in torsionally-loaded spheroidized AISI4340 steel, and results compared to analogous behavior in Mode I. Torsional S/N curves, determined on smooth bars containing surface defects, showed results surprisingly close to expected unnotched Mode I data, with lifetime increasing from 104 cycles at nominal yield to 106 cycles at half yield. Fatigue crack growth rates in Mode III, measured on circumferentially-notched samples, were found to be slower than in Mode I, although still power-law related to the alternating stress intensity (△K III) for small-scale yielding. Mode III growth rates were only a small fraction (0.002 to 0.0005) of cyclic crack tip displacements (△CTD III) per cycle, in contrast to Mode I where the fraction was much larger (0.1 to 0.01). A micromechanical model for Mode III growth is proposed, where crack advance is considered to take place by a Mode II coalescence of cracks, initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front. This mechanism is consistent with the crack increment being a small fraction of △CTDIII per cycle.

  11. Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors

  12. Environmental Crack Driving Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of environment on the crack driving force is considered, first by assuming quasistatic extension of a stationary crack and second, by use of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) crack growth rate models developed previously by this author and developed further here. A quasistatic thermodynamic energy balance approach, of the Griffith-Irwin type, is used to develop stationary crack threshold expressions, tilde{J}_c , which represent the conjoint mechanical and electrochemical conditions, below which stationary cracks are stable. Expressions for the electrochemical crack driving force (CDF) were derived using an analysis that is analogous to that used by Irwin to derive his "strain energy release rate," G, which Rice showed as being equivalent to his mechanical CDF, J. The derivations show that electrochemical CDFs both for active path dissolution (APD) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) mechanisms of SCC are simply proportional to Tafel's electrochemical anodic and cathodic overpotentials, η a and η c, respectively. Phenomenological SCC models based on the kinetics of APD and HE crack growth are used to derive expressions for the kinetic threshold, J scc, below which crack growth cannot be sustained. These models show how independent mechanical and environmental CDFs may act together to drive SCC crack advance. Development of a user-friendly computational tool for calculating Tafel's overpotentials is advocated.

  13. Library Management Tips that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's no shortage of library management books out there--but how many of them actually tackle the little details of day-to-day management, the hard-to-categorize things that slip through the cracks of a larger handbook? "Library Management Tips that Work" does exactly that, addressing dozens of such issues facing library managers, including: (1)…

  14. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  15. Bladed disc crack diagnostics using blade passage signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanachi, Houman; Liu, Jie; Banerjee, Avisekh; Koul, Ashok; Liang, Ming; Alavi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    One of the major potential faults in a turbo fan engine is the crack initiation and propagation in bladed discs under cyclic loads that could result in the breakdown of the engines if not detected at an early stage. Reliable fault detection techniques are therefore in demand to reduce maintenance cost and prevent catastrophic failures. Although a number of approaches have been reported in the literature, it remains very challenging to develop a reliable technique to accurately estimate the health condition of a rotating bladed disc. Correspondingly, this paper presents a novel technique for bladed disc crack detection through two sequential signal processing stages: (1) signal preprocessing that aims to eliminate the noises in the blade passage signals; (2) signal postprocessing that intends to identify the crack location. In the first stage, physics-based modeling and interpretation are established to help characterize the noises. The crack initiation can be determined based on the calculated health monitoring index derived from the sinusoidal effects. In the second stage, the crack is located through advanced detrended fluctuation analysis of the preprocessed data. The proposed technique is validated using a set of spin rig test data (i.e. tip clearance and time of arrival) that was acquired during a test conducted on a bladed military engine fan disc. The test results have demonstrated that the developed technique is an effective approach for identifying and locating the incipient crack that occurs at the root of a bladed disc.

  16. Early stages in the development of stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Simonen, E.P.

    1993-12-01

    Processes in growth of short cracks and stage I of long stress corrosion cracks were identified and evaluated. There is evidence that electrochemical effects can cause short stress corrosion cracks to grow at rates faster or slower than long cracks. Short cracks can grow at faster rates than long cracks for a salt film dissolution growth mechanism or from reduced oxygen inhibition of hydrolytic acidification. An increasing crack growth rate with increasing crack length could result from a process of increasing crack tip concentration of a critical anion, such as Cl{sup {minus}}, with increasing crack length in a system where the crack velocity is dependent on the Cl{sup {minus}} or some other anion concentration. An increasing potential drop between crack tip and mouth would result in an increased anion concentration at the crack tip and hence an increasing crack velocity. Stage I behavior of long cracks is another early development stage in the life of a stress corrosion crack which is poorly understood. This stage can be described by da/dt = AK{sup m} where da/dt is crack velocity, A is a constant, K is stress intensity and m ranges from 2 to 24 for a variety of materials and environments. Only the salt film dissolution model was found to quantitatively describe this stage; however, the model was only tested on one material and its general applicability is unknown.

  17. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  18. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Some inexpensive or free ways that enable to capture and use images in work are mentioned. The first tip demonstrates the methods of using some of the built-in capabilities of the Macintosh and Windows-based PC operating systems, and the second tip describes methods to capture and create images using SnagIt.

  19. Crack velocity jumps engendered by a transformational process zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulbitch, A.; Korzhenevskii, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    We study a concerted propagation of a fast crack with the process zone where a rearrangement of the solid structure takes place. The latter is treated as a second-order local phase transformation. We demonstrate that the propagation of such a zone gives rise to a nonlinear frictionlike force exerted on the crack tip, resisting its propagation. Depending on the temperature, it produces three regimes of crack motion, which differ in the behavior of the crack tip process zone: (i) always existing, (ii) only emerging at a high crack speed, and (iii) flickering. We show that the latter regime exhibits crack velocity jumps.

  20. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  1. Atomic simulation of fatigue crack propagation in Ni3Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Xiao, Shifang; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu

    2015-03-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of Ni3Al was studied using molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature. The simulation results showed that the deformation mechanisms and the crack propagation path were significantly influenced by the orientation of initial crack. The formation process of slip bands around the crack tip was investigated in various cracks and indicated that the slip bands were able to hinder the initiation and propagation of cracks. Besides, the crack growth rate was also calculated by the Paris equation, and the results revealed that the crack growth rate increased with the increasing stress intensity factor range.

  2. Elevated-temperature crack-growth studies of advanced titanium aluminides. Final report, September 1986-April 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.

    1987-09-01

    Ordered intermetallic titanium aluminide Ti Al alloyed with niobium possesses attractive high-temperature properties and moderate low temperature ductibility. Currently, its application is limited to static components in aircraft gas turbine engines. To extend their use to rotating components of turbine engines, better understanding of life limiting processes such as creep/fatigue crack growth and fracture is required. Phase I of this Air Force Small Business Innovative Research program involved investigation of fatigue crack growth in an alpha two titanium aluminide plus niobium alloy (titanium - 16 wt% aluminum - 10 wt% niobium) as a function of temperature and environment. Computer-automated fatigue-crack-growth tests were conducted in both air and vacuum environments at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1200 F (649 C). Two heat treatment conditions, namely, beta solution and alpha + beta solution resulted in coarse- and fine-grain materials, respectively, with varying alpha two morphology. Fractographic analyses were conducted for all test specimens.

  3. Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    A climate tipping point, at least as I have used the phrase, refers to a situation in which a changing climate forcing has reached a point such that little additional forcing (or global temperature change) is needed to cause large, relatively rapid, climate change. Present examples include potential loss of all Arctic sea ice and instability of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Tipping points are characterized by ready feedbacks that amplify the effect of forcings. The notion that these may be runaway feedbacks is a misconception. However, present "unrealized" global warming, due to the climate system's thermal inertia, exacerbates the difficulty of avoiding global warming tipping points. I argue that prompt efforts to slow CO2 emissions and absolutely reduce non-CO2 forcings are both essential if we are to avoid tipping points that would be disastrous for humanity and creation, the planet as civilization knows it.

  4. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost weekly, we see ...

  5. Comparison of fatigue crack propagation in Modes I and III

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, R.O.

    1985-06-01

    The propagation behavior of fatigue cracks in Mode III (anti-plane shear), measured under cyclic torsion, is described and compared with more commonly encountered behavior under Mode I (tensile opening) loads. It is shown that a unique, global characterization of Mode III growth rates, akin to the Paris ''law'' in Mode I, is only possible if characterizating parameters appropriate to large-scale yielding are employed and allowance is made for crack tip shielding from sliding crack surface interference (i.e., friction and abrasion) between mating fracture surfaces. Based on the crack tip stress and deformation fields for Mode III stationary cracks, the cyclic crack tip displacement, (..delta..CTD/sub III/, and plastic strain intensity range ..delta..GAMMA/sub III/, have been proposed and are found to provide an adequate description of behavior in a range of steels, provided crack surface interference is minimized. The magnitude of this interference, which is somewhat analogous to crack closure in Mode I, is further examined in the light of the complex fractography of torsional fatigue failures and the question of a ''fatigue threshold'' for Mode III crack growth. Finally, micro-mechanical models for cyclic crack extension in anti-plane shear are briefly described, and the contrasting behavior between Mode III and Mode I cracks subjected to simple variable amplitude spectra is examined in terms of the differing role of crack tip blunting and closure in influencing shear, as opposed to tensile opening, modes of crack growth.

  6. Subcritical crack growth in marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki; Toshinori, Ii; Harui, Tomoki; Tanaka, Mayu; Kashiwaya, Koki

    2016-04-01

    observed generally in glass. It is considered that Region II of subcritical crack growth in glass is controlled by the mass-transport to the crack tip. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contains water. Since the porosity of Carrara marble is very low, the contained amount of water is also very low. Therefore, it is considered that Region II is observed in Carrara marble. Since the crack velocity increased in the environment with higher temperature and humidity, it is concluded that the condition with low humidity in air is desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass.

  7. Crack Formation in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprince, A.; Pakrastinsh, L.; Vatin, N.

    2016-04-01

    The cracking properties in cement-based composites widely influences mechanical behavior of construction structures. The challenge of present investigation is to evaluate the crack propagation near the crack tip. During experiments the tension strength and crack mouth opening displacement of several types of concrete compositions was determined. For each composition the Compact Tension (CT) specimens were prepared with dimensions 150×150×12 mm. Specimens were subjected to a tensile load. Deformations and crack mouth opening displacement were measured with extensometers. Cracks initiation and propagation were analyzed using a digital image analysis technique. The formation and propagation of the tensile cracks was traced on the surface of the specimens using a high resolution digital camera with 60 mm focal length. Images were captured during testing with a time interval of one second. The obtained experimental curve shows the stages of crack development.

  8. An Evaluation of the Plasticity-Induced Crack-Closure Concept and Measurement Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, James C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the plasticity-induced crack-closure concept is made, in light of some of the questions that have been raised on the validity of the concept, and the assumptions that have been made concerning crack-dp damage below the crack-opening stress. The impact of using other crack-tip parameters, such as the cyclic crack-tip displacement, to model crack-growth rate behavior was studied. Crack-growth simulations, using a crack-closure model, showed a close relation between traditional Delta K eff, and the cyclic crack-tip displacement (Delta eff) for an aluminum alloy and a steel. Evaluations of the cyclic hysteresis energy demonstrated that the cyclic plastic damage below the crack-opening stress was negligible in the Paris crack-growth regime. Some of the standard and newly proposed remote measurement methods to determine the 'effective' crack-tip driving parameter were evaluated on middle-crack tension specimens. A potential source of the Kmax effect on crack-growth rates was studied on an aluminum alloy. Results showed that the ratio of Kmax to Kc had a strong effect on crack-growth rates at high stress ratios and at low stress ratios for very high stress levels. The crack-closure concept and the traditional crack-growth rate equations were able to correlate and predict crack-growth rates under these extreme conditions.

  9. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  10. Crack growth direction in unidirectional off-axis graphite epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Gregory, M. A.; Beuth, J. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An anisotropic elasticity crack tip stress analysis is implemented using three crack extension direction criteria (the normal stress ratio, the tensor polynominal and the strain energy density) to predict the direction of crack extension in unidirectional off axis graphite-epoxy. The theoretical predictions of crack extension direction are then compared with experimental results for 15 deg off axis tensile coupons with center cracks. Specimens of various aspect ratios and crack orientations are analyzed. It is shown that only the normal stress ratio criterion predicts the correct direction of crack growth.

  11. Generalized Griffith criterion for dynamic fracture and the stability of crack motion at high velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adda-Bedia, M.; Arias, R.; Ben Amar, M.; Lund, F.

    1999-08-01

    We use Eshelby's energy momentum tensor of dynamic elasticity to compute the forces acting on a moving crack front in a three-dimensional elastic solid [Philos. Mag. 42, 1401 (1951)]. The crack front is allowed to be any curve in three dimensions, but its curvature is assumed small enough so that near the front the dynamics is locally governed by two-dimensional physics. In this case the component of the elastic force on the crack front that is tangent to the front vanishes. However, both the other components, parallel and perpendicular to the direction of motion, do not vanish. We propose that the dynamics of cracks that are allowed to deviate from straight line motion is governed by a vector equation that reflects a balance of elastic forces with dissipative forces at the crack tip, and a phenomenological model for those dissipative forces is advanced. Under certain assumptions for the parameters that characterize the model for the dissipative forces, we find a second order dynamic instability for the crack trajectory. This is signaled by the existence of a critical velocity Vc such that for velocities VVc it is governed by KII≠0. This result provides a qualitative explanation for some experimental results associated with dynamic fracture instabilities in thin brittle plates. When deviations from straight line motion are suppressed, the usual equation of straight line crack motion based on a Griffiths-like criterion is recovered.

  12. The fracture mechanics of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone.

    PubMed

    Wright, T M; Hayes, W C

    1976-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to apply the techniques of fracture mechanics to a study of fatigue crack propagation in compact bone. Small cracks parallel to the long axis of the bone were initiated in standardized specimens of bovine bone. Crack growth was achieved by cyclically loading these specimens. The rate of crack growth was determined from measurements of crack length versus cycles of loading. The stress intensity factor at the tip of the crack was calculated from knowledge of the applied load, the crack length, and the specimen geometry. A strong correlation was found between the experimentally determined crack growth rate and the applied stress intensity. The relationship takes the form of a power law similar to that for other materials. Visual observation and scanning electron microscopy revealed that crack propagation occurred by initiation of subcritical cracks ahead of the main crack.

  13. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  14. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic program for geometry called Cabri Geometry II is used to examine properties of figures like triangles and make connections with other mathematical ideas like ellipse. The technology tip includes directions for creating such a problem with technology and suggestions for exploring it.

  15. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Metallic Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked metallic structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  16. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  17. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-04-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  18. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  19. Bonded orthotropic strips with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The elastostatic problem for a nonhomogeneous plane which consists of two sets of periodically arranged dissimilar orthotropic strips is considered. It is assumed that the plane contains a series of collinear cracks perpendicular to the interfaces and is loaded in tension away from and perpendicular to the cracks. The problem of cracks fully imbedded into the homogeneous strips is considered. The singular behavior of the stresses for two special crack geometries is studied. The first is the case of a broken laminate in which the crack tips touch the interfaces. The second is the case of cracks crossing the interfaces. An interesting result found from the analysis of the latter is that for certain orthotropic material combinations the stress state at the point of intersection of a crack and an interface may be bounded whereas in isotropic materials at this point stresses are always singular. A number of numerical examples are worked out to separate the primary material parameters influencing the stress intensity factors and the powers of stress singularity, and to determine the trends regarding the influence of the secondary parameters. Some numerical results are given for the stress intensity factors in certain basic crack geometries and for typical material combinations.

  20. Numerical Modeling for Hole-Edge Cracking of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) Components in the Static Bend Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunok; Mohr, William; Yang, Yu-Ping; Zelenak, Paul; Kimchi, Menachem

    2011-08-01

    Numerical modeling of local formability, such as hole-edge cracking and shear fracture in bending of AHSS, is one of the challenging issues for simulation engineers for prediction and evaluation of stamping and crash performance of materials. This is because continuum-mechanics-based finite element method (FEM) modeling requires additional input data, "failure criteria" to predict the local formability limit of materials, in addition to the material flow stress data input for simulation. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting hole-edge failures during static bend tests of AHSS structures. A local-strain-based failure criterion and a stress-triaxiality-based failure criterion were developed and implemented in LS-DYNA simulation code to predict hole-edge failures in component bend tests. The holes were prepared using two different methods: mechanical punching and water-jet cutting. In the component bend tests, the water-jet trimmed hole showed delayed fracture at the hole-edges, while the mechanical punched hole showed early fracture as the bending angle increased. In comparing the numerical modeling and test results, the load-displacement curve, the displacement at the onset of cracking, and the final crack shape/length were used. Both failure criteria also enable the numerical model to differentiate between the local formability limit of mechanical-punched and water-jet-trimmed holes. The failure criteria and static bend test developed here are useful to evaluate the local formability limit at a structural component level for automotive crash tests.

  1. Combustion in cracks of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H. L.; Son, S. F.; Bolme, C. A.; Hill, L. G.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.; Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving the combustion of PBX 9501 explosive under confined conditions reveal the importance of crack and flaws in reaction violence. Experiments on room temperature confined disks of pristine and thermally damaged PBX 9501 reveal that crack ignition depends on hot gases entering existing or pressure induced cracks rather than on energy release at the crack tip. PBX 9501 slot combustion experiments show that the reaction propagation rate in the slot does not depend on the external pressure. We have observed 1500 d s in long slots of highly-confined PBX 9501. We present experiments that examine the combustion of mechanically and thermally damaged samples of PBX 9501.

  2. Crack growth resistance in nuclear graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2002-05-01

    Crack growth resistance curves for the non-linear fracture parameters KR, JR and R were measured for unirradiated PGA and IM1-24 graphites that are used as moderators in British Magnox and AGR nuclear reactors respectively. All the curves show an initial rising part, followed by a plateau region where the measured parameter is independent of crack length. JR and R decreased at large crack lengths. The initial rising curves were attributed to development of crack bridges in the wake of the crack front, while, in the plateau region, the crack bridging zone and the frontal process zone, ahead of the crack tip, reached steady state values. The decreases at large crack lengths were attributed to interaction of the frontal zone with the specimen end face. Microscopical evidence for graphite fragments acting as crack bridges showed that they were much smaller than filler particles, indicating that the graphite fragments are broken down during crack propagation. There was also evidence for friction points in the crack wake zone and shear cracking of some larger fragments. Inspection of KR curves showed that crack bridging contributed ~0.4 MPa m0.5 to the fracture toughness of the graphites. An analysis of JR and R curves showed that the development of the crack bridging zone in the rising part of the curves contributed ~20% to the total work of fracture. Energies absorbed during development of crack bridges and steady state crack propagation were greater for PGA than for IM1-24 graphite. These differences reflect the greater extent of irreversible processes occurring during cracking in the coarser microtexture of PGA graphite.

  3. The transition from subsonic to supersonic cracks

    PubMed Central

    Behn, Chris; Marder, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the full analytical solution for steady-state in-plane crack motion in a brittle triangular lattice. This allows quick numerical evaluation of solutions for very large systems, facilitating comparisons with continuum fracture theory. Cracks that propagate faster than the Rayleigh wave speed have been thought to be forbidden in the continuum theory, but clearly exist in lattice systems. Using our analytical methods, we examine in detail the motion of atoms around a crack tip as crack speed changes from subsonic to supersonic. Subsonic cracks feature displacement fields consistent with a stress intensity factor. For supersonic cracks, the stress intensity factor disappears. Subsonic cracks are characterized by small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations in the vertical displacement of an atom along the crack line, while supersonic cracks have large-amplitude, low-frequency oscillations. Thus, while supersonic cracks are no less physical than subsonic cracks, the connection between microscopic and macroscopic behaviour must be made in a different way. This is one reason supersonic cracks in tension had been thought not to exist. PMID:25713443

  4. A three-dimensional validation of crack curvature in muscovite mica

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Hill; J. W. Foulk III; P. A. Klein; E. P. Chen

    2001-01-07

    Experimental and computational efforts focused on characterizing crack tip curvature in muscovite mica. Wedge-driven cracks were propagated under monochromatic light. Micrographs verified the subtle curvature of the crack front near the free surface. A cohesive approach was employed to model mixed-mode fracture in a three-dimensional framework. Finite element calculations captured the crack curvature observed in experiment.

  5. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  6. Estimation of Slow Crack Growth Parameters for Constant Stress-Rate Test Data of Advanced Ceramics and Glass by the Individual Data and Arithmetic Mean Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Holland, Frederic A.

    1997-01-01

    The two estimation methods, individual data and arithmetic mean methods, were used to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) parameters (n and D) of advanced ceramics and glass from a large number of room- and elevated-temperature constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') test data. For ceramic materials with Weibull modulus greater than 10, the difference in the SCG parameters between the two estimation methods was negligible; whereas, for glass specimens exhibiting Weibull modulus of about 3, the difference was amplified, resulting in a maximum difference of 16 and 13 %, respectively, in n and D. Of the two SCG parameters, the parameter n was more sensitive to the estimation method than the other. The coefficient of variation in n was found to be somewhat greater in the individual data method than in the arithmetic mean method.

  7. A damage mechanics approach to high temperature fatigue crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Z.; Takezono, S.; Tao, K.

    1995-12-31

    A nonlocal damage constitutive model is developed for elasto-visco-plastic materials and is used to analyze fatigue crack growth at high temperature. In this model, no kinematic hardening rule is needed to account for the subsequent yielding and strain hardening behavior of the materials. A calculation method for nonlocal damage is introduced. The fatigue crack growth tests and the cyclic strain controlled fatigue tests are carried out at 723 K (450 C) on pure titanium. By means of FEM, the stress distribution near the crack tip, and the relationships between the crack growth rate dl/dN and some mechanical parameters, such as the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), and the range of viscoplastic strain {Delta}{var_epsilon}{sub y}{sup vp} at the crack tip, are investigated. The mesh size dependence of these mechanical parameters in finite element analysis is discussed. The numerical results are given and compared with the experimental ones.

  8. Thermally activated dislocation creep model for primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M., Jr

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing awareness that awareness that environmentally assisted creep plays an important role in integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of NiCrFe alloys in the primary coolant water environment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The expected creep mechanism is the thermally activated glide of dislocations. This mode of deformation is favored by the relatively low temperature of PWR operation combined with the large residual stresses that are most often identified as responsible for the SCC failure of plant components. Stress corrosion crack growth rate (CGR) equations that properly reflect the influence of this mechanism of crack tip deformation are required for accurate component life predictions. A phenomenological IGSCC-CGR model, which is based on an apriori assumption that the IGSCC-CGR is controlled by a low temperature dislocation creep mechanism, is developed in this report. Obstacles to dislocation creep include solute atoms such as carbon, which increase the lattice friction force, and forest dislocations, which can be introduced by cold prestrain. Dislocation creep also may be environmentally assisted due to hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. The IGSCC-CGR model developed here is based on an assumption that crack growth occurs by repeated fracture events occurring within an advancing crack-tip creep-fracture zone. Thermal activation parameters for stress corrosion cracking are obtained by fitting the CGR model to IGSCC-CGR data obtained on NiCrFe alloys, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 600. These IGSCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to activation parameters obtained from creep and stress relaxation tests. Recently reported CGR data, which exhibit an activation energy that depends on yield stress and the applied stress intensity factor, are used to benchmark the model. Finally, the effects of matrix carbon concentration, grain boundary carbides and absorbed hydrogen concentration are discussed within context of the model.

  9. Parametric tip effects for conformable rotor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on aeroelasticity conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and three tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systematic variation in three geometric parameters: sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads difference for both baseline and torsionally soft blades. Azimuthal variation of elastic twist generated by the tip parameters strongly correlated with rotor performance and loads, but the magnitude of advancing blade elastic twist did not correlate.

  10. Load interaction effects on fatigue crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoychev, Stoyan Ivanov

    The fatigue crack propagation rate can be either increased or decreased by the previous load history (overload, block loading, different load ratio, etc.). Currently, these load sequence effects can be explained either by using crack closure or internal stress concepts. They are studied in Part I and II of the dissertation accordingly. In Part I, the last 35 years of research in the crack closure area were carefully reviewed. A new Quadrature (Q) method for crack closure estimation, based on integration rather than differentiation of the load-displacement data, was developed and compared to the 'best' methods from the literature. The new method was able to reduce the scatter in the opening load estimations to a negligible level, but does not collapse the results for different load ratios (0.1 and 0.9). In Part II a general relationship between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and the two-parameter (DeltaKtip and tipKmax) crack driving force was derived using fundamental fatigue (ε-N curve) properties. Based on this analysis, a new way of representing the da/dN data by means of the crack propagation (CP) table was proposed. In order to make the CP table sensitive to the load history effects, it was scaled using the applied and internal stresses and the corresponding stress intensity factors, characteristic for the crack tip. Two methods for calculating the internal stress intensity factors were developed, adopting the weight function and the new clamping force concepts accordingly. Finally, the CP table at the crack tip was successfully used together with the two-parameter crack driving force equation to predict da/dN for different load ratios, block loading and a single overload. Calculation of the crack closure was not needed in order to predict the experimental data accurately.

  11. Acceleration of Fatigue Crack Growth after Overload in Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, A.; Miyahara, H.; Makabe, C.; Miyazaki, T.

    The effects of an overload on fatigue crack growth behavior have been investigated by using carbon steel. Delayed retardation and acceleration of crack growth were both observed. These phenomena depended not only on overload conditions but also on the baseline stress conditions. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the materials affected the crack growth rate after overload. It was found that crack growth accelerated when tensile residual stress was distributed in front of the crack tip. The residual stress distribution is related to the crack opening geometry at the overload stage.

  12. Impact of hydraulic suction history on crack growth mechanics in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Hallett, P. D.

    2008-05-01

    The mechanics of crack formation and the influence of soil stress history were described using the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) measured with fractography. Two soils were studied: a model soil consisting of 40% Ca-bentonite and 60% fine silica sand and a remolded paddy soil with similar clay content and mineralogy. Fracture testing used deep-notch bend specimens formed by molding soils at the liquid limit into rectangular bars, equilibrating to soil water suction ranging from 5 kPa to 50 kPa (with some 50 kPa specimens wetted to 5 kPa), and inserting a crack 0.4× specimen thickness. Bend tests at a constant displacement rate of 1 mm min-1 provided data on applied force and load point displacement. The growth and geometry of the cracks were quantified from a series of images to determine the CTOA. Modulus of rupture, evaluated from the peak force, increased as water suction increased. However, rewetting did not alter the peak stress from the 50 kPa value, indicating that shrinkage-induced consolidation was more important than the soil water suction at the onset of testing. CTOA measured during stable crack growth decreased with drying. CTOA decreased even further when specimens equilibrated initially to 50 kPa were rewetted to 5 kPa. These results suggested that CTOA was primarily governed by the stiffness, although rewetting probably altered the capillary stresses in advance of the crack tip. Our future work will combine CTOA with a model that couples hydrological and mechanical processes to take into account the dependency of CTOA on the soil water regime so that crack propagation in soil can be predicted.

  13. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  14. A comparison of stress in cracked fibrous tissue specimens with varied crack location, loading, and orientation using finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, John M; Elliott, Dawn M

    2016-04-01

    Cracks in fibrous soft tissue, such as intervertebral disc annulus fibrosus and knee meniscus, cause pain and compromise joint mechanics. A crack concentrates stress at its tip, making further failure and crack extension (fracture) more likely. Ex vivo mechanical testing is an important tool for studying the loading conditions required for crack extension, but prior work has shown that it is difficult to reproduce crack extension. Most prior work used edge crack specimens in uniaxial tension, with the crack 90° to the edge of the specimen. This configuration does not necessarily represent the loading conditions that cause in vivo crack extension. To find a potentially better choice for experiments aiming to reproduce crack extension, we used finite element analysis to compare, in factorial combination, (1) center crack vs. edge crack location, (2) biaxial vs. uniaxial loading, and (3) crack-fiber angles ranging from 0° to 90°. The simulated material was annulus fibrosus fibrocartilage with a single fiber family. We hypothesized that one of the simulated test cases would produce a stronger stress concentration than the commonly used uniaxially loaded 90° crack-fiber angle edge crack case. Stress concentrations were compared between cases in terms of fiber-parallel stress (representing risk of fiber rupture), fiber-perpendicular stress (representing risk of matrix rupture), and fiber shear stress (representing risk of fiber sliding). Fiber-perpendicular stress and fiber shear stress concentrations were greatest in edge crack specimens (of any crack-fiber angle) and center crack specimens with a 90° crack-fiber angle. However, unless the crack is parallel to the fiber direction, these stress components alone are insufficient to cause crack opening and extension. Fiber-parallel stress concentrations were greatest in center crack specimens with a 45° crack-fiber angle, either biaxially or uniaxially loaded. We therefore recommend that the 45° center crack case be

  15. A numerical model for predicting crack path and modes of damage in unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G.; Tan, T. M.; Lau, A. C. W.; Awerbuch, J.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element-based numerical technique has been developed to simulate damage growth in unidirectional composites. This technique incorporates elastic-plastic analysis, micromechanics analysis, failure criteria, and a node splitting and node force relaxation algorithm to create crack surfaces. Any combination of fiber and matrix properties can be used. One of the salient features of this technique is that damage growth can be simulated without pre-specifying a crack path. In addition, multiple damage mechanisms in the forms of matrix cracking, fiber breakage, fiber-matrix debonding and plastic deformation are capable of occurring simultaneously. The prevailing failure mechanism and the damage (crack) growth direction are dictated by the instantaneous near-tip stress and strain fields. Once the failure mechanism and crack direction are determined, the crack is advanced via the node splitting and node force relaxation algorithm. Simulations of the damage growth process in center-slit boron/aluminum and silicon carbide/titanium unidirectional specimens were performed. The simulation results agreed quite well with the experimental observations.

  16. Crack problems for bonded nonhomogeneous materials under antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The singular nature of the crack tip stress field in a nonhomogeneous medium with a shear modulus with a discontinuous derivative was investigated. The simplest possible loading and geometry, the antiplane shear loading of two bonded half spaces in which the crack is perpendicular to the interface is considered. It is shown that the square root singularity of the crack tip stress field is unaffected by the discontinuity in the derivative of the shear modulus. The problem is solved for a finite crack and results for the stress intensity factors are presented.

  17. Knuckle Cracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... older obese people. Question: Can cracking knuckles / joints lead to arthritis? Answer: There is no evidence of ... or damaged joints due to arthritis could potentially lead more easily to ligament injury or acute trauma ...

