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Sample records for advancing crack tip

  1. Crack tip mechanics in periodically layered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Mahendra

    In this work, the plane strain problems of periodically layered composites consisting of alternate matrix and fiber layers weakened by a crack perpendicular or parallel to the interfaces are considered. Elasto-static analytical solutions for the crack-tip micromechanical fields under mode-I, mode-II and mixed-mode loading are developed using principles of asymptotic homogenization and the method of complex elastic potentials. In a separate formulation, the mode-I crack-tip fields for a crack normal to the interfaces are also obtained using the method of non-standard analysis. The analytical model predictions are compared with the numerical solutions obtained through refined near-tip micro-macro hybrid finite element analyses. Extensive numerical studies addressing the crack-tip location effects on the near-tip fields are presented. In all cases considered, the zero-order micro-stresses obtained from the analytical solutions are found to exhibit an overall rsp{{-}{1/2}} singularity. The numerical studies have revealed that the near-tip micro-stress field in cracked layered systems is structured in three distinct zones. In systems with isotropic layers, the stress field in the matrix phase surrounding the immediate vicinity of crack-tip is found to exhibit a universal isotropic field behavior dominated by a matrix material dependent stress intensity factor. In the far-field region, the admissible discontinuous micro-stress field is observed to depend on the microstructural heterogeneity and the global anisotropy of the system. The transition from the universal isotropic to the far field behavior takes place within a relatively small region. Crack tip amplification or shielding are shown to take place for a crack approaching a bimaterial interface. The mode-I near-tip fields for a crack normal to the interface in a laminate consisting of alternate brittle and ductile layers are also studied numerically. The Gurson constitutive model that accounts for the ductile

  2. Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in FCC Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knap, J.; Sieradzki, K.

    1999-02-01

    We present results of molecular dynamic simulations aimed at examining crack tip dislocation emission in fcc solids. The results are analyzed in terms of recent continuum formulations of this problem. In mode II, Au, Pd, and Pt displayed a new unanticipated mechanism of crack tip dislocation emission involving the creation of a pair of Shockley partials on a slip plane one plane below the crack plane. In mode I, for all the materials examined, Rice's continuum formulation [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 40, 239 (1992)] underestimated the stress intensity for dislocation emission by almost a factor of 2. Surface stress corrections to the emission criterion brought the agreement between continuum predictions and simulations to within 20%.

  3. Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes associated with variable amplitude fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Davidson, D. L.; Chan, K. S.

    1983-01-01

    Crack growth retardation following overloads can result in overly conservative life predictions in structures subjected to variable amplitude fatigue loading when linear damage accumulation procedures are employed. Crack closure is believed to control the crack growth retardation, although the specific closure mechanism is debatable. Information on the relative contributions to crack closure from: (1) plasticity left in the wake of the advancing crack and (2) crack tip residual stresses is provided. The delay period and corresponding crack growth rate transients following overloads are systematically measured as a function of load ratio (R) and overload magnitude. These responses are correlated in terms of the local 'driving force' for crack growth as measured by crack tip opening loads and delta K sub eff. The latter measurements are obtained using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cyclic loading stage; measurements are quantified using a relatively new stereoimaging technique. Combining experimental results with analytical predictions suggests that both plastic wake and residual stress mechanism are operative, the latter becoming predominate as R increases.

  4. Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, J; Gong, S K; Mao, S X

    2014-03-18

    Coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) in nano-twinned materials could improve crack resistance. However, the role of the CTBs during crack penetration has never been explored at atomic scale. Our in situ observation on nano-twinned Ag under a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) reveals the dynamic processes of a crack penetration across the CTBs, which involve alternated crack tip blunting, crack deflection, twinning/detwinning and slip transmission across the CTBs. The alternated blunting processes are related to the emission of different types of dislocations at the crack tip and vary with the distance of the crack tip from the CTBs.

  5. Measurement and analysis of critical crack tip processes during fatigue crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J.; Dexter, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanics of fatigue crack growth under constant-amplitudes and variable-amplitude loading were examined. Critical loading histories involving relatively simple overload and overload/underload cycles were studied to provide a basic understanding of the underlying physical processes controlling crack growth. The material used for this study was 7091-T7E69, a powder metallurgy aluminum alloy. Local crack-tip parameters were measured at various times before, during, and after the overloads, these include crack-tip opening loads and displacements, and crack-tip strain fields. The latter were useed, in combination with the materials cyclic and monotonic stress-strain properties, to compute crack-tip residual stresses. The experimental results are also compared with analytical predictions obtained using the FAST-2 computer code. The sensitivity of the analytical model to constant-amplitude fatigue crack growth rate properties and to through-thickness constrain are studied.

  6. Thermomechanical Manipulation of Crack-Tip Stress Field for Resistance to Stress Corrosion Crack Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Raman, R. K.; Ibrahim, R. N.; Wu, F.; Rihan, R.

    2008-12-01

    Corrosion-assisted propagation of an existing crack is profoundly influenced by the stress intensity at the crack tip. This article presents the first results of thermomechanical conditioning (TMC) for local manipulation of material at and ahead of the crack tip, in an attempt to retard/stop crack propagation. Prenotched round tensile specimens of mild steel were subjected to rotating bending to generate a fatigue precrack, and then to apply localized thermomechanical conditioning. The threshold stress intensity factor ( K ISCC ) for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of precracked specimens with and without TMC was determined in a caustic environment. Results suggest that TMC can increase K ISCC . Finite element analysis of the specimens suggests development of compressive stresses at and around the crack tip, which is expected to improve the resistance to stress corrosion crack propagation (since stress corrosion cracks can propagate only under tensile loading).

  7. The analysis of crack tip fields in ferroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carka, Dorinamaria; Landis, Chad M.

    2011-09-01

    The stress and strain fields near a stationary crack in a ferroelastic material are analyzed. The constitutive response of the material is taken to be characteristic of a polycrystalline sample assembled from randomly oriented tetragonal single crystal grains. The constitutive law accounts for the strain saturation, asymmetry in tension versus compression, Bauschinger effects, reverse switching, and strain reorientation that can occur in these materials due to the non-proportional loading that can arise near a crack tip. Detailed finite element calculations are carried out to determine the stress and strain fields in the vicinity of the crack tip, and to compute values for the J-integral on various integration paths around the tip. The results of the calculations are discussed in relation to results for growing cracks and for stationary cracks in standard elastic-plastic materials.

  8. Determining fatigue crack opening loads from near-crack-tip displacement measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Riddell, W.T.; Piascik, R.S.; Sutton, M.A.; Zhao, W.; McNeill, S.R.; Helm, J.D.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this research was to develop a near-crack-tip measurement method that quantifies crack closure levels in the near-threshold fatigue crack growth regime--a regime where crack closure is not well characterized by remote compliance methods. Further understanding of crack closure mechanics was gained by performing novel crack growth experiments in conjunction with numerical simulations of three-dimensional crack-front propagation. Steady-state (i.e., constant growth rate) fatigue crack growth rates were characterized by performing constant cyclic stress intensity range ({Delta}K) experiments over a wide range of stress ratios (R). Near-crack-tip (less than 0.3 mm behind) load-versus-displacement measurements were conducted on the specimen surface using a novel noncontact experimental technique (Digital Imaging Displacement System--DIDS). The experiments and simulations revealed that the three-dimensional aspects of fatigue crack closure must be considered to determine correct opening load levels from near-crack-tip load-versus-displacement data. It was shown that near-crack-front, but increase near the free surface. The interior opening load was found to collapse closure-affected data to intrinsic rates, and thus shown to relate to the true crack-front driving force parameter. Surface opening load DIDS measurements made at an optimal distance behind the crack tip were used to correlate da/dN with {Delta}K{sub eff}. Opening load determinations made less than the optimal distance behind the crack tip were shown to be too high to correlate fatigue crack growth rates.

  9. Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Lili; Gao, Yanfei; Lee, Sooyeol; Barabash, Rozaliya; Lee, Jinhaeng; Liaw, Peter K

    2011-01-01

    The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress multiaxiality, material properties, and history of stress intensity factor and crack growth rate. An in situ, full-field, non-destructive measurement of lattice strain (which relies on the intergranular interactions of the inhomogeneous deformation fields in neighboring grains) by neutron diffraction techniques has been performed for the fatigue test of a Ni-based superalloy compact tension specimen. These microscopic grain level measurements provided unprecedented information on the fatigue growth mechanisms. A two-scale model is developed to predict the lattice strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline materials. An irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model is adopted to simulate a steady fatigue crack, which allows us to generate the stress/strain distribution and history near the fatigue crack tip. The continuum deformation history is used as inputs for the micromechanical analysis of lattice strain evolution using the slip-based crystal plasticity model, thus making a mechanistic connection between macro- and micro-strains. Predictions from perfect grain-boundary simulations exhibit the same lattice strain distributions as in neutron diffraction measurements, except for discrepancies near the crack tip within about one-tenth of the plastic zone size. By considering the intergranular damage, which leads to vanishing intergranular strains as damage proceeds, we find a significantly improved agreement between predicted and measured lattice strains inside the fatigue process zone. Consequently, the intergranular damage near fatigue crack tip is concluded to be responsible for fatigue crack growth.

  10. Intergranular strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. L.; Gao, Y. F.; Lee, S. Y.; Barabash, R. I.; Lee, J. H.; Liaw, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress multiaxiality, material properties, and history of stress intensity factor and crack growth rate. An in situ, full-field, non-destructive measurement of lattice strain (which relies on the intergranular interactions of the inhomogeneous deformation fields in neighboring grains) by neutron diffraction techniques has been performed for the fatigue test of a Ni-based superalloy compact tension specimen. These microscopic grain level measurements provided unprecedented information on the fatigue growth mechanisms. A two-scale model is developed to predict the lattice strain evolution near fatigue crack tips in polycrystalline materials. An irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model is adopted to simulate a steady fatigue crack, which allows us to generate the stress/strain distribution and history near the fatigue crack tip. The continuum deformation history is used as inputs for the micromechanical analysis of lattice strain evolution using the slip-based crystal plasticity model, thus making a mechanistic connection between macro- and micro-strains. Predictions from perfect grain-boundary simulations exhibit the same lattice strain distributions as in neutron diffraction measurements, except for discrepancies near the crack tip within about one-tenth of the plastic zone size. By considering the intergranular damage, which leads to vanishing intergranular strains as damage proceeds, we find a significantly improved agreement between predicted and measured lattice strains inside the fatigue process zone. Consequently, the intergranular damage near fatigue crack tip is concluded to be responsible for fatigue crack growth.

  11. The algorithm of crack and crack tip coordinates detection in optical images during fatigue test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Chemezov, V. O.; Lyubutin, P. S.; Titkov, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    An algorithm of crack detection during fatigue testing of materials, designed to automate the process of cyclic loading and tracking the crack tip, is proposed and tested. The ultimate goal of the study is aimed at controlling the displacements of the optical system with regard to the specimen under fatigue loading to ensure observation of the ‘area of interest’. It is shown that the image region that contains the crack may be detected and positioned with an average error of 1.93%. In terms of determining the crack tip position, the algorithm provides the accuracy of its localization with the average error value of 56 pixels.

  12. The Measurement of Crack Tip Stresses by X-Ray Diffraction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    steel using a semi-automatic x-ray diffraction technique. Crack tip residual stresses were measured in the unloaded condition and crack tip "applied...36 10 X-Ray Diffraction Peak for 1020 Steel ....... .. 38 11 Constant Amplitude Crack Growth Rate Behavior . . . 39 12 X-Ray...investigation, crack tip stresses were measured in specimens of 1020 and 1045 steel using a semi- automatic x-ray diffraction technique. Crack tip residual

  13. Crack tip field and fatigue crack growth in general yielding and low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzhong, Z.; Liu, H. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fatigue life consists of crack nucleation and crack propagation periods. Fatigue crack nucleation period is shorter relative to the propagation period at higher stresses. Crack nucleation period of low cycle fatigue might even be shortened by material and fabrication defects and by environmental attack. In these cases, fatigue life is largely crack propagation period. The characteristic crack tip field was studied by the finite element method, and the crack tip field is related to the far field parameters: the deformation work density, and the product of applied stress and applied strain. The cyclic carck growth rates in specimens in general yielding as measured by Solomon are analyzed in terms of J-integral. A generalized crack behavior in terms of delta is developed. The relations between J and the far field parameters and the relation for the general cyclic crack growth behavior are used to analyze fatigue lives of specimens under general-yielding cyclic-load. Fatigue life is related to the applied stress and strain ranges, the deformation work density, crack nucleus size, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth threshold, Young's modulus, and the cyclic yield stress and strain. The fatigue lives of two aluminum alloys correlate well with the deformation work density as depicted by the derived theory. The general relation is reduced to Coffin-Manson low cycle fatigue law in the high strain region.

  14. In situ examination of moving crack tips in ordered intermetallics.

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, J.; Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, P. R.; Stubbins, J. F.

    1999-01-25

    Recent studies have shown that high stress concentrations at moving crack tips in the intermetallic compound NiTi can induce a crystalline-to-amorphous (C-A) transformation of the crack tip region. This stress-induced C-A transformation has a temperature dependence and crystallization behavior similar to those of ion irradiation-induced C-A transformation of NiTi. The present study examines if these similarities between stress- and irradiation-induced amorphization hold true for two other intermetallic compounds, CuTi and Ni{sub 3}Ti. In situ straining was performed in an intermediate-voltage transmission electron microscope. The presence or absence of an amorphous phase was determined by dark field imaging and selected area diffraction of crack tip regions. Crack tips in both CuTi and Ni{sub 3}Ti were found to remain crystalline upon fracture. The observed absence of stress-induced amorphization in Ni{sub 3}Ti is consistent with its known absence during irradiation, but the absence in CuTi differs from its known irradiation-induced amorphization behavior. Reasons for the similarity and difference are discussed.

  15. CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT AND ANGLE FOR A GROWING CRACK IN CARBON STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    LAM, POH-SANG

    2005-01-18

    The crack tip opening displacements and angles (CTOD/CTOA) are calculated with finite element method based on the test data of a set of constraint-dependent J-R curves for A285 carbon steel. The values of the CTOD/CTOA are initially high at initiation, but rapidly decrease to a nearly constant value. When the common practice is adopted by using only the constant part of CTOD/CTOA as the fracture criterion, the crack growth behavior is shown to be severely underestimated. However, with a bilinear form of CTOD/CTOA fracture criterion which approximates the initial non-constant portion, the experimental load vs. crack extension curves can be closely predicted. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CTOD/CTOA is crack tip constraint dependent. The values of CTOD/CTOA for specimens with various ratios of crack length to specimen width (a/W) are reflected by the J-R curves and their slopes.

  16. Near tip stress and strain fields for short elastic cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soediono, A. H.; Kardomateas, G. A.; Carlson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental fatigue crack growth studies have concluded an apparent anomalous behavior of short cracks. To investigate the reasons for this unexpected behavior, the present paper focuses on identifying the crack length circumstances under which the requirements for a single parameter (K(sub I) or delta K(sub I) if cyclic loading is considered) characterization are violated. Furthermore, an additional quantity, the T stress, as introduced by Rice, and the related biaxiality ratio, B, are calculated for several crack lengths and two configurations, the single-edge-cracked and the centrally-cracked specimen. It is postulated that a two-parameter characterization by K and T (or B) is needed for the adequate description of the stress and strain field around a short crack. To further verify the validity of this postulate, the influence of the third term of the Williams series on the stress, strain and displacement fields around the crack tip and in particular on the B parameter is also examined. It is found that the biaxiality ratio would be more negative if the third term effects are included in both geometries. The study is conducted using the finite element method with linearly elastic material and isoparametric elements and axial (mode I) loading. Moreover, it is clearly shown that it is not proper to postulate the crack size limits for 'short crack' behavior as a normalized ratio with the specimen width, a/w; it should instead be stated as an absolute, or normalized with respect to a small characteristic dimension such as the grain size. Finally, implications regarding the prediction of cyclic (fatigue) growth of short cracks are discussed.

  17. Mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack growth in advanced materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert O.

    2001-03-01

    In terms of in-service failures, cyclic fatigue is the most prevalent form of fracture. Despite the wealth of information on fatigue failures in traditional structural materials such as (ductile) metals and alloys, far less is understood about the susceptibility of the newer advanced materials, such as (brittle) intermetallics, ceramics and their composites. In this presentation, the mechanics and mechanisms of fatigue damage and crack propagation are examined with particular emphasis on the similarities and differences between cyclic crack growth in ductile metallic materials, and corresponding behavior in the more brittle advanced materials. This is achieved by considering the process of subcritical crack growth as a mutual competition between intrinsic mechanisms of microstructural damage ahead of the crack tip, which promote crack growth, and extrinsic mechanisms of crack-tip shielding behind the tip, which impede it. This approach is shown to be important for the understanding of the structural fatigue properties of advanced materials, such as monolithic and composite ceramics, and a range of intermetallics (e.g., TiAl, MoSi2, Nb3Al), as the mechanisms of fatigue in these brittle materials are conceptually distinct from that associated with the well known metal fatigue. Examples of the application and life-prediction methodologies for such materials in fatigue-critical situations will be given from the aerospace and bioengineering industries.

  18. Crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, V. P.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-05-01

    In structural materials with both brittle and ductile phases, cracks often initiate within the brittle phase and propagate dynamically towards the ductile phase. The macroscale, quasistatic toughness of the material thus depends on the outcome of this microscale, dynamic process. Indeed, dynamics has been hypothesized to suppress dislocation emission, which may explain the occurrence of brittle transgranular fracture in mild steels at low temperatures (Lin et al., 1987). Here, crack tip blunting and cleavage under dynamic conditions are explored using continuum mechanics and molecular dynamics simulations. The focus is on two questions: (1) whether dynamics can affect the energy barriers for dislocation emission and cleavage, and (2) what happens in the dynamic "overloaded" situation, in which both processes are energetically possible. In either case, dynamics may shift the balance between brittle cleavage and ductile blunting, thereby affecting the intrinsic ductility of the material. To explore these effects in simulation, a novel interatomic potential is used for which the intrinsic ductility is tunable, and a novel simulation technique is employed, termed as a "dynamic cleavage test", in which cracks can be run dynamically at a prescribed energy release rate into a material. Both theory and simulation reveal, however, that the intrinsic ductility of a material is unaffected by dynamics. The energy barrier to dislocation emission appears to be identical in quasi-static and dynamic conditions, and, in the overloaded situation, ductile crack tip behavior ultimately prevails since a single emission event can blunt and arrest the crack, preventing further cleavage. Thus, dynamics cannot embrittle a ductile material, and the origin of brittle failure in certain alloys (e.g., mild steels) appears unrelated to dynamic effects at the crack tip.