  18. Dislocation shielding of a cohesive crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandakkar, Tanmay K.; Chng, Audrey C.; Curtin, W. A.; Gao, Huajian

    2010-04-01

    Dislocation interaction with a cohesive crack is of increasing importance to computational modelling of crack nucleation/growth and related toughening mechanisms in confined structures and under cyclic fatigue conditions. Here, dislocation shielding of a Dugdale cohesive crack described by a rectangular traction-separation law is studied. The shielding is completely characterized by three non-dimensional parameters representing the effective fracture toughness, the cohesive strength, and the distance between the dislocations and the crack tip. A closed form analytical solution shows that, while the classical singular crack model predicts that a dislocation can shield or anti-shield a crack depending on the sign of its Burgers vector, at low cohesive strengths a dislocation always shields the cohesive crack irrespective of the Burgers vector. A numerical study shows the transition in shielding from the classical solution of Lin and Thomson (1986) in the high strength limit to the solution in the low strength limit. An asymptotic analysis yields an approximate analytical model for the shielding over the full range of cohesive strengths. A discrete dislocation (DD) simulation of a large (>10 3) number of edge dislocations interacting with a cohesive crack described by a trapezoidal traction-separation law confirms the transition in shielding, showing that the cohesive crack does behave like a singular crack at very high cohesive strengths (˜7 GPa), but that significant deviations in shielding between singular and cohesive crack predictions arise at cohesive strengths around 1GPa, consistent with the analytic models. Both analytical and numerical studies indicate that an appropriate crack tip model is essential for accurately quantifying dislocation shielding for cohesive strengths in the GPa range.

  19. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  20. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks was considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem was solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses were calculated. For finite cracks the problem was reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results were obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  1. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks is considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem is solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses are calculated. For finite cracks the problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results are obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  2. Plane-strain crack problems in microstructured solids governed by dipolar gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgiotis, P. A.; Georgiadis, H. G.

    2009-11-01

    The present study aims at determining the elastic stress and displacement fields around the tips of a finite-length crack in a microstructured solid under remotely applied plane-strain loading (mode I and II cases). The material microstructure is modeled through the Toupin-Mindlin generalized continuum theory of dipolar gradient elasticity. According to this theory, the strain-energy density assumes the form of a positive-definite function of the strain tensor (as in classical elasticity) and the gradient of the strain tensor (additional term). A simple but yet rigorous version of the theory is employed here by considering an isotropic linear expression of the elastic strain-energy density that involves only three material constants (the two Lamé constants and the so-called gradient coefficient). First, a near-tip asymptotic solution is obtained by the Knein-Williams technique. Then, we attack the complete boundary value problem in an effort to obtain a full-field solution. Hypersingular integral equations with a cubic singularity are formulated with the aid of the Fourier transform. These equations are solved by analytical considerations on Hadamard finite-part integrals and a numerical treatment. The results show significant departure from the predictions of standard fracture mechanics. In view of these results, it seems that the classical theory of elasticity is inadequate to analyze crack problems in microstructured materials. Indeed, the present results indicate that the stress distribution ahead of the crack tip exhibits a local maximum that is bounded. Therefore, this maximum value may serve as a measure of the critical stress level at which further advancement of the crack may occur. Also, in the vicinity of the crack tip, the crack-face displacement closes more smoothly as compared to the standard result and the strain field is bounded. Finally, the J-integral (energy release rate) in gradient elasticity was evaluated. A decrease of its value is noticed

  3. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  4. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.

    1997-02-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t{sub diss} which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t{sub diss} providing V{sub eac}, the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V{sub In}, the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V{sub eac} need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths.

  5. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.

  6. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  7. Micromechanisms of monotonic and cyclic subcritical crack growth in advanced high-melting-point low-ductility intermetallics. Annual report No. 1, 15 Apr 90-14 Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.T.; Murugesh, L.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1991-05-01

    The next generation of high-performance jet engines will require markedly stiffer materials, operating at higher stress levels and capable of withstanding temperatures of up to 1650 C. Prime candidates for such applications include ordered intermetallics, ceramics and composites based on metal, intermetallic and ceramic or carbon matrices, all of which are currently of limited use due to their low ductility and fracture properties. Moreover, there is a lack of fundamental understanding on the micromechanisms influencing crack growth in these materials, particularly intermetallics. Accordingly, the present study is aimed at exploring the potential of intermetallic alloys and their composites as advanced structural materials by identifying the critical factors influencing the crack-propagation resistance under monotonic and cyclic loads. Attention is focused on the Nb{sub 3}Al and TiAl intermetallic systems. In both cases, the principal mechanism of toughening is to impede crack advance from crack bridging by ductile second phase particles. Reactive sintering and vacuum hot pressing techniques are successful is processing Nb{sub 3}Al intermetallics and duplex Nb/Nb{sub 3}Al microstructure with a stringy niobium phase can be achieved through thermal treatments. Characterization of mechanical properties will commence in the second year.

  8. Crack Turning in Integrally Stiffened Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    2000-01-01

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener--a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation.

  9. Fatigue crack growth model RANDOM2 user manual. Appendix 1: Development of advanced methodologies for probabilistic constitutive relationships of material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Lovelace, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    FORTRAN program RANDOM2 is presented in the form of a user's manual. RANDOM2 is based on fracture mechanics using a probabilistic fatigue crack growth model. It predicts the random lifetime of an engine component to reach a given crack size. Details of the theoretical background, input data instructions, and a sample problem illustrating the use of the program are included.

  10. Crack Healing in Quartz: Influence of Crack Morphology and pOH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, J. A.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Popp, R. K.; Lamb, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    Crack healing in quartz has been investigated by optical microscopy and interferometry of rhombohedral r-cleavage cracks in polished Brazilian quartz prisms that were hydrothermally annealed. Quartz prisms were pre-cracked at room temperature and then annealed at temperatures T of 250° and 400° C for 2.4 to 240 hours, fluid pressure Pf = 41 MPa (equal to confining pressure Pc), and varying pOH- (from 5.4 to 1.2 at 250° C for fluids consisting of distilled water and NaOH solutions). Crack morphologies before and after annealing were recorded for each sample in plane light digital images and apertures were determined from interference fringes recorded using transmitted monochromatic light (λ = 598 nm). As documented in previous studies (Smith and Evans, 1984; Brantley et al., 1990; Beeler and Hickman, 1996), crack healing of quartz is driven by reductions in surface energy and healing rates appear to be limited by diffusional solute transport; sharply defined crack tips become blunted and break up into fluid-filled tubes and inclusions. However, fluid inclusion geometries are also observed with nonequilibrium shapes that depend on initial surface roughness. Crack healing is significant at 400° C after short run durations (24 hr) with healing rates reaching 10-5 mm/s. Crack healing is also observed at T=250° C, but only for smooth cracks with apertures < 0.6 μ m or for cracks subject to low pOH-. The extent of crack healing is sensitive to crack aperture and to hackles formed by fine-scale crack branching during crack growth. Initial crack apertures appear to be governed by the presence of fine particles, often found in the vicinity of hackles, which maintain the separation of crack surfaces. Where rough cracks exhibit healing, hackles are sites of either enhanced or reduced loss of fluid-solid interface depending on slight mismatches and sense of twist of opposing crack surfaces. Hackles of open r-cleavage cracks are replaced either by (1) healed curvilinear

  11. Dynamics of cracking in drying colloidal sheets.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Rajarshi; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S

    2016-04-01

    Colloidal dispersions are known to display a fascinating network of cracks on drying. We probe the fracture mechanics of free-standing films of aqueous polymer-particle dispersions. Thin films of the dispersion are cast between a pair of plain steel wires and allowed to dry under ambient conditions. The strain induced on the particle network during drying is relieved by cracking. The stress which causes the films to crack has been calculated by measuring the deflection of the wires. The critical cracking stress varied inversely to the two-thirds' power of the film thickness. We also measure the velocity of the tip of a moving crack. The motion of a crack has been modeled as a competition between the release of the elastic energy stored in the particle network, the increase in surface energy as a result of the growth of a crack, the rate of viscous dissipation of the interstitial fluid and the kinetic energy associated with a moving crack. There is fair agreement between the measured crack velocities and predictions.

  12. Dynamics of cracking in drying colloidal sheets.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Rajarshi; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S

    2016-04-01

    Colloidal dispersions are known to display a fascinating network of cracks on drying. We probe the fracture mechanics of free-standing films of aqueous polymer-particle dispersions. Thin films of the dispersion are cast between a pair of plain steel wires and allowed to dry under ambient conditions. The strain induced on the particle network during drying is relieved by cracking. The stress which causes the films to crack has been calculated by measuring the deflection of the wires. The critical cracking stress varied inversely to the two-thirds' power of the film thickness. We also measure the velocity of the tip of a moving crack. The motion of a crack has been modeled as a competition between the release of the elastic energy stored in the particle network, the increase in surface energy as a result of the growth of a crack, the rate of viscous dissipation of the interstitial fluid and the kinetic energy associated with a moving crack. There is fair agreement between the measured crack velocities and predictions. PMID:26924546

  13. A model for the formation of fatigue striations and its relationship with small fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth process involves damage accumulation and crack extension. The two sub-processes that lead to fatigue crack extension were quantified separately in a recent model for small fatigue crack growth applicable to engineering alloys. Here, we report the results of an experimental investigation to assess the assumptions of that model. The fatigue striation formation in an aluminum alloy is modeled and it is verified that the number of cycles required for striation formation is related to the cyclic crack tip opening displacement and that the striation spacing is related to the monotonic crack tip displacement. It is demonstrated that extensive cyclic crack tip plasticity in the aluminum alloy causes a reduction in the magnitude of the slope of the fatigue crack propagation curves. The implications of these results on the fatigue crack propagation lifetime calculations are identified.

  14. On the Damage Zone Along Tensile Cracks in Natural Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telenga, K. A.; Stöckhert, B.

    2006-12-01

    A process zone with inelastic deformation develops around the propagating tip of macroscopic tensile cracks in rocks. Within the process zone local failure by both crystal plastic deformation and microcracking may occur concomitantly, driven by the high stress concentration. The advancing process zone at a tip of the propagating crack leaves a wake of damage to both sides of the fracture surface. The width of this wake is controlled by the diameter of the process zone. In many natural rocks, where the fractures formed at elevated temperatures, this damage zone is well visible in the field due to conspicuous alteration. The main fracture is widened and filled with minerals precipitated from the fluid phase, forming a vein. The alteration halos appear internally homogeneous and display sharp boundaries. On the microscopic scale, the original nature of the damage is blurred by mineral reactions and healing of microcracks. The mineral reactions are controlled by fluid infiltration into the zone with a transient high crack permeability. The microcrack density measured in specific minerals is found to be a bell-shaped function of distance from the main fracture. Within the damage zone it is about one order of magnitude higher compared to the background value beyond, and decays over a short distance at the boundary of the macroscopically visible alteration halo. Analysis of a large number of tensile cracks with conspicuous alteration halos shows that the width of the damage zone is correlated with the width of the open main fracture (i.e. the central vein). For well defined alteration halos in igneous rocks, the ratio is similar to 10. In contrast to faults [1], for tensile cracks the damage is created at a single instant and not expected to undergo later modification. The width of the alteration halo is defined by the radius of the process zone at the instant of passage of the crack tip. For one specific fracture event in a given rock at given environmental conditions, i

  15. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  16. The role of cyclic plastic zone size on fatigue crack growth behavior in high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korda, Akhmad A.; Miyashita, Y.; Mutoh, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The role of cyclic plastic zone in front of the crack tip was studied in high strength steels. Estimated plastic zone size would be compared with actual observation. Strain controlled fatigue tests of the steels were carried out to obtain cyclic stress-strain curves for plastic zone estimation. Observations of plastic zone were carried out using in situ SEM fatigue crack growth tests under a constant-ΔK. Hard microstructures in structural steels showed to inhibit the extent of plastic deformation around the crack tip. The rate of crack growth can be correlated with the size of plastic zone. The smaller the plastic zone size, the slower the fatigue crack growth.

  17. Prom Health and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Occasions Autumn Tips Camping Tips Family Reunions Gardening Tips Halloween Tips Healthy Halloween Prom Tips Spring ... ways to stay active, such as walking, dancing, gardening, swimming, and more. Be active for 60 minutes ...

  18. Slow crack propagation in heterogeneous materials.

    PubMed

    Kierfeld, J; Vinokur, V M

    2006-05-01

    Statistics and thermally activated dynamics of crack nucleation and propagation in a two-dimensional heterogeneous material containing quenched randomly distributed defects are studied theoretically. Using the generalized Griffith criterion we derive the equation of motion for the crack tip position accounting for dissipation, thermal noise, and the random forces arising from the defects. We find that aggregations of defects generating long-range interaction forces (e.g., clouds of dislocations) lead to anomalously slow creep of the crack tip or even to its complete arrest. We demonstrate that heterogeneous materials with frozen defects contain a large number of arrested microcracks and that their fracture toughness is enhanced to the experimentally accessible time scales.

  19. Transient Elastodynamic Crack Growth in Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chalivendra, Vijaya B.

    2008-02-15

    A generalized elastic solution for an arbitrarily propagating transient crack in Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) is obtained through an asymptotic analysis. The shear modulus and mass density of the FGM are assumed to vary exponentially along the gradation direction. The mode-mixity due to the inclination of property gradient with respect to the propagating crack tip is accommodated in the analysis through superposition of the opening and shear modes. First three terms of out of plane displacement field and its gradients about the crack tip are obtained in powers of radial coordinates, with the coefficients depending on the time rate of change of crack tip speed and stress intensity factors. Using these displacement fields, the effect of transient stress intensity factors and acceleration on synthetic contours of constant out of plane displacement under both opening and mixed mode loading conditions has been studied. These contours show that the transient terms cause significant spatial variation on out of plane displacements around the crack tip. Therefore, in studying dynamic fracture of FGMs, it is appropriate to include the transient terms in the field equations for the situations of sudden variation of stress intensity factor or crack tip velocity.

  20. Mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in Ti-48Al at ambient and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Soboyejo, W.O.; Mercer, C.; Aswath, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Gamma-based titanium aluminides are of practical interest due to their potential to replace nickel- and cobalt-based alloys in aeroengines. The results of a study of crack-tip deformation on the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in a model powder metallurgy (P/M) gamma-based titanium aluminide intermetallic (Ti-48Al) are presented in this paper. Note that compositions are quoted in atomic % unless stated otherwise. Crack-tip deformation is shown to occur by a combination of deformation-induced twinning and conventional slip at room temperature, and conventional reversed plasticity/slip only at elevated temperature (700 C). Differences between crack-tip deformation mechanisms at room- and elevated-temperature are explained by crack-tip transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The potential effects of twin toughening are also quantified using optical interference measurements of twin process zones and micromechanical models. The implications of the different crack-tip deformation mechanisms for cyclic irreversibility are discussed for crack growth at room- and elevated-temperature. The results suggest that slower fatigue crack growth rates at elevated-temperature are due to differences in crack-tip deformation and closure mechanisms.

  1. Shear cracks in thermoplastic and poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craster, R. V.; Atkinson, C.

    1992-05-01

    T O UNDERSTAND the mechanism of quasi-static plane strain fracture in poro- and thermoelastic materials for arbitrary stress fields, it is necessary to consider not only tensile fracture but also shear fracture. An impulsively sheared semi-infinite crack is considered for the mathematically analogous cases of coupled quasi-static thermo- and poroelastic materials. The exact solution is obtained in Laplace and Fourier transform domains using the Wiener—Hopf technique. The crack tip behaviour is then analysed. The stress intensity factors as a function of the Laplace transform variable are identified for cracks with either permeable (conducting) or impermeable (insulating) crack faces, and are inverted numerically for all times and asymptotically for small times. The case of a steadily propagating shear crack with either permeable or impermeable crack faces is also examined; the crack tip behaviour is examined in detail and compared with the result for a permeable fault. Analytical results are found in the neighbourhood of the crack tip. The pore pressure fields are found explicitly for all x and y.The case where the entire fault is assumed impermeable is reworked and an analytical solution is given for the pore pressure. The relevance of the results for stabilising shear faults and earthquake mechanics is briefly discussed. For the most part, the solutions in this paper and an earlier one refer to situations involving a complete coupling of the poroelastic equations and boundary conditions. This occurs when the material ahead of the crack is continuous and is relevant to the fracture of "virgin" rock. In the other papers cited in this article and elsewhere this has not usually been the case; the interface along which the crack propagates has usually been assumed to have a particular property as far as the pore pressure is concerned. It is worth stressing that the most complete situation is considered here; the pore pressure condition ahead of the crack is set only

  2. Threshold intensity factors as lower boundaries for crack propagation in ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Rudolf; Jungwirth, Franz; Walter, Per-Ole

    2004-01-01

    Background Slow crack growth can be described in a v (crack velocity) versus KI (stress intensity factor) diagram. Slow crack growth in ceramics is attributed to corrosion assisted stress at the crack tip or at any pre-existing defect in the ceramic. The combined effect of high stresses at the crack tip and the presence of water or body fluid molecules (reducing surface energy at the crack tip) induces crack propagation, which eventually may result in fatigue. The presence of a threshold in the stress intensity factor, below which no crack propagation occurs, has been the subject of important research in the last years. The higher this threshold, the higher the reliability of the ceramic, and consequently the longer its lifetime. Methods We utilize the Irwin K-field displacement relation to deduce crack tip stress intensity factors from the near crack tip profile. Cracks are initiated by indentation impressions. The threshold stress intensity factor is determined as the time limit of the tip stress intensity when the residual stresses have (nearly) disappeared. Results We determined the threshold stress intensity factors for most of the all ceramic materials presently important for dental restorations in Europe. Of special significance is the finding that alumina ceramic has a threshold limit nearly identical with that of zirconia. Conclusion The intention of the present paper is to stress the point that the threshold stress intensity factor represents a more intrinsic property for a given ceramic material than the widely used toughness (bend strength or fracture toughness), which refers only to fast crack growth. Considering two ceramics with identical threshold limits, although with different critical stress intensity limits, means that both ceramics have identical starting points for slow crack growth. Fast catastrophic crack growth leading to spontaneous fatigue, however, is different. This growth starts later in those ceramic materials that have larger

  3. Analysis of Alloy 600 and X-750 stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Lewis, N.; Krasodomski, H.

    1993-06-01

    A few months ago, KAPL evidence supported the view that Primary or Pure Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 results from a hydrogen mechanism. Figure 1 shows an Analytical Electron Microscope (AEM) analysis of a stress corrosion crack (SCC) crack in an A600 split tube U-bend specimen exposed to primary water at 338{degree}C (640{degrees}F) for 462 days. The features which appear to confirm a hydrogen mechanism are: (1) A very narrow (< 200 {angstrom}) crack with a sharp tip, nearly free of deposits. (2) No evidence of severe plastic deformation in the region immediately ahead of the crack tip. (3) A line of small voids preceding the main crack tip, of which the largest is about 5 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm in length. Shen and Shewmon proposed that PWSCC of Alloy 600 occurs due to small microvoids ahead of a main crack tip. The hypothesis is that such voids result from pockets of methane gas formed by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with carbon in the base metal. The voids are about 10 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm diameter, approximately a factor of 2 larger than the largest voids.

  4. Crack instability of ferroelectric solids under alternative electric loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-Sen; Wang, He-Ling; Pei, Yong-Mao; Wei, Yu-Jie; Liu, Bin; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2015-08-01

    The low fracture toughness of the widely used piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials in technological applications raises a big concern about their durability and safety. Up to now, the mechanisms of electric-field induced fatigue crack growth in those materials are not fully understood. Here we report experimental observations that alternative electric loading at high frequency or large amplitude gives rise to dramatic temperature rise at the crack tip of a ferroelectric solid. The temperature rise subsequently lowers the energy barrier of materials for domain switch in the vicinity of the crack tip, increases the stress intensity factor and leads to unstable crack propagation finally. In contrast, at low frequency or small amplitude, crack tip temperature increases mildly and saturates quickly, no crack growth is observed. Together with our theoretical analysis on the non-linear heat transfer at the crack tip, we constructed a safe operating area curve with respect to the frequency and amplitude of the electric field, and validated the safety map by experiments. The revealed mechanisms about how electro-thermal-mechanical coupling influences fracture can be directly used to guide the design and safety assessment of piezoelectric and ferroelectric devices.

  5. New unit to thermal crack resid

    SciTech Connect

    Washimi, K. ); Limmer, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Thermal cracking conversion increases with temperature and residence time. Soakers added downstream of the cracking furnaces increase residence time in order to improve conversion at lower furnace outlet temperature, thereby increasing run length between shutdowns for decoking. This paper discusses advanced soaker technology incorporated in High-Conversion Soaker Cracking (HSC), developed by Toyo Engineering Corporation (TEC) and Mitsui Kozan Chemicals Ltd. The technology was demonstrated on a commercial scale. The process features are described.

  6. Crack shielding in Ce-TZP/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites: Comparison of fatigue and sustained crack growth specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Jingfong Tsai; Belnap, J.D.; Shetty, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Crack shielding stress intensities in in situ loaded compact tension specimens of two types of ceria-partially-stabilized zirconia/alumina (Ce-TZP-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites with prior histories of subcritical crack growth in sustained and tension-tension fatigue loading were directly assessed using laser Raman spectroscopy. Crack-tip stress fields within the transformation zones were measured by measuring a stress-induced frequency shift of a peak corresponding to the tetragonal phase. The peak shift as a function of the applied stress was separately calibrated using a ball-on ring flexure test. Total crack shielding stress intensity was estimated from the far-field applied stress intensity and the local crack-tip stress intensity assessed from the measured near-crack-tip stresses. The shielding stress intensities were consistently lower in the fatigue specimens than in the sustained load crack growth specimens. The reduced crack shielding developed in the fatigue specimens was independently confirmed by measurements of larger crack-opening displacement under far-field applied load as compared to the sustained load crack growth specimens. Thus, diminished crack shielding was a major factor contributing to the higher subcritical crack growth rates exhibited by the Ce-TZPAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites in tension-tension cyclic fatigue.

  7. Prediction of pure water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-02-22

    The Ford/Andresen slip dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material condition. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  8. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  9. Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vshivkov, A.; Iziumova, A.; Plekhov, O.

    2015-10-01

    This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.

  10. Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vshivkov, A. Iziumova, A. Plekhov, O.

    2015-10-27

    This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.

  11. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  12. Finite-element analysis of crack growth under monotonic and cyclic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    An elastic-plastic (incremental) finite-element analysis, in conjunction with a crack-growth criterion, was used to study crack-growth behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading. The crack-growth criterion was based on crack-tip strain. Whenever the crack-tip strain equals or exceeds a critical strain value, the crack grows. The effects of element-mesh size, critical strain, strain hardening, and specimen type (tension or bending) on crack growth under monotonic loading were investigated. Crack growth under cyclic loading (constant amplitude and simple variable amplitude) were also studied. A combined hardening theory, which incorporates features of both isotropic and kinematic hardening under cyclic loading, was also developed for smooth yield surfaces and was used in the analysis.

  13. Mean stress effect in fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabeshfar, K.; Williams, T. R. G.

    1980-01-01

    Crack propagation rates in three different grades of mild steel and two types of age hardening aluminium alloys have been measured for different stress ratios. The results show a pronounced stress ratio effect for all these materials. A model of fatigue crack propagation is formulated in terms of the size of the cyclic plastic instability zone at the crack tip rather than the zone of plastic yielding. The micro-plastic instability zone is measured by a parameter involving the ratio of the maximum stress intensity and the stress level at which macro-plastic instability occurs in the {S}/{N} curve of plain fatigue test pieces. Such a parameter provides a means of normalizing crack propagation results obtained for various stress ratios.

  14. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  15. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1995-05-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modelling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically non-linear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology, and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures, is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  16. Discrete crack growth analysis methodology for through cracks in pressurized fuselage structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, David O.; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1994-09-01

    A methodology for simulating the growth of long through cracks in the skin of pressurized aircraft fuselage structures is described. Crack trajectories are allowed to be arbitrary and are computed as part of the simulation. The interaction between the mechanical loads acting on the superstructure and the local structural response near the crack tips is accounted for by employing a hierarchical modeling strategy. The structural response for each cracked configuration is obtained using a geometrically nonlinear shell finite element analysis procedure. Four stress intensity factors, two for membrane behavior and two for bending using Kirchhoff plate theory, are computed using an extension of the modified crack closure integral method. Crack trajectories are determined by applying the maximum tangential stress criterion. Crack growth results in localized mesh deletion, and the deletion regions are remeshed automatically using a newly developed all-quadrilateral meshing algorithm. The effectiveness of the methodology and its applicability to performing practical analyses of realistic structures is demonstrated by simulating curvilinear crack growth in a fuselage panel that is representative of a typical narrow-body aircraft. The predicted crack trajectory and fatigue life compare well with measurements of these same quantities from a full-scale pressurized panel test.

  17. Diet and Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested in covering the latest ... Health Statistics concludes that 35 percent of adults exercise regularly (more than 6 of 10 don’t), ...

  18. Advanced studies on Simulation Methodologies for very Complicated Fracture Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Toshihisa

    2010-06-01

    Although nowadays, computational techniques are well developed, for Extremely Complicated Fracture Phenomena, they are still very difficult to simulate, for general engineers, researchers. To overcome many difficulties in those simulations, we have developed not only Simulation Methodologies but also theoretical basis and concepts. We sometimes observe extremely complicated fracture patterns, especially in dynamic fracture phenomena such as dynamic crack branching, kinking, curving, etc. For examples, although the humankind, from primitive men to modern scientists such as Albert Einstein had watched the post-mortem patterns of dynamic crack branching, the governing condition for the onset of the phenomena had been unsolved until our experimental study. From in these studies, we found the governing condition of dynamic crack bifurcation, as follows. When the total energy flux per unit time into a propagating crack tip reaches the material crack resistance, the crack braches into two cracks [total energy flux criterion]. The crack branches many times whenever the criterion is satisfied. Furthermore, the complexities also arise due to their time-dependence and/or their-deformation dependence. In order to make it possible to simulate such extremely complicated fracture phenomena, we developed many original advanced computational methods and technologies. These are (i)moving finite element method based on Delaunay automatic triangulation (MFEMBOAT), path independent,(ii) equivalent domain integral expression of the dynamic J integral associated with a continuous auxiliary function,(iii) Mixed phase path-prediction mode simulation, (iv) implicit path prediction criterion. In this paper, these advanced computational methods are thoroughly explained together with successful comparison with the experimental results. Since multiple dynamic crack branching phenomena may be most complicated fracture due to complicated fracture paths, and its time dependence (transient), this

  19. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  20. Computational two-dimensional modeling of the stress intensity factor in a cracked metallic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolón, J. E.; Cendales, E. D.; Cruz, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    Cracking of metallic engineering materials is of great importance due cost of replacing mechanical elements cracked and the danger of sudden structural failure of these elements. One of the most important parameters during consideration of the mechanical behavior of machine elements having cracking and that are subject to various stress conditions is the stress intensity factor near the crack tip called factor Kic. In this paper a computational model is developed for the direct assessment of stress concentration factor near to the crack tip and compared with the results obtained in the literature in which other models have been established, which consider continuity of the displacement of the crack tip (XBEM). Based on this numerical approximation can be establish that computational XBEM method has greater accuracy in Kic values obtained than the model implemented by the method of finite elements for the virtual nodal displacement through plateau function.

  1. Crack diffusion coefficient - A candidate fracture toughness parameter for short fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mull, M. A.; Chudnovsky, A.; Moet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In brittle matrix composites, crack propagation occurs along random trajectories reflecting the heterogeneous nature of the strength field. Considering the crack trajectory as a diffusive process, the 'crack diffusion coefficient' is introduced. From fatigue crack propagation experiments on a set of identical SEN polyester composite specimens, the variance of the crack tip position along the loading axis is found to be a linear function of the effective 'time'. The latter is taken as the effective crack length. The coefficient of proportionality between variance of the crack trajectory and the effective crack length defines the crack diffusion coefficient D which is found in the present study to be 0.165 mm. This parameter reflects the ability of the composite to deviate the crack from the energetically most efficient path and thus links fracture toughness to the microstructure.

  2. User's manual for PEPSIG NASA tip vortex version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Tommy M.; Dejong, Frederick J.; Levy, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The tip vortex flowfield plays a significant role in the performance of advanced aircraft propellers. The flowfield in the tip region is complex, three-dimensional and viscous with large secondary velocities. A computer code was developed to predict the tip vortex flowfield of advanced aircraft propellers. This document is the user's manual. The analysis and a series of test cases are presented in NASA-CR-182179.

  3. Some advances/results in monitoring road cracks from 2D pavement images within the scope of the collaborative FP7 TRIMM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltazart, Vincent; Moliard, Jean-Marc; Amhaz, Rabih; Wright, Dean; Jethwa, Manish

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring road surface conditions is an important issue in many countries. Several projects have looked into this issue in recent years, including TRIMM 2011-2014. The objective of such projects has been to detect surface distresses, like cracking, raveling and water ponding, in order to plan effective road maintenance and to afford a better sustainability of the pavement. The monitoring of cracking conventionally focuses on open cracks on the surface of the pavement, as opposed to reflexive cracks embedded in the pavement materials. For monitoring surface condition, in situ human visual inspection has been gradually replaced by automatic image data collection at traffic speed. Off-line image processing techniques have been developed for monitoring surface condition in support of human visual control. Full automation of crack monitoring has been approached with caution, and depends on a proper manual assessment of the performance. This work firstly presents some aspects of the current state of monitoring that have been reported so far in the literature and in previous projects: imaging technology and image processing techniques. Then, the work presents the two image processing techniques that have been developed within the scope of the TRIMM project to automatically detect pavement cracking from images. The first technique is a heuristic approach (HA) based on the search for gradient within the image. It was originally developed to process pavement images from the French imaging device, Aigle-RN. The second technique, the Minimal Path Selection (MPS) method, has been developed within an ongoing PhD work at IFSTTAR. The proposed new technique provides a fine and accurate segmentation of the crack pattern along with the estimation of the crack width. HA has been assessed against the field data collection provided by Yotta and TRL with the imaging device Tempest 2. The performance assessment has been threefold: first it was performed against the reference data set

  4. The quarter-point quadratic isoparametric element as a singular element for crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, M. A.; Lorensen, W. E.; Pflegel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The quadratic isoparametric elements which embody the inverse square root singularity are used for calculating the stress intensity factors at tips of cracks. The strain singularity at a point or an edge is obtained in a simple manner by placing the mid-side nodes at quarter points in the vicinity of the crack tip or an edge. These elements are implemented in NASTRAN as dummy elements. The method eliminates the use of special crack tip elements and in addition, these elements satisfy the constant strain and rigid body modes required for convergence.