  19. FURTHER EXAMINATION OF CRACK TIP MICROSTRUCTURES IN F82H ON THE LOWER SHELF

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, David S.; Odette, George R.; Spatig, P.

    2003-09-03

    Dislocation microstructures have been further examined near the crack tip of a compact tension specimen of unirradiated F82H loaded to 25.6 MPa m square root at –196 degrees C after fatigue precracking. A specimen was prepared by sectioning, dimple grinding and ion milling to produce electron transparency just ahead of the crack tip. Further ion milling has allowed improved examination of the microstructure immediately ahead of the crack tip. It is found that subgrain structure is relatively unaffected near the crack tip whereas 3 micron from the crack tip, dislocation loop structure was identified.

  20. Advanced turbine blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced blade/shroud system designed to maintain close clearance between blade tips and turbine shrouds and at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling is described. Increased efficiency and increased blade life are attained by using the advanced blade tip seal system. Features of the system include improved clearance control when blade tips preferentially wear the shrouds and a superior single crystal superalloy tip. The tip design, joint location, characterization of the single crystal tip alloy, the abrasive tip treatment, and the component and engine test are among the factors addressed. Results of wear testing, quality control plans, and the total manufacturing cycle required to fully process the blades are also discussed.

  1. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Withers, P J

    2015-03-06

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored.

  2. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Withers, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored. PMID:25624521

  3. Crack tip shielding observed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adhika, Damar Rastri; Tanaka, Masaki; Daio, Takeshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    The dislocation shielding field at a crack tip was experimentally proven at the atomic scale by measuring the local strain in front of the crack tip using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA). Single crystalline (110) silicon wafers were employed. Cracks were introduced using a Vickers indenter at room temperature. The crack tip region was observed using HRTEM followed by strain measurements using GPA. The measured strain field at the crack tip was compressive owing to dislocation shielding, which is in good agreement with the strain field calculated from elastic theory.

  4. Crack tip shielding observed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Adhika, Damar Rastri; Tanaka, Masaki; Daio, Takeshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The dislocation shielding field at a crack tip was experimentally proven at the atomic scale by measuring the local strain in front of the crack tip using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA). Single crystalline (110) silicon wafers were employed. Cracks were introduced using a Vickers indenter at room temperature. The crack tip region was observed using HRTEM followed by strain measurements using GPA. The measured strain field at the crack tip was compressive owing to dislocation shielding, which is in good agreement with the strain field calculated from elastic theory. PMID:26115957

  5. Microstructure characterization and thermal behavior around crack tip under electropulsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shaopeng; Wang, Gang; Deng, Dewei; Rong, Yiming

    2015-10-01

    Electropulsing treatment is a practical method to arrest crack propagation. The microstructure characterization and research on the forming mechanism are difficult due to the small affected area (0.01-1 mm2), high-temperature gradient (102 K/mm) and change rate (104-107 K/s). In this paper, the 1045 steel plate with a preexisting crack subjected to high-voltage pulses was investigated. The surface morphologies and microstructure around the crack tip were observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results showed that the material around the tip melted, splashed and blunted under electropulsing treatment. The microstructure around the molten hole was divided into four distinct regions. An electro-thermal coupled model considering material ejection, cavity formation, current oscillation and temperature-dependent material properties was proposed to investigate the dynamic formation process of molten hole and gradient microstructure. The uneven temperature distribution, high cooling rate and insufficient carbon diffusion led to the formation of gradient microstructure.

  6. Thermal Analysis by Numerical Methods of Debonding Effects near the Crack Tip under Composite Repairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamasphyros, G. J.; Kanderakis, G. N.; Marioli-Riga, Z. P.

    2003-05-01

    Composite patch repair of metallic structures has become a rapidly grown technology in the aerospace field due to the demand for significant increases in the useful life of both military and civilian aircraft. This has led to significant advances overall in the repair technology of cracked metallic structures. Adhesively bonded composite reinforcements offer remarkable advantages such as mechanical efficiency, repair time, cost reduction, high structural integrity, repair inspectability, damage tolerance to further causes of future strains, anticorrosion and antifretting properties. However, because of the different nature and properties of the materials that form a repair (metals, composites, adhesives), side-effects may occur: debonding due to high stress concentration in the vicinity of the crack, thermal residual stresses because of different thermal expansion coefficients of the adherents, etc. In this paper a three-dimensional finite elements analysis of the area around a patch repaired crack of a typical aircraft fuselage is performed, taking into account both the properties and the geometry of the involved materials. Examined in this case are 2024-T3 aluminum alloy as base material, FM-73 as the adhesive system and F4/5521 boron/epoxy prepreg as the patch material. Through the thickness stresses near the crack tip and along the patch edges with and without temperature effects are calculated and debonding near the crack tip is examined. Finally, the calculated results are compared with existing theories.

  7. Tipping point analysis of cracking in reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M.; Livina, V.; Niewczas, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that tipping point analysis of strain data can provide reactive and predictive indicators of cracking and structural transitions in a reinforced concrete system. The method is able to detect trend-driven transitions in a short time series of approximately 2000 datapoints, providing a clear indication of when a concrete beam under gradual bending progresses from a linear to a nonlinear strain response. The method is also able to provide an early warning signal of the appearance of bifurcations, such as cracks, with a forewarning of 200-500 datapoints. The method, which was originally developed for applications in geophysics, shows promising results in the area of structural health monitoring, in particular, for real-time observations of civil constructions.

  8. A Finite Element Study on Crack Tip Deformation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    STRAINS 36 - CHAPTER VI CRACK OPENING DISPLACEHENTS AND J- INTEGRALS . . 53 - ‘ CHAPTER VII CONCLTJDING R E M A B K S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6...TIP For a non—linear elastic body Rice25 defined a path independent integral , Jby J~~ [Wdy—T~~~ ds] 1—2 4ax F • - where the curve r is tranversed in...energy density function and displacement vec— tor respectively. It is also demonstrated26 that the 3— integral is equivalent t to the change in

  9. Neutron and X-ray Microbeam Diffraction Studies around a Fatigue-Crack Tip after Overload

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sooyeol; Barabash, Rozaliya; Chung, Jin-Seok; Liaw, Peter K; Choo, Hahn; Sun, Yinan; Fan, C; Li, Li; Brown, Donald; Ice, Gene E

    2008-01-01

    An in-situ neutron diffraction technique was used to investigate the lattice-strain distributions and plastic deformation around a crack tip after overload. The lattice-strain profiles around a crack tip were measured as a function of the applied load during the tensile loading cycles after overload. Dislocation densities calculated from the diffraction peak broadening were presented as a function of the distance from the crack tip. Furthermore, the crystallographic orientation variations were examined near a crack tip using polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction combined with differential aperture microscopy. Crystallographic tilts are considerably observed beneath the surface around a crack tip, and these are consistent with the high dislocation densities near the crack tip measured by neutron peak broadening.

  10. Advanced optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, M. J.; Honeycutt, R. E.; Nordlund, R. E.; Robinson, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced electro-optical system was developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in an operating gas turbine engine. This system is applicable to fan, compressor, and turbine blade tip clearance measurement requirements, and the system probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. A study of optical properties of blade tips was conducted to establish measurement system application limitations. A series of laboratory tests was conducted to determine the measurement system's operational performance characteristics and to demonstrate system capability under simulated operating gas turbine environmental conditions. Operational and environmental performance test data are presented.

  11. A dynamic model of a cantilever beam with a closed, embedded horizontal crack including local flexibilities at crack tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Charalambides, P. G.; Shao, Y. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Fang, X. M.

    2016-11-01

    As one of major failure modes of mechanical structures subjected to periodic loads, embedded cracks due to fatigue can cause catastrophic failure of machineries. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of a structure with an embedded crack is helpful for early crack detection and diagnosis. In this work, a new three-segment beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the vibration of a cantilever beam with a closed, fully embedded horizontal crack, which is assumed to be not located at its clamped or free end or distributed near its top or bottom side. The three-segment beam model is assumed to be a linear elastic system, and it does not account for the nonlinear crack closure effect; the top and bottom segments always stay in contact at their interface during the beam vibration. It can model the effects of local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips, which cannot be captured by previous methods in the literature. The middle segment of the beam containing the crack is modeled by a mechanically consistent, reduced bending moment. Each beam segment is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the compliances at the crack tips are analytically determined using a J-integral approach and verified using commercial finite element software. Using compatibility conditions at the crack tips and the transfer matrix method, the nature frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are obtained. The three-segment beam model is used to investigate the effects of local flexibilities at crack tips on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. A stationary wavelet transform (SWT) method is used to process the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam; jumps in single-level SWT decomposition detail coefficients can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack.

  12. Mixed-mode crack tip loading and crack deflection in 1D quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhibin; Scheel, Johannes; Ricoeur, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Quasicrystals (QC) are a new class of materials besides crystals and amorphous solids and have aroused much attention of researchers since they were discovered. This paper presents a generalized fracture theory including the J-integral and crack closure integrals, relations between J1, J2 and the stress intensity factors as well as the implementation of the near-tip stress and displacement solutions of 1D QC. Different crack deflection criteria, i.e. the J-integral and maximum circumferential stress criteria, are investigated for mixed-mode loading conditions accounting for phonon-phason coupling. One focus is on the influence of phason stress intensity factors on crack deflection angles.