  5. Domain switching emission from the mixed-mode crack in ferroelectrics by birefringence measurement and phase field modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qun; Pan, Suxin; Liu, Qida; Wang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of domain switching near the tip of a mixed-mode crack (e.g., an inclined crack) is observed in ferroelectrics. The birefringence technique is used to measure the optical quantities to demonstrate the domain switching near the crack tip. The results show an intriguing feature that there appears electrical creep and domain switching emission from the crack tip. The actual time-dependence of domain switching emission and its anisotropic velocity is approximately measured. Moreover, the phase field modeling is developed to simulate polarization distribution and domain switching near the crack tip where the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation is used to describe the change of polarization. The phase field results indicate the same features of domain switching emission from the mixed-mode crack. A good agreement between phase field simulation and birefringence measurement is concluded by setting the appropriate kinetic coefficient in the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation.

  6. Velocity-dependent fatigue crack paths in nanograined Pt films.

    PubMed

    Meirom, R A; Clark, T; Polcawich, R; Pulskamp, J; Dubey, M; Muhlstein, C L

    2008-08-22

    Studies of crack growth in nanograined films assert that mechanical damage accumulates at grain boundaries irrespective of the crack velocity and loading conditions. This work shows that crack advance in nanograined Pt films involves a dislocation-slip mechanism that is a function of the crack growth rate and mode of loading. Crack paths in Pt were initially intergranular, but transitioned to a transgranular mode that persisted until catastrophic failure. This research demonstrates that crack growth mechanisms modeled for nanograined Ni cannot be generalized to other pure, metallic systems.

  7. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  8. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  9. Fracture Analysis of Double-Side Adhesively Bonded Composite Repairs to Cracked Aluminium Plate Using Line Spring Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yong; Su, Weiguo

    2016-06-01

    A line spring model is developed for analyzing the fracture problem of cracked metallic plate repaired with the double-sided adhesively bonded composite patch. The restraining action of the bonded patch is modeled as continuous distributed linear springs bridging the crack faces provided that the cracked plate is subjected to extensional load. The effective spring constant is determined from 1-D bonded joint theory. The hyper-singular integral equation (HSIE), which can be solved using the second kind Chebyshev polynomial expansion method, is applied to determine the crack opening displacements (COD) and the crack tip stress intensity factors (SIF) of the repaired cracked plate. The numerical result of SIF for the crack-tip correlates very well with the finite element (FE) computations based on the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The present analysis approaches and mathematical techniques are critical to the successful design, analysis and implementation of crack patching.

  10. A model of crack based on dislocations in smectic A liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Tian-You; Tang, Zhi-Yi

    2014-10-01

    A plastic crack model for smectic A liquid crystals under longitudinal shear is suggested. The solution of the screw dislocation in smectic A is the key to the correct result that we obtained by overcoming a longstanding puzzle. We further use the dislocation pile-up principle and the singular integral equation method to construct the solution of the crack in the phase. From the solution, we can determine the size of the plastic zone at the crack tip and the crack tip opening (tearing) displacement, which are the parameters relevant to the local stability/instability of materials. Our results may be useful for developing soft-matter mechanics.

  11. Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage: Layered Analysis and Growth During Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  12. A plane stress finite element model for elastic-plastic mode I/II crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  13. Blade Tip Rubbing Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary A.; Clough, Ray C.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical model was constructed to predict the magnitude of stresses produced by rubbing a turbine blade against its tip seal. This model used a linearized approach to the problem, after a parametric study, found that the nonlinear effects were of insignificant magnitude. The important input parameters to the model were: the arc through which rubbing occurs, the turbine rotor speed, normal force exerted on the blade, and the rubbing coefficient of friction. Since it is not possible to exactly specify some of these parameters, values were entered into the model which bracket likely values. The form of the forcing function was another variable which was impossible to specify precisely, but the assumption of a half-sine wave with a period equal to the duration of the rub was taken as a realistic assumption. The analytical model predicted resonances between harmonics of the forcing function decomposition and known harmonics of the blade. Thus, it seemed probable that blade tip rubbing could be at least a contributor to the blade-cracking phenomenon. A full-scale, full-speed test conducted on the space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump Whirligig tester was conducted at speeds between 33,000 and 28,000 RPM to confirm analytical predictions.

  14. Phase-contrast x-ray imaging of microstructure and fatigue-crack propagation in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husseini, Naji Sami

    openings were very small, as determined by absorption and phase contrast, and suggested multiple fracture modes for propagation along {111} planes at room temperature, which was verified by finite element analysis. With increasing temperature, cracks became Mode I (perpendicular to the loading axis) in character and more sensitive to the microstructure. Advancing plastic zones ahead of crack tips altered the crystallographic quality, from which diffraction contrast anticipated initiation and propagation. These studies demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of x-ray radiography for detailed studies of superalloys and crack growth processes.

  15. Acoustic emission measurement of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.; Rhyim, Y.M. . Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials); Kwon, D. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Ono, K. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1995-03-01

    In this study the acoustic emission (AE) technique has been applied to measure the crack closure loads precisely and the results have been compared with those measured by the conventional techniques such as the crack opening displacement (COD) method, back face strain gage (BFS) method, and surface strain gage method. In addition, fatigue tests at high stress ratio (R=0.8) have also been conducted to compared the results with those of the above methods at R=0.1 and to verify the accuracy of each method. The material used in the present investigation was an Al-Li 8090 alloy which was supplied as a 44.5mm thick rolled plate in the solution heat treated, 6% stretched and naturally aged condition. The COD and BFS methods show relatively good agreement with each other and measure the through-thickness mean value of crack closure loads. In the plane strain condition, the crack closure levels obtained by the COD and BFS methods were lower than those by the AE and surface train gage methods. The data obtained by the surface strain gage method must be interpreted carefully, because the shape of the compliance curves is affected by the location relative to the crack tip. The intrinsic fatigue life curve (da/dN vs. [Delta]K[sub eff]) obtained by the AE technique fitted well with the curve of high stress ratio (R=0.8) test at high [Delta]K, suggesting that the AE technique is sensitive to local crack-tip behavior on a microscopic scale and can be considered as a reliable measurement method for crack closure phenomena under repetitive loads.

  16. A cylindrical shell with an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The general problem of a shallow shell with constant curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the shell contains an arbitrarily oriented through crack and the material is specially orthotropic. The nonsymmetric problem is solved for arbitrary self equilibrating crack surface tractions, which, added to an appropriate solution for an uncracked shell, would give the result for a cracked shell under most general loading conditions. The problem is reduced to a system of five singular integral equations in a set of unknown functions representing relative displacements and rotations on the crack surfaces. The stress state around the crack tip is asymptotically analyzed and it is shown that the results are identical to those obtained from the two dimensional in plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. The numerical results are given for a cylindrical shell containing an arbitrarily oriented through crack. Some sample results showing the effect of the Poisson's ratio and the material orthotropy are also presented.

  17. Fatigue crack arrest in a self-healing polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E. N.; White, S. R.; Sottos, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program is performed to assess the in situ fatigue behavior of a self-healing polymer. A fatigue-life-extension protocol is established for characterizing healing efficiency of the self-healing epoxy under cyclic loading. At moderate {Delta}K{sub I} and at high {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed, in situ healing extends fatigue life though temporary crack arrest and retardation. In situ self-healing permanently arrests crack growth at low {delta}K{sub I} and at moderate {Delta}K{sub I}, when a rest period is employed. Fatigue crack retardation and arrest result from two primary crack-tip shielding mechanisms: hydrodynamic pressure in the viscous healing agent and artificial crack closure. Application of self-healing functionality to fatigue slows the crack growth rate and increases the fatigue threshold.

  18. Subcritical crack growth in glasses under cyclic loads: Effect of hydrodynamic pressure in aqueous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, K.S.; Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic pressure developed in the wake of a crack growing in a brittle material under cyclic loads in an aqueous environment is considered. The pressure acts in opposition to the movement of the crack faces, thus shielding the crack up from the applied loads. A general hydrodynamic fluid pressure relation based on a one-dimensional Reynolds equation, which applicable to a crack with an arbitrary crack opening profile, is developed. The model is modified to account for side flow through the thickness of the sample and cavitation near the crack tip. Both effects significantly modify the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. Finally, the resulting hydrodynamic pressure relations are combined with a fracture mechanics model to account for the change in the near-tip stress intensity. Resulting predictions of the cyclic crack-growth rate are found to be in good agreement with measured values for a borosilicate glass tested at various frequencies in a water environment.

  19. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  20. An extensive 3D dislocation dynamics investigation of stage-I fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Déprés, C.; Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Robertson, C.; Fivel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Stage-I fatigue crack propagation is investigated using 3D discrete dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Slip-based propagation mechanisms and the role of the pre-existing slip band on the crack path are emphasized. Stage-I crack growth is found to be compatible with successive decohesion of the persistent slip band/matrix interface rather than a mere effect of plastic irreversibility. Corresponding crack tip slip displacement magnitude and the associated crack growth rate are evaluated quantitatively at various tip distances from the grain boundary. This shows that grain boundaries systematically amplify slip dispersion ahead of the crack tip and consequently, slow down the stage-I crack growth rate. The results help in developing an original crack propagation model, accounting for the boundary effects relevant to polycrystals. The crack growth trend is then evaluated from calculations of the energy changes due to crack length increments. It is shown that the crack necessarily propagates by increments smaller than 10 nm.

  1. Anomalous mechanical behavior and crack growth of oxide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Jared Hilliard

    This thesis is concerned with analytically describing anomalous mechanical behaviors of glass. A new slow crack growth model is presented that considers a semi-elliptical crack in a cylindrical glass rod subjected to 4-point bending that is both loaded statically and under a time-dependent load. This model is used to explain a suppression of the loading-rate dependency of ion-exchanged strengthened glass. The stress relaxation behavior of an ion-exchanged strengthened glass is then analyzed in view of a newly observed water-assisted surface stress relaxation mechanism. By making refinements to a time-dependent Maxwell material model for stress buildup and relaxation, the anomalous subsurface compressive stress peak in ion-exchanged strengthened glass is explained. The notion of water-assisted stress relaxation is extended to the crack tip, where high tensile stresses exist. A toughening effect has historically been observed for cracks aged at subcritical stress intensity factors, where crack tip stress relaxation is hypothesized. A simple fracture mechanics model is developed that estimates a shielding stress intensity factor that is then superimposed with the far-field stress intensity factor. The model is used to estimate anomalous "restart" times for aged cracks. The same model predicts a non-linear crack growth rate for cracks loaded near the static fatigue limit. Double cantilever beam slow crack growth experiments were performed and new slow crack growth data for soda-lime silicate glass was collected. Interpretation of this new experimental slow crack growth data suggests that the origin of the static fatigue limit in glass is due to water-assisted stress relaxation. This thesis combines a number of studies that offer a new unified understanding of historical anomalous mechanical behaviors of glass. These anomalies are interpreted as simply the consequence of slow crack growth and water-assisted surface stress relaxation.

  2. Cracks preserve kimberlite melt composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, R. C.; Vigouroux-Caillibot, N.; Donovan, J. J.; Russell, K.

    2009-12-01

    The chemical composition of kimberlite melts has previously been estimated by measuring aphanitic intrusive rocks (deposit composition) or by partial melting experiments on carbonated lherzolites (source composition). Pervasively altered, degassed and contaminated material preclude the determination of the primitive melt composition. Here we present data on melt compositions trapped in unaltered olivine cracks that have been healed and overgrown prior to shallow level emplacement. During the ascent of kimberlite magma the prograding crack tip samples mantle peridotite xenoliths. Xenoliths rapidly disaggregate over the first few kilometers of transport producing a population of olivine xenocrysts that are released to the fluid-rich melt. Rapid ascent of the kimberlite magma causes depressurization and creates internal elastic stresses in the olivine crystals that can only be alleviated by volumetric expansion or brittle failure. On the time scales operative during kimberlite ascent volume expansion is negligible and brittle failure occurs. Small wetting angles between the fluid-rich melt and olivine allow infiltration of the melt into the crack. These very thin cracks (<5 µm) heal rapidly and preserve primary kimberlitic material en route to the surface. We use the electron microprobe with a focused beam (interaction volume less than 2 µm) to analyze the small volumes of material found in the healed cracks of the olivine. We analyzed for 18 elements including oxygen, which we obtained by utilizing a non-linear time dependent intensity acquisition and empirically determined mass absorption coefficients. By accurately knowing the amount of oxygen in a sample, we assign oxygen molecules to all other analyzed elements (e.g. MgO, Al2O3) and the remaining oxygen is assigned to hydrogen and carbon. The analysis total is used as a constraint on the proportion of each species. Mg/Ca ratios of the cracks vary from 0.6-5 indicating a compositional continuum between alkali

  3. Statistical approach to evaluating active reduction of crack propagation in aluminum panels with piezoelectric actuator patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, R.; Stapp, C.; Hanselka, H.

    2011-08-01

    Fatigue cracks in light-weight shell or panel structures may lead to major failures when used for sealing or load-carrying purposes. This paper describes investigations into the potential of piezoelectric actuator patches that are applied to the surface of an already cracked thin aluminum panel to actively reduce the propagation of fatigue cracks. With active reduction of fatigue crack propagation, uncertainties in the cracked structure's strength, which always remain present even when the structure is used under damage tolerance conditions, e.g. airplane fuselages, could be lowered. The main idea is to lower the cyclic stress intensity factor near the crack tip with actively induced mechanical compression forces using thin low voltage piezoelectric actuator patches applied to the panel's surface. With lowering of the cyclic stress intensity, the rate of crack propagation in an already cracked thin aluminum panel will be reduced significantly. First, this paper discusses the proper placement and alignment of thin piezoelectric actuator patches near the crack tip to induce the mechanical compression forces necessary for reduction of crack propagation by numerical simulations. Second, the potential for crack propagation reduction will be investigated statistically by an experimental sample test examining three cases: a cracked aluminum host structure (i) without, (ii) with but passive, and (iii) with activated piezoelectric actuator patches. It will be seen that activated piezoelectric actuator patches lead to a significant reduction in crack propagation.

  4. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C[sub t] or C[sup *]. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C[sub t]. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C[sub t] is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C[sub t]. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C[sub t])[sub avg] was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  5. Fracture mechanics and surface chemistry investigations of environment-assisted crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Klier, K.; Simmons, G. W.; Chou, Y. T.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that environment-assisted subcritical crack growth in high-strength steels and other high-strength alloys (particularly in hydrogen and in hydrogenous environments) is an important technological problem of long standing. This problem is directly related to issues of structural integrity, durability, and reliability. The terms 'hydrogen embrittlement' and 'stress corrosion cracking' have been employed to describe the considered phenomenon. This paper provides a summary of contributions made during the past ten years toward the understanding of environmentally assisted crack growth. The processes involved in crack growth are examined, and details regarding crack growth and chemical reactions are discussed, taking into account crack growth in steels exposed to water/water vapor, the effect of hydrogen, reactions involving hydrogen sulfide, and aspects of fracture surface morphology and composition. Attention is also given to the modeling of crack growth response, crack growth in gas mixtures, and the interaction of solute atoms with the crack-tip stress field.

  6. The effect of material heterogeneity and random loading on the mechanics of fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivatsan, T. S.; Sambandham, M.; Bharucha-Reid, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental work on the influence of variable amplitude or random loads on the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth. Implications are discussed in terms of the crack driving force, local plasticity, crack closure, crack blunting, and microstructure. Due to heterogeneity in the material's microstructure, the crack growth rate varies with crack tip position. Using the weakest link theory, an expression for crack growth rate is obtained as the expectation of a random variable. This expression is used to predict the crack growth rates for aluminum alloys, a titanium alloy, and a nickel steel in the mid-range region. It is observed, using the present theory, that the crack growth rate obeys the power law for small stress intensity factor range, and that the power is a function of a material constant.

  7. A Continuum-Atomistic Analysis of Transgranular Crack Propagation in Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.

    2009-01-01

    A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain is used to study plastic processes at a crack tip in a single crystal of aluminum. The case of mode I loading is studied. A transition from deformation twinning to full dislocation emission from the crack tip is found when the crack plane is rotated around the [111] crystallographic axis. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [112] twinning direction, the crack propagates through a twinning mechanism. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [011] slip direction, the crack propagates through the emission of full dislocations. In intermediate orientations, a transition from full dislocation emission to twinning is found to occur with an increase in the stress intensity at the crack tip. This finding confirms the suggestion that the very high strain rates, inherently present in MD simulations, which produce higher stress intensities at the crack tip, over-predict the tendency for deformation twinning compared to experiments. The present study, therefore, aims to develop a more realistic and accurate predictive modeling of fracture processes.

  8. SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xing

    2016-06-01

    The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.

  9. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  10. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of dissolved metallurgical sulfides in pressure vessel and piping steels has been linked to Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC), a phenomenon observed in laboratory tests that results in fatigue crack growth rates as high as 100 times that in air. Previous experimental and analytical work based on diffusion as the mass transport process has shown that surface cracks that are initially clean of sulfides will not initiate EAC in most applications. This is because the average crack tip velocity would not be sufficiently high to expose enough metallurgical sulfides per unit time and produce the sulfide concentration required for EAC. However, there is a potential concern for the case of a relatively large embedded crack breaking through to the wetted surface. Such a crack would not be initially clean of sulfides, and EAC could initiate. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on two heats of an EAC susceptible, high-sulfur, low-alloy steel in 243{degrees}C low-oxygen water to further study the phenomenon of EAC persistence at low crack tip velocities. A load cycle profile that incorporated a significant load dwell period at minimum load was used. In one experiment, the fatigue cycling history was such that relatively high crack tip velocities at the start of the experiment produced a persistent case of EAC even when crack tip velocities were later reduced to levels below the EAC initiation velocity. The other series of experiments used initial crack tip velocities that were much lower and probably more realistic. Air precracking of the compact tension specimens produced an initial inventory of undissolved sulfides on the crack flanks that directly simulates the array of sulfides expected from the breakthrough of an embedded crack. In all cases, results showed EAC ceased after several hundred hours of cycling.

  11. Cracking and Stress-Strain Behavior of Rock-Like Material Containing Two Flaws Under Uniaxial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Zhang, Lianyang; Wang, Weijun; Pu, Chengzhi; Wan, Wen; Tang, Jingzhou

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the cracking and stress-strain behavior, especially the local strain concentration near the flaw tips, of rock-like material containing two flaws. A series of uniaxial compression tests were carried out on rock-like specimens containing two flaws, with strain gauges mounted near the flaw tips to measure the local strain concentration under the uniaxial compressive loading. Four different types of cracks (wing cracks, anti-wing cracks, coplanar shear cracks and oblique shear cracks) and seven patterns of crack coalescences (T1 and T2; S1 and S2; and TS1, TS2 and TS3) are observed in the experiments. The type of crack coalescence is related to the geometry of the flaws. In general, the crack coalescence varies from the S-mode to the TS-mode and then to the T-mode with the increase of the rock bridge ligament angle. The stress-strain curves of the specimens containing two flaws are closely related to the crack development and coalescence process. The strain measurements indicate that the local tensile strain concentration below or above the pre-existing flaw tip causes wing or anti-wing cracks, while the local compressive strain concentration near the flaw tip is related to the shear crack. The measured local tensile strain shows a jump at the initiation of wing- and anti-wing cracks, reflecting the instant opening of the wing- and anti-wing crack propagating through the strain gauge. During the propagation of wing- and anti-wing cracks, the measured local tensile strain gradually increases with few jumps, implying that the opening deformation of wing- and anti-wing cracks occurs in a stable manner. The shear cracks initiate followed by a large and abrupt compressive strain jump and then quickly propagate in an unstable manner resulting in the failure of specimens.

  12. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth > For Teens > ADHD: Tips to Try Print A A A Text Size en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is a medical ...

  13. Total Telephone Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This manual of telephone behavior tips for business and sales professionals offers ways to handle the disgruntled caller and makes suggestions on topics relevant to the telephone. The manual is divided into the following sections and subsections: (1) Common Courtesy (staff tips, answering the telephone, screening calls, transferring calls, taking…

  14. Air Travel Health Tips

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  15. On the variation in crack-opening stresses at different locations in a three-dimensional body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, Anders F.

    1990-01-01

    Crack propagation and closure behavior of thin, and thick middle crack tension specimens under constant amplitude loading were investigated using a three dimensional elastic plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack propagation and closure. In the thin specimens the crack front closed first on the exterior (free) surface and closed last in the interior during the unloading portion of cyclic loading; a load reduced displacement technique was used to determine crack opening stresses at specified locations in the plate from the displacements calculated after the seven cycle. All the locations were on the plate external surface and were located near the crack tip, behind the crack tip, at the centerline of the crack. With this technique, the opening stresses at the specified points were found to be 0.52, 0.42, and 0.39 times the maximum applied stress.

  16. Crack Turning Mechanics of Composite Wing Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The safety of future composite wing skin integral stiffener panels requires a full understanding of failure mechanisms of these damage tolerance critical structures under both in-plane and bending loads. Of primary interest is to derive mathematical models using fracture mechanics in anisotropic cracked plate structures, to assess the crack turning mechanisms, and thereby to enhance the residual strength in the integral stiffener composite structures. The use of fracture mechanics to assess the failure behavior in a cracked structure requires the identification of critical fracture parameters which govern the severity of stress and deformation field ahead of the flaw, and which can be evaluated using information obtained from the flaw tip. In the three-year grant, the crack-tip fields under plane deformation, crack-tip fields for anisotropic plates and anisotropic shells have been obtained. In addition, methods for determining the stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and the T-stresses have been proposed and verified. The research accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Under plane deformation in anisotropic solids, the asymptotic crack-tip fields have been obtained using Stroh formalism; (2) The T-stress and the coefficient of the second term for sigma(sub y), g(sub 32), have been obtained using path-independent integral, the J-integral and Betti's reciprocal theorem together with auxiliary fields; (3) With experimental data performed by NASA, analyses indicated that the mode-I critical stress intensity factor K(sub Q) provides a satisfactory characterization of fracture initiation for a given laminate thickness, provided the failure is fiber-dominated and crack extends in a self-similar manner; (4) The high constraint specimens, especially for CT specimens, due to large T-stress and large magnitude of negative g(sub 32) term may be expected to inhibit the crack extension in the same plane and promote crack turning; (5) Crack turning out of

  17. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  18. [Over projected tip].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Levet, Y; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Overprojected tip is a pretty usual request not easy to manage. Preop analysis is crucial in order to evaluate tip support and skin thickness and ability to retract. For example, if the skin is very thick and has poor chance to retract, the surgeon should be very careful in the tip projection decreasing to avoid a skin pollybeak deformity. In such cases, he has to analyze the facial proportions, especially other areas projection (radix, dorsum and chin) and think about augmenting them to balance the profile rather than decreasing tip projection. Correction should always be conducted incrementally, starting with weakening the tip support mechanisms and, only if necessary, continue with alar cartilage interruption. This can be performed on many areas (lateral cruras, domes, medial cruras) and with several techniques (resection or interruption+overlapping).

  19. Pulsed holographic microscopy as a measurement method of dynamic fracture toughness for fast propagating cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Homma, Hiroomi; Kusaka, Riichiro

    A METHOD OF pulsed holographic microscopy is applied to take instantaneous microscopic photographs of the neighborhoods of crack tips propagating through PMMA or through AISI 4340 steel specimens at a speed of several hundred meters per second. The cracks are in the opening mode. A fast propagating crack is recorded as a hologram at an instant during its propagation. A microscopic photograph of the crack is taken with a conventional microscope to magnify the reconstructed image from the hologram. From the microscopic photograph, crack opening displacement (COD) is measured along the crack in the vicinity of the crack tip. The COD is of the order often to one hundred microns, and in proportion to the square root of the distance from the crack tip. The dynamic fracture toughness KID is obtained using the formula for COD in the singular stress field of a fast propagating crack. Simultaneous KID measurement both through pulsed holographic microscopy and through the caustic method is furthermore carried out with PMMA specimens. The values of KID obtained through pulsed holographic microscopy are in agreement with those through the caustic method. Microcracks accompanied by a main crack are also photographed with the method of pulsed holographic microscopy.

  20. Effect of multi-functional inhibitors on the electrochemistry within a corrosion crack

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, H.

    1984-01-01

    The electrochemical and mass transport mechanisms in stress corrosion cracking, which depend on the rate of metal dissolution and production of hydrogen, have been used to establish analytically the electrode potential distribution within the crack. When crack growth occurs by enhanced anodic dissolution of the plastically strained tip, the electrode potential at the crack tip always is more active than at the crack mouth because of the electric potential gradient that exists in the electrolyte within the crack. This also gives rise to additional or alternative electrochemical reactions such as hydrogen evolution and anodic dissolution at the crack tip. Furthermore, because of the potential difference from the crack mouth, the electrochemical driving force becomes more favorable for the development of corrosion inside the crack. The analysis predicts the distribution of electrode potential within a crack, and theoretical results have been compared with experimental measurements recorded from a model electrode system. Under free corrosion, a small potential difference may cause a concentration change of Cl/sup -/ ion and increase the chloride attack. In order to reduce the chloride and hydrogen attack, multifunctional inhibitors, such as borax-nitrite with small amounts of surfactant such as MBT or amino-methyl-propanol, are excellent inhibitors. The surfactant interferes in the dissolution reaction and blocks active chloride ion and hydrogen ion by interacting synergistically with the passive film produced by the borax-nitrite, which results in development of a stronger and thicker protective film.

  1. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks and polygonal terrain.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    When cracks form in a thin contracting layer, they sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of crack formation, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120°. Hexagonal crack patterns are typically seen when a crack network opens and heals repeatedly, in a thin layer, or advances by many intermittent steps into a thick layer. Here, it is shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and how a rectilinear crack pattern can evolve towards a hexagonal one. Such an evolution is expected when cracks undergo many opening cycles, where the cracks in any cycle are guided by the positions of cracks in the previous cycle but when they can slightly vary their position and order of opening. The general features of this evolution are outlined and compared with a review of the specific patterns of contraction cracks in dried mud, polygonal terrain, columnar joints and eroding gypsum-sand cements.

  2. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  3. Nonclassical nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.; Klein, W.

    1989-07-01

    We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a field-theoretic formulation in which the free energy is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ``halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ``process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks.

  4. Dynamic steady-state analysis of crack propagation in rubber-like solids using an extended finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a computational framework for studying high-speed crack growth in rubber-like solids under conditions of plane stress and steady-state is proposed. Effects of inertia, viscoelasticity and finite strains are included. The main purpose of the study is to examine the contribution of viscoelastic dissipation to the total work of fracture required to propagate a crack in a rubber-like solid. The computational framework builds upon a previous work by the present author (Kroon in Int J Fract 169:49-60, 2011). The model was fully able to predict experimental results in terms of the local surface energy at the crack tip and the total energy release rate at different crack speeds. The predicted distributions of stress and dissipation around the propagating crack tip are presented. The predicted crack tip profiles also agree qualitatively with experimental findings.

  5. THE NON-CONSTANT CTOD/CTOA IN CRACK PROPAGATION

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2004-07-19

    Unlike the common belief that crack propagation behavior can be predicted successfully by employing fracture criteria based on a constant crack tip opening displacement or angle (CTOD/CTOA), this paper shows that the initially non-constant portion of the CTOD/CTOA plays an essential role in predicting the fracture load for a growing crack. Three- and two-dimensional finite element analyses indicate that a severe underestimate of the experimental load vs. crack extension curve would occur if a constant CTOD/CTOA criterion is used. However, the use of a simplified, bilinear CTOD/CTOA criterion including its non-constant portion will closely duplicate the test data. Furthermore, as a result of using the experimental data from J-integral test with various crack length to specimen width ratios (a/W), it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The initially higher values of the CTOD/CTOA are in fact a natural consequence of crack growth process which is refl ected by the J-resistance curve and its slope (tearing modulus).

  6. Inhibitor protection of metals at the stage of corrosion-fatigue crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Panasyuk, V.V.; Ratych, L.V.

    1994-07-01

    We suggest electrochemical methods for determining the intensity of local anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement of metals at the tip of corrosion-fatigue crack. Based on this, we develop a technique for estimating the efficiency of inhibitor protection of structural elements with cracks.

  7. Fatigue crack growth under general-yielding cyclic-loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    In low cycle fatigue, cracks are initiated and propagated under general yielding cyclic loading. For general yielding cyclic loading, Dowling and Begley have shown that fatigue crack growth rate correlates well with the measured delta J. The correlation of da/dN with delta J was also studied by a number of other investigators. However, none of thse studies have correlated da/dN with delta J calculated specifically for the test specimens. Solomon measured fatigue crack growth in specimens in general yielding cyclic loading. The crack tips fields for Solomon's specimens are calculated using the finite element method and the J values of Solomon's tests are evaluated. The measured crack growth rate in Solomon's specimens correlates very well with the calculated delta J.

  8. Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13491

  9. The inclusion problem with a crack crossing the boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of an elastic plane containing an elastic inclusion is considered. It is assumed that both the plane and the inclusion contain a radial crack and the two cracks are collinear. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations. In the interesting limiting cases in which the crack tips approach the interface from either one or both sides, the dominant parts of the kernels become generalized Cauchy kernels giving rise to stress singularities of other than minus 1/2 power. For these unusual cases of a crack terminating at or crossing the interface stress intensity factors are defined and some detailed results are given for various crack-inclusion geometries and material combinations.

  10. Short fatigue crack characterization and detection using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM)

    SciTech Connect

    Varvani-Farahani, A.; Topper, T.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a new technique for studying the growth and morphology of fatigue cracks. The technique allows short fatigue crack growth, crack depth, aspect ratio (crack depth/half crack length), and crack front configuration to be measured using a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). CSLM measurements of the initial stage of crack growth in Al 2024-T351 revealed that microstructurally short fatigue cracks grew initially along a plane inclined to the applied stress. The angle of the inclined plane (Stage I crack growth) was found to be about 45 degrees to the axis of the applied tensile load. Aspect ratio and the angle of maximum shear plane (Mode II), obtained using the CSLM technique, showed a good agreement with those obtained using a Surface Removal (SR) technique. The aspect ratios obtained using the CSLM technique were found to remain constant with increasing crack length in Al 2024-T351 and SAE 1045 Steel at 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Optical sectioning along the length of a crack revealed that the crack front in the interior of the materials has a semi-elliptical shape. These results are in good agreement with results obtained using the SR technique. The CSLM technique was employed to characterize the fracture surface of fatigue cracks in an SAE 1045 Steel. CSLM image processing of the fracture surface near the crack tip constructed a three dimensional profile of fracture surface asperities. The heights of asperities were obtained from this profile. Optical sectioning from a post-image-processed crack provided crack depth and crack mouth width at every point along the crack length for each load level. The crack opening stress was taken as the stress level at which the crack depth stopped increasing with increases in a lied stress. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.; Li, Y.Y.