  13. Crack-tip-opening angle measurements and crack tunneling under stable tearing in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, D. S.; Sutton, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    The stable tearing behavior of thin sheets 2024-T3 aluminum alloy was studied for middle crack tension specimens having initial cracks that were: flat cracks (low fatigue stress) and 45 degrees through-thickness slant cracks (high fatigue stress). The critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) values during stable tearing were measured by two independent methods, optical microscopy and digital image correlation. Results from the two methods agreed well. The CTOA measurements and observations of the fracture surfaces showed that the initial stable tearing behavior of low and high fatigue stress tests is significantly different. The cracks in the low fatigue stress tests underwent a transition from flat-to-slant crack growth, during which the CTOA values were high and significant crack tunneling occurred. After crack growth equal to about the thickness, CTOA reached a constant value of 6 deg and after crack growth equal to about twice the thickness, crack tunneling stabilized. The initial high CTOA values, in the low fatigue crack tests, coincided with large three-dimensional crack front shape changes due to a variation in the through-thickness crack tip constraint. The cracks in the high fatigue stress tests reach the same constant CTOA value after crack growth equal to about the thickness, but produced only a slightly higher CTOA value during initial crack growth. For crack growth on the 45 degree slant, the crack front and local field variables are still highly three-dimensional. However, the constant CTOA values and stable crack front shape may allow the process to be approximated with two-dimensional models.

  14. Sub-10-micrometer toughening and crack tip toughness of dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Ang, Siang Fung; Schulz, Anja; Pacher Fernandes, Rodrigo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2011-04-01

    In previous studies, enamel showed indications to occlude small cracks in-vivo and exhibited R-curve behaviors for bigger cracks ex-vivo. This study quantifies the crack tip's toughness (K(I0),K(III0)), the crack's closure stress and the cohesive zone size at the crack tip of enamel and investigates the toughening mechanisms near the crack tip down to the length scale of a single enamel crystallite. The crack-opening-displacement (COD) profile of cracks induced by Vickers indents on mature bovine enamel was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mode I crack tip toughness K(I0) of cracks along enamel rod boundaries and across enamel rods exhibit a similar range of values: K(I0,Ir)=0.5-1.6MPa m(0.5) (based on Irwin's 'near-field' solution) and K(I0,cz)=0.8-1.5MPa m(0.5) (based on the cohesive zone solution of the Dugdale-Muskhelishvili (DM) crack model). The mode III crack tip toughness K(III0,Ir) was computed as 0.02-0.15MPa m(0.5). The crack-closure stress at the crack tip was computed as 163-770 MPa with a cohesive zone length and width 1.6-10.1μm and 24-44 nm utilizing the cohesive zone solution. Toughening elements were observed under AFM and SEM: crack bridging due to protein ligament and hydroxyapatite fibres (micro- and nanometer scale) as well as microcracks were identified.

  15. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  16. Toughening response of a crack-tip surrounded by a local elastic gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2014-03-01

    The healing process exhibited by biological structures has inspired the creation of engineered materials capable of impeding crack propagation. Furthermore, recent observation of local elastic modification at the crack-tip has shown drastic improvement in the fracture behavior of materials. By taking advantage of the highly temperature dependent elastic properties of a thermo-responsive shape memory polyurethane, an annular elastic gradient around the crack-tip is created by applying thermal energy. A large reduction (˜95% decreases) in the stress intensity factor is obtained. To fully understand the toughening mechanism, finite element and micromechanics models are created to simulate fracture behavior of a compact tension specimen with local property modification of thermo-responsive polymers at the crack-tip. The modeling results are validated through the use of a digital image correlation technique which can be utilized to provide the stress intensity factor at the crack-tip, confirming the toughening mechanism and the accuracy of the models.

  17. Fatigue-crack propagation in advanced aerospace materials: Aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1988-10-01

    Characteristics of fatigue-crack propagation behavior are reviewed for recently developed commercial aluminum-lithium alloys, with emphasis on the underlying micromechanisms associated with crack advance and their implications to damage-tolerant design. Specifically, crack-growth kinetics in Alcoa 2090-T8E41, Alcan 8090 and 8091, and Pechiney 2091 alloys, and in certain powder-metallurgy alloys, are examined as a function of microstructure, plate orientation, temperature, crack size, load ratio and loading sequence. In general, it is found that growth rates for long (> 10 mm) cracks are nearly 2--3 orders of magnitude slower than in traditional 2000 and 7000 series alloys at comparable stress-intensity levels. In additions, Al-Li alloys shown enhanced crack-growth retardations following the application of tensile overloads and retain superior fatigue properties even after prolonged exposure at overaging temperatures; however, they are less impressive in the presence of compression overloads and further show accelerated crack-growth behavior for microstructurally-small (2--1000 {mu}m) cracks (some three orders of magnitude faster than long cracks). These contrasting observations are attributed to a very prominent role of crack-tip shielding during fatigue-crack growth in Al-Li alloys, promoted largely by the tortuous and zig-zag nature of the crack-path morphologies. Such crack paths result in locally reduced crack-tip stress intensities, due to crack deflection and consequent crack wedging from fracture-surface asperities (roughness-induced crack closure); however, such mechanisms are far less potent in the presence of compressive loads, which act to crush the asperities, and for small cracks, where the limited crack wake severely restricts the shielding effect. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  18. The Mode 1 mechanical crack tip stress field in hyperelastic and incompressible materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, Claudia J.

    1995-01-01

    The finite deformation field of a plane strain Mode 1 crack in a hyperelastic and incompressible material was examined under the assumptions of small scale nonlinearity. Finite element analyses were performed for two different material laws, a Neo-Hookean material and a third order invariant of a Rivlin material. The numerical results for both materials were compared to the appropriate theoretical asymptotic solution. A local cavitation locus surrounding the crack tip was identified for the Neo-Hookean material. For the third order invariant Rivlin material, maximum values of the dominant stress component were found close to the surface of the crack, above and below the deformed crack tip.

  19. The Relationship Between Crack-Tip Strain and Subcritical Cracking Thresholds for Steels in High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibur, Kevin A.; Somerday, Brian P.; Marchi, Chris San; Foulk, James W.; Dadfarnia, Mohsen; Sofronis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    Threshold stress intensity factors were measured in high-pressure hydrogen gas for a variety of low alloy ferritic steels using both constant crack opening displacement and rising crack opening displacement procedures. Thresholds for crack extension under rising displacement, K THi, for crack extension under constant displacement, K_{{THi}}^{*} , and for crack arrest under constant displacement K THa, were identified. These values were not found to be equivalent, i.e. K THi < K THa < K_{{THi}}^{*} . The hydrogen assisted fracture mechanism was determined to be strain controlled for all of the alloys in this study, and the micromechanics of strain controlled fracture are used to explain the observed disparities between the different threshold measurements. K THa and K THi differ because the strain singularity of a stationary crack is stronger than that of a propagating crack; K THa must be larger than K THi to achieve equivalent crack tip strain at the same distance from the crack tip. Hydrogen interacts with deformation mechanisms, enhancing strain localization and consequently altering both the nucleation and growth stages of strain controlled fracture mechanisms. The timing of load application and hydrogen exposure, i.e., sequential for constant displacement tests and concurrent for rising displacement tests, leads to differences in the strain history relative to the environmental exposure history and promotes the disparity between K_{{THi}}^{*} and K THi. K THi is the only conservative measurement of fracture threshold among the methods presented here.

  20. Three-Orthogonal-Direction Stress Mapping around a Fatigue-Crack Tip Using Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, E.-Wen; Lee, Soo Yeol; Woo, Wanchuck; Lee, Kuan-Wei

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative determination of the stress fields around the crack tip is a challenging and important subject to understand the fatigue crack-growth mechanism. In the current study, we measured the distribution of residual stresses and the evolution of the stress fields around a fatigue crack tip subjected to the constant-amplitude cyclic loading in a 304L stainless steel compact-tension (CT) specimen. The three orthogonal stress components ( i.e., crack growth, crack opening, and through thickness) of the CT specimen were determined as a function of distance from the crack tip with 1-mm spatial resolution along the crack-propagation direction. In-situ neutron-diffraction results show that the enlarged tensile stresses were developed during loading along the through-thickness direction at a localized volume close to the crack tip, resulting in the lattice expansion in all three orthogonal directions during P max. The current study suggests that the atypical plane strainlike behavior observed at the midthickness position might be the reason for the mechanism of the faster crack-growth rate inside the interior than that near the surface.

  1. Limitations to the small scale yielding approximation for crack tip plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Recent finite-element results by S. G. Larsson and A. J. Carlsson suggest a limited range of validity to the 'small scale yielding approximation,' whereby small crack tip plastic zones are correlated in terms of the elastic stress intensity factor. It is shown with the help of a model for plane strain yielding that their results may be explained by considering the non-singular stress, acting parallel to the crack at its tip, which accompanies the inverse square-root elastic singularity. Further implications of the non-singular stress term for crack tip deformations and fracturing are examined. It is suggested that its effect on crack tip parameters, such as the opening displacement and J-integral, is less pronounced than its effect on the yield zone size.

  2. Computational Contour of Mixed Mode Crack-Tip Plastic Zone for Aluminum Alloy 2024T351

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tien Dung; Leroy, Rene; Joly, Damien

    2013-07-01

    The studies on mixed mode crack-tip plastic zones are one of the fundamental importance in describing the process of failure and in evaluation of the material life. The approach is also applied to predict crack initiation under mixed mode loading. The objective of this work is to study the contour of mixed mode crack-tip plastic zones, the minimum plastic zone radius (MPZR) and the direction of initial crack for aluminum alloy 2024T351 in Compact tension specimen by using Matlab software. This paper computed the shape, size of plastic zone at crack-tip and the minimum plastic zone radius with reference to the loading angle and stress intensity factor in linear elastic fracture mechanics regime for plane strain condition according to Von Mises yield criteria, the study is conducted for various loading angle. We found that the mixed mode loading (β = 60°) can lead to material fracture earlier than any mode loading.

  3. Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in (alpha)RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    November 2013 Anisotropic Dislocation Line Energy and Crack Tip Dislocation Nucleation in αRDX Lynn B. Munday and Jaroslaw Knap Computational ...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This work reports on the algorithms used to determine the...anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties of dislocations and their nucleation from a crack tip. The appendix contains a numerical implementation of these

  4. Crack tip microsampling and growth rate measurements in a 0.021%S low alloy steel in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.M.; Andresen, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    The concentration of crack tip sulfur species and the corresponding crack growth rates are examined during the environmental assisted cracking of a low alloy steel in high temperature, high purity water. A novel microsampling technique is used to quantify the crack tip chemistry in a growing crack in parallel with measurements of crack growth rate under various environmental conditions. The present study investigates the dissolved crack tip sulfur content of a medium sulfur (0.021wt%) A533B low alloy steel compact tension specimen and the effects of corrosion potential, fatigue loading frequency, bulk sulfate additions, and sampling flow rate. Results are compared with previously published crack tip chemistries collected from a lower sulfur (0.013%) steel in the same environment. Findings indicate that, for both steels, high corrosion potential (oxygenated) conditions correspond with high crack growth rates and high dissolved crack tip sulfur species. In comparison, low corrosion potential produce both low crack growth rates and low dissolved sulfur levels at the crack tip. Both materials exhibit somewhat lower dissolved sulfur levels and lower corresponding crack growth rates when the cyclic loading frequency is decreased from 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}5} Hz, although environmentally enhanced growth rates are still observed. Crack tip microsamples collected during bulk sulfate additions and nitrogen deaerated conditions show higher crack tip concentrations than the simple additive contribution of the prior crack tip sulfur level plus the bulk H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} level. This finding indicates that it is not the potential gradient, per se, which enhances crack tip dissolution, but the aggressive chemistry in the crack.

  5. Finite deformation analysis of crack tip fields in plastically compressible hardening-softening-hardening solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, D.; Singh, S.; Needleman, A.

    2016-11-01

    Crack tip fields are calculated under plane strain small scale yielding conditions. The material is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation with various hardening-softening-hardening hardness functions. Both plastically compressible and plastically incompressible solids are considered. Displacements corresponding to the isotropic linear elastic mode I crack field are prescribed on a remote boundary. The initial crack is taken to be a semi-circular notch and symmetry about the crack plane is imposed. Plastic compressibility is found to give an increased crack opening displacement for a given value of the applied loading. The plastic zone size and shape are found to depend on the plastic compressibility, but not much on whether material softening occurs near the crack tip. On the other hand, the near crack tip stress and deformation fields depend sensitively on whether or not material softening occurs. The combination of plastic compressibility and softening (or softening-hardening) has a particularly strong effect on the near crack tip stress and deformation fields.

  6. Finite deformation analysis of crack tip fields in plastically compressible hardening-softening-hardening solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, D.; Singh, S.; Needleman, A.

    2017-02-01

    Crack tip fields are calculated under plane strain small scale yielding conditions. The material is characterized by a finite strain elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation with various hardening-softening-hardening hardness functions. Both plastically compressible and plastically incompressible solids are considered. Displacements corresponding to the isotropic linear elastic mode I crack field are prescribed on a remote boundary. The initial crack is taken to be a semi-circular notch and symmetry about the crack plane is imposed. Plastic compressibility is found to give an increased crack opening displacement for a given value of the applied loading. The plastic zone size and shape are found to depend on the plastic compressibility, but not much on whether material softening occurs near the crack tip. On the other hand, the near crack tip stress and deformation fields depend sensitively on whether or not material softening occurs. The combination of plastic compressibility and softening (or softening-hardening) has a particularly strong effect on the near crack tip stress and deformation fields.

  7. Relating Crack-tip Deformation to Mineralization and Fracture Resistance in Human Femur Cortical Bone

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwai S.; Chan, Candace K.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    The risk of bone fracture increases with age because of a variety of factors that include, among others, decreasing bone quantity and quality. Despite recent advances, the roles of bone microstructure and trace mineralization in the fracture process are not well understood. In this study, we utilize a combination of in-situ fracture toughness testing, digital strain mapping, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques to characterize the near-tip strain field, fracture toughness, and chemical elements on the fracture surface of bone specimens from donors of two ages (48-year-old and 78-year-old females). We show that age-related embrittlement of bone fracture is associated with higher near-tip strains by lamellar shear and crack defection at lamellar interfaces in the young bone and their absence in the old bone. The different near-tip deformation behaviors may be associated with the presence of Si and Zn in the young bone but more Ca and P and the lack of Si and Zn in the old bone. PMID:19497396

  8. Finite element solutions for crack-tip behavior in small-scale yielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracey, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The subject considered is the stress and deformation fields in a cracked elastic-plastic power law hardening material under plane strain tensile loading. An incremental plasticity finite element formulation is developed for accurate analysis of the complete field problem including the extensively deformed near tip region, the elastic-plastic region, and the remote elastic region. The formulation has general applicability and was used to solve the small scale yielding problem for a set of material hardening exponents. Distributions of stress, strain, and crack opening displacement at the crack tip and through the elastic-plastic zone are presented as a function of the elastic stress intensity factor and material properties.

  9. The role of crack tip strain rate in the stress corrosion cracking of high strength steels in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieck, R. M.; Atrens, A.; Smith, I. O.

    1989-05-01

    Creep tests have been performed on fracture mechanics specimens of as-quenched 4340 and 3.5NiCrMoV rotor steel to confirm the importance of crack tip strain rate in causing stress corrosion cracking. By allowing creep in a noncracking environment, dry air for the high strength steels tested, cracking did not occur when water, the corrosive solution, was later added to the system. Thus, it is possible to inhibit stress corrosion in spite of conditions otherwise conducive to crack growth. Conditions necessary to restart cracking were also tested. The importance of this result in terms of the mechanism of stress corrosion and difficulties in measuring KISCC is discussed.

  10. 3-D structures of crack-tip dislocations and their shielding effect revealed by electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaki; Honda, Masaki; Sadamatsu, Sunao; Higashida, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    Three-dimensional structures of crack-tip dislocations in silicon crystals have been examined by combining scanning transmission electron microscopy and computed tomography. Cracks were introduced by a Vickers hardness tester at room temperature, and the sample was heated at 823 K for 1 h in order to introduce dislocations around the crack tips. Dislocation segments cut out from loops were observed around the crack tip, the three-dimensional structure of which was characterized by using by electron tomography. Their Burgers vectors including the sings were also determined by oscillating contrasts along dislocations. In order to investigate the effect of the dislocations on fracture behaviours, local stress intensity factor due to one dislocation was calculated, which indicates the dislocations observed were shielding type to increase fracture toughness.

  11. Microstructural changes induced near crack tip during corrosion fatigue tests in austenitic-ferritic steel.

    PubMed

    Gołebiowski, B; Swiatnicki, W A; Gaspérini, M

    2010-03-01

    Microstructural changes occurring during fatigue tests of austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel (DSS) in air and in hydrogen-generating environment have been investigated. Hydrogen charging of steel samples during fatigue crack growth (FCG) tests was performed by cathodic polarization of specimens in 0.1M H(2)SO(4) aqueous solution. Microstructural investigations of specimens after FCG tests were carried out using transmission electron microscopy to reveal the density and arrangement of dislocations formed near crack tip. To determine the way of crack propagation in the microstructure, electron backscatter diffraction investigations were performed on fatigue-tested samples in both kinds of environment. To reveal hydrogen-induced phase transformations the atomic force microscopy was used. The above investigations allowed us to define the character of fatigue crack propagation and microstructural changes near the crack tip. It was found that crack propagation after fatigue tests in air is accompanied with plastic deformation; a high density of dislocations is observed at large distance from the crack. After fatigue tests performed during hydrogen charging the deformed zone containing high density of dislocations is narrow compared to that after fatigue tests in air. It means that hydrogenation leads to brittle character of fatigue crack propagation. In air, fatigue cracks propagate mostly transgranularly, whereas in hydrogen-generating environment the cracks have mixed transgranular/interfacial character.

  12. In situ SEM observation of microscale strain fields around a crack tip in polycrystalline molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Li, W. C.; Jin, Y. J.; Wang, L. F.; Zhao, C. W.; Xing, Y. M.; Lang, F. C.; Yan, L.; Yang, S. T.