    1996-06-01

    Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is activated by a critical level of sulfide ions at the crack tip, which is produced from dissolution of sulfide inclusions (MnS, FeS, etc.) in the steel following exposure by a growing crack. EAC of concern herein is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs at 240--300 C in high temperature LWR or boiler water environments. The initiation of EAC is the onset of the higher fatigue crack growth rates in fully developed cracks already presumed to be present due to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, or induced by fabrication. Initiation of EAC is induced by a change in loading parameters causing the fatigue crack growth rate to increase from a small multiple (2--4) to 40--100 times the air rate. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggests that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. However, more recent tests show that EAC can persist down to much lower velocities (100 times lower) in low oxygen water at slightly lower temperatures. A special set of experiments on high sulfur plate material demonstrate that EAC will not initiate from surface cracks with low sulfide inventories at low crack tip velocities. Transient diffusion calculations show that a finite crack extension at a high crack tip velocity is necessary to initiate EAC, providing a possible explanation for the lack of high crack growth observations reported in low alloy steels in structural applications involving low oxygen environments.

  12. Take a Tip from the Cubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, James

    2016-01-01

    As legendary Cubs manager Joe Maddon did with his players, seeing students as people first works for teachers who hope to build cohesive classes that achieve. Maddon's strength was his emphasis on cultivating positive relationships among his players. Taking a tip from Maddon's strategy, Fornaciari, an Advanced Placement history teacher, shares…

  13. Separation of crack extension modes in orthotropic delamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    In the analysis of an interface crack between dissimilar elastic materials, the mode of crack extension is typically not unique, due to oscillatory behavior of near-tip stresses and displacements. This behavior currently limits the applicability of interfacial fracture mechanics as a means to predict composite delamination. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used to extract mode 1 and mode 2 energy release rates from numerical fracture solutions. The mode of crack extension extracted from an oscillatory solution using the VCCT is not unique due to the dependence of mode on the virtual crack extension length, Delta. In this work, a method is presented for using the VCCT to extract Delta-independent crack extension modes for the case of an interface crack between two in-plane orthotropic materials. The method does not involve altering the analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, it is argued that physically reasonable, Delta-independent modes of crack extension can be extracted from oscillatory solutions. Knowledge of near-tip fields is used to determine the explicit Delta dependence of energy release rate parameters. Energy release rates are then defined that are separated from the oscillatory dependence on Delta. A modified VCCT using these energy release rate definitions is applied to results from finite element analyses, showing that Delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified technique has potential as a consistent method for extracting crack extension modes from numerical solutions. The Delta-independent modes extracted using this technique can also serve as guides for testing the convergence of finite element models. Direct applications of this work include the analysis of planar composite delamination problems, where plies or debonded laminates are modeled as in-plane orthotropic materials.

  14. Separation of crack extension modes in composite delamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1994-01-01

    This work concerns fracture mechanics modeling of composite delamination problems. In order to predict delamination resistance, an applied stress intensity factor, K, or energy release rate, G, must be compared to a mode-dependent critical value of K or G from experiment. In the interfacial fracture analysis of most applications and some tests, the mode of crack extension is not uniquely defined. It is instead a function of distance from the crack tip due to the oscillating singularity existing at the tip. In this work, a consistent method is presented of extracting crack extension modes in such cases. In particular, use of the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) to extract modes of crack extension is studied for cases of a crack along the interface between two in-plane orthotropic materials. Modes of crack extension extracted from oscillatory analyses using VCCT are a function of the virtual crack extension length, delta. Most existing efforts to obtain delta-independent modes of crack extension involve changing the analysis in order to eliminate its oscillatory nature. One such method involves changing one or more properties of the layers to make the oscillatory exponent parameter, epsilon, equal zero. Standardized application of this method would require consistent criteria for identifying which properties can be altered without changing the physical aspects of the problem. Another method involves inserting a thin homogeneous layer (typically referred to as a resin interlayer) along the interface and placing the crack within it. The drawbacks of this method are that it requires increased modeling effort and introduces the thickness of the interlayer as an additional length parameter. The approach presented here does not attempt to alter the interfacial fracture analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, the argument is made that the oscillatory behavior is non-physical and that if its effects were separated from VCCT quantities, then consistent

  15. Transonic rotor tip design using numerical optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Langhi, Ronald G.

    1985-01-01

    The aerodynamic design procedure for a new blade tip suitable for operation at transonic speeds is illustrated. For the first time, 3 dimensional numerical optimization was applied to rotor tip design, using the recent derivative of the ROT22 code, program R22OPT. Program R22OPT utilized an efficient quasi-Newton optimization algorithm. Multiple design objectives were specified. The delocalization of the shock wave was to be eliminated in forward flight for an advance ratio of 0.41 and a tip Mach number of 0.92 at psi = 90 deg. Simultaneously, it was sought to reduce torque requirements while maintaining effective restoring pitching moments. Only the outer 10 percent of the blade span was modified; the blade area was not to be reduced by more than 3 percent. The goal was to combine the advantages of both sweptback and sweptforward blade tips. A planform that featured inboard sweepback was combined with a sweptforward tip and a taper ratio of 0.5. Initially, the ROT22 code was used to find by trial and error a planform geometry which met the design goals. This configuration had an inboard section with a leading edge sweep of 20 deg and a tip section swept forward at 25 deg; in addition, the airfoils were modified.

  16. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  17. Technology Tips: A Potpourri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuoco, Albert A.; And Others, Eds.

    1994-01-01

    Contains tips from readers about using technology in the classroom, including notebook computers, classroom sets of calculators, geometry software, LOGO software, publisher discounts, curriculum materials in CD-ROM, and volunteer help in computers and computer networking for schools. (MKR)

  18. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  19. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, R.H.; Bartley, B.H.

    1984-05-01

    A fluid catalytic cracking process is disclosed for sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks. Sulfur contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst in the reactor is converted to sulfur oxides in the regenerator and removed from regenerator off-gases by incorporating a composite of alumina and bismuth oxides in a particulate cracking catalyst. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air in the regenerator are captured by the alumina-bismuth oxides composite and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  20. Ten Tips for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Robert Lee

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some tips for teachers. His tips are as follows: (1) a teacher should forget his or her education; (2) a teacher should forget the theory (3) a teacher should remember that he or she is a translator, not an originator; (4) a teacher should respect his or her students; (5) a teacher should be true to his or her…

  1. Close to the tipping point.

    PubMed

    Hubley, Pam

    2010-12-01

    Nursing leaders play a critical role in creating and enacting a vision for collaborative practice with advanced practice nurses (APNs). In this special issue, Nancy Carter and colleagues have identified many important influences and outcomes of successful nursing leadership in the context of promoting advanced practice nursing roles. The authors make a strong case for the importance of nursing leadership to facilitate large-scale systems change, noting the multiple levels on which nursing leaders work to ensure advanced practice nursing roles are well introduced to improve patient care. Nursing leadership can move an innovation like advanced practice nursing practice forward toward the "tipping point," when the new idea takes hold and becomes socially acceptable and desired, when the early adopters have influenced the early majority and about 15 to 20% of the population have adopted the idea (Berwick 2003). In many ways our nursing leaders have achieved this with advanced practice nursing roles, and we should celebrate. APNs are now more common, and certainly members of the public are proud to speak of the roles APNs play in their health services. An idea that once captured the minds of a select few has spread, thanks in large part to the nursing leaders who had a vision, believed in an idea, fought for it and worked to embed the change in the system.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth and Crack Bridging in SCS-6/Ti-24-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Interfacial damage induced by relative fiber/matrix sliding was found to occur in the bridged zone of unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-24Al-11Nb intermetallic matrix composite specimens subjected to fatigue crack growth conditions. The degree of interfacial damage was not uniform along the bridged crack wake. Higher damage zones were observed near the machined notch in comparison to the crack tip. The interfacial friction shear strength tau(sub f) measured in the crack wake using pushout testing revealed lower values than the as-received interface. Interfacial wear also reduced the strength of the bridging fibers. The reduction in fiber strength is thought to be a function of the magnitude of relative fiber/matrix displacements ind the degree of interfacial damage. Furthermore, two different fiber bridging models were used to predict the influence of bridging on the fatigue crack driving force. The shear lag model required a variable tau(sub f) in the crack wake (reflecting the degradation of the interface) before its predictions agreed with trends exhibited by the experimental data. The fiber pressure model did an excellent job in predicting both the FCG data and the DeltaCOD in the bridged zone even though it does not require a knowledge of tau(sub f).

  3. Frequency domain stress intensity calibration of damped cracked panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, James F.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses two schemes for doing finite element K calibration in the frequency domain. The baseline scheme uses the definition of K as a limit toward the crack tip. The limiting process requires using a very fine mesh around the crack tip making the scheme computationally very expensive. It is shown that the behavior of K as a function of frequency is very similar to a modal response. Taking advantage of this, a more efficient scheme involves a modal analysis of the cracked sheet and scaling the response to that of the static stress intensity. In this way, only a static K calibration need be performed. All the examples shown are for a frequency range spanning multiple resonances and with two levels of damping.

  4. Research of infrared laser based pavement imaging and crack detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hanyu; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jing, Genqiang

    2013-08-01

    Road crack detection is seriously affected by many factors in actual applications, such as some shadows, road signs, oil stains, high frequency noise and so on. Due to these factors, the current crack detection methods can not distinguish the cracks in complex scenes. In order to solve this problem, a novel method based on infrared laser pavement imaging is proposed. Firstly, single sensor laser pavement imaging system is adopted to obtain pavement images, high power laser line projector is well used to resist various shadows. Secondly, the crack extraction algorithm which has merged multiple features intelligently is proposed to extract crack information. In this step, the non-negative feature and contrast feature are used to extract the basic crack information, and circular projection based on linearity feature is applied to enhance the crack area and eliminate noise. A series of experiments have been performed to test the proposed method, which shows that the proposed automatic extraction method is effective and advanced.

  5. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  6. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    indicate that IASCC in 289 C water is dominated by a crack-tip grain-boundary process that involves S. An initial IASCC model has been proposed. A crack growth test was completed on mill annealed Alloy 600 in high-purity water at 289 C and 320 C under various environmental and loading conditions. The results from this test are compared with data obtained earlier on several other heats of Alloy 600.

  7. Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  8. Prediction of PWSCC in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Ford/Andresen slip-dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material conditions. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip-dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip-dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

  9. Analysis of delamination in cross-ply laminates initiating from impact induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element analyses of (02/90(8)/02) glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates were performed to investigate some of the characteristics of damage development due to an impact load. A cross section through the thickness of the laminate with fixed ends, and carrying a transverse load in the center, was analyzed. Inclined matrix cracks, such as those produced by a low-velocity impact, were modeled in the 90 deg ply group. The introduction of the matrix cracks caused large interlaminar tensile and shear stresses in the vicinity of both crack tips in the 0/90 and 90/0 interfaces, indicating that matrix cracking may give rise to delamination. The ratio of Mode I to total strain energy release rate, G(I)/G(total), at the beginning of delamination, calculated at the two (top and bottom) matrix crack tips was 60 and 28 percent, respectively, in the glass/epoxy laminate. The corresponding ratio was 97 and 77 percent in the graphite/epoxy laminate. Thus, a significant Mode I component of strain energy release rate may be present at the delamination initiation due to an impact load. The value of strain energy release rate at either crack tip increased due to an increase in the delamination length at the other crack tip and may give rise to an unstable delamination growth under constant load.

  10. Measurement and Modeling of Hydrogen Environment-Assisted Cracking in Monel K-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Ha, Hung M.; Burns, James T.; Scully, John R.

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen environment-assisted cracking (HEAC) of Monel K-500 is quantified using slow-rising stress intensity loading with electrical potential monitoring of small crack propagation and elastoplastic J-integral analysis. For this loading, with concurrent crack tip plastic strain and H accumulation, aged Monel K-500 is susceptible to intergranular HEAC in NaCl solution when cathodically polarized at -800 mVSCE ( E A, vs saturated calomel) and lower. Intergranular cracking is eliminated by reduced cathodic polarization more positive than -750 mVSCE. Crack tip diffusible H concentration rises, from near 0 wppm at E A of -765 mVSCE, with increasing cathodic polarization. This behavior is quantified by thermal desorption spectroscopy and barnacle cell measurements of hydrogen solubility vs overpotential for planar electrodes, plus measured-local crevice potential, and pH scaled to the crack tip. Using crack tip H concentration, excellent agreement is demonstrated between measurements and decohesion-based model predictions of the E A dependencies of threshold stress intensity and Stage II growth rate. A critical level of cathodic polarization must be exceeded for HEAC to occur in aged Monel K-500. The damaging-cathodic potential regime likely shifts more negative for quasi-static loading or increasing metallurgical resistance to HEAC.

  11. The equivalence between dislocation pile-ups and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Gao, Q.

    1990-01-01

    Cracks and dislocation pile-ups are equivalent to each other. In this paper, the physical equivalence between cracks and pile-ups is delineated, and the relationshps between crack-extension force, force on the leading dislocation, stress-intensity factor, and dislocation density are reviewed and summarized. These relations make it possible to extend quantitatively the recent advances in the concepts and practices of fracture mechanics to the studies of microfractures and microplastic deformations.

  12. The effect of aging on crack-growth resistance and toughening mechanisms in human dentin.

    PubMed

    Koester, Kurt J; Ager, Joel W; Ritchie, Robert O

    2008-04-01

    Crack-growth experiments in human dentin have been performed in situ in an environmental scanning electron microscope to measure, for the first time, the crack-growth resistance curve (R-curve) for clinically relevant (<250 microm) crack extensions and to simultaneously identify the salient toughening mechanisms. "Young" dentin from donors 19-30 years in age and "aged" dentin from donors 40-70 years in age were evaluated. The "young" group had 0-4% of its tubules filled with apatite; the "aged" group was subdivided into "opaque" with 12-32% filled tubules and "transparent" with 65-100% filled tubules. Although crack-initiation toughnesses were similar, the crack-growth resistance of "young" dentin was higher by about 40% compared to "aged" dentin. Mechanistically, this behavior is interpreted in terms of three phenomena: (i) gross crack deflection of the growing crack, (ii) microcracks which initiated at unfilled tubules in the high stress region in the vicinity of a propagating crack (no microcracks formed at filled tubules), and (iii) crack propagation which followed a local trajectory through unfilled tubules and deflected around filled tubules. The higher toughness of the "young" dentin was related to enhanced microcracking (at unfilled tubules) ahead of the growing crack, which (i) shields the crack by activating multiple crack tips and by reducing the local stress intensity through crack deflection and (ii) leads to the formation of crack bridges from "uncracked ligaments" due to the incomplete coalescence of these microcracks with the main crack tip. With age, the role of these toughening mechanisms was diminished primarily to the lower fraction of unfilled, and hence microcracked, tubules.

  13. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  14. Fracture analysis of stiffened panels under biaxial loading with widespread cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis with a critical crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion was used to model stable crack growth and fracture of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy (bare and clad) panels for several thicknesses. The panels had either single or multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks subjected to uniaxial or biaxial loading. Analyses were also conducted on cracked stiffened panels with single or MSD cracks. The critical CTOA value for each thickness was determined by matching the failure load on a middle-crack tension specimen. Comparisons were made between the critical angles determined from the finite-element analyses and those measured with photographic methods. Predicted load-against-crack extension and failure loads for panels under biaxial loading, panels with MSD cracks, and panels with various numbers of stiffeners were compared with test data whenever possible. The predicted results agreed well with the test data even for large-scale plastic deformations. The analyses were also able to predict stable tearing behavior of a large lead crack in the presence of MSD cracks. The analyses were then used to study the influence of stiffeners on residual strength in the presence of widespread fatigue cracking. Small MSD cracks were found to greatly reduce the residual strength for large lead cracks even for stiffened panels.

  15. Fluid catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, B.H.; Petty, R.H.

    1982-08-17

    Gaseous sulfur compounds are removed from a sulfur-containing gas mixture by reacting sulfur oxides in the gas mixture with alumina in association with bismuth. The process is particularly useful in fluid catalytic cracking of sulfur-containing petroleum charge stocks wherein sulfur is contained in coke deposited on the fluidized cracking catalyst. By the process of this invention, sulfur oxides may be removed from regenerator off-gases from a fluidized catalytic cracking unit by incorporating particulate alumina impregnated with bismuth in particulate cracking catalyst whereby sulfur oxides generated in the regeneration of the catalyst are reacted with bismuth-impregnated alumina. Sulfur oxides produced during regeneration of the catalyst by burning the coke with air are captured and converted to hydrogen sulfide in the cracking reactor. The hydrogen sulfide so produced is readily separated from petroleum products of the catalytic cracking reaction process.

  16. On Modeling Hydrogen-Induced Crack Propagation Under Sustained Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Somerday, Brian p.; Schembri, Philip E.; Sofronis, Petros; Foulk, James W.; Nibur, Kevin A.; Balch, Dorian K.

    2014-08-01

    The failure of hydrogen containment components is generally associated with subcritical cracking. Understanding subcritical crack growth behavior and its dependence on material and environmental variables can lead to methods for designing structural components in a hydrogen environment and will be beneficial in developing materials resistant to hydrogen embrittlement. In order to identify the issues underlying crack propagation and arrest, we present a model for hydrogen-induced stress-controlled crack propagation under sustained loading. The model is based on the assumptions that (I) hydrogen reduces the material fracture strength and (II) crack propagation takes place when the opening stress over the characteristic distance ahead of a crack tip is greater than the local fracture strength. The model is used in a finite-element simulation of crack propagation coupled with simultaneous hydrogen diffusion in a model material through nodal release. The numerical simulations show that the same physics, i.e., diffusion-controlled crack propagation, can explain the existence of both stages I and II in the velocity versus stress intensity factor ( V- K) curve.

  17. Fatigue-Life Prediction Methodology Using Small-Crack Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newmann, James C., Jr.; Phillips, Edward P.; Swain, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using 'small-crack theory' for various materials and loading conditions. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional state-of-stress effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta K(eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta k(eff)-rate relations were needed in the near-threshold regime to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior and fatigue endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens made of two aluminum alloys and a steel under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack-growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks for the aluminum alloys and steel for edge-notched specimens. An equivalent-initial-flaw-size concept was used to calculate fatigue lives in other cases. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.

  18. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives were to create a capability to simulate curvilinear crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage and to validate with tests. Analysis methodology and software program (FRANC3D/STAGS) developed herein allows engineers to maintain aging aircraft economically, while insuring continuous airworthiness, and to design more damage-tolerant aircraft for the next generation. Simulations of crack growth in fuselages were described. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained from laboratory tests, was used to predict fracture behavior of fuselage panel tests. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element crack growth analyses were conducted. Comparisons of stress distributions, multiple stable crack growth history, and residual strength between measured and predicted results were made to assess the validity of the methodology. Incorporation of residual plastic deformations and tear strap failure was essential for accurate residual strength predictions. Issue related to predicting crack trajectory in fuselages were also discussed. A directional criterion, including T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy, was developed. Curvilinear crack growth was simulated in coupon and fuselage panel tests. Both T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy were essential to predict the observed crack paths. Flapping of fuselages were predicted. Measured and predicted results agreed reasonable well.

  19. Evolving Indications for Tips.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare. PMID:26997087

  20. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  1. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-11-19

    An improved magnet more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  2. Analyzing Leakage Through Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, William D.

    1993-01-01

    Two related computer programs written for use in analyzing leakage through cracks. Leakage flow laminar or turbulent. One program used to determine dimensions of crack under given flow conditions and given measured rate of leakage. Other used to determine rate of leakage of gas through crack of given dimensions under given flow conditions. Programs, written in BASIC language, accelerate and facilitate iterative calculations and parametric analyses. Solve equations of Fanno flow. Enables rapid solution of leakage problem.

  3. Crack Modelling for Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chady, T.; Napierała, L.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, possibility of creation of three-dimensional crack models, both random type and based on real-life radiographic images is discussed. Method for storing cracks in a number of two-dimensional matrices, as well algorithm for their reconstruction into three-dimensional objects is presented. Also the possibility of using iterative algorithm for matching simulated images of cracks to real-life radiographic images is discussed.

  4. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.

    2013-03-01

    The fatigue process consists, from the engineering point of view, of three stages: crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and the final failure. It is also known that the fatigue process near notches and cracks is governed by local strains and stresses in the regions of maximum stress and strain concentrations. Therefore, the fatigue crack growth can be considered as a process of successive crack increments, and the fatigue crack initiation and subsequent growth can be modeled as one repetitive process. The assumptions mentioned above were used to derive a fatigue crack growth model based, called later as the UniGrow model, on the analysis of cyclic elastic-plastic stresses-strains near the crack tip. The fatigue crack growth rate was determined by simulating the cyclic stress-strain response in the material volume adjacent to the crack tip and calculating the accumulated fatigue damage in a manner similar to fatigue analysis of stationary notches. The fatigue crack growth driving force was derived on the basis of the stress and strain history at the crack tip and the Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue damage parameter, D = σmaxΔɛ/2. It was subsequently found that the fatigue crack growth was controlled by a two-parameter driving force in the form of a weighted product of the stress intensity range and the maximum stress intensity factor, Δ K p K {max/1- p }. The effect of the internal (residual) stress induced by the reversed cyclic plasticity has been accounted for and therefore the two-parameter driving force made it possible to predict the effect of the mean stress including the influence of the applied compressive stress, tensile overloads, and variable amplitude spectrum loading. It allows estimating the fatigue life under variable amplitude loading without using crack closure concepts. Several experimental fatigue crack growth datasets obtained for the Al 7075 aluminum alloy were used for the verification of the proposed unified fatigue crack growth

  5. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  6. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-09-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  7. Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.

  8. Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analysis showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.

  9. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    DOE PAGES

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less

  11. Effects of Crack Closure and Cyclic Deformation on Thermomechanical Fatigue Crack Growth of a Near α Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kartik; Kumar, Vikas; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.; Sundararaman, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, closure corrected in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) thermomechanical fatigue crack growth rates at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) of Timetal 834 near α titanium alloy are presented. It is found that closure mechanisms significantly influence the stage I crack growth behavior. Surface roughness-induced crack closure (RICC) predominantly modifies the crack growth rate of near-threshold region at 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) test conditions. However, oxide-induced crack closure further strengthens RICC at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) TMF loading. In stage II crack growth behavior, the alloy shows higher crack growth rates at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) OP-TMF loading which is attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening occurring at the crack tip and weakening of interlamellar regions due to oxidation.

  12. Crack nucleation criterion and its application to impact indentation in glasses

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Vargheese, K. Deenamma; Tandia, Adama; Hu, Guangli; Mauro, John C

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to directly observe nucleation of median cracks in oxide glasses under indentation. Indenters with sharp angles can nucleate median cracks in samples with no pre-existing flaws, while indenters with larger indenter angles cannot. Increasing the tip radius increases the critical load for nucleation of the median crack. Based upon an independent set of simulations under homogeneous loading, the fracture criterion in the domain of the principal stresses is constructed. The fracture criterion, or “fracture locus”, can quantitatively explain the observed effects of indenter angle and indenter tip radius on median crack nucleation. Our simulations suggest that beyond the maximum principal stress, plasticity and multi-axial stresses should also be considered for crack nucleation under indentation, even for brittle glassy systems. PMID:27079431

  13. Effect of Microstructure on the Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of TC4-DT Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ping; Zhao, Yongqing; Zeng, Weidong; Liu, Jianglin

    2015-05-01

    This paper focused on the fatigue crack growth behavior of TC4-DT titanium alloy with different microstructures. Heat treatments were performed to produce different microstructures, which varied in α lamella width and cluster size. The fatigue crack propagation route was observed for different microstructures. The deformation characteristic of the crack tip plastic zone was analyzed. The results demonstrated that, for adequate mechanical properties of the alloy, the microstructure formed after performing two treatments (first, air cooling from the β-phase field, and then annealing at 550 °C for 4 h) exhibited a better fatigue anti-crack propagation ability. This result was related to the existing higher plastic deformation field in the crack tip. Wide α lamellae and coarse α colonies were found to contribute to the improvement of the fracture toughness.

  14. Numerical method of crack analysis in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Minghao; Xu, Guangtao; Fan, Cuiying

    2010-04-01

    The present paper extends the hybrid extended displacement discontinuity fundamental solution method (HEDD-FSM) (Eng Anal Bound Elem 33:592-600, 2009) to analysis of cracks in 2D finite magnetoelectroelastic media. The solution of the crack is expressed approximately by a linear combination of fundamental solutions of the governing equations, which includes the extended point force fundamental solutions with sources placed at chosen points outside the domain of the problem under consideration, and the extended Crouch fundamental solutions with extended displacement discontinuities placed on the crack. The coefficients of the fundamental solutions are determined by letting the approximated solution satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions on the boundary of the domain and on the crack face. The Crouch fundamental solution for a parabolic element at the crack tip is derived to model the square root variations of near tip fields. The extended stress intensity factors are calculated under different electric and magnetic boundary conditions.

  15. Influence of chemical liquids on the fatigue crack growth of the AZ31 magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhang-Zhong; He, Xian-Cong; Bai, Yun-Qiang; Ba, Zhi-Xin; Dai, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Heng-Zhi

    2012-03-01

    The fatigue crack growth behavior of an AZ31 magnesium alloy was investigated by comparing the effect of zirconate and phosphate chemical liquids. The morphology, components, and phase compositions of the chemical depositions at the fatigue crack tip were analyzed by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. For samples with and without the chemical liquids, their stress-intensity factor values at the fatigue crack tip were compared by using a stress-strain gauge. The results demonstrated that a zirconate film (Zr x O y ·Zn x O y ) and a phosphate film (Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O and MgZnP2O7) could be formed on the fatigue crack-surface at the fatigue crack tip. The stress distribution was changed because of the chemical depositions and the causticity of the chemical liquids. This could decrease the stress-intensity factor value and thus effectively cause fatigue crack closure, which reduces the fatigue crack growth rate. Moreover, it was found that the fatigue crack closure effect of zirconates was more positive than that of phosphates.

  16. Transition from fractal cracking to fragmentation due to projectile penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, F.; Halász, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the fracture of two-dimensional disc-shaped samples due to the penetration of a projectile focusing on the dynamics of fracturing and on the geometrical structure of the generated crack pattern. The penetration of a cone is simulated into a plate of circular shape using a discrete element model of heterogeneous brittle materials varying the speed of penetration in a broad range. As the cone penetrates a destroyed zone is created from which cracks run to the external boundary of the plate. Computer simulations revealed that in the low speed limit of loading two cracks are generated with nearly straight shape. Increasing the penetration speed the crack pattern remains regular, however, both the number of cracks and their fractal dimension increases. High speed penetration gives rise to a crack network such that the sample gets fragmented into a large number of pieces. We give a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the system from simple cracking through fractal cracks to fragmentation with a connected crack network. Simulations showed that in the low speed limit of loading the growing cracks proceed in discrete jumps separated by periods when the crack tips are pinned. The statistics of the size of jumps and of the waitng times shows scale free behaviour, i.e. power law distributions are obtained with universal exponents. Dependence on the loading speed was pointed out only for the cutoffs of the distributions. In the high speed limit of loading the sample falls apart forming a large number of fragments. The size of fragments proved to be power law distributed where dependence on the loading speed is observed only for the cutoffs. The value of the exponent has good agreement with experiments.

  17. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  18. Environmentally enhanced crack growth in nickle-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifan Frank

    This dissertation research was designed to develop a better understand the role of niobium and other strengthening elements in enhancing crack growth by oxygen in nickel-based superalloys at high temperatures. It included modeling of diffusion controlled crack growth coupled with oxidation ahead of the crack tip, and an examination of the relationship between crack growth under sustained and fatigue loading. Three gamma' strengthened powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys (having about 53 vol. pct of gamma' precipitates), with 0, 2.5 and 5 wt pct niobium and with the formation of gamma″ precipitates suppressed, were specially designed for this study. Crack growth and supporting microstructural studies were conducted on the alloys. They were complemented by a separate surface chemistry study of the alloys, key precipitates, fracture surfaces of interrupted crack growth specimens by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that sustained load and fatigue crack growth are directly related. Crack growth rates were significantly enhanced by oxygen, increasing by about 104 and 103 over those in argon (at 973 K) in the Nb containing and Nb free alloys, respectively. Crack growth was thermally activated, with an average apparent activation energy of about 250 kJ/mol; the actual values depended upon K and the alloys. The observed K dependence suggested oxygen diffusion control of crack growth, and was confirmed by results from the proposed model. Microstructural analyses of grain boundaries demonstrated that the Nb-containing phases were oxidized. The presence of zone of an oxygen affected region (OAR), or embrittled zone, ahead of the growing crack was established mechanically, and confirmed by XPS analyses. The XPS analyses showed preferential oxidization of Nb along with Al and Ti (principally of Nb-rich carbides, Ni3Al and Ni3Ti), but not Ni within the OAR. The results taken in toto show that embrittlement resulted from the formation and rupture of a brittle

  19. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  20. Elastic-plastic analysis of crack in ductile adhesive joint

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Toru; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Akira; Munakata, Tsuyoshi

    1995-11-01

    The fracture of a crack in adhesive is important to the structural integrity of adhesive structures and composite materials. Though the fracture toughness of a material should be constant according to fracture mechanics, it is said that the fracture toughness of a crack in an adhesive joint depends on the bond thickness. In the present study, the elastic-plastic stress analyses of a crack in a thin adhesive layer are performed by the combination of the boundary element method and the finite element method. The effect of adhesive thickness on the J-integral, the Q`-factor which is a modified version of the Q-factor, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) are investigated. It is found from the analyses that the CTOD begins to decrease at very thin bond thickness, the Q`-factor being almost constant. The decrease of the fracture toughness at very thin adhesive layer is expected by the present analysis.

  1. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z = 0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  2. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z=0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  3. Health Tips for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Griffin Rodgers, Director of the NIDDK Clinical Trials Current research studies and how you can volunteer Community Outreach and Health Fairs Science-based information and tips for planning an outreach effort or community event For Health Care Professionals Patient and provider resources ...

  4. TIPs for Technology Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Susan; Sorge, Dennis H.; Russell, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of the teacher in effectively using technology in education based on the Technology Integration Project (TIP). Topics include why use technology; types of computer software; how to select software; software integration strategies; and effectively planning lessons that integrate the chosen software and integration strategy. (LRW)

  5. Tips for Energy Savers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    According to 1986 U.S. Department of Energy data, 48% of our residential energy is used to heat and cool our homes, 16% goes for heating water, 12% is used to refrigerators and freezers, and the remaining 24% goes into lighting, cooking, and running appliances. This booklet contains tips for saving energy, including sections on: (1) draft-proof…

  6. EcoTipping Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Gerald G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to what we often hear and teach, there is good news to be found on the environmental front. Environmental success stories show us not only that sustainability is possible, but also how people have made it happen. We can make these stories and their lessons accessible to students with help from the EcoTipping Points Project, which has…

  7. Kegel Exercise Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Español Kegel Exercise Tips Page Content What are Kegel exercises? To do Kegel exercises, you just squeeze your ... help with your bladder control. How do you exercise your pelvic muscles? Find the right muscles. Try ...