    2016-06-01

    In situ scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the crack initiation and propagation in polycrystalline molybdenum under uniaxial tensile load at room temperature. The microscale grid pattern was fabricated using the sputtering deposition technology on the specimen surface covered with a fine square mesh copper grid. The microscale strain fields around the crack tip were measured by geometric phase analysis technique and compared with the theoretical solutions based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. The results showed that as the displacement increases, the crack propagated mainly perpendicular to the tensile direction during the fracture process of molybdenum. The normal strain ɛ xx and shear strain ɛ xy are relatively small, and the normal strain ɛ yy holds a dominant position in the deformation fields and plays a key role in the whole fracture process of molybdenum. With the increase in displacement, the ɛ yy increases rapidly and the two lobes grow significantly but maintain the same shape and orientation. The experimental ɛ yy is in agreement with the theoretical solution. Along the x-axis in front of the crack tip, there is minor discrepancy between the experimental ɛ yy and theoretical ɛ yy within 25 μm from the crack tip, but the agreement between them is very good far from the crack tip (>25 μm).

  13. Phase Transformation Surfaces Analysis for SMA Around a Crack Tip with Curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laydi, Mohamed Rachid; Lexcellent, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Under loading, for a shape memory alloy, the stress concentration around the crack tip, inside a plate, is a serious fracture problem. The tip shape constitutes an important data. In a recent paper (Lexcellent et al. in Int J Fract 169:1-13, 2011), the determination of phase transformation surfaces around a crack tip without curvature was investigated. For crack with curvature, the approximate stress field solution proposed by Creager and Paris is used (Int J Fract 3:247-252, 1967). The knowledge of phase transformation surfaces dimensions and shapes can help us to define a fracture criterion. The study is focussed on mode I because this opening mode is the most dangerous for the structure. Also, comparisons between experiments and computing can be made. Qualitative agreement was obtained.

  14. Effects of alloying on crack-tip deformation and shielding in gamma-based titanium aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, C.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    1997-03-01

    Alloys based on gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) are being considered as structural materials in a number of aerospace and automotive applications. The effects of ternary alloying of Ti-48Al (with 1--3 at.% Mn, Cr and V), and micro-alloying with 0.2% W, on crack-tip deformation and shielding mechanisms are discussed in this paper, for failure under cyclic (fatigue) loading. Crack-tip deformation mechanisms are elucidated by crack-tip transmission electron microscopy examination. Twin process zone dimensions and the degree of deformation-induced twinning are also determined via optical interference and transmission electron microscopy techniques, respectively. A micromechanics-based model is proposed for the estimation of twin toughening ratios under monotonic or cyclic loading. The model, which is based on non-linear fracture mechanics concepts, assumes an average smeared plastic stress distribution across the twin process zone. Differences in the resistance to crack growth in the ternary alloys are related to intrinsic microstructural features and crack-tip shielding phenomena.

  15. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  16. Crack Tip Plasticity Associated with Corrosion Assisted Fatigue.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-18

    usually turns out to be approximately 4.11Y Irving and McCartney, in reviewing[l] the many theo- retical models which have been proposed to explain the...January 1977. 9. H. L. Ewalds, Eng. Frac. Mech., 13, 1980, 1001. 10. J. Schijve and W. J. Arkema , "Crack Closure and the Environmental Effect on

  17. Some remarks on elastic crack-tip stress fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that if the displacement field and stress intensity factor are known as functions of crack length for any symmetrical load system acting on a linear elastic body in plane strain, then the stress intensity factor for any other symmetrical load system whatsoever on the same body may be directly determined. The result is closely related to Bueckner's (1970) weight function, through which the stress intensity factor is expressed as a sum of work-like products between applied forces and values of the weight function at their points of application. An example of the method is given wherein the solution for a crack in a remotely uniform stress field is used to generate the expression for the stress intensity factor due to an arbitrary traction distribution on the faces of a crack. A corresponding theory is developed in an appendix for three-dimensional crack problems, although this appears to be directly useful chiefly for problems in which there is axial symmetry.

  18. In situ investigation of the effect of hydrogen on the plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip and the crack propagation of 0.15C-1.5Mn-0.17V-0.012N steel

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, B.; Nan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Kang, D.T.

    1998-02-01

    The influence of hydrogen on the deformation ahead of the crack tip and the crack propagation were observed and studied in situ under transmission electron microscopy with dynamic tensile deformation for steel. The results show that hydrogen can promote local plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip and change the mode of crack propagation so that the crack will propagate in a zigzag path.

  19. Thermal activation of crack-tip plasticity: The brittle or ductile response of a stationary crack loaded to failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmaier, Alexander; Gumbsch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Metals with a body centered cubic crystal structure, like tungsten, exhibit a pronounced semibrittle regime at intermediate temperatures. In this regime their fracture toughness strongly depends on loading rate and temperature. Crack-tip plasticity has been studied with two-dimensional numerical simulations on different length scales. The method of discrete dislocation dynamics has been employed to test various assumptions made on the deformation mechanisms and the origin of the strong loading rate and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in this regime. A continuum elasticity-viscoplasticity model capable of describing larger plastic deformations yields complementary information with respect to the discrete dislocation method. Despite of their fundamental differences, both simulations consistently show that crack-tip plasticity can be described as a time-dependent microplastic deformation with well-defined activation energy and that the blunting of the crack tip plays an important role for the transition from semibrittle to ductile behavior. Based on general findings of the numerical simulations an Arrheniuslike relation between loading rate and temperature at points of constant fracture toughness is derived. This scaling relation shows the dominance of dislocation mobility as the rate limiting factor for fracture toughness and for the brittle-to-ductile transition itself. The results of our simulations are also consistent with experimental data gathered on tungsten single crystals. Thus, the proposed scaling relation can be used to predict fracture toughnesses in a wide range of temperatures and loading rates, based on only a small number of experiments.

  20. Crack tip process zone domain switching in a soft lead zirconate titanate ceramics.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J. L.; Motahari, S. M.; Varlioglu, M.; Lienert, U.; Bernier, J. V.; Hoffman, M.; Ustundag, E.; Univ. of Florida; Iowa State Univ.; The Univ. of New South Wales

    2007-09-01

    Non-180{sup o} domain switching leads to fracture toughness enhancement in ferroelastic materials. Using a high-energy synchrotron X-ray source and a two-dimensional detector in transmission geometry, non-180{sup o} domain switching and crystallographic lattice strains were measured in situ around a crack tip in a soft tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramic. At K{sub 1} = 0.71 MPa m{sup 1/2} and below the initiation toughness, the process zone size, spatial distribution of preferred domain orientations, and lattice strains near the crack tip are a strong function of direction within the plane of the compact tension specimen. Deviatoric stresses and strains calculated using a finite element model and projected to the same directions measured in diffraction correlate with the measured spatial distributions and directional dependencies. Some preferred orientations remain in the crack wake after the crack has propagated; within the crack wake, the tetragonal 0 0 1 axis has a preferred orientation both perpendicular to the crack face and toward the crack front.

  1. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of Mode-I stress intensity to Mode-II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  2. The effects of crack surface friction and roughness on crack tip stress fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Plesha, Michael E.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which can be used to incorporate the effects of friction and tortuosity along crack surfaces through a constitutive law applied to the interface between opposing crack surfaces. The problem of a crack with a saw-tooth surface in an infinite medium subjected to a far-field shear stress is solved and the ratios of mode I stress intensity to mode II stress intensity are calculated for various coefficients of friction and material properties. The results show that tortuosity and friction lead to an increase in fracture loads and alter the direction of crack propagation.

  3. Analytical and numerical evaluation of crack-tip plasticity of an axisymmetrically loaded penny-shaped crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiyat, Sumitra; Jin, Xiaoqing; Keer, Leon M.; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood

    2008-01-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches are used to solve an axisymmetric crack problem with a refined Barenblatt-Dugdale approach. The analytical method utilizes potential theory in classical linear elasticity, where a suitable potential is selected for the treatment of the mixed boundary problem. The closed-form solution for the problem with constant pressure applied near the tip of a penny-shaped crack is studied to illustrate the methodology of the analysis and also to provide a fundamental solution for the numerical approach. Taking advantage of the superposition principle, an exact solution is derived to predict the extent of the plastic zone where a Tresca yield condition is imposed, which also provides a useful benchmark for the numerical study presented in the second part. For an axisymmetric crack, the numerical discretization is required only in the radial direction, which renders the programming work efficient. Through an iterative scheme, the numerical method is able to determine the size of the crack tip plasticity, which is governed by the nonlinear von Mises criterion. The relationships between the applied load and the length of the plastic zone are compared for three different yielding conditions. To cite this article: S. Chaiyat et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  4. Mapping of crack tip strains and twinned zone in a hexagonal close packed zirconium alloy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Daymond, M. R.; Holt, R. A.; Almer, J. D.

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes the use of synchrotron X-ray diffraction to map crack tip strain field evolution and initiation of twinning under applied load in a fatigue pre-cracked zirconium alloy. Compact tension specimens were machined in two orientations from a textured rolled plate and loaded along the normal direction and the transverse direction to rolling. Residual strains due to fatigue and the strains introduced at applied K, of approximately 10 and 30 MPa{radical}m were measured for the two specimen orientations. Maps of the region of twinned material were determined. The experimental data is compared to finite element (FE) calculations for the crack tip strain fields and a prediction of the size of the twinned region using a multiscale model based on combining an FE approach with an elastoplastic self-consistent polycrystalline plasticity model.