  8. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation and Characterization of Crack Growth in the Weld Region of a Friction Stir Welded Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Banavara R.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) fabrication technology is being adopted in aerospace applications. The use of this technology can reduce production cost, lead-times, reduce structural weight and need for fasteners and lap joints, which are typically the primary locations of crack initiation and multi-site fatigue damage in aerospace structures. FSW is a solid state welding process that is well-suited for joining aluminum alloy components; however, the process introduces residual stresses (both tensile and compressive) in joined components. The propagation of fatigue cracks in a residual stress field and the resulting redistribution of the residual stress field and its effect on crack closure have to be estimated. To insure the safe insertion of complex integral structures, an accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behavior and the complex crack path process must be understood. A life prediction methodology for fatigue crack growth through the weld under the influence of residual stresses in aluminum alloy structures fabricated using FSW will be detailed. The effects and significance of the magnitude of residual stress at a crack tip on the estimated crack tip driving force are highlighted. The location of the crack tip relative to the FSW and the effect of microstructure on fatigue crack growth are considered. A damage tolerant life prediction methodology accounting for microstructural variation in the weld zone and residual stress field will lead to the design of lighter and more reliable aerospace structures

  9. Estimation of crack closure stresses for in situ toughened silicon nitride with 8 wt pct scandia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An 8-wt pct-scandia silicon nitride with an elongated grain structure was fabricated. The material exhibited high fracture toughness and a rising R-curve as measured by the indentation strength technique. The 'toughening' exponent m was found to be m about 0.1. The high fracture toughness and R-curve behavior was attributed mainly to bridging of the crack faces by the elongated grains. The crack closure (bridging) stress distribution in the wake region of the crack tip was estimated as a function of crack size from the R-curve data, with an arbitrarily assumed distribution function.

  10. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  11. THERMAL-MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF CRACKED SATIN WEAVE CFRP COMPOSITES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.

    2008-03-03

    This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.

  12. Effects of chemical environments on slow crack growth in glasses and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, S. W.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a review of our current understanding of environmentally induced slow crack growth in glasses, single crystals, and polycrystalline ceramics. It is shown that the rate of crack growth is controlled by the chemical activity of the active species in the environment as well as by the stress intensity at the crack tip. A recently developed molecular model of stress-induced chemical reaction between vitreous silica and water is described. The implications of this model for the effects of other chemical species on crack growth are discussed. Finally, the complications introduced by the presence of grain boundaries in polycrystalline ceramics are pointed out.

  13. BWR internal cracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, C.E. Jr.; Lund, A.L.

    1999-07-01

    The regulatory issues associated with cracking of boiling water reactor (BWR) internals is being addressed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and is the subject of a voluntary industry initiative. The lessons learned from this effort will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) internals cracking issues.

  14. Thermosonic imaging of cracks: applications to teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2001-10-01

    A novel nondestructive imaging technique, thermosonics, which combines ultrasonic/sonic excitation and advanced infrared imaging, will be described. In this paper, the authors will illuminate the physical principles underlining this technique, and demonstrate its applications to detection of cracks in teeth.

  15. Crack layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  16. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. Crack propagation studies to determine benign or catastrophic failure modes for aerospace thin-rim gears. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, D.G.

    1996-05-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear tooth crack propagation. The goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. Gear tooth crack propagation was simulated using a finite element based computer program. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics were used. Quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. Crack tip stress intensity factors were estimated and used to determine crack propagation direction and fatigue crack growth rate. The computer program used had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically using an automated re-meshing scheme. In addition, experimental studies were performed in the NASA Lewis Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack path predictions. Also, specialized crack propagation gages were installed on the test gears to measure gear tooth crack growth rate. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios (film thickness divided by tooth height) of 3.3 and 1.0 produced tooth fractures while a backup ratio of 0.3 produced rim fractures. For a backup ratio of 0.5, the experiments produced rim fractures and the predictions produced both rim and tooth fractures, depending on the initial crack conditions. Good correlation between the predicted number of crack propagation cycles and measured number of cycles was achieved using both the Paris fatigue crack growth method and the Collipfiest crack growth equation when fatigue crack closure was considered.

  18. Nonclassical Nucleation and Growth of Cohesive Tensile Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Joseph; Rundle, John; Klein, William

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the nucleation and growth of cohesive tensile cracks using a Hamiltonian which is written as a functional of the crack separation (offset field). We simulate the nucleation events on a square lattice using a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm. Several modes of crack propagation are seen in the simulations. Our results indicate that for certain materials, crack nucleation and growth proceed through the formation and extension of a diffuse ``halo'' surrounding the classical portion of the crack. This is similar to nonclassical nucleation near the spinodal in magnetic systems. Theoretical considerations and numerical calculations strongly suggest that the diffuse halo can be identified with the fracture ``process zone'' seen in laboratory studies of advancing cracks. We are investigating scaling exponents associated with this apparent phase transition.

  19. Effect of fracture surface roughness on shear crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, T.S.; Watt, D.W. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Mendelsohn, D.A. . Dept. of Engineering Mechanics)

    1992-12-01

    A model of fracture surface interference for Mode I fatigue crack profiles was developed and evaluated. Force required to open the crack faces is estimated from point contact expressions for Mode I stress intensity factor. Force transfer across contacting asperities is estimated and used to calculate Mode II resistance stress intensity factor (applied factor is sum of effective and resistance factors). Electro-optic holographic interferometry was used to measure 3-D displacement field around a Mode I fatigue pre-crack in Al loaded in Mode II shear. Induced Mode I crack face displacements were greater than Mode II displacements. Plane stress shear lip caused displacement normal to surface as the crack faces are displaced. Algorithms are being developed to track the displacements associated with the original coordinate system in the camera. A 2-D boundary element method code for mixed mode I and II loading of a rough crack (sawtooth asperity model) has been completed. Addition of small-scale crack tip yielding and a wear model are completed and underway, respectively.

  20. Crack healing during molecular-beam-epitaxy growth of GaP/GaAs thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Weatherly, G.C.; Niewczas, M.

    2005-07-01

    A crack-healing phenomenon occurring during epitaxial growth of GaP films on a GaAs substrate was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The process is driven by a decrease in the surface energy of the cracked film. The results indicate that the fundamental mechanism operating during healing is the deposition and diffusion of Ga and P atoms onto the crack surface in the GaP lattice, combined with self-diffusion of GaAs within the crack tip in the GaAs substrate. This process is not fully completed in the GaP/GaAs system; unhealed crack tips located in the GaAs substrate always remain in the structure. Development of cracks and subsequent crack healing during film growth lead to a decrease in residual stress in the film. New cracks are formed at an equilibrium spacing which increases with increasing film thickness. A modified expression for predicting the relation between crack spacing and film thickness in epitaxial films is proposed.

  1. Nanometer voids prevent crack growth in polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hideaki; Dutriez, Cedric; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2007-03-01

    Macroscopic voids initiate cracks and cause catastrophic failure in brittle materials. The effect of micrometer voids in the mechanical properties of polymeric materials was studied in 1980's and 90's with the expectation that such small voids may initiate crazing, the toughening mechanism in polymer solids, similar to dispersed rubber particles widely used in industry. However, the micrometer voids showed only limited resistance against crack growth, and it was concluded that much smaller voids are necessary for the drastic change in mechanical properties. We have recently succeeded the nondestructive introduction of nanometer voids (30--70 nm) in polymeric materials using block copolymer template and carbon dioxide (CO2) by partitioning CO2 in CO2-philic nanodomains of block copolymers. The reduction of Young's modulus with such nanometer voids was minimal (2 to 1 GPa) due to the (short-range) ordered spherical voids. While the unprocessed copolymer films failed in brittle manner at around 2 % of tensile strain, the processed copolymer films with nanometer voids did not break up to at least 60 %. A microscopic observation under strain of the crack tip revealed that the nanometer voids were deformed under strain and directly converted into the networked fibrils near the crack tip similar to crazing and thus prevented the crack growth.

  2. Near-Neutral pH SCC Crack Initiation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, John

    4-Point bend studies on X-52 linepipe steel with ''natural'' surfaces (sigmamax = 95% SMYS, f = 0.001 Hz, R = 0.6) in synthetic soil solutions indicate that crack initiation and transgranular crack formation occurs more readily in C2 solutions than in C4 solutions. This increase is associated with solution compositions that increase general corrosion rates and that reduce the precipitation of carbonates. When it is assumed that relative differences in bulk solution properties are manifested at the crack tip, then these differences may promote a more favourable environment for crack tip dissolution, ion transport, and microplastic deformation. Although the results are not definitive, in these studies the development of longer and transgranular cracks appear to be associated more with differences in solution composition than with differences in surface finish. Increased corrosion and hydrogen permeation rates are associated with increased proton, carbonic acid, and bicarbonate ion concentrations and not explicitly with lower pH. Calculations show, at open circuit corrosion conditions, that FeCO3 precipitation can limit pH increases.

  3. Moving singularity creep crack growth analysis with the /Delta T/c and C/asterisk/ integrals. [path-independent vector and energy rate line integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, R. B.; Atluri, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    The physical meaning of (Delta T)c and its applicability to creep crack growth are reviewed. Numerical evaluation of (Delta T)c and C(asterisk) is discussed with results being given for compact specimen and strip geometries. A moving crack-tip singularity, creep crack growth simulation procedure is described and demonstrated. The results of several crack growth simulation analyses indicate that creep crack growth in 304 stainless steel occurs under essentially steady-state conditions. Based on this result, a simple methodology for predicting creep crack growth behavior is summarized.

  4. Four-beam model for vibration analysis of a cantilever beam with an embedded horizontal crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Zhu, Weidong; Charalambides, Panos G.; Shao, Yimin; Xu, Yongfeng; Wu, Kai; Xiao, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    As one of the main failure modes, embedded cracks occur in beam structures due to periodic loads. Hence it is useful to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a beam structure with an embedded crack for early crack detection and diagnosis. A new four-beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the transverse vibration of a cantilever beam with an embedded horizontal crack; two separate beam segments are used to model the crack region to allow opening of crack surfaces. Each beam segment is considered as an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The governing equations and the matching and boundary conditions of the four-beam model are derived using Hamilton's principle. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the four-beam model are calculated using the transfer matrix method. The effects of the crack length, depth, and location on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are investigated. A continuous wavelet transform method is used to analyze the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. It is shown that sudden changes in spatial variations of the wavelet coefficients of the mode shapes can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack. The first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of a cantilever beam with an embedded crack from the finite element method and an experimental investigation are used to validate the proposed model. Local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips can be described by the proposed four-beam model, which cannot be captured by previous methods.

  5. Use of Marker Bands for Determination of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates and Crack Front Shapes in Pre-Corroded Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Groups of striations called marker bands generated on a fatigue fracture surface can be used to mark the position of an advancing fatigue crack at known intervals. A technique has been developed that uses the distance between multiple sets of marker bands to obtain a vs. N, crack front shape, and fatigue crack growth rate data for small cracks. This technique is particularly usefull for specimens that require crack length measurements during testing that cannot be obtained because corrosion obscures the surface of the specimen. It is also useful for specimens with unusual or non-symmetric shapes where it is difficult to obtain accurate crack lengths using traditional methods such as compliance or electric potential difference in the early stages of testing.

  6. A Study of Failure in Small Pressurized Cylindrical Shells Containing a Crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barwell, Craig A.; Eber, Lorenz; Fyfe, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental models. The loading applied was either symmetric or unsymmetric about the crack plane, the latter being caused by structural constraints such as stringers. The objective was two fold - one, to provide the experimental results which will allow computer modeling techniques to be evaluated for deformations that are significantly different from that experienced by flat plates, and the other to examine the deformations and conditions associated with the onset of crack kinking which often precedes crack curving. The stresses which control crack growth in a cylindrical geometry depend on conditions introduced by the axial bulging, which is an integral part of this type of failure. For the symmetric geometry, both the hoop and radial strain just ahead off the crack, r = a, were measured and these results compared with those obtained from a variety of structural analysis codes, in particular STAGS [1], ABAQUS and ANSYS. In addition to these measurements, the pressures at the onset of stable and unstable crack growth were obtained and the corresponding crack deformations measured as the pressures were increased to failure. For the unsymmetric cases, measurements were taken of the crack kinking angle, and the displacements in the vicinity of the crack. In general, the strains ahead of the crack showed good agreement between the three computer codes and between the codes and the experiments. In the case of crack behavior, it was determined that modeling stable tearing with a crack-tip opening displacement fracture criterion could be successfully combined with the finite-element analysis techniques as used in structural analysis codes. The analytic results obtained in this study were very compatible with the experimental observations of crack growth

  7. Subcritical crack growth at bimaterial interfaces. Part 3: Shear-enhanced fatigue crack growth resistance at polymer/metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Shang, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth along an Al/epoxy interface was examined under different combinations of mode-I and mode-II loadings using the flexural peel technique. Fatigue crack growth rates were obtained as a function of the total strain energy rate for G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratios of 0.3 to 1.4, achieved by varying the relative thickness of the outerlayers for the flexural peel specimen. Fatigue crack growth resistance of the interface was found to increase with increasing G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Such a shear-enhanced crack growth resistance of the interface resulted in a gradual transition of crack growth mechanism from interfacial at the low G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio to cohesive at the high G{sub II}/G{sub I} ratio. Under predominantly mode-I loading, the damage in the polymer took the form of crazing and cavitation. In contrast, laminar shear occurred under highly shear loading, resulting in a larger amount of plastic dissipation at the crack tip and improved fatigue crack growth resistance.

  8. Fracture Analysis of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Ductile Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniewicz, S. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Leach, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate life assessment of structural components may require advanced life prediction criteria and methodologies. Structural components often exhibit several different types of defects, among the most prevalent being surface cracks. A semi-elliptical surface crack subjected to monotonic loading will exhibit stable crack growth until the crack has reached a critical size, at which the crack loses stability and fracture ensues (Newman, 2000). The shape and geometry of the flaw are among the most influential factors. When considering simpler crack configurations, such as a through-the-thickness crack, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry may be modeled under the approximation of two-dimensional (2D) plane stress or plane strain. The more complex surface crack is typically modeled numerically with the Finite Element Method (FEM). A semi-elliptical surface crack is illustrated in Figure 1-1.

  9. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials.

  10. Smoking - tips on how to quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking cessation - tips on how to quit; Smokeless tobacco - tips on how to quit; Tobacco cessation - tips; Nicotine cessation - tips ... is hard to stop smoking or using smokeless tobacco, but anyone can do it. Know what symptoms ...

  11. Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684

  12. A cracked sheet stiffened by several partially debonded intact or broken stringers. [reinforcement (structures) and structural stability of metal sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of several stringers on the stress intensity factors at the tips of a crack is considered. The stringers which were continuously attached to the plate and placed perpendicular to the crack may be partially debonded due to high stress concentrations. Since the stringers may even break under excessive loading conditions, both intact and broken stringers are considered to investigate the effect of rupture. The continuity of displacements along the bond lines leads to an integral equation which is solved to give the shear stress distribution in the adhesive and the stress intensity factors at the crack tips.

  13. Mixed mode fatigue crack growth in the commercial Al-Li alloys, 8090

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, I.; Gregson, P.J. . Dept. of Engineering Materials)

    1994-05-15

    Crystallographic fatigue crack propagation along planar slip bands has been recognized to occur over a particularly wide range of conditions in Al-Li alloys due to the presence of coherent, shearable [delta][prime] (Al[sub 3]Li) precipitates, in conjunction with the strong underlying crystallographic texture often developed in these materials during secondary processing. Such Stage 1 propagation typically produces a highly tortuous crack path during conventional mode 1 fatigue testing. While the net crack growth direction remains parallel to the nominal mode 1 direction, crack tortuosity has been generally recognized as beneficial to fatigue resistance, as both local mixed mode crack-tip loading conditions and roughness induced closure may significantly reduce the driving force for crack extension (i.e. crack shielding'' occurs). Recent investigations of commercial Al-Li plate in the damage tolerant condition have however shown that co-planar Stage 1 crack propagation along preferred [111]-plane orientations may give rise to sustained macroscopic crack deviation from the nominal mode 1 growth direction. Such crack growth raises a number of important questions with regard to conventional, nominally mode 1 based structure lifting and fatigue testing methods when applied to these materials. Work has therefore been carried out to characterized fatigue crack growth during sustained co-planar Stage 1 propagation in a commercial Al-Li alloy, with particular reference to mixed mode loading conditions.

  14. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Malik, S. N.; Laflen, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to examine the applicability of path-independent (P-I) integrals to crack growth problems in hot section components of gas turbine aircraft engines. Alloy 718 was used and the experimental parameters included combined temperature and strain cycling, thermal gradients, elastic-plastic strain levels, and mean strains. A literature review was conducted of proposed P-I integrals, and those capable of analyzing hot section component problems were selected and programmed into the postprocessor of a finite element code. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses were conducted to simulate crack growth and crack closure of the test specimen, and to evaluate the P-I integrals. It was shown that the selected P-I integrals are very effective for predicting crack growth for isothermal conditions.

  15. Ethylene by Naphta Cracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the manufacture of ethylene by thermal cracking of hydrocarbon feedstocks that is useful for introducing the subject of industrial chemistry into a chemistry curriculum. (MLH)

  16. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  17. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, J; Dalbe, M-J; Alava, M J; Santucci, S

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible. PMID:27578388

  18. The crack problem for a half plane stiffened by elastic cover plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1981-01-01

    An elastic half plane containing a crack and stiffened by a cover plate is discussed. The asymptotic nature of the stress state in the half plane around an end point of the stiffener to determine the likely orientation of a possible fracture initiation and growth was studied. The problem is formulated for an arbitrary oriented radial crack in a system of singular integral equations. For an internal crack and for an edge crack, the problem is solved and the stress intensity factors at the crack tips and the interface stress are calculated. A cracked half plane with two symmetrically located cover plates is also considered. It is concluded that the case of two stiffeners appears to be more severe than that of a single stiffener.

  19. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, J; Dalbe, M-J; Alava, M J; Santucci, S

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  20. Small fatigue crack growth in metallic materials: A model and its application to engineering alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Shyam, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the growth behavior of small fatigue cracks is important for materials used in structurally demanding applications such as aircraft turbine discs and some automotive engine components. Here, we present a general, dislocation-based fracture mechanics approach to predict the growth rate of small fatigue cracks in metallic materials. The applicability of the model to the small fatigue crack growth behavior of four engineering alloys was examined. Small fatigue cracks were initiated and propagated, in a controlled manner, from micronotches fabricated by femtosecond pulsed laser micromachining. The results suggest that a methodology consisting of crack-tip damage accumulation and fracture provides a common framework to estimate the fatigue crack propagation lifetime of structural materials.

  1. Computational modeling of the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendales, E. D.; Orjuela, F. A.; Chamarraví, O.

    2016-02-01

    In this article theoretical models and some existing data sets were examined in order to model the two main causes (hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion-cracking under stress) of the called environmentally assisted cracking phenomenon (EAC). Additionally, a computer simulation of flat metal plate subject to mechanical stress and cracking due both to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion was developed. The computational simulation was oriented to evaluate the effect on the stress-strain behavior, elongation percent and the crack growth rate of AISI SAE 1040 steel due to three corrosive enviroments (H2 @ 0.06MPa; HCl, pH=1.0; HCl, pH=2.5). From the computer simulation we conclude that cracking due to internal corrosion of the material near to the crack tip limits affects more the residual strength of the flat plate than hydrogen embrittlement and generates a failure condition almost imminent of the mechanical structural element.

  2. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible. PMID:27578388

  3. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-08-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  4. Inspecting cracks in foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, L. W.; Jung, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dye solution indicates extent of cracking by penetrating crack and showing original crack depth clearly. Solution comprised of methylene blue in denatured ethyl alcohol penetrates cracks completely and evaporates quickly and is suitable technique for usage in environmental or structural tests.

  5. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  6. Corrosion Product Film-Induced Stress Facilitates Stress Corrosion Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhiliang; Ren, Xuechong; Guan, Yongjun; Su, Yanjing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses were conducted to clarify the role of corrosion product films (CPFs) in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Flat and U-shaped edge-notched specimens were investigated in terms of the CPF-induced stress in the metallic substrate and the stress in the CPF. For a U-shaped edge-notched specimen, the stress field in front of the notch tip is affected by the Young’s modulus of the CPF and the CPF thickness and notch geometry. The CPF-induced tensile stress in the metallic substrate is superimposed on the applied load to increase the crack tip strain and facilitate localized plasticity deformation. In addition, the stress in the CPF surface contributes to the rupture of the CPFs. The results provide physical insights into the role of CPFs in SCC. PMID:26066367

  7. Tipping point leadership.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point. PMID:12687920

  8. Study of matrix crack-tilted fiber bundle interaction using caustics and finite element method.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the interaction between the matrix crack and a tilted fiber bundle was investigated via caustics and the finite element method (FEM). First, the caustic patterns at the crack tip with different distances from the tilted fiber were obtained and the stress intensity factors were extracted from the geometry of the caustic patterns. Subsequently, the shielding effect of the fiber bundle in front of the crack tip was analyzed. Furthermore, the interaction between the matrix crack and the broken fiber bundle was discussed. Finally, a finite element simulation was carried out using ABAQUS to verify the experimental results. The results demonstrate that the stress intensity factors extracted from caustic experiments are in excellent agreement with the data calculated by FEM. PMID:26931836

  9. Study of matrix crack-tilted fiber bundle interaction using caustics and finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the interaction between the matrix crack and a tilted fiber bundle was investigated via caustics and the finite element method (FEM). First, the caustic patterns at the crack tip with different distances from the tilted fiber were obtained and the stress intensity factors were extracted from the geometry of the caustic patterns. Subsequently, the shielding effect of the fiber bundle in front of the crack tip was analyzed. Furthermore, the interaction between the matrix crack and the broken fiber bundle was discussed. Finally, a finite element simulation was carried out using ABAQUS to verify the experimental results. The results demonstrate that the stress intensity factors extracted from caustic experiments are in excellent agreement with the data calculated by FEM.

  10. The application of an atomistic J-integral to a ductile crack.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A; Jones, Reese E

    2013-04-17

    In this work we apply a Lagrangian kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data to estimate the J-integral for the emission dislocations from a crack tip. Face-centered cubic (fcc) gold and body-centered cubic (bcc) iron modeled with embedded atom method (EAM) potentials are used as example systems. The results of a single crack with a K-loading compare well to an analytical solution from anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics. We also discovered that in the post-emission of dislocations from the crack tip there is a loop size-dependent contribution to the J-integral. For a system with a finite width crack loaded in simple tension, the finite size effects for the systems that were feasible to compute prevented precise agreement with theory. However, our results indicate that there is a trend towards convergence.

  11. The application of an atomistic J-integral to a ductile crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.

    2013-04-01

    In this work we apply a Lagrangian kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data to estimate the J-integral for the emission dislocations from a crack tip. Face-centered cubic (fcc) gold and body-centered cubic (bcc) iron modeled with embedded atom method (EAM) potentials are used as example systems. The results of a single crack with a K-loading compare well to an analytical solution from anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics. We also discovered that in the post-emission of dislocations from the crack tip there is a loop size-dependent contribution to the J-integral. For a system with a finite width crack loaded in simple tension, the finite size effects for the systems that were feasible to compute prevented precise agreement with theory. However, our results indicate that there is a trend towards convergence.

  12. The Evolution of Stress Intensity Factors and the Propagation of Cracks in Elastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hu, Bei; Velazquez, Juan J. L.

    When a crack Γs propagates in an elastic medium the stress intensity factors evolve with the tip x(s) of Γs. In this paper we derive formulae which describe the evolution of these stress intensity factors for a homogeneous isotropic elastic medium under plane strain conditions. Denoting by ψ=ψ(x,s) the stress potential (ψ is biharmonic and has zero traction along the crack Γs) and by κ(s) the curvature of the crack at the tip x(s), we prove that the stress intensity factors A1(s), A2(s), as functions of s, satisfy: where , are stress intensity factors of the tangential derivative of in the polar coordinate system at x(s) with θ=0 in the direction of the crack at x(s). The case of antiplane shearing is also briefly considered; in this case ψ is harmonic.

  13. How cracks are hot and cool: a burning issue for paper.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Renaud; Lengliné, Olivier; Santucci, Stéphane; Vincent-Dospital, Tom; Naert-Guillot, Muriel; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-07-01

    Material failure is accompanied by important heat exchange, with extremely high temperature - thousands of degrees - reached at crack tips. Such a temperature may subsequently alter the mechanical properties of stressed solids, and finally facilitate their rupture. Thermal runaway weakening processes could indeed explain stick-slip motions and even be responsible for deep earthquakes. Therefore, to better understand catastrophic rupture events, it appears crucial to establish an accurate energy budget of fracture propagation from a clear measure of various energy dissipation sources. In this work, combining analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we directly relate the temperature field around a moving crack tip to the part α of mechanical energy converted into heat. By monitoring the slow crack growth in paper sheets using an infrared camera, we measure a significant fraction α = 12% ± 4%. Besides, we show that (self-generated) heat accumulation could weaken our samples by microfiber combustion, and lead to a fast crack/dynamic failure/regime. PMID:27240655

  14. Imaging Cracks by Laser Excited Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, J.; Kervalishvili, G. N.; Maierhofer, Ch.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2010-02-01

    During the last years active thermography is increasingly used in a number of NDT problems in production and maintenance. In this work we focus on the detection of vertical cracks starting at the surface, which is an important indication of structural failure. By using local thermal excitation it is possible to image anisotropies in the lateral diffusivity by recording the temporal temperature data with an infrared camera. The regional transient behaviour of temperature distribution then can provide quantitative information of the crack parameter. In doing so, we present an advanced technique for the determination of the crack depth. The experimental set-up is based on an Nd:YAG laser. The beam is focused on the test sample by using an optical scanner to create the required lateral heat flow. The time resolved temperature distribution is recorded with an infrared camera (InSb FPA, 3 to 5 μm) providing a frame rate of up to 500 Hz. In addition we report on numerical simulation to investigate the concept of local heat excitation for a quantitative estimation of crack parameters. The modeling also includes the influence of surface to surface radiation inside the crack. We obtained a good consistency between experimental and theoretical data.

  15. Pattern formation during healing of fluid-filled cracks: an analog experiment

    SciTech Connect

    F. Renard; D. K. Dysthe; J. G. Feder; Paul Meakin; S.J.S. Morris; B. Jamtveit

    2009-11-01

    The formation and subsequent healing of cracks and crack networks may control such diverse phenomena as the strengthening of fault zones between earthquakes, fluid migrations in the Earth's crust, or the transport of radioactive materials in nuclear waste disposal. An intriguing pattern-forming process can develop during healing of fluid-filled cracks, where pockets of fluid remain permanently trapped in the solid as the crack tip is displaced driven by surface energy. Here, we present the results of analog experiments in which a liquid was injected into a colloidal inorganic gel to obtain penny-shaped cracks that were subsequently allowed to close and heal under the driving effect of interfacial tension. Depending on the properties of the gel and the injected liquid, two modes of healing were obtained. In the first mode, the crack healed completely through a continuous process. The second mode of healing was discontinuous and was characterized by a 'zipper-like' closure of a front that moved along the crack perimeter, trapping fluid that may eventually form inclusions trapped in the solid. This instability occurred only when the velocity of the crack tip decreased to zero. Our experiments provide a cheap and simple analog to reveal how aligned arrays of fluid inclusions may be captured along preexisting fracture planes and how small amounts of fluids can be permanently trapped in solids, modifying irreversibly their material properties.

  16. A Crack Growth Evaluation Method for Interacting Multiple Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    When stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue occurs, multiple cracks are frequently initiated in the same area. According to section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, multiple cracks are considered as a single combined crack in crack growth analysis, if the specified conditions are satisfied. In crack growth processes, however, no prescription for the interference between multiple cracks is given in this code. The JSME Post-Construction Code, issued in May 2000, prescribes the conditions of crack coalescence in the crack growth process. This study aimed to extend this prescription to more general cases. A simulation model was applied, to simulate the crack growth process, taking into account the interference between two cracks. This model made it possible to analyze multiple crack growth behaviors for many cases (e. g. different relative position and length) that could not be studied by experiment only. Based on these analyses, a new crack growth analysis method was suggested for taking into account the interference between multiple cracks.

  17. Crack propagation and fracture in silicon wafers under thermal stress

    PubMed Central

    Danilewsky, Andreas; Wittge, Jochen; Kiefl, Konstantin; Allen, David; McNally, Patrick; Garagorri, Jorge; Elizalde, M. Reyes; Baumbach, Tilo; Tanner, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of microcracks in silicon during thermal annealing has been studied using in situ X-ray diffraction imaging. Initial cracks are produced with an indenter at the edge of a conventional Si wafer, which was heated under temperature gradients to produce thermal stress. At temperatures where Si is still in the brittle regime, the strain may accumulate if a microcrack is pinned. If a critical value is exceeded either a new or a longer crack will be formed, which results with high probability in wafer breakage. The strain reduces most efficiently by forming (hhl) or (hkl) crack planes of high energy instead of the expected low-energy cleavage planes like {111}. Dangerous cracks, which become active during heat treatment and may shatter the whole wafer, can be identified from diffraction images simply by measuring the geometrical dimensions of the strain-related contrast around the crack tip. Once the plastic regime at higher temperature is reached, strain is reduced by generating dislocation loops and slip bands and no wafer breakage occurs. There is only a small temperature window within which crack propagation is possible during rapid annealing. PMID:24046487

  18. Factors affecting the measurement of fatigue crack stress intensity factors using photoelastic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, A.D.; Patterson, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    Photoelastic procedures to determine the stress intensity factors at the tip of a fatigue crack during dynamic and cyclic loading are described. To illustrate the techniques, tests were performed on a centered-cracked tensile panel under cyclic load. The measured SIFs were found to agree to within about 5% of an elastic solution. Finally, factors affecting the application of the procedures to more complex structures are considered.

  19. [A microstructural approach to fatigue crack processes in poly crystalline BCC materials]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1992-12-31

    Objective was to study fatigue where a combination of low temperature and cyclic loading produced cyclic cleavage in bcc Fe-base systems. Both dislocation dynamics and quasi-statics of crack growth were probed. This document reviews progress over the past 6 years: hydrogen embrittlement and cleavage, computations (stress near crack tip), dislocation emission from grain boundaries, fracture process zones, and understanding brittle fracture at the atomistic/dislocation scales and at the microscopic/macroscopic scale.

  20. [A microstructural approach to fatigue crack processes in poly crystalline BCC materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Objective was to study fatigue where a combination of low temperature and cyclic loading produced cyclic cleavage in bcc Fe-base systems. Both dislocation dynamics and quasi-statics of crack growth were probed. This document reviews progress over the past 6 years: hydrogen embrittlement and cleavage, computations (stress near crack tip), dislocation emission from grain boundaries, fracture process zones, and understanding brittle fracture at the atomistic/dislocation scales and at the microscopic/macroscopic scale.

  1. Dating Tips for Divergence-Time Estimation.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-11-01

    The molecular clock is the only viable means of establishing an accurate timescale for Life on Earth, but it remains reliant on a capricious fossil record for calibration. 'Tip-dating' promises a conceptual advance, integrating fossil species among their living relatives using molecular/morphological datasets and evolutionary models. Fossil species of known age establish calibration directly, and their phylogenetic uncertainty is accommodated through the co-estimation of time and topology. However, challenges remain, including a dearth of effective models of morphological evolution, rate correlation, the non-random nature of missing characters in fossil data, and, most importantly, accommodating uncertainty in fossil age. We show uncertainty in fossil-dating propagates to divergence-time estimates, yielding estimates that are older and less precise than those based on traditional node calibration. Ultimately, node and tip calibrations are not mutually incompatible and may be integrated to achieve more accurate and precise evolutionary timescales.

  2. Fracture Mechanics of Thin, Cracked Plates Under Tension, Bending and Out-of-Plane Shear Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnder, Alan T.; Hui, C. Y.; Potdar, Yogesh; Zucchini, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Cracks in the skin of aircraft fuselages or other shell structures can be subjected to very complex stress states, resulting in mixed-mode fracture conditions. For example, a crack running along a stringer in a pressurized fuselage will be subject to the usual in-plane tension stresses (Mode-I) along with out-of-plane tearing stresses (Mode-III like). Crack growth and initiation in this case is correlated not only with the tensile or Mode-I stress intensity factor, K(sub I), but depends on a combination of parameters and on the history of crack growth. The stresses at the tip of a crack in a plate or shell are typically described in terms of either the small deflection Kirchhoff plate theory. However, real applications involve large deflections. We show, using the von-Karman theory, that the crack tip stress field derived on the basis of the small deflection theory is still valid for large deflections. We then give examples demonstrating the exact calculation of energy release rates and stress intensity factors for cracked plates loaded to large deflections. The crack tip fields calculated using the plate theories are an approximation to the actual three dimensional fields. Using three dimensional finite element analyses we have explored the relationship between the three dimensional elasticity theory and two dimensional plate theory results. The results show that for out-of-plane shear loading the three dimensional and Kirchhoff theory results coincide at distance greater than h/2 from the crack tip, where h/2 is the plate thickness. Inside this region, the distribution of stresses through the thickness can be very different from the plate theory predictions. We have also explored how the energy release rate varies as a function of crack length to plate thickness using the different theories. This is important in the implementation of fracture prediction methods using finite element analysis. Our experiments show that under certain conditions, during fatigue crack

  3. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  4. Gardening Health and Safety Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health History Parent Information Vaccines & Immunizations Healthy Living Gardening Health and Safety Tips Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gardening can be a great way to enjoy the ...

  5. Surface energy and surface tension at holes and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajapakse, Y. D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of surface tension and surface energy of solids was used by Griffith to obtain a criterion for the extension of cracks in brittle materials. Griffith, however, neglected the stresses due to the normal traction at the crack implied by the surface tension. A complete solution to the problem of an elliptic hole in an infinite plate with surface tension loading at the hole is given. Complex potentials are given in closed form in terms of elliptic integrals of the first, second, and third kinds. Stress distributions are studied. For a flat crack, the nature of the singularity at the tip is shown to be radically different from that usually encountered in fracture mechanics. The implications of our analysis for theories of fracture in brittle materials are discussed.

  6. Interface crack between a compressible elastomer and a rigid substrate with finite slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Tamran H.; Qi, Yuan; Schiavone, Peter; Long, Rong

    2016-05-01

    We study the deformation of a crack between a soft elastomer and a rigid substrate with finite interfacial slippage. It is assumed that slippage occurs when the interfacial shear traction exceeds a threshold. This leads to a slip zone ahead of the crack tip where the shear traction is assumed to be equal to the constant threshold. We perform asymptotic analysis and determine closed-form solutions describing the near-tip crack opening displacement and the corresponding stress distributions. These solutions are consistent with numerical results based on finite element analysis. Our results reveal that slippage can significantly affect the deformation and stress fields near the tip of the interface crack. Specifically, depending on the direction of slippage, the crack opening profile may appear more blunted or sharpened than the parabola arising from for the case of zero interfacial shear traction or free slippage. The detailed crack opening profile is determined by the constant shear traction in the slip zone. More importantly, we find that the normal stress perpendicular to the interface can increase or decrease when slippage occurs, depending on the direction of slippage and the shear traction in the slip zone.

  7. [Monitoring of Crack Propagation in Repaired Structures Based on Characteristics of FBG Sensors Reflecting Spectra].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shen-fang; Jin, Xin; Qiu, Lei; Huang, Hong-mei

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the security of aircraft repaired structures, a method of crack propagation monitoring in repaired structures is put forward basing on characteristics of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) reflecting spectra in this article. With the cyclic loading effecting on repaired structure, cracks propagate, while non-uniform strain field appears nearby the tip of crack which leads to the FBG sensors' reflecting spectra deformations. The crack propagating can be monitored by extracting the characteristics of FBG sensors' reflecting spectral deformations. A finite element model (FEM) of the specimen is established. Meanwhile, the distributions of strains which are under the action of cracks of different angles and lengths are obtained. The characteristics, such as main peak wavelength shift, area of reflecting spectra, second and third peak value and so on, are extracted from the FBGs' reflecting spectral which are calculated by transfer matrix algorithm. An artificial neural network is built to act as the model between the characteristics of the reflecting spectral and the propagation of crack. As a result, the crack propagation of repaired structures is monitored accurately and the error of crack length is less than 0.5 mm, the error of crack angle is less than 5 degree. The accurately monitoring problem of crack propagation of repaired structures is solved by taking use of this method. It has important significance in aircrafts safety improvement and maintenance cost reducing.

  8. Fracture of metal/ceramic laminates. 1: Transition from single to multiple cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Hwu, K.L.; Derby, B.

    1999-01-15

    The transition from single crack extension to multiple laminate cracking near the crack tip has been studied over a range of metal/ceramic thickness ratios (t{sub m}/t{sub c}), in three metal/ceramic laminate systems: Al/alumina, Cu/alumina and Ni/alumina. Multiple cracking occurs above a critical value of t{sub m}/t{sub c}, with the critical value increasing with decreasing ratio of equivalent constrained metal yield stress to mean ceramic fracture stress, {sigma}{sub e}/{sigma}{sub c}. These results are shown to be inconsistent with the predictions of a linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) model, which considers a cracked laminate as a bridged monolithic crack, for the lower metal yield strength Cu/alumina and Al/alumina laminates. A modified model considers a limiting case where the stress distribution in the ceramic layers in the crack wake is determined by shear-lag below a critical value of the ratio {sigma}{sub e}/{sigma}{sub c}. This combined model is shown to predict more accurately the transition from single to multiple cracking in the three laminate types and also to predict the ceramic layer crack spacing in the multiple cracked specimens.

  9. Fracture analysis of multi-site cracking in fuselage lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional plane stress elastic fracture mechanics analysis of a cracked lap joint fastened by rigid pins is presented and results are applied to the problem of multi-site damage (MSD) in riveted lap joints of aircraft fuselage skins. Two problems are addressed, the problem of equal length MSD cracks and the problem of alternating length MSD cracks. For the problem of equal length cracks, two models of rivet/skin interactions are studied and the role of residual stresses due to the riveting process is explored. Stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of normalized crack length. Also, the load distribution among rivet rows and the compliance change of the joint due to MSD cracking are obtained. For the problem of alternating length cracks, attention is focussed on how load is distributed between columns of rivets and how this load shedding can alter crack tip stress intensity factors. The equal and alternating length crack analyses reveal no clear-cut mechanism to explain the relative uniformity of fatigue cracks emerging from lap joint rivet holes in actual aircraft and in mechanical lap joint tests.

  10. Fracture property of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zheming; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the properties of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression, compression tests by using square cement mortar specimens with Y-shaped crack were conducted. A true triaxial loading device was applied in the tests, and the major principle stresses or the critical stresses were measured. The results show that as the branch angle θ between the branch crack and the stem crack is 75°, the cracked specimen has the lowest strength. In order to explain the test results, numerical models of Y-shaped cracks by using ABAQUS code were established, and the J-integral method was applied in calculating crack tip stress intensity factor (SIF). The results show that when the branch angle θ increases, the SIF K I of the branch crack increases from negative to positive and the absolute value K II of the branch crack first increases, and as θ is 50°, it is the maximum, and then it decreases. Finally, in order to further investigate the stress distribution around Y-shaped cracks, photoelastic tests were conducted, and the test results generally agree with the compressive test results. PMID:25013846

  11. Fracture mechanics of propagating 3-D fatigue cracks with parametric dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akiyuki; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2013-07-01

    Propagation of 3-D fatigue cracks is analyzed using a discrete dislocation representation of the crack opening displacement. Three dimensional cracks are represented with Volterra dislocation loops in equilibrium with the applied external load. The stress intensity factor (SIF) is calculated using the Peach-Koehler (PK) force acting on the crack tip dislocation loop. Loading mode decomposition of the SIF is achieved by selection of Burgers vector components to correspond to each fracture mode in the PK force calculations. The interaction between 3-D cracks and free surfaces is taken into account through application of the superposition principle. A boundary integral solution of an elasticity problem in a finite domain is superposed onto the elastic field solution of the discrete dislocation method in an infinite medium. The numerical accuracy of the SIF is ascertained by comparison with known analytical solution of a 3-D crack problem in pure mode I, and for mixed-mode loading. Finally, fatigue crack growth simulations are performed with the Paris law, showing that 3-D cracks do not propagate in a self-similar shape, but they re-configure as a result of their interaction with external boundaries. A specific numerical example of fatigue crack growth is presented to demonstrate the utility of the developed method for studies of 3-D crack growth during fatigue.

  12. Fracture Property of Y-Shaped Cracks of Brittle Materials under Compression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zheming; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the properties of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression, compression tests by using square cement mortar specimens with Y-shaped crack were conducted. A true triaxial loading device was applied in the tests, and the major principle stresses or the critical stresses were measured. The results show that as the branch angle θ between the branch crack and the stem crack is 75°, the cracked specimen has the lowest strength. In order to explain the test results, numerical models of Y-shaped cracks by using ABAQUS code were established, and the J-integral method was applied in calculating crack tip stress intensity factor (SIF). The results show that when the branch angle θ increases, the SIF KI of the branch crack increases from negative to positive and the absolute value KII of the branch crack first increases, and as θ is 50°, it is the maximum, and then it decreases. Finally, in order to further investigate the stress distribution around Y-shaped cracks, photoelastic tests were conducted, and the test results generally agree with the compressive test results. PMID:25013846

  13. Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.

    1990-08-01

    The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.

  14. Experimental and Finite Element Modeling of Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth for the K-Decreasing Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; Newman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental methods to determine near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate data are prescribed in ASTM standard E647. To produce near-threshold data at a constant stress ratio (R), the applied stress-intensity factor (K) is decreased as the crack grows based on a specified K-gradient. Consequently, as the fatigue crack growth rate threshold is approached and the crack tip opening displacement decreases, remote crack wake contact may occur due to the plastically deformed crack wake surfaces and shield the growing crack tip resulting in a reduced crack tip driving force and non-representative crack growth rate data. If such data are used to life a component, the evaluation could yield highly non-conservative predictions. Although this anomalous behavior has been shown to be affected by K-gradient, starting K level, residual stresses, environmental assisted cracking, specimen geometry, and material type, the specifications within the standard to avoid this effect are limited to a maximum fatigue crack growth rate and a suggestion for the K-gradient value. This paper provides parallel experimental and computational simulations for the K-decreasing method for two materials (an aluminum alloy, AA 2024-T3 and a titanium alloy, Ti 6-2-2-2-2) to aid in establishing clear understanding of appropriate testing requirements. These simulations investigate the effect of K-gradient, the maximum value of stress-intensity factor applied, and material type. A material independent term is developed to guide in the selection of appropriate test conditions for most engineering alloys. With the use of such a term, near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate tests can be performed at accelerated rates, near-threshold data can be acquired in days instead of weeks without having to establish testing criteria through trial and error, and these data can be acquired for most engineering materials, even those that are produced in relatively small product forms.

  15. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  16. Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright

    2013-10-01

    The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650

  17. Cracked cue ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The latest images sent by the Galileo spacecraft reveal that the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa may have contained a layer of “warm ice” or even liquid water. In fact, planetologists are wondering if perhaps it still does.Photos taken earlier this summer show Europa to have a crust of smooth white and brown-tinted ice scarred by long, jagged cracks; some scientists have said the moon looks like a cracked cue ball. “The scale of fracture patterns—extending a distance equivalent to the width of the western United States—dwarf the San Andreas fault in length and width,” said Ronald Greeley, a geologist from Arizona State University and a member of the Galileo imaging team. The cracks are believed to have been caused by the stress of tidal forces created by Jupiter's gravity. Warmth generated by tidal heating also may have been sufficient to soften or liquefy some of the ice.

  18. EFFECT OF UNBROKEN LIGAMENTS ON STRESS CORROSION CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 82H WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J. and Brown, C.M.

    2003-02-20

    Previously reported stress corrosion cracking (SCC) rates for Alloy 82H gas-tungsten-arc welds tested in 360 C water showed tremendous variability. The excessive data scatter was attributed to the variations in microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses that are common in welds. In the current study, however, re-evaluation of the SCC data revealed that the large data scatter was an anomaly due to erroneous crack growth rates inferred from crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) measurements. Apparently, CMOD measurements provided reasonably accurate SCC rates for some specimens, but grossly overestimated rates in others. The overprediction was associated with large unbroken ligaments that often form in welds in the wake of advancing crack fronts. When ligaments were particularly large, they prevented crack mouth deflection, so apparent crack incubation times (i.e. period of time before crack advance commences) based on CMOD measurements were unrealistically long. During the final states of testing, ligaments began to separate allowing the crack mouth to open rather quickly. This behavior was interpreted as a rapid crack advance, but it actually reflects the ligament separation rate, not the SCC rate. Revised crack growth rates obtained in this study exhibit substantially less scatter than that previously reported. The effects of crack orientation and fatigue flutter loading on SCC rates in 82H welds are also discussed.

  19. Fatigue crack growth monitoring of idealized gearbox spline component using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ozevin, Didem; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth; Timmons, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. The acoustic emission (AE) method is a direct way of detecting active flaws; however, the method suffers from the influence of background noise and location/sensor based pattern recognition method. It is important to identify the source mechanism and adapt it to different test conditions and sensors. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method in a laboratory environment. The test sample has the major details of the spline component on a flattened geometry. The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges strategically positions on the structure. The fatigue test characteristics are 4 Hz frequency and 0.1 as the ratio of minimum to maximum loading in tensile regime. It is observed that there are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The frequency spectra of continuous emissions and burst emissions are compared to understand the difference of sudden crack growth and gradual crack growth. The predicted crack growth rate is compared with the AE data using the cumulative AE events at the notch tip. The source mechanism of sudden crack growth is obtained solving the inverse mathematical problem from output signal to input signal. The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges. There are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The source mechanism of

  20. Acoustical effects of blade tip shape changes on a full scale helicopter rotor in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A.

    1978-01-01

    Four tip shapes were tested. They were rectangular, swept, tapered, and swept-tapered. The measured data covered a wide range of operating conditions. The range of advancing tip Mach numbers were between 0.72 to 0.96, and the advance ratios were from 0.2 to 0.375. At low and moderate advancing tip Mach number, the data in the dbA scale appear to indicate the swept tip is the quietest, swept tapered the second, tapered third and rectangular the most noisy. Above an advancing tip Mach number of about 0.89, a distinct acoustical pulse can be observed, which dominates the acoustical waveform. The pulse shape is symmetric at moderate tip Mach number, changing to a sawtooth shape at high advancing tip Mach numbers. Based on the amplitude of the impulsive noise, it appears the swept-tapered tip is the quietest, tapered tip the second, swept tip third and square tip the most noisy. The data presented in this report should be useful as data bases for modeling and evaluating helicopter impulsive noise.

  1. Method for producing angled optical fiber tips in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, John J.; Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P.; Kyriacou, Panicos A.

    2016-02-01

    A simple laboratory method is presented for producing optical fibers with tips polished at various angles. Angled optical fiber tips are used in applications such as optical sensing and remote laser surgery, where they can be used to control the angle of light leaving the fiber or direct it to the side. This allows for greater control and allows areas to be reached that otherwise could not. Optical fibers were produced with tip angles of 45 deg using a Perspex mounting block with an aluminum base plate. The dispersion of light leaving the tip was tested using a blue (470 nm) LED. The angle imposed an angular shift on the light diffracting out of the tip of approximately 30 deg. Additionally, some light reflected from the tip surface to diffract at 90 deg through the side of the fiber. These observations are consistent with theory and those seen by other studies, validating the method. The method was simple to perform and does not require advanced manufacturing tools. The method is suitable for producing small quantities of angle-tipped optical fibers for research applications.

  2. Behavior of cyclic fatigue cracks in monolithic silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.J.; Ritchie, R.O.; Dauskardt, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclic fatigue-crack propagation behavior in monolithic silicon nitride is characterized in light of current fatigue-crack growth models for ceramics toughened by grain-bridging mechanisms, with specific emphasis on the role of load ratio. Such models are based on diminished crack-tip shielding in the crack wave under cyclic loads due to frictional-wear degradation of the grain-bridging zone. The notion of cyclic crack growth promoted by diminished shielding is seen to be consistent with measured (long-crack) growth rates, fractography, in situ crack-profile analyses, and measurements of back-face strain compliance. Growth rates are found to display a much larger dependence on the maximum applied stress intensity, K{sub max}, than on the applied stress-intensity range, {Delta}K, with behavior described by the relationship da/dN {proportional_to} K{sub max}{sup 29} {Delta}K. Fatigue thresholds similarly exhibit a marked dependence on the load ratio, R = K{sub min}/K{sub max}; such effects are shown to be inconsistent with traditional models of fatigue-crack closure. In particular, when characterized in terms of K{sub max}, growth rates below {approximately} 10{sup {minus}9} m/cycle exhibit an inverse dependence on load ratio, an observation which is consistent with the grain-bridging phenomenon; specifically, with increasing R, the sliding distance between the grain bridges is decreased, leading to less frictional wear, and hence less degradation in shielding, per loading cycle. The microstructural origins of such behavior are discussed.

  3. Tips for Choir Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines 15 suggestions for preplanning and implementing choir tours. Briefly discusses; booking and travel agencies, options for financing, establishing educational objectives, parental permission forms, chaperons, housing, and performance apparel. Recommends planning a tour at least a year in advance. (MJP)

  4. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 1; Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive slow-crack-growth (SCG) analysis was made using a primary exponential crack-velocity formulation under three widely used load configurations: constant stress rate, constant stress, and cyclic stress. Although the use of the exponential formulation in determining SCG parameters of a material requires somewhat inconvenient numerical procedures, the resulting solutions presented gave almost the same degree of simplicity in both data analysis and experiments as did the power-law formulation. However, the fact that the inert strength of a material should be known in advance to determine the corresponding SCG parameters was a major drawback of the exponential formulation as compared with the power-law formulation.

  5. Surface Crack Growth Behavior of Pipeline Steel Under Disbonded Coating at Free Corrosion Potential in Near-Neutral pH Soil Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egbewande, Afolabi; Chen, Weixing; Eadie, Reg; Kania, Richard; Van Boven, Greg; Worthingham, Robert; Been, Jenny

    2014-10-01

    Crack growth behavior of X65 pipeline steel at free corrosion potential in near-neutral pH soil environment under a CO2 concentration gradient inside a disbonded coating was studied. Growth rates were found to be highest at the open mouth of the simulated disbondment where CO2 concentrations, hence local hydrogen concentration in the local environment, was highest. Careful analysis of growth rate data using a corrosion-fatigue model of the form Δ K α / K {max/ β }/ f γ , where (1/ f γ ) models environmental contribution to growth, revealed that environmental contribution could vary by up to a factor of three. Such intense environmental contribution at the open mouth kept the crack tip atomically sharp despite the simultaneous occurrence of low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution, which are the factors that blunt the crack tip. At other locations where environmental enhancement was lower, significant crack tip blunting attributed to both low-temperature creep and crack tip dissolution was observed. These factors both led to lower crack growth rates away from the open mouth.

  6. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  7. Brilliant Writing Tips for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copus, Julia

    2010-01-01

    With tips on punctuation, style, grammar and essay structure, this handy guide provides succinct and practical guidance on students most common areas of concern in their written work. Each tip is supplemented by authentic examples of student writing, suggested re-writes, and appropriate self-help exercises. This book contains four parts. Part I:…

  8. Transient thermal stresses in a reinforced hollow disk or cylinder containing a radial crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem in a hollow cylinder or a disk containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced on its inner boundary by a membrane which has thermoelastic constants different than those of the base material. The transient temperature, thermal stresses and the crack tip stress intensity factors are calculated in a cylinder which is subjected to a sudden change of temperature on the inside surface. The results are obtained for various dimensionless parameters and material constants. The special cases of the crack terminating at the cylinder-membrane interface and of the broken membrane are separately considered and some examples are given.

  9. Transient thermal stresses in a reinforced hollow disk or cylinder containing a radial crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, R.; Erdogan, F.

    1984-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem in a hollow cylinder or a disk containing a radial crack is considered. It is assumed that the cylinder is reinforced on its inner boundary by a membrane which has thermoelastic constants different than those of the base material. The transient temperature, thermal stresses and the crack tip stress intensity factors are calculated in a cylinder which is subjected to a sudden change of temperature on the inside surface. The results are obtained for various dimensionless parameters and material constants. The special cases of the crack terminating at the cylinder-membrane interface and of the broken membrane are separately considered and some examples are given.

  10. Convergence rates for finite element problems with singularities. Part 1: Antiplane shear. [crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, R.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of a finite crack in an infinite medium under antiplane shear load is considered. It is shown that the nodal forces at the tip of the crack accurately gives the order of singularity, that n energy release methods can give the strength to better than 1 percent with element size 1/10 the crack length, and that nodal forces give a much better estimate of the stress field than do the elements themselves. The finite element formulation and the factoring of tridiagonal matrices are discussed.

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior at Inconel and Low Alloy Steel Weld Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomota, Yo; Daikuhara, Shin; Nagayama, Shun; Sugawara, Masanori; Ozawa, Norihiko; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Harjo, Stefanus; Hattori, Shigeo

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional microstructure observations, macro- to micro-scopic residual stress measurements by three methods and creviced bent beam SCC tests were performed for Inconel/low alloy steel (LAS) weld samples. The possible reasons for the suppression of SCC crack propagation near the weld interface found at a nuclear power plant were estimated to include the crack branching at the grain boundary (GB) parallel to the interface, i.e., Type II GB, compressive residual stresses in the LAS region and crack tip oxidation in the LAS at the interface. The formation mechanism of Type II GB and stress gradient in individual grains in the Inconel are also discussed.

  12. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior at Inconel and Low Alloy Steel Weld Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomota, Yo; Daikuhara, Shin; Nagayama, Shun; Sugawara, Masanori; Ozawa, Norihiko; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Harjo, Stefanus; Hattori, Shigeo

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional microstructure observations, macro- to micro-scopic residual stress measurements by three methods and creviced bent beam SCC tests were performed for Inconel/low alloy steel (LAS) weld samples. The possible reasons for the suppression of SCC crack propagation near the weld interface found at a nuclear power plant were estimated to include the crack branching at the grain boundary (GB) parallel to the interface, i.e., Type II GB, compressive residual stresses in the LAS region and crack tip oxidation in the LAS at the interface. The formation mechanism of Type II GB and stress gradient in individual grains in the Inconel are also discussed.

  13. Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracks in X80 and X100 Pipe Steels in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zheng, Wenyue; Bibby, Darren; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Tests were conducted on X80 and X100 pipe steels at 95% specified minimum yield stress in NS4 solution mixed with soil using specimens machined along the transverse direction of the pipes. Crack initiation in X100 is much easier than in X80. With test time increasing from 110 to 220 days, less numerous but deeper cracks were found in both pipe steels. Cracks showed higher growth rates in the transverse specimens than those in longitudinal ones. TEM results revealed concentration of Ni or Cr elements, formation of oxide layer at crack walls, and TiN-related dissolution at the crack tip.

  14. Ultrasonic Study of Crack Under a Dynamic Thermal Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkänen, J.; Kemppainen, M.; Virkkunen, I.

    2004-02-01

    In piping the defects play a key role for determining the life of component. Also the risk for pipe failure combined to the defects has to be taken into account. In this study thermal dynamic load has been applied to austenitic material (AISI 304) in order to introduce dynamic behaviour into the crack. The studied crack (˜20 mm × 7 mm) has been produced by thermal fatigue in advance. Different ultrasonic techniques were used to reveal information from interaction of ultrasonic waves from dynamic behaviour of a crack face in the sonified volume. The ultrasonic probes in the study are typical probes for defect detection and sizing on site inspections This information helps us to understand some effects in nuclear piping such as detection of cracks with special techniques and difficulties in sizing of the cracks in real situations. In this case the material is loaded to exceed the yield strength. The thermal cycles used caused high variations in the temperature scale from 20°C (68 F) to 600°C (1112 F) in the crack volume especially on the crack surface area. These factors cause large stress variations in the vicinity of the crack. Effects which have been detected during analysis from the measurements explain well difficulties in ultrasonic inspections of those materials on site. Experimental work explains reasons why some defects are missed in the real piping. Ultrasonic techniques used are described in details and conclusion for applicability of those techniques has been drawn.

  15. The results of a wind tunnel investigation of a model rotor with a free tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, Robert H.; Young, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a wind-tunnel test of the free tip rotor are presented. The free tip extended over the outer 10% of the rotor blade and included a simple, passive controller mechanism. Wind-tunnel test hardware is described. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. The tip pitched freely and responded to airflow perturbation in a sharp, quick, and stable manner. Tip pitch-angle responses are presented for an advance ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a thrust coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. The free tip reduced power requirements, loads going into the control system, and some flatwise blade-bending moments. Chordwise loads were not reduced by the free tip.

  16. Passivating metals on cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mckay, D.L.

    1980-01-15

    Metals such as nickel, vanadium and iron contaminating a cracking catalyst are passivated by contacting the cracking catalyst under elevated temperature conditions with antimony selenide, antimony sulfide, antimony sulfate, bismuth selenide, bismuth sulfide, or bismuth phosphate.

  17. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit hour. If…

  18. Threshold velocity for environmentally-assisted cracking in low alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.; Kandra, J.T.

    1997-04-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is generally believed to be activated by dissolution of MnS inclusions at the crack tip in high temperature LWR environments. EAC is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs in high temperature LWR environments. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggested that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. A range of about twenty in critical crack tip velocities was invoked by Combrade, et al., to describe data available at that time. This range was attributed to exposure of additional sulfides above and below the crack plane. However, direct measurements of exposed sulfide densities on cracked specimens were performed herein and the results rule out significant additional sulfide exposure as a plausible explanation. Alternatively, it is proposed herein that localized EAC starting at large sulfide clusters reduces the calculated threshold velocity from the value predicted for a uniform distribution of sulfides. Calculations are compared with experimental results where the threshold velocity has been measured, and the predicted wide range of threshold values for steels of similar sulfur content but varying sulfide morphology is observed. The threshold velocity decreases with the increasing maximum sulfide particle size, qualitatively consistent with the theory. The calculation provides a basis for a conservative minimum velocity threshold tied directly to the steel sulfur level, in cases where no details of sulfide distribution are known.

  19. The crack problem in a specially orthotropic shell with double curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The crack problem of a shallow shell with two nonzero curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in one of the principal planes of curvature and the shell is under Mode I loading condition. The material is assumed to be specially orthotropic. After giving the general formulation of the problem the asymptotic behavior of the stress state around the crack tip is examined. The analysis is based on Reissner's transverse shear theory. Thus, as in the bending of cracked plates, the asymptotic results are shown to be consistent with that obtained from the plane elasticity solution of crack problems. Rather extensive numerical results are obtained which show the effect of material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors in cylindrical and spherical shells and in shells with double curvature. Other results include the stress intensity factors in isotropic toroidal shells with positive or negative curvature ratio, the distribution of the membrane stress resultant outside the crack, and the influence of the material orthotropy on the angular distribution of the stresses around the crack tip. Previously announced in STAR as N83-16782

  20. NASA/FLAGRO - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Structural flaws and cracks may grow under fatigue inducing loads and, upon reaching a critical size, cause structural failure to occur. The growth of these flaws and cracks may occur at load levels well below the ultimate load bearing capability of the structure. The Fatigue Crack Growth Computer Program, NASA/FLAGRO, was developed as an aid in predicting the growth of pre-existing flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. The earlier version of the program, FLAGRO4, was the primary analysis tool used by Rockwell International and the Shuttle subcontractors for fracture control analysis on the Space Shuttle. NASA/FLAGRO is an enhanced version of the program and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. NASA/FLAGRO provides the fracture mechanics analyst with a computerized method of evaluating the "safe crack growth life" capabilities of structural components. NASA/FLAGRO could also be used to evaluate the damage tolerance aspects of a given structural design. The propagation of an existing crack is governed by the stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. The stress intensity factor is defined in terms of the relationship between the stress field magnitude and the crack size. The propagation of the crack becomes catastrophic when the local stress intensity factor reaches the fracture toughness of the material. NASA/FLAGRO predicts crack growth using a two-dimensional model which predicts growth independently in two directions based on the calculation of stress intensity factors. The analyst can choose to use either a crack growth rate equation or a nonlinear interpolation routine based on tabular data. The growth rate equation is a modified Forman equation which can be converted to a Paris or Walker equation by substituting different values into the exponent. This equation provides accuracy and versatility and can be fit to data using standard least squares methods. Stress

  1. Hydride-phase formation and its influence on fatigue crack propagationbehavior in a Zircaloy-4 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Elena; Choo, H.; Wang, G Y; Liaw, Peter K; Clausen, B; Brown, D. W.; Park, Jae-Sung; Rack, P. D.; Kenik, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of delta zirconium hydride ( -ZrH2) in the bulk, and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a pre-existing fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation were investigated. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip was measured using neutron diffraction. The combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are discussed.