  5. Gradient plasticity crack tip characterization by means of the extended finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pañeda, E.; Natarajan, S.; Bordas, S.

    2017-01-01

    Strain gradient plasticity theories are being widely used for fracture assessment, as they provide a richer description of crack tip fields by incorporating the influence of geometrically necessary dislocations. Characterizing the behavior at the small scales involved in crack tip deformation requires, however, the use of a very refined mesh within microns to the crack. In this work a novel and efficient gradient-enhanced numerical framework is developed by means of the extended finite element method (X-FEM). A mechanism-based gradient plasticity model is employed and the approximation of the displacement field is enriched with the stress singularity of the gradient-dominated solution. Results reveal that the proposed numerical methodology largely outperforms the standard finite element approach. The present work could have important implications on the use of microstructurally-motivated models in large scale applications. The non-linear X-FEM code developed in MATLAB can be downloaded from http://www.empaneda.com/codes.

  6. Field-theoretical description of the formation of a crack tip process zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulbitch, Alexei; Korzhenevskii, Alexander L.

    2016-12-01

    The crack tip process zone is regarded as a region where the solid physical properties are altered due to high stress. They are controlled by the solid degrees of freedom existing within the zone and vanishing outside, and can be divided into two classes: (1) zones always existing at the tip and (2) those emerging as soon as certain conditions are met. We focus on the zones of the second kind and argue that they can be described analogously to phase transitions taking place locally. We report both a numerical and an analytical solution for the process zone. We find that the zone can only exist within a limited domain of the dynamic phase diagram, at one side of the phase transition line. We describe this domain and establish its dependence on the crack velocity. We show the existence of a critical crack velocity above which the zone cannot exist.

  7. The effect of non-singular stresses on crack-tip constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Z.-Z.; Hancock, J. W.

    T HE EFFECT of the T-stress on the small-scale yielding field of a crack in plane strain conditions has been examined using modified boundary layer formulations. The numerically calculated stresses at the crack tip are represented by slip line fields for small-strain theory. Positive T-stresses cause plasticity to envelop the crack tip and exhibit a Prandtl field, corresponding to the limiting solution of the HRR field for a nonhardening material. Moderate compressive T-stresses reduce the direct stresses within the plastic zone by decreasing the hydrostatic stress by T. This causes a loss of J-dominance, and a stress distribution represented by an incomplete Prandtl field.

  8. A Relationship Between Constraint and the Critical Crack Tip Opening Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; James, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Of the various approaches used to model and predict fracture, the Crack Tip Opening Angle (CTOA) fracture criterion has been successfully used for a wide range of two-dimensional thin-sheet and thin plate applications. As thicker structure is considered, modeling the full three-dimensional fracture process will become essential. This paper investigates relationships between the local CTOA evaluated along a three-dimensional crack front and the corresponding local constraint. Previously reported tunneling crack front shapes were measured during fracture by pausing each test and fatigue cycling the specimens to mark the crack surface. Finite element analyses were run to model the tunneling shape during fracture, with the analysis loading conditions duplicating those tests. The results show an inverse relationship between the critical fracture value and constraint which is valid both before maximum load and after maximum load.

  9. Actual light deflections in regions of crack tips and their influence on measurements in photomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Friedrich W.; Pindera, Jerzy T.; Wen, Baicheng

    Crack-tip photomechanics procedures are based on certain simplifying assumptions that are seldom discussed. In a recent paper the theoretical bases of the shadow optical methods of caustics have been analysed and tested using the results obtained by three analytical-experimental procedures, namely classical strain gage techniques, isodynes, and strain-gradient index method. It has been concluded that the straing-radient index method appears to be a suitable tool for analysis of stress states near crack tips and notches and, in particular, for testing the predictive power of the pertinent singular solutions of the linear elastic fracture mechanics and the ranges of their applicability. In the present paper, a more detailed analysis of all results obtained in light deflection experiments allows to quantify the contribution of both involved effects and to determine the distortion of the faces of the investigated plates along their crack planes. The ability of the strain-gradient light bending method to analyse some features of the three-dimensional stress-state is reported. Finally, the presented experimental evidence allows to draw conclusions related to limits of applicability of certain photomechanical measurements near crack tips. An extensive summary of this paper is published in the Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, Vol. 1554A, part of SPIE's 1991 International Symposium on Optical Applied Science and Engineering, 22-26 July 1991, San Diego, CA, USA. 1

  10. A case of elasto-plastic flow using a new special element. [crack tip analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swedlow, J. L.; Karabin, M. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Using a new special element for elasto-plastic flow, a nearly square, center-cracked plate of simulated A533 steel is analyzed. Selected results are examined locally to the crack's tip. It is found that a sharp transition in the distribution of deformation and stress occurs after the initial elastic response, and that this state is followed by fairly stable behavior over a considerable portion of the load range. Distribution of strain energy density is noted, and implications for use of the parameter J and for additional work are discussed briefly.

  11. Stress-Induced Martensite in Front of Crack Tips in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling Versus Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletta, C.; Young, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit an unusual stress distribution at the crack tip as compared to common engineering materials, due to a stress-induced martensitic transformation resulting from highly localized stresses. Understanding the fracture mechanics of NiTi-based SMAs is critical to many of their applications. Here, we develop an analytical model, which predicts the boundaries of the transformation region in the crack tip vicinity of NiTi-based SMAs. The proposed model is based on a recent analytical approach which uses modified linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts to predict the crack tip stress distribution and transformation region in SMAs but, unfortunately, it applies only to the plane stress condition. To overcome this limitation, the proposed model accounts for stress triaxiality, which plays an important role in restricting crack tip plastic deformations in common ductile metals as well as the stress-induced martensite in NiTi SMAs. The effects of triaxial stress at the crack tip are taken into account by including a new parameter, the transformation constraint factor, which is based on the plastic constraint factor of elasto-plastic materials. The predictions of the model are compared with synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction observations and satisfactory agreement is observed between the two results. Finally, the evolution of crack tip transformation boundaries during fracture tests of miniature compact tension specimens is predicted and the effects of applied load and crack length are discussed.

  12. Modeling the Temperature Rise at the Tip of a Fast Crack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    work dissipation rate has been calculated using the phonon viscous drag forces acting on the dislocations. In our analysis , the transition from the...thermal conductivity and specific heat has been used to follow the temperature changes occurring at the crack tip. The results of numerical analysis of...high temperatures attained during high strain rate fracture. Furthermore, continuum plasticity 21) analysis of void growth in the process zone

  13. Computation of the tip vortex flowfield for advanced aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Tommy M.; Dejong, Frederick J.; Levy, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The tip vortex flowfield plays a significant role in the performance of advanced aircraft propellers. The flowfield in the tip region is complex, three-dimensional and viscous with large secondary velocities. An analysis is presented using an approximate set of equations which contains the physics required by the tip vortex flowfield, but which does not require the resources of the full Navier-Stokes equations. A computer code was developed to predict the tip vortex flowfield of advanced aircraft propellers. A grid generation package was developed to allow specification of a variety of advanced aircraft propeller shapes. Calculations of the tip vortex generation on an SR3 type blade at high Reynolds numbers were made using this code and a parametric study was performed to show the effect of tip thickness on tip vortex intensity. In addition, calculations of the tip vortex generation on a NACA 0012 type blade were made, including the flowfield downstream of the blade trailing edge. Comparison of flowfield calculations with experimental data from an F4 blade was made. A user's manual was also prepared for the computer code (NASA CR-182178).

  14. Nitramine Propellant Crack Tip Ignition and Crack Propagation of a Burning Sample under Rapid Pressurization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree side It neceesear and Identify by block number) " Ignition, Deflagration-to- Detonation Transitfon, Crack Propagation...pressurization situation is typical of igni- tion transients in rocket motors and the onset of deflagration-to- detonation transition (DD’r) in confined...rocket motor and in the extreme could lead to de- flagration-to- detonation transition (DDT) or transition to detonation due to some unresolved

  15. A linear least squares approach for evaluation of crack tip stress field parameters using DIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harilal, R.; Vyasarayani, C. P.; Ramji, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an experimental study is carried out to estimate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIF) for different cracked specimen configurations using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. For the estimation of mixed-mode SIF's using DIC, a new algorithm is proposed for the extraction of crack tip location and coefficients in the multi-parameter displacement field equations. From those estimated coefficients, SIF could be extracted. The required displacement data surrounding the crack tip has been obtained using 2D-DIC technique. An open source 2D DIC software Ncorr is used for the displacement field extraction. The presented methodology has been used to extract mixed-mode SIF's for specimen configurations like single edge notch (SEN) specimen and centre slant crack (CSC) specimens made out of Al 2014-T6 alloy. The experimental results have been compared with the analytical values and they are found to be in good agreement, thereby confirming the accuracy of the algorithm being proposed.