  2. Stress intensity factors in a cracked infinite elastic wedge loaded by a rigid punch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Civelek, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plane elastic wedge-shaped solid was split through the application of a rigid punch. It was assumed that the coefficient of friction on the the contact area was constant, and the problem had a plane of symmetry with respect to loading and geometry, with the crack in the plane of symmetry. The problem was formulated in terms of a system of integral equations with the contact stress and the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the unknown functions. The solution was obtained for an internal crack and for an edge crack. The results include primarily the stress intensity factors at the crack tips, and the measure of the stress singularity at the wedge apex, and at the end points of the contact area.

  3. Crack healing behavior of hot pressed silicon nitride due to oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Tikare, V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that limited oxidation of an MgO-containing, hot-pressed silicon nitride ceramic at 800 deg C and above results in increased strength due to crack healing. Slight oxidation of the surface produces enstatite and cristobalite which fills in cracks. More extensive oxidation leads to strength degradation due to the formation of new flaws by the evolution of N2 gas at the surface. The apparent fracture toughness also increased at 800 deg C and above due to oxidation. Bonds formed between the two surfaces of the crack during oxidation leads to a reduction in stress intensity at the crack tip, suggesting that valid high-temperature toughness values cannot be obtained in an air environment. The increase in strength due to crack healing by oxidation can be achieved without compromising the fatigue properties of the silicon nitride ceramic.

  4. Crack patterns over uneven substrates.

    PubMed

    Nandakishore, Pawan; Goehring, Lucas

    2016-02-28

    Cracks in thin layers are influenced by what lies beneath them. From buried craters to crocodile skin, crack patterns are found over an enormous range of length scales. Regardless of absolute size, their substrates can dramatically influence how cracks form, guiding them in some cases, or shielding regions from them in others. Here we investigate how a substrate's shape affects the appearance of cracks above it, by preparing mud cracks over sinusoidally varying surfaces. We find that as the thickness of the cracking layer increases, the observed crack patterns change from wavy to ladder-like to isotropic. Two order parameters are introduced to measure the relative alignment of these crack networks, and, along with Fourier methods, are used to characterise the transitions between crack pattern types. Finally, we explain these results with a model, based on the Griffith criteria of fracture, that identifies the conditions for which straight or wavy cracks will be seen, and predicts how well-ordered the cracks will be. Our metrics and results can be applied to any situation where connected networks of cracks are expected, or found. PMID:26762761

  5. Stable Tearing and Buckling Responses of Unstiffened Aluminum Shells with Long Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the nonlinear response of thin, unstiffened, aluminum cylindrical shells with a long longitudinal crack are presented. The shells are analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for internal pressure and for axial compression loads. The effect of initial crack length on the initiation of stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in typical shells subjected to internal pressure loads is predicted using geometrically nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analyses and the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The results of these analyses and of the experiments indicate that the pressure required to initiate stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in a shell subjected to internal pressure loads decreases as the initial crack length increases. The effects of crack length on the prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling responses of typical shells subjected to axial compression loads are also described. For this loading condition, the crack length was not allowed to increase as the load was increased. The results of the analyses and of the experiments indicate that the initial buckling load and collapse load for a shell subjected to axial compression loads decrease as the initial crack length increases. Initial buckling causes general instability or collapse of a shell for shorter initial crack lengths. Initial buckling is a stable local response mode for longer initial crack lengths. This stable local buckling response is followed by a stable postbuckling response, which is followed by general or overall instability of the shell.

  6. Stable Tearing and Buckling Responses of Unstiffened Aluminum Shells with Long Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the nonlinear response of thin, unstiffened, aluminum cylindrical shells with a long longitudinal crack are presented. The shells are analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for internal pressure and for axial compression loads. The effect of initial crack length on the initiation of stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in typical shells subjected to internal pressure loads is predicted using geometrically nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analyses and the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The results of these analyses and of the experiments indicate that the pressure required to initiate stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in a shell subjected to internal pressure loads decreases as the initial crack length increases. The effects of crack length on the prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling responses of typical shells subjected to axial compression loads are also described. For this loading condition, the crack length was not allowed to increase as the load was increased. The results of the analyses and of the experiments indicate that the initial buckling load and collapse load for a shell subjected to axial compression loads decrease as the initial crack length increases. Initial buckling causes general instability or collapse of a shell for shorter initial crack lengths. Initial buckling is a stable local response mode for longer initial crack lengths. This stable local buckling response is followed by a stable postbuckling response, which is followed by general or overall instability of the shell.

  7. Strain energy density: Distance criterion for the initiation of hydrogen-induced cracking of Alloy X-750

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M. Jr.; Symons, D.M.; Kearns, J.J.

    1991-12-31

    A criterion for initiation of subcritical crack growth at blunt notches and sharp defects was developed and applied to hydrogen- induced cracking of the Ni-base superalloy X-750. Onset of crack growth is shown to occur when a critical strain energy density is attained at a distance from the notch and crack tips characteristic of the microstructure along the prospective crack path. Rising load crack growth initiation data were obtained using homogeneous hydrogen precharged notched and fatigue precracked bend specimens. Notch root radius, grain size and hydrogen concentration were varied. Crack growth initiation loads were dependent on both notch root radius and bulk precharged hydrogen concentration. These data were shown to be correlated using a critical strain energy at-a-distance (SEDAD) criterion. Furthermore, an elastic-plastic analysis of the strain energy distributions showed that the critical strain energy density value is attained at one grain diameter from the notch and fatigue precrack tips. Mechanical and microstructural aspects of crack growth process and relevance to hydrogen-induced cracking are discussed.

  8. An investigation of fatigue crack propagation under mode 1 and mixed mode 1/2 loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tapan Kumar

    An investigation on fatigue crack propagation under mode 1 and mixed mode (1 and 2) loadings has been performed. Fatigue crack growth data in the case of plane strain mode 1 have been obtained by performing experiments on compact tension specimens of 4340 steel for increasing Delta-K(sub 1), decreasing Delta-K(sub 1), and constant Delta-K(sub 1) loading conditions. Under mixed mode plane stress condition, the fatigue crack growth trajectory has been determined by performing experiments on the center cracked thin disk specimen of aluminum 2024. With two mixed mode loading ratios, the subsequent propagation of the main crack has been performed by producing a series of kinks and forks. For practical applications such as the case of a flaw or a crack in aircraft or ship structure in which the loading axis (with respect to the crack) frequently changes, a zig-zag or complicated crack trajectory is very important in both experimental and theoretical studies. In order to apply any specific crack growth criterion for the analysis of the experimental results, a detailed analysis for the stresses near the crack front and the extent of yielding is necessary. A full field solution, based on small deformation, three dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the centrally cracked thin disk under mode 1 loading has been performed. The solution for the stresses under small-scale yielding and locally fully plastic state has been compared with the HRR plane stress solution. At the outside of the three dimensional zone, within a distance of r sigma(sub 0)/J = 18, HRR dominance is maintained in the presence of a significant amount of compressive stress along the crack flanks. Ahead of this region, the HRR field overestimate the stresses. These results demonstrate a completely reversed state of stress in the near crack front compared to that in the plane strain case. The combined effect of geometry and finite thickness of the specimen on elastic-plastic crack tip stress

  9. Tipping the scales.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    In the US, the October 1998 murder of a physician who performed abortions was an outward manifestation of the insidious battle against legal abortion being waged by radical Christian social conservatives seeking to transform the US democracy into a theocracy. This movement has been documented in a publication entitled, "Tipping the Scales: The Christian Right's Legal Crusade Against Choice" produced as a result of a 4-year investigation conducted by The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy. This publication describes how these fundamentalists have used sophisticated legal, lobbying, and communication strategies to further their goals of challenging the separation of church and state, opposing family planning and sexuality education that is not based solely on abstinence, promoting school prayer, and restricting homosexual rights. The movement has resulted in the introduction of more than 300 anti-abortion bills in states, 50 of which have passed in 23 states. Most Christian fundamentalist groups provide free legal representation to abortion clinic terrorists, and some groups solicit women to bring specious malpractice claims against providers. Sophisticated legal tactics are used by these groups to remove the taint of extremism and mask the danger posed to US constitutional principles being posed by "a well-financed and zealous brand of radical lawyers and their supporters." PMID:12294553

  10. At the Tipping Point

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  11. Damage Surrounding Dynamically Propagating Shear Cracks in Granodiorite (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, D. R.; Faulkner, R. G.; Cembrano, J. M.; Jensen, E.

    2009-12-01

    Quantifying the microfracture damage surrounding faults and fractures is important for predicting the fluid flow properties of rock masses. Damage surrounding faults has been attributed to fault growth, geometric irregularities, and earthquake rupture. Up to now, earthquake rupture can only be inferred when pseudotachylyte is present, indicating shear heating leading to melt production. We describe shear fractures that have developed a relatively isotropic granodioritic protolith within the Atacama fault system in northern Chile. These fractures have an alteration zone produced as a result of intense microfracture damage surrounding the fractures. These alteration zones taper out towards the fracture tips. The alteration zone also shows asymmetry either side of the fracture that can be used to infer the propagation direction of the fracture. We interpret these observations as being due to a waning fracture tip stress field of a dynamically propagating shear crack. In contrast, simple fracture mechanics models indicate a quasi-statically propagating fracture would be expected to produce an expanding zone of damage at the crack tip as displacement accumulates. Another explanation for the reduction in alteration zone width might be extension of the fracture tips by sub-critical crack growth. The width of alteration zone has a positive correlation with the shear displacement and a zero intercept. The slope of this correlation is steeper than for microfracture damage zone widths measured on larger displacement faults in the same region. We suggest that this indicates a different mode of formation; that of damage surrounding a dynamically propagating shear fracture. At higher displacements, additional processes such as those mentioned earlier contribute to the width of the microfracture damage zone, and the rate of growth with displacement is not so pronounced.

  12. The effect of aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated temperature aqueous environments upon the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in low-alloy steels is discussed in terms of the several parameters which influence such behavior. These parameters include water chemistry, impurities within the steels themselves, as well as factors such as the water flow rate, loading waveform and loading rates. Some of these parameters have similar effects upon both crack initiation and propagation, while others exhibit different effects in the two stages of cracking. In the case of environmentally-assisted crack (EAC) growth, the most important impurities within the steel are metallurgical sulfide inclusions which dissolve upon contact with the water. A ``critical`` concentration of sulfide ions at the crack tip can then induce environmentally-assisted cracking which proceeds at significantly increased crack growth rates over those observed in air. The occurrence, or non-occurrence, of EAC is governed by the mass-transport of sulfide ions to and from the crack-tip region, and the mass-transport is discussed in terms of diffusion, ion migration, and convection induced within the crack enclave. Examples are given of convective mass-transport within the crack enclave resulting from external free stream flow. The initiation of fatigue cracks in elevated temperature aqueous environments, as measured by the S-N fatigue lifetimes, is also strongly influenced by the parameters identified above. The influence of sulfide inclusions does not appear to be as strong on the crack initiation process as it is on crack propagation. The oxygen content of the environment appears to be the dominant factor, although loading frequency (strain rate) and temperature are also important factors.

  13. Instantaneous crack detection using dual PZT transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Bum; Sohn, Hoon

    2008-03-01

    A new guided wave based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique is developed to detect crack damage in metallic plates commonly used in aircraft without using prior baseline data or a predetermined decision boundary. In conventional guided wave based techniques, damage is often identified by comparing the "current" data obtained from a potentially damaged condition of a structure with the "past" baseline data collected at the pristine condition of the structure. However, it has been reported that this type of pattern comparison with the baseline data can lead to increased false alarms due to its susceptibility to varying operational and environmental conditions of the structure. In order to tackle this issue, a reference-free damage detection technique is previously developed using two pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate transducers (PZTs) placed on both sides of a plate. In this study, this reference-free technique is further advanced so that the PZT transducers can be placed only on one side of the specimen. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden change in the thickness of the structure. Then, the proposed technique instantly detects the appearance of the crack by extracting this mode conversion from the measured Lamb waves. This study suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the current data set. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to instantaneous crack detection.

  14. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials. PMID:27479896

  15. Gaseous hydrogen-induced cracking of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the kinetics of hydrogen-induced cracking in the Ti-5Al-2.5Sn titanium alloy, which has a structure of acicular alpha platelets in a beta matrix. The crack-growth rate at low stress-intensity levels was found to be exponentially dependent on stress intensity but essentially independent of temperature. The crack-growth rate at intermediate stress-intensity levels was found to be independent of stress intensity but dependent on temperature in such a way that crack-growth rate was controlled by a thermally activated mechanism having an activation energy of 5500 cal/mole and varied as the square root of the hydrogen pressure. The crack-growth rate at stress-intensity levels very near the fracture toughness is presumed to be independent of environment. The results are interpreted to suggest that crack growth at high stress intensities is controlled by normal, bulk failure mechanisms such as void coalescence and the like. At intermediate stress-intensity levels the transport of hydrogen to some interaction site along the alpha-beta boundary is the rate-controlling mechanism. The crack-growth behavior at low stress intensities suggests that the hydrogen interacts at this site to produce a strain-induced hydride which, in turn, induces crack growth by restricting plastic flow at the crack tip.

  16. Crack Coalescence in Molded Gypsum and Carrara Marble: Part 1. Macroscopic Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, L. N. Y.; Einstein, H. H.

    2009-06-01

    Cracking and coalescence behavior has been studied experimentally with prismatic laboratory-molded gypsum and Carrara marble specimens containing two parallel pre-existing open flaws. This was done at both the macroscopic and the microscopic scales, and the results are presented in two separate papers. This paper (the first of two) summarizes the macroscopic experimental results and investigates the influence of the different flaw geometries and material, on the cracking processes. In the companion paper (also in this issue), most of the macroscopic deformation and cracking processes shown in this present paper will be related to the underlying microscopic changes. In the present study, a high speed video system was used, which allowed us to precisely observe the cracking mechanisms. Nine crack coalescence categories with different crack types and trajectories were identified. The flaw inclination angle ( β), the ligament length ( L), that is, intact rock length between the flaws, and the bridging angle ( α), that is, the inclination of a line linking up the inner flaw tips, between two flaws, had different effects on the coalescence patterns. One of the pronounced differences observed between marble and gypsum during the compression loading test was the development of macroscopic white patches prior to the initiation of macroscopic cracks in marble, but not in gypsum. Comparing the cracking and coalescence behaviors in the two tested materials, tensile cracking generally occurred more often in marble than in gypsum for the same flaw pair geometries.

  17. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials.

  18. Tips for Chairpersons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, John

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Set your mission. Agree on it. Keep talking about it. Set annual goals. Not too many. Monitor your progress. Expect results. Unite with your staff chief. Work out your differences. In private. Send out agendas and background material before board meetings. Review meetings in advance with your staff…

  19. The Effectiveness of Modified Vertical Dome Division Technique in Reducing Nasal Tip Projection in Rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Gandomi, Behrooz; Arzaghi, Mohammad Hossein; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: The technique of vertical dome division or tip defining, involves incising the lateral crura and vestibular skin at or lateral to the dome or tip defining point. The incision divides the lower lateral cartilage into a lateral segment and a medial segment, which are advanced anteriorly and sutured together to increase tip projection. The present study aimed at assessing a new vertical dome division, which is a modified version of vertical dome technique to decrease nasal tip projection, and increase or decrease nasal tip rotation and other tip deformities. Methods: The medical files of patients undergone rhinoplasty from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The files were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of patients, who had been operated using a modified vertical dome technique and followed-up for one year or more after the surgery. Results: A total of 3756 patients were operated. Complications related to the nasal tip such as bossae, bifidity, persistent tip projection or tip asymmetry was seen in 81 patients (2.1%). Revisions for tip-related problems were performed in 42 patients (1.1%). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the modified vertical dome technique is an effective method for nasal tip deprojection and narrowing via an open approach. The length of follow-up and the large sample size support effectiveness of the technique. PMID:23359623

  20. Analysis of the free-tip rotor wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    The results from a wind tunnel test of a small scale free-tip rotor are analyzed. The free-tip rotor has blade tips that are free to weathervane into the tip's relative wind, thus producing a more uniform lift around the azimuth. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. In a test of the free-tip's response after passing through a vertical air jet, the tip pitched freely and in a controlled manner. Analysis of the tip's response characteristics showed the free-tip system's damped natural frequency to be 5.2 per rev. Tip pitch angle responses to the local airstream are presented for an advance-ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a solidity weighted rotor lift coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. Harmonic analysis of the responses showed a dominance by the first harmonic. As a result of the tip being free, forward flight power requirements were reduced by 8% or more. More power reduction was recorded for high thrust conditions. In addition to the power reduction, flatwise blade bending moments were reduced by as much as 30% at the inboard blade stations.

  1. Sudden bending of cracked laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic approximate laminated plate theory is developed with emphasis placed on obtaining effective solution for the crack configuration where the 1/square root of r stress singularity and the condition of plane strain are preserved. The radial distance r is measured from the crack edge. The results obtained show that the crack moment intensity tends to decrease as the crack length to laminate plate thickness is increased. Hence, a laminated plate has the desirable feature of stabilizing a through crack as it increases its length at constant load. Also, the level of the average load intensity transmitted to a through crack can be reduced by making the inner layers to be stiffer than the outer layers. The present theory, although approximate, is useful for analyzing laminate failure to crack propagation under dynamic load conditions.

  2. Web Research: Ten Tips for the Techno-Challenged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Most school administrators have a good conceptual grasp of technology and understand its value in education. Yet many are "closet techno-incompetents" when it comes to personal use. In this article, the author presents ten tips for the techno-challenged. The "advanced search" option, among others, is a helpful way to search for information.…

  3. Reducing Your Impact: Tips for Treading Softly on Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henchey, Kathy; Carvajal, Michelle

    2000-01-01

    As more people use wilderness areas, the need to protect pristine areas increases. Tips for minimizing impact include advance planning, knowing the rules of the area being used, packing properly, dispersing impacts when off-trail, leaving no garbage, taking nothing from the site, and conducting activities away from water sources and trails. Three…

  4. Spinal Cord Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... withstand a helmet on their heads. • Bike a minimum of three feet from parked cars, in case ... rocks, debris, cracks in the pavement or uneven surfaces. • Wear well-fitting clothing, knee and elbow pads, ...

  5. Highly transient elastodynamic crack growth in a bimaterial interface: Higher order asymptotic analysis and optical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng; Lambros, John; Rosakis, Ares J.

    1993-12-01

    A HIGHER ORDER asymptotic analysis of the transient deformation field surrounding the tip of a crack running dynamically along a bimaterial interface is presented. An asymptotic methodology is used to reduce the problem to one of the Riemann-Hilbert type. Its solution furnishes displacement potentials which are used to evaluate explicitly the near-tip transient stress field. Crack-tip fields corresponding to crack speeds up to the lower of the two shear wave speeds are investigated. An experimental study of dynamic crack growth in PMMA steel interfaces using the optical method of CGS and high speed photography, is also described. Transonic terminal speeds (up to 1.4 cPMMAS) and initial accelerations ( $˜10 8 ms 2) are reported and discussed. Transient effects are found to be severe and more important than in homogeneous dynamic fracture. For subsonic crack growth, these experiments arc used to demonstrate the necessity of employing a fully transient expression in the analysis of optical data to predict accurately the complex dynamic stress intensity factor history.

  6. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  7. Statistical crack mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Dienes, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative to the use of plasticity theory to characterize the inelastic behavior of solids is to represent the flaws by statistical methods. We have taken such an approach to study fragmentation because it offers a number of advantages. Foremost among these is that, by considering the effects of flaws, it becomes possible to address the underlying physics directly. For example, we have been able to explain why rocks exhibit large strain-rate effects (a consequence of the finite growth rate of cracks), why a spherical explosive imbedded in oil shale produces a cavity with a nearly square section (opening of bedding cracks) and why propellants may detonate following low-speed impact (a consequence of frictional hot spots).

  8. Cracked and Pitted Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-536, 6 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view--at 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel--of surfaces in far western Utopia Planitia. In this region, the plains have developed cracks and pit chains arranged in a polygonal pattern. The pits form by collapse along the trend of a previously-formed crack. This picture is located near 45.0oN, 275.4oW. This April 2003 image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Upgrading of cracking gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.; Ragonese, F.P.; Yurchak, S.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes an integrated catalytic cracking and gasoline upgrading process. It comprises: withdrawing a product stream from the riser reactor of a catalytic cracking process unit; charging the product stream to a primary fractionation zone; withdrawing an intermediate gasoline stream from the primary fractionation zone, the intermediate gasoline stream comprising olefinic gasoline having an ASTM D86 boiling range from about 90{degrees} to about 170{degrees} C.; contacting a first portion of the intermediate gasoline stream and a C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 5} olefinic stream with a catalyst under conversion conditions to form an upgraded gasoline stream; and charging a second portion of the intermediate gasoline stream together with the upgraded gasoline stream to a gasoline product storage facility.

  10. Replica-based Crack Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, R. S.; Willard, Scott A.; Dawicke, David S.

    2007-01-01

    A surface replica-based crack inspection method has recently been developed for use in Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) hydrogen feedline flowliners. These flowliners exist to ensure favorable flow of liquid hydrogen over gimble joint bellows, and consist of two rings each containing 38 elongated slots. In the summer of 2002, multiple cracks ranging from 0.1 inches to 0.6 inches long were discovered; each orbiter contained at least one cracked flowliner. These long cracks were repaired and eddy current inspections ensured that no cracks longer than 0.075 inches were present. However, subsequent fracture-mechanics review of flight rationale required detection of smaller cracks, and was the driving force for development of higher-resolution inspection method. Acetate tape surface replicas have been used for decades to detect and monitor small cracks. However, acetate tape replicas have primarily been limited to laboratory specimens because complexities involved in making these replicas - requiring acetate tape to be dissolved with acetone - are not well suited for a crack inspection tool. More recently developed silicon-based replicas are better suited for use as a crack detection tool. A commercially available silicon-based replica product has been determined to be acceptable for use in SSME hydrogen feedlines. A method has been developed using this product and a scanning electron microscope for analysis, which can find cracks as small as 0.005 inches and other features (e.g., pits, scratches, tool marks, etc.) as small as 0.001 inches. The resolution of this method has been validated with dozens of cracks generated in a laboratory setting and this method has been used to locate 55 cracks (ranging in size from 0.040 inches to 0.004 inches) on space flight hardware. These cracks were removed by polishing away the cracked material and a second round of replicas confirmed the repair.

  11. Utopia Cracks and Polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  12. Effect of Microstructure on Time Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior In a P/M Turbine Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, Ignacy J.; Gabb, T. P.; Bonacuse, P.; Gayda, J.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the processes which govern hold time crack growth behavior in the LSHR disk P/M superalloy. Nineteen different heat treatments of this alloy were evaluated by systematically controlling the cooling rate from the supersolvus solutioning step and applying various single and double step aging treatments. The resulting hold time crack growth rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude. It was shown that the associated stress relaxation behavior for these heat treatments was closely correlated with the crack growth behavior. As stress relaxation increased, the hold time crack growth resistance was also increased. The size of the tertiary gamma' in the general microstructure was found to be the key microstructural variable controlling both the hold time crack growth behavior and stress relaxation. No relationship between the presence of grain boundary M23C6 carbides and hold time crack growth was identified which further brings into question the importance of the grain boundary phases in determining hold time crack growth behavior. The linear elastic fracture mechanics parameter, Kmax, is unable to account for visco-plastic redistribution of the crack tip stress field during hold times and thus is inadequate for correlating time dependent crack growth data. A novel methodology was developed which captures the intrinsic crack driving force and was able to collapse hold time crack growth data onto a single curve.

  13. Mode I and mixed I/III crack initiation and propagation behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy at 25{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    The mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture behavior of the production-scale heat (No. 832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated at 25{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens for a mode I crack and modified CT specimens for a mixed-mode I/III crack. The mode III to mode I load ratio was 0.47. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h after final machining. Both mode I and mixed-mode I/III specimens were fatigue cracked prior to J-integral testing. It was noticed that the mixed-mode I/III crack angle decreased from an initial 25 degrees to approximately 23 degrees due to crack plane rotation during fatigue cracking. No crack plane rotation occurred in the mode I specimen. The crack initiation and propagation behavior was evaluated by generating J-R curves. Due to the high ductility of this alloy and the limited specimen thickness (6.35 mm), plane strain requirements were not met so valid critical J-integral values were not obtained. However, it was found that the crack initiation and propagation behavior was significantly different between the mode I and the mixed-mode I/III specimens. In the mode I specimen crack initiation did not occur, only extensive crack tip blunting due to plastic deformation. During J-integral testing the mixed-mode crack rotated to an increased crack angle (in contrast to fatigue precracking) by crack blunting. When the crack initiated, the crack angle was about 30 degrees. After crack initiation the crack plane remained at 30 degrees until the test was completed. Mixed-mode crack initiation was difficult, but propagation was easy. The fracture surface of the mixed-mode specimen was characterized by microvoid coalescence.

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray or ultrasound equipment, a stent, and a balloon-tipped catheter are used. The equipment typically used ... the stent is in the correct position, the balloon is inflated, expanding the stent into place. The ...

  15. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    MedlinePlus

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  17. The influence of temperature on fatigue-crack growth in a mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, R. P.; Ritter, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    To understand the influence of temperature on the rate of fatigue crack growth in high strength metal alloys, constant load amplitude fatigue crack growth experiments were carried out using a 1/4 inch thick (6.35 mm) mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate as a model material. The rates of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of temperature, ranging from room temperature to about 290 C and as a function of the crack tip, stress intensity factor K, in dehumidified high purity argon environment. The dependence of the rate of fatigue crack growth on K appears to be separable into two regions. The transition correlates with changes in both the microscopic and macroscopic appearances of the fracture surfaces, and suggests a change in the mechanism and the influence of microstructure on fatigue crack growth.

  18. Hydride-Phase Formation and its Influence on Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior in a Zircaloy-4 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlea, Elena; Choo, Hahn; Wang, Gongyao Y.; Liaw, Peter K.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Park, Jungwon; Rack, Philip D.; Kenik, Edward A.

    2010-11-01

    The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of the delta zirconium hydride in the bulk and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides, the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a preexisting fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation are examined. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip is measured using neutron diffraction. It is observed that the combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are more severe leading to propagation of the crack under near threshold loading.

  19. Analysis of crack propagation in roller bearings using the boundary integral equation method - A mixed-mode loading problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    Crack propagation in a rotating inner raceway of a high-speed roller bearing is analyzed using the boundary integral method. The model consists of an edge plate under plane strain condition upon which varying Hertzian stress fields are superimposed. A multidomain boundary integral equation using quadratic elements was written to determine the stress intensity factors KI and KII at the crack tip for various roller positions. The multidomain formulation allows the two faces of the crack to be modeled in two different subregions, making it possible to analyze crack closure when the roller is positioned on or close to the crack line. KI and KII stress intensity factors along any direction were computed. These calculations permit determination of crack growth direction along which the average KI times the alternating KI is maximum.

  20. A microfiber coupler tip thermometer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Wang, Pengfei; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2012-02-27

    A compact thermometer based on a broadband microfiber coupler tip is demonstrated. This sensor can measure a broad temperature interval ranging from room temperature to 1283 °C with sub-200 µm spatial resolution. An average sensitivity of 11.96 pm/°C was achieved for a coupler tip with ~2.5 µm diameter. This is the highest temperature measured with a silica optical fiber device.

  1. Experimental Characterization and Simulation of Slip Transfer at Grain Boundaries and Microstructurally-Sensitive Crack Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Vipul; Hochhalter, Jacob; Yamakov, Vesselin; Scott, Willard; Spear, Ashley; Smith, Stephen; Glaessgen, Edward

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study of crack tip interaction with grain boundaries is critical for improvement of multiscale modeling of microstructurally-sensitive fatigue crack propagation and for the computationally-assisted design of more durable materials. In this study, single, bi- and large-grain multi-crystal specimens of an aluminum-copper alloy are fabricated, characterized using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), and deformed under tensile loading and nano-indentation. 2D image correlation (IC) in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is used to measure displacements near crack tips, grain boundaries and within grain interiors. The role of grain boundaries on slip transfer is examined using nano-indentation in combination with high-resolution EBSD. The use of detailed IC and EBSD-based experiments are discussed as they relate to crystal-plasticity finite element (CPFE) model calibration and validation.

  2. Experimental measurement of the near tip strain field in an iron-silicon single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shield, T. W.; Kim, K.-S.

    1994-05-01

    EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS are presented for the plastic deformation field near a crack (200 μm wide notch) tip in an iron-3% silicon single crystal. The specimen was loaded in four point bending and the measurements were made at zero load after extensive plastic deformation had occurred. Results are given for a crack on the (011) plane with its tip along the [01|T] direction. The surface deformation field was measured using moire microscopy and a grating on the specimen surface. The in-plane Almansi strain components have been obtained by digitally processing the moire fringes. A well-structured asymptotic field has been found at a distance of 350-500 μm from the notch tip, where the maximum plastic strain is about 9%. The asymptotic field is observed to be composed of many distinct angular sectors. Three (six symmetric) of these sectors are found to have approximately constant strains. In a fourth (two symmetric) sector, the surface strains are approximately 1/ r singular. Between these sectors there are interconnecting transition sectors. The location of the stress state on the yield surface and the active slip systems in each sector are identified by assuming that the plastic strain rates are normal to a Schmid law yield surface. The slip systems identified in this manner show excellent agreement with direct observations of the slip texture on the surface and dislocation etch pits in the interior of the specimen. The experimental strain measurements also show that the constant strain sectors are regions in which unloading occurs. Because of this unloading, the crack tip stress and deformation state is substantially different from an HRR type field which assumes proportional loading. This strong nonproportional loading is thought to be caused by the presence of material anisotropy. The nonproportional loading also provides a large amount of crack tip shielding that is evidence of a toughening mechanism that results from the presence of material anisotropy.

  3. The Effect of O2, H2O, and N2 on the Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Alpha + Beta Titanium Alloy at 24 C and 177 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    To study the effects of atmospheric species on the fatigue crack growth behavior of an a+B titanium alloy (Ti 6-2-2-2-2) at room temperature and 177 C, fatigue tests were performed in laboratory air, ultrahigh vacuum, and high purity water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen and helium at various partial pressures. Accelerated fatigue crack growth rates in laboratory air compared to ultrahigh vacuum are linked to the damaging effects of both water vapor and oxygen. Observations of the fatigue crack growth behavior in ultrahigh purity environments, along with surface film analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), suggest that multiple crack-tip processes govern the damaging effects of air. Three possible mechanisms are proposed: 1) at low pressure (less than 10(exp -1) Pa), accelerated da/dN is likely due to monolayer adsorption on crack-tip surfaces presumably resulting in decreased bond strengths at the fatigue crack tip, 2) for pressures greater than 10(exp -1) Pa, accelerated da/dN in oxygen may result from oxidation at the crack tip limiting reversible slip, and 3) in water vapor, absorption of atomic hydrogen at the reactive crack tip resulting in process zone embrittlement.

  4. Determination of Stress Intensity Factor Distributions for "Interface" Cracks in Incompressible, Dissimilar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to develop test methods and procedures for measuring the variation of the stress intensity factor through the thickness in bimaterial specimens containing cracks within and parallel to the bond line using the frozen stress photoelastic method. Since stress freezing materials are incompressible above critical temperature, and since thick plates are to be employed which tend to produce a state of plane strain near the crack tip, the interface near tip fracture equations reduce to the classic form for homogeneous materials. Moreover, zero thickness interfaces do not exist when materials are bonded together. It was decided early on that it would be important to insure a uniform straight and accurate crack tip region through the thickness of the body to reduce scatter in the SIF distribution through the thickness. It was also observed that rubberlike materials which were desired to be modeled exhibited significant tip blunting prior to crack extension and that some blunting of the tip would provide a more realistic model. It should be noted that, in normal stress freezing photoelastic work, it is considered good practice to avoid utilizing data near bond lines in photoelastic models due to the bond line stresses which inevitably develop when two parts are bonded together. Thus, the present study involves certain exploratory aspects in deviating from standard practice in stress freezing work. With the above ideas in mind, several different test methods were investigated and are described in the following sections and appendices. The geometry selected for the program was a thick, edge cracked specimen containing a bond line.

  5. 2014/2219 Tri-Point Crack Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. The objective of this study was to evaluate the deformation response at the tips of cracks located in the heat affected zone of friction plug welds and to study the fracture behavior of welds with defects in the form of fatigue cracks. The study used existing 2014-T6 to 2219-T87 self-reacting friction stir weld panels with 2219-T87 friction plug welds. Electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches were machined into the heat affected zone of the plug at the plug-to-base metal interface. Samples were then cycled to generate a fatigue crack emanating from the notch. After the fatigue crack reached a pre-defined length, a speckle pattern was applied and the ARAMIS system (a three dimensional imaging correlation system) was used to measure the deformations at the crack tip under a sequence of loads. Testing was conducted at ambient laboratory conditions. Fracture data from the testing was analyzed to evaluate residual strength capability of the panel as a function of flaw size. ARAMIS strain data was evaluated to examine strain and deformation patterns that develop around the crack tip and at the plug/weld interfaces. Four samples were used in this study, with three samples in a post-weld heat treated condition. Three samples contained large diameter plugs (M5) and one sample contained a small diameter plug (M3). Two samples were 4 inches in width and two samples were 8.5 inches in width. All samples failed through the precrack with residual strengths ranging from 37 ksi to 42 ksi.

  6. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-08-01

    This thesis summarizes the major technical achievements obtained as a part of a collaborative research and development project between Ecole Polytechnique and Pratt & Whitney Canada. These achievements include: (1) a thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress; (2) an advanced alternative current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions; (3) fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data for the titanium specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs; (4) thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth data for two titanium alloys being used in PWC engine components, which explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing; (5) a complete fractographic analysis for the tested specimens which enhanced the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helped to establish an analytical crack growth model; and (6) application of the ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique to single tooth firtree specimen (STFT) LCF testing of PWA 1480 single crystal alloy. Finally, a comprehensive discussion concerning the results pertaining to this research project is presented.

  7. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-05-01

    A thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig was built which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine engine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress. An advance alternating current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system was also developed which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions. Fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data were obtained for titanium alloy specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs. TMF data were also obtained for two titanium alloys used in aircraft engine components. Those data explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing. A complete fractographic analysis was performed on the tested specimens enhancing the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helping to formulate an analytical crack growth model. The ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique was applied to the low cycle fatigue testing of Pratt & Whitney 1480 monocrystalline nickel alloy. A completely automated, computer controlled test procedure was developed which could obtain crack initiation and growth data with greater speed, precision, and reliability than previous methods.

  8. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report for the NASA funded project entitled "Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage." The primary objective of the project was to create a capability to simulate curvilinear fatigue crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage. The second objective was to validate the capability by way of comparisons to experimental results. Both objectives have been achieved and the results are detailed herein. In the first part of the report, the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained and correlated from coupon tests to predict fracture behavior and residual strength of built-up aircraft fuselages, is discussed. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element analyses are used to simulate stable crack growth and to predict residual strength. Both measured and predicted results of laboratory flat panel tests and full-scale fuselage panel tests show substantial reduction of residual strength due to the occurrence of multi-site damage (MSD). Detailed comparisons of n stable crack growth history, and residual strength between the predicted and experimental results are used to assess the validity of the analysis methodology. In the second part of the report, issues related to crack trajectory prediction in thin shells; an evolving methodology uses the crack turning phenomenon to improve the structural integrity of aircraft structures are discussed, A directional criterion is developed based on the maximum tangential stress theory, but taking into account the effect of T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy. Possible extensions of the current crack growth directional criterion to handle geometrically and materially nonlinear problems are discussed. The path independent contour integral method for T-stress evaluation is derived and its accuracy is assessed using a p- and hp-version adaptive finite element method. Curvilinear crack growth is simulated in

  9. Quench Crack Behavior of Nickel-base Disk Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John; Kantzos, Pete; Miller, Jason

    2002-01-01

    There is a need to increase the temperature capability of superalloy turbine disks to allow higher operating temperatures in advanced aircraft engines. When modifying processing and chemistry of disk alloys to achieve this capability, it is important to preserve the ability to use rapid cooling during supersolvus heat treatments to achieve coarse grain, fine gamma prime microstructures. An important step in this effort is an understanding of the key variables controlling the cracking tendencies of nickel-base disk alloys during quenching from supersolvus heat treatments. The objective of this study was to investigate the quench cracking tendencies of several advanced disk superalloys during simulated heat treatments. Miniature disk specimens were rapidly quenched after solution heat treatments. The responses and failure modes were compared and related to the quench cracking tendencies of actual disk forgings. Cracking along grain boundaries was generally observed to be operative. For the alloys examined in this study, the solution temperature not alloy chemistry was found to be the primary factor controlling quench cracking. Alloys with high solvus temperatures show greater tendency for quench cracking.

  10. An Application of a New Electromagnetic Sensor to Real-Time Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth in Thin Metal Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Clendenin, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    A major part of fracture mechanics is concerned with studying the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. This typically requires constant monitoring of crack growth during fatigue cycles which necessitates automation of the whole process. If the rate of crack growth can be determined the experimenter can vary externally controlled parameters such as load level, load cycle frequency and so on. Hence, knowledge of the precise location of the crack tip at any given time is very valuable. One technique currently available for measuring fatigue crack length is the DC potential drop method. The method, however, may be inaccurate if the direction of crack growth deviates considerably from what was assumed initially or the curvature of the crack becomes significant. Another approach is to digitize an optical image of the test specimen surface and then apply a pattern recognition technique to locate the crack tip, but this method is still under development. The present work is an initial study on applying eddy current-type probes to monitoring fatigue crack growth. The performance of two types of electromagnetic probes, a conventional eddy current probe and a newly developed self-nulling probe, was evaluated for the detection characteristics at and near the tips of fatigue cracks. The scan results show that the latter probe provides a very well defined local maximum in its output in the crack tip region suggesting the definite possibility of precisely locating the tip, while the former provides a somewhat ambiguous distribution of the sensor output in the same region. The paper is organized as follows: We start by reviewing the design and performance characteristics of the self-nulling probe and then describe the scan results which demonstrate the basic properties of the self-nulling probe. Next, we provide a brief description of the software developed for tracing a simulated crack and give a brief discussion of the main results of the test. The final section

  11. Investigation of Cracks Found in Helicopter Longerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurigical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  12. Eddy current jet engine disk-crack monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    A disk-crack monitor is described that is suitable for use on the ground or in flight. The system consists of an engine-mounted eddy current sensor, a series capacitance in each leg of the sensor circuit, and a capacitance-conductance bridge followed by an oscilloscope capable of advanced signal processing. It was applied to the detection of service-induced cracks in the first-stage turbine wheel of a helicopter engine. A 3.5 mm long radial fatigue crack plus smaller cracks, all located in the blade root region of the wheel, were detected during engine test stand operation at ground idle speed and temperature. The calculation of the value of series capacitance is also presented.

  13. Frequency domain analysis of the random loading of cracked panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, James F.

    1994-01-01

    The primary effort concerned the development of analytical methods for the accurate prediction of the effect of random loading on a panel with a crack. Of particular concern was the influence of frequency on the stress intensity factor behavior. Many modern structures, such as those found in advanced aircraft, are lightweight and susceptible to critical vibrations, and consequently dynamic response plays a very important role in their analysis. The presence of flaws and cracks can have catastrophic consequences. The stress intensity factor, K, emerges as a very significant parameter that characterizes the crack behavior. In analyzing the dynamic response of panels that contain cracks, the finite element method is used, but because this type of problem is inherently computationally intensive, a number of ways of calculating K more efficiently are explored.

  14. Crack Growth Behavior in the Threshold Region for High Cycle Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Zanganehgheshlaghi, Mohannad

    2014-01-01

    The research results described in this paper presents a new understanding of the behavior of fatigue crack growth in the threshold region. It is believed by some crack growth experts that the ASTM load shedding test method does not produce true or valid threshold properties. The concern involves the observed fanning of threshold region da/dN data plots for some materials in which the low R-ratio data fans out or away from the high R-ratio data. This data fanning or elevation of threshold values is obviously caused by an increase in crack closure in the low R-ratio tested specimens. This increase in crack closure is assumed by some investigators to be caused by a plastic wake on the crack surfaces that was created during the load shedding test phase. This study shows that the increase in crack closure is the result of an extensive occurrence of crack bifurcation behavior in some materials, particularly in aluminum alloys, when the crack tip cyclic yield zone size becomes less than the grain size of the alloy. This behavior is related to the high stacking fault energy (SFE) property of aluminum alloys which results in easier slip characteristics. Therefore, the particular fanning behavior in aluminum alloys is a function of intrinsic dislocation property of the materials and that the fanned data represents valid material properties. However, for corrosion sensitive steel alloys used in this study the fanning was caused by a build-up of iron oxide at the crack tip from fretting corrosion.

  15. On the Crack Bifurcation and Fanning of Crack Growth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Royce G.; Zanganeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Crack growth data obtained from ASTM load shedding method for different R values show some fanning especially for aluminum alloys. It is believed by the authors and it has been shown before that the observed fanning is due to the crack bifurcation occurs in the near threshold region which is a function of intrinsic properties of the alloy. Therefore, validity of the ASTM load shedding test procedure and results is confirmed. However, this position has been argued by some experimentalists who believe the fanning is an artifact of the test procedure and thus the obtained results are invalid. It has been shown that using a special test procedure such as using compressively pre-cracked specimens will eliminate the fanning effect. Since not using the fanned data fit can result in a significantly lower calculated cyclic life, design of a component, particularly for rotorcraft and propeller systems will considerably be impacted and therefore this study is of paramount importance. In this effort both test procedures i.e. ASTM load shedding and the proposed compressive pre-cracking have been used to study the fatigue crack growth behavior of compact tension specimens made of aluminum alloy 2524-T3. Fatigue crack growth paths have been closely observed using SEM machines to investigate the effects of compression pre-cracking on the crack bifurcation behavior. The results of this study will shed a light on resolving the existing argument by better understanding of near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior.

  16. Analysis of delamination in cross ply laminates initiating from impact induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several two dimensional finite element analyses of (0 sub 2/90 sub 8/0 sub 2) glass/epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite laminates were performed to study some of the characteristics of damage development due to an impact load. A cross section through the thickness of the laminate with fixed ends, and carrying a transverse load in the center was analyzed. Inclined matrix cracks such as those produced by low velocity impact were modeled in the 90 deg ply group. The introduction of the matrix cracks caused large interlaminar tension and shear stresses in the vicinity of both crack tips in the 0/90 and 90/0 interfaces. The large interlaminar stresses at the ends of the matrix cracks indicate that matrix cracking may give rise to delamination. The ratio of mode I to total strain energy release rate at the beginning of delamination calculated at the two matrix crack tips was 60 and 28 pct., respectively, in the glass/epoxy laminate. The corresponding ratio was 97 and 77 pct. in the graphite-epoxy laminate. Thus, a significant mode I component of strain energy release rate may be present at the delamination initiation due to an impact load.

  17. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature. Final project report, July 1, 1986--August 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C{sub t} or C{sup *}. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C{sub t}. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C{sub t} is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C{sub t}. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C{sub t}){sub avg} was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  18. High-tip-speed fiber composite compressor blades - Vibration and strength analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lynch, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described which couples composite mechanics computer codes with NASTRAN. This procedure was used to perform a detailed analysis of a high-tip-speed fiber composite compressor fan blade. The results indicate that the various vibration modes of this blade are highly coupled. Mechanical load ply stresses are well below the corresponding room temperature strengths. Lamination residual stresses are likely to cause transply cracks and interply delamination. Transply cracks and relaxation of root fixity decrease the vibrational frequencies whereas centrifugal stiffening increases them. Comparisons of results for various parameters are presented in tabular and graphical form.

  19. High-tip-speed fiber composite compressor blades: Vibration and strength analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Lynch, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical procedure is described which couples composite mechanics computer codes with NASTRAN. This procedure was used to perform a detailed analysis of a high-tip-speed fiber composite compressor fan blade. The results indicate that the various vibration modes of this blade are highly coupled. Mechanical load ply stresses are well below the corresponding room temperature strengths. Lamination residual stresses are likely to cause transply cracks and interply delamination. Transply cracks and relaxation of root fixity decrease the vibrational frequencies whereas centrifugal stiffening increases them. Comparisons of results for various parameters are presented in tabular and graphical form.

  20. Preventing Cracking of Anodized Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Charles C.; Heslin, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Anodized coatings have been used as optical and thermal surfaces in spacecraft. Particulate contamination from cracked coatings is a concern for many applications. The major cause for the cracking is the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide coatings and the aluminum substrate. The loss of water when the coating is exposed to a vacuum also could induce cracking of the coating. Hot-water sealing was identified as the major cause for the cracking of the coatings because of the large temperature change when the parts were immersed in boiling water and the water was absorbed in the coating. when the hot-water sealing process was eliminated, the cracking resistance of the anodized coatings was greatly improved. Also, it was found that dyed black coatings were more susceptible than clear coatings to cracking during thermo-vacuum cyclings.

  1. Effect of Microstructural Parameters on Fatigue Crack Propagation in an API X65 Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Ghaednia, H.; Das, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the current research, we investigate fatigue crack growth in an API X65 pipeline steel by using an Instron fatigue testing machine. To this, first the microstructure of steel was accurately investigated using scanning electron microscope. Since nonmetallic inclusions play a key role during crack propagation, the type and distribution of such inclusions were studied through the thickness of as-received X65 steel using energy-dispersive spectroscopy technique. It was found that the accumulation of such defects at the center of thickness of the pipe body was higher than in other regions. Our results showed that there were very fine oxide inclusions (1-2 µm in length) appeared throughout the cross section of X65 steel. Such inclusions were observed not at the fatigue crack path nor on both sides of the fatigue crack. However, we found that large manganese sulfide inclusions (around 20 µm in length) were associated with fatigue crack propagation. Fatigue experiments on CT specimens showed that the crack nucleated when the number of fatigue cycles was higher than 340 × 103. On fracture surfaces, crack propagation also occurred by joining the microcracks at tip of the main crack.

  2. The influence of stress ratio and temperature on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior of ARALL

    SciTech Connect

    Salivar, G.C.; Gardini, C.A. Pratt Whitney Group, West Palm Beach, FL )

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate behavior of ARALL (aramid-reinforced aluminum laminate) was investigated as a function of stress ratio and temperature. The particular material was ARALL-3, a 7475-T76 aluminum alloy laminate. Tests were conducted for stress ratios of 0.1 and 0.5 at temperatures of 21, 82, and 93 C (70, 180, and 200 F) using a center-cracked panel geometry (measurements were made in English units and converted to SI units). The objective was to examine the contributions of the effects of crack closure and fiber bridging of the crack on the material behavior. Crack closure was monitored throughout the tests using compliance measurements. Fractography was used to investigate the influence of temperature on the integrity of the aluminum to epoxy/fiber bond to try to identify the effects of fiber bridging. Some crack closure, in the traditional metallic material sense, was evident through compliance measurements. However, the crack tip bridging by the fibers appears to be the dominant mechanism influencing the fatigue crack growth rate behavior in this material under these test conditions. Fractography indicates a considerable difference in fiber-bridging behavior between the room temperature and the elevated temperature tests. 19 refs.

  3. Environment enhanced fatigue crack propagation in metals: Inputs to fracture mechanics life prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Kim, Sang-Shik

    1993-01-01

    This report is a critical review of both environment-enhanced fatigue crack propagation data and the predictive capabilities of crack growth rate models. This information provides the necessary foundation for incorporating environmental effects in NASA FLAGRO and will better enable predictions of aerospace component fatigue lives. The review presents extensive literature data on 'stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue.' The linear elastic fracture mechanics approach, based on stress intensity range (Delta(K)) similitude with microscopic crack propagation threshold and growth rates, provides a basis for these data. Results are presented showing enhanced growth rates for gases (viz., H2 and H2O) and electrolytes (e.g. NaCl and H2O) in aerospace alloys including: C-Mn and heat treated alloy steels, aluminum alloys, nickel-based superalloys, and titanium alloys. Environment causes purely time-dependent accelerated fatigue crack growth above the monotonic load cracking threshold (KIEAC) and promotes cycle-time dependent cracking below (KIEAC). These phenomenon are discussed in terms of hydrogen embrittlement, dissolution, and film rupture crack tip damage mechanisms.

  4. Turbine blade with contoured chamfered squealer tip

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2014-12-30

    A squealer tip formed from a pressure side tip wall and a suction side tip wall extending radially outward from a tip of the turbine blade is disclosed. The pressure and suction side tip walls may be positioned along the pressure sidewall and the suction sidewall of the turbine blade, respectively. The pressure side tip wall may include a chamfered leading edge with film cooling holes having exhaust outlets positioned therein. An axially extending tip wall may be formed from at least two outer linear surfaces joined together at an intersection forming a concave axially extending tip wall. The axially extending tip wall may include a convex inner surface forming a radially outer end to an inner cavity forming a cooling system. The cooling system may include one or more film cooling holes in the axially extending tip wall proximate to the suction sidewall, which promotes increased cooling at the pressure and suction sidewalls.

  5. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 3; Constant Stress and Cyclic Stress Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  6. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 2; Constant Stress Rate Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  7. Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of material covered during 'Space Shuttle Fuel Feedliner Cracking Investigation MSFC Fluids Workshop' held November 19-21, 2002. Topics covered include: cracks on fuel feed lines of Orbiter space shuttles, fluid driven cracking analysis, liner structural modes, structural motion in a fluid, fluid borne drivers, three dimensional computational fluid dynamics models, fluid borne drivers from pumps, amplification mechanisms, flow parameter mapping, and flight engine flow map.

  8. Catalyst for cracking kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, C. H.

    1985-06-04

    A catalyst capable of cracking kerosene under lower pressure and temperature comprising kerosene; metal powder mixture of chromium powder, copper powder, lead powder, zinc powder, nickel powder, manganese powder in an amount of 12 to 13 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; sulfuric acid in an amount of 15 to 30 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; inorganic powder mixture of aluminum oxide powder, serpentine powder, alum powder, magnesium oxide powder, limestone powder, slake lime powder, silica powder, and granite powder in an amount of 150 to 170 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene.

  9. Tipping elements and climate-economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Robert E.; Shwom, Rachael L.; Wagner, Gernot; Yuan, Jiacan

    2016-08-01

    The literature on the costs of climate change often draws a link between climatic "tipping points" and large economic shocks, frequently called "catastrophes." The phrase "tipping points" in this context can be misleading. In popular and social scientific discourse, "tipping points" involve abrupt state changes. For some climatic "tipping points," the commitment to a state change may occur abruptly, but the change itself may be rate-limited and take centuries or longer to realize. Additionally, the connection between climatic "tipping points" and economic losses is tenuous, although emerging empirical and process-model-based tools provide pathways for investigating it. We propose terminology to clarify the distinction between "tipping points" in the popular sense, the critical thresholds exhibited by climatic and social "tipping elements," and "economic shocks." The last may be associated with tipping elements, gradual climate change, or nonclimatic triggers. We illustrate our proposed distinctions by surveying the literature on climatic tipping elements, climatically sensitive social tipping elements, and climate-economic shocks, and we propose a research agenda to advance the integrated assessment of all three.

  10. The effect of an East Pacific Rise offset on the formation of secondary cracks ahead of the Cocos-Nazca Rift at the Galapagos Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. K.; Montesi, L. G.; Schouten, H.; Zhu, W.

    2011-12-01

    A succession of short-lived, E-W trending cracks at the Galapagos Triple Junction north and south of the Cocos-Nazca (C-N) Rift, has been explained by a simple crack interaction model. The locations of where the cracks initiate are controlled by tensile stresses generated at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) by two interacting cracks: One representing the north-south trending EPR, and the other the large, westward propagating C-N Rift, whose tip is separated from the EPR by a distance D. The model predicts symmetric cracking at the EPR north and south of the C-N Rift tip. Symmetry in the distribution of cracks north and south of the C-N Rift is observed and especially remarkable between 2.5 and 1.5 Ma when the rapid jumping of cracks toward the C-N Rift appears synchronous. The rapid jumping can be explained by decreasing D, which means that the tip of the C-N Rift was moving closer to the EPR. Symmetry of cracking breaks down at 1.5 Ma, however, with the establishment of the Dietz Deep Rift, the southern boundary of the Galapagos microplate. Symmetry of cracking also breaks down on older crust to the east between about 100 35'W and 100 45'W (about 2.6 Ma) where a rapid jumping of cracks toward the C-N Rift is observed in the south cracking region. There is no evidence of similar rapid jumping in the north cracking region. It could be simply that the response to changing the value of D is not always as predicted. It could also be that the shape of the EPR has not always been symmetric about the C-N Rift, as assumed in the model. Currently, an overlapping spreading center with a 15 km east-west offset between the limbs of the EPR has formed at 1 50'N. We assess the importance of the geometry of the EPR on the crack interaction model. The model has been modified to include a ridge offset similar to what is observed today. We find that the region of stress enhancement at the EPR (where cracks initiate) is subdued south of the C-N Rift tip because of the EPR offset. It is

  11. Modeling and experiments to explain the potential dependency of an UHSS to hydrogen environment assisted cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehler, Beth A.

    Modern ultra high strength steels have been developed with outstanding combinations of strength and fracture toughness but lack intrinsic corrosion resistance. Such steels are used by the military for aircraft components such as landing gears but require coatings and cathodic protection which can lead to various rates of hydrogen production depending on material, geometry, and electro(chemistry). The susceptibility of such steels to internal hydrogen embrittlement (IHE) and hydrogen environment embrittlement (HEE) limits their use in marine environments. The objective of this research is to develop the understanding necessary to design coated ultra high strength steels that resist HEE when stressed in marine environments. The cause of HEE is the establishment of high diffusible hydrogen concentrations (CH,diff) at the crack tip. There is a window of applied potentials (Eapplied) where susceptibility to HEE is reduced because CH,diff is reduced. However, Eapplied itself does not yield insight as to the exact conditions at the crack tip. Ohmic potential drop and electrochemical/chemical reactions in the crack can lead to a significantly different environment at the crack tip than on the surface. The issues that hinder understanding of HEE center on the capability to quantify and ultimately predict crack tip hydrogen concentrations (C H,Tip) relative to critical concentrations that trigger fracture as a function of Eapplied. CH,tip was characterized using a multi-pronged approach. Scaling laws were developed to enable measurements of E and pH in a scaled-up crack as a function of the scaling parameter, x2/G and Eapplied . Such measurements were correlated with CH,diff using an experimentally determined hydrogen uptake law based on first order absorption laws and trapping theory. CH,diff values were then used as inputs into existing micromechanical models for KTH and da/dtII to predict cracking susceptibility. The scientific contributions of this work include the

  12. Mid-ocean ridges: discontinuities, segments and giant cracks.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K C; Scheirer, D S; Carbotte, S M

    1991-08-30

    Geological observations reveal that mid-ocean ridges are segmented by numerous rigid and nonrigid discontinuities. A hierarchy of segmentation, ranging from large, long-lived segments to others that are small, migratory, and transient, determines the pattern and timing of creation of new ocean floor. To the extent that spreading segments behave like giant cracks in a plate, the crack propagation force at segment tips increases with segment length, which may explain why long segments tend to lengthen and prevail over shorter neighboring segments. Partial melting caused by decompression of the upper mantle due to plate separation and changes in the direction of spreading result in the spawning of new short segments so that a balance of long and short segments is maintained.

  13. Evaluation of an electrocardiograph-based PICC tip verification system.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gemma; Jones, Matt

    Performing a chest x-ray after insertion of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is recognised as the gold standard for checking that the tip of the catheter is correctly positioned in the lower third of the superior vena cava at the right atrial junction; however, numerous problems are associated with this practice. A recent technological advancement has been developed that utilises changes in a patient's electrocardiograph (ECG) recorded from the tip of the PICC as a more reliable method. This evaluation discusses how a vascular access team in a large acute NHS Trust safely and successfully incorporated the use of ECG guidance technology for verification of PICC tip placement into their practice.

  14. Root tips moving through soil

    PubMed Central

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  15. Optical fiber meta-tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, Maria; Micco, Alberto; Crescitelli, Alessio; Castaldi, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; La Ferrara, Vera; Galdi, Vincenzo; Cusano, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    We report on the first example of a "meta-tip" configuration that integrates a metasurface on the tip of an optical fiber. Our proposed design is based on an inverted-Babinet plasmonic metasurface obtained by patterning (via focused ion beam) a thin gold film deposited on the tip of an optical fiber, so as to realize an array of rectangular aperture nanoantennas with spatially modulated sizes. By properly tuning the resonances of the aperture nanoantennas, abrupt variations can be impressed in the field wavefront and polarization. We fabricated and characterized several proof-of-principle prototypes operating an near-infrared wavelengths, and implementing the beam-steering (with various angles) of the cross-polarized component, as well as the excitation of surface waves. Our results pave the way to the integration of the exceptional field-manipulation capabilities enabled by metasurfaces with the versatility and ubiquity of fiber-optics technological platforms.

  16. Plastic deformation - Its role in fatigue crack propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, P. K.; Jeelani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing the fact that the effective driving force Delta-K(eff) determines the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate and that the shear strain, which is considered to develop due to an occurrence of crack closure, primarily contributes to the plastic deformation, an effort is made here to elucidate the role of plastic deformation in FCP by developing a correlation between the Delta-K(eff) and the applied driving force (Delta-K) with shear strain as variable. The disparity between Delta(K)eff) and Delta-K, which apparently increases with shear strain level, persists at lower values of Delta-K. This suggests a strong influence of the degree of localized deformation on the FCP rates in the near threshold level. Hence, an improvement of FCP rates in the near threshold level should follow an effort that promotes the plastic deformation near the crack tip to a greater degree. This approach could explain the effect of the grain size, microstructure, environment, R-ratio and crack size on the near-threshold FCP rates.

  17. Tipping Points in Texas Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Anticipating geomorphic tipping points requires that we learn from the past. Major geomorphic changes in coastal plain rivers of Texas resulting in river metamorphosis or regime shifts were identified, and the major driving factors determined. Nine fluvial tipping points were identified from contemporary observations, historical records, and Quaternary reconstructions. Two of the tipping points (between general aggrading and degrading valley states) are associated with reversals in a fundamental system control (sea-level). One (stable or aggrading vs. degrading channels) is associated with an abrupt change in sediment supply due to dam construction, and two others (changes from meandering to anastomosing channel patterns, and different anastomosis styles) are similarly related to changes in sediment supply and/or transport capacity, but with additional elements of historical contingency. Three tipping points are related to avulsions. One, from a regime dominated to reoccupation of former channels to one dominated by progradation into flood basins, is driven by progressive long term filling of incised valleys. Another, nodal avulsions, are driven by disturbances associated with tectonics or listric faults. The third, avulsions and related valley metamorphosis in unfilled incised valleys, is due to fundamental dynamical instabilities within the fluvial system. This synthesis and analysis suggests that geomorphic tipping points are sometimes associated with general extrinsic or intrinsic (to the fluvial system) environmental change, independent of any disturbances or instabilities. Others are associated with natural (e.g., tectonic) or human (dams) disturbances, and still others with intrinsic geomorphic instabilities. This suggests that future tipping points will be equally diverse with respect to their drivers.

  18. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials. PMID:25140489

  19. Tensile cracking of a brittle conformal coating on a rough substrate

    DOE PAGES

    Reedy, Jr., E. D.

    2016-04-07

    This note examines the effect of interfacial roughness on the initiation and growth of channel cracks in a brittle film. A conformal film with cusp-like surface flaws that replicate the substrate roughness is investigated. This type of surface flaw is relatively severe in the sense that stress diverges as the cusp-tip is approached (i.e., there is a power-law stress singularity). For the geometry and range of film properties considered, the analysis suggests that smoothing the substrate could substantially increase the film’s resistance to the formation of the through-the-thickness cracks that precede channel cracking. Furthermore, smoothing the substrate’s surface has amore » relatively modest effect on the film stress needed to propagate a channel crack.« less

  20. An analytical and experimental study of crack extension in center-notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal stress ratio theory for crack extension in anisotropic materials is studied analytically and experimentally. The theory is applied within a microscopic-level analysis of a single center notch of arbitrary orientation in a unidirectional composite material. The bulk of the analytical work of this study applies an elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center line to obtain critical stress and crack growth direction predictions. An elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center elliptical flaw is also used to obtain qualitative predictions of the location of crack initiation on the border of a rounded notch tip. The analytical portion of the study includes the formulation of a new crack growth theory that includes local shear stress. Normal stress ratio theory predictions are obtained for notched unidirectional tensile coupons and unidirectional Iosipescu shear specimens. These predictions are subsequently compared to experimental results.