  16. Anodic Dissolution Behavior of the Crack Tip of X70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhongyu; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the anodic dissolution behavior of the fresh metal surface at crack tip of X70 steel in near-neutral pH environment was investigated using galvanic corrosion simulation method. The solution environment, strain, strain rate, hydrogen enrichment, and fresh metal surface at the crack tip were considered. Corrosion current of the specimen during fast stretching increased linearly with plastic strain. The increment and increase rate of the corrosion current during plastic deformation stage were dependent on the strain rate. Combining Faraday's law and crack tip strain rate equation, the crack growth rate (CGR) induced by the anodic dissolution of the fresh metal surface was calculated. Results show that CGR caused by anodic dissolution was roughly one order lower than that measured on the compact tensile specimen under cyclic load. This finding indicated that hydrogen embrittlement may play a dominate role in stress corrosion crack propagation of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH environment.

  17. Advanced blade tip seal system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the endurance and performance engine tests conducted on monocrystal/abrasive-tipped CF6-50 Stage 1 HPT blades fabricated in Task VII of MATE Project 3 are presented. Two engine tests are conducted. The endurance engine test is conducted for 1000 C cycles. The performance engine test is conducted on a variable cycle core engine. Posttest evaluation and analyses of the blades and shrouds included visual, dimensional, and destructive evaluations.

  18. Development of crystallographic-orientation-dependent internal strains around a fatigue-crack tip during overloading and underloading

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Huang, E.-W.; Wu, W.; Liaw, P.K.; Paradowska, A.M.

    2013-05-15

    In-situ neutron diffraction was employed to directly measure the crystallographic-orientation-dependent (i.e. hkl) internal strains as a function of distance from the crack tip on the pre-cracked Hastelloy C-2000 compact-tension specimen. Both in-plane (IP) and through-thickness (TT) strain evolutions for various grain orientations were examined during tensile overloading and compressive underloading cycles. After overloading, underloading and their combination loadings were applied and unloaded, the significantly different (hkl) residual strain profiles were obtained in the vicinity of the crack tip. The load responses of the (200) grain orientation in both the IP and TT directions were more significant than those of any other orientations. It is suggested that the different orientation-dependent strain distributions around the crack tip are caused by the combined effects of elastic and plastic anisotropy of each (hkl) reflection upon loading and the subsequent development of residual stresses generated near the crack tip during unloading as a result of the plastic deformation. - Highlights: ► (hkl) strains are examined in situ using neutron diffraction. ► Distinct strain responses are developed around the crack tip under loading. ► The strain response of the (200) grain orientation is more significant. ► Possible mechanisms for the orientation-dependent strain responses are provided.

  19. Relaxation of crack tip stresses by diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities at a steadily growing creep crack

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, J.Y. . Dept. of Electronic Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-15

    In this study, the analytic solution of the stress field for the steadily growing crack with Gb cavitation is to be found. The effect of Gb cavitation is simultaneously incorporated in the stress analysis. The macroscopic material behavior is assumed to be elastic, thus, the original stress distribution is determined by the K field of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Also, the non-elastic deformation by Gb cavitation relaxes the stress singularity at the crack tip. The stress relaxation by local cavitation is calculated using the dislocation model. For modeling of the cavitation as distributed dislocations, several assumptions can be made: (1) the Gb cavities are nucleated instantaneously at uniformly distributed precipitates when the applied stress reaches the nucleation stress; (2) the quasi-equilibrium type cavity shape is maintained throughout cavity growth because of a sufficiently large surface diffusivity compared to that of Gb diffusivity; (3) the matter flux by diffusion is deposited uniformly at Gb and thus causes rigid body motion which relaxes the elastic stress field.

  20. Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Studies of Advanced Titanium Aluminides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    titanium aluminide in gas turbine engines would reduce the United States dependence on foreign sources for superalloy constituent elements, and would...ELVTDTEMPERATURE CRACK GROWTH STUDIES OF ADVANCED 1I TITANIUM ALUMINIDES (U) SYSTRAN CORP DAYTON ON VENKATARAMAN SEP 87 AFUAL-TR-87-4t82 F32615-86-C...ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CRACK GROWTH STUDIES OF ADVANCED TITANIUM ALUMINIDES DTIC Dr. Srivathsan Venkataraman e’.- Systran Corporation 4126 Linden Avenue

  1. Analytic investigation of advancing blade drag reduction by tip modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic techniques were applied to study the effect on the performance of the nonlifting advancing blade when the outboard 5% of the blade is modified to reduce drag. The tip modifications studied consisted of reducing airfoil thickness, sweepback, and planform taper. The reductions in instantaneous drag and torque were calculated for tip speed ratios from about 0.19 to 0.30, corresponding to advancing blade tip Mach numbers of 0.855 to 0.936, respectively. Approximations required in the analysis introduce uncertainties into the computed absolute values of drag and torque; however, the differences in the quantities should be a fairly reliable measure of the effect of changing tip geometry. For example, at the highest tip speed, instantaneous drag, and torque were reduced by 20% and 24%, respectively, for tip sweep of 40 deg on a blade using an NACA 0010 airfoil and by comparable amounts for 30-deg sweep on a blade having an NACA 0012 airfoil section. The present method should prove to be a useful, inexpensive technique for identifying promising configurations for additional study and testing.

  2. Development of a plasticity band near the tip of a crack of arbitrary orientation in a semiinfinite thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savruk, Mikhailo P.; Danilovich, A. M.

    1992-06-01

    The elastic-plastic equilibrium of a thin semiinfinite plate with a rectilinear crack of arbitrary orientation is analyzed assuming that local strains are localized along a narrow band originating at the crack tip. The elastic-plastic problem is reduced to that of solving a plane elasticity problem with a broken-line edge crack with loaded faces. The problem is solved by the singular integral equation method. Numerical results are obtained for the cases where the crack faces are loaded by a tensile force at infinity or by constant pressure. The effect of the free edge of the plate on the magnitude and orientation of the plasticity band is estimated.

  3. Analytical Modeling of Pressure Wall Hole Size and Maximum Tip-to-Tip Crack Length for Perforating Normal and Oblique Orbital Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Mohamed, Essam

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study whose objective was to develop first-principles-based models of hole size and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for a spacecraft module pressure wall that has been perforated in an orbital debris particle impact. The hole size and crack length models are developed by sequentially characterizing the phenomena comprising the orbital debris impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the pressure wall, the deformation of the pressure wall due to debris cloud impact loading prior to crack formation, pressure wall crack initiation, propagation, and arrest, and finally pressure wall deformation following crack initiation and growth. The model development has been accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory, as well as the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation. The predictions of the model developed herein are compared against the predictions of empirically-based equations for hole diameters and maximum tip-to-tip crack length for three International Space Station wall configurations. The ISS wall systems considered are the baseline U.S. Lab Cylinder, the enhanced U.S. Lab Cylinder, and the U.S. Lab Endcone. The empirical predictor equations were derived from experimentally obtained hole diameters and crack length data. The original model predictions did not compare favorably with the experimental data, especially for cases in which pressure wall petalling did not occur. Several modifications were made to the original model to bring its predictions closer in line with the experimental results. Following the adjustment of several empirical constants, the predictions of the modified analytical model were in much closer agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Detecting Gear Tooth Fatigue Cracks in Advance of Complete Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Results of using vibration-based methods to detect gear tooth fatigue cracks are presented. An experimental test rig was used to fail a number of spur gear specimens through bending fatigue. The gear tooth fatigue crack in each test was initiated through a small notch in the fillet area of a tooth on the gear. The primary purpose of these tests was to verify analytical predictions of fatigue crack propagation direction and rate as a function of gear rim thickness. The vibration signal from a total of three tests was monitored and recorded for gear fault detection research. The damage consisted of complete rim fracture on the two thin rim gears and single tooth fracture on the standard full rim test gear. Vibration-based fault detection methods were applied to the vibration signal both on-line and after the tests were completed. The objectives of this effort were to identify methods capable of detecting the fatigue crack and to determine how far in advance of total failure positive detection was given. Results show that the fault detection methods failed to respond to the fatigue crack prior to complete rim fracture in the thin rim gear tests. In the standard full rim gear test all of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in advance of tooth fracture; however, only three of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in the early stages of crack propagation.

  5. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C. Biggers and...Information Desk Mail Stop 148 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681-2199 This page is required and contains approved text that cannot be...changed. NASA/TM—2015–218813 Tests of Full -Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios James C

  6. Near-tip dual-length scale mechanics of mode-I cracking in laminate brittle matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, R.; Islam, S.; Charalambides, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of an on-going study of the near-tip mechanics of mode-I cracking in brittle matrix composite laminates. A finite element model is developed within the context of two competing characteristic lengths present in the composite: the microstructural length (the thickness of the layers) and a macro-length (crack-length, uncracked ligament size, etc.). For various values of the parameters which describe the ratio of these lengths and the constituent properties, the stresses ahead of a crack perpendicular to the laminates are compared with those predicted by assuming the composite is homogeneous orthotropic. The results can be used to determine the conditions for which homogenization can provide a sufficiently accurate description of the stresses in the vicinity of the crack-tip.

  7. Cohesive-zone laws for void growth — I. Experimental field projection of crack-tip crazing in glassy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonsung; Chew, Huck Beng; Kim, Kyung-Suk

    2009-08-01

    A hybrid framework for inverse analysis of crack-tip cohesive-zone model is developed in this two-part paper to measure cohesive-zone laws of void growth in polymers by combining analytical, experimental, and numerical approaches. This paper focuses on experimental measurements of the cohesive-zone laws for two nonlinear fracture processes in glassy polymers, namely multiple crazing in crack-growth toughening of rubber-toughened high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) and crazing of steady-state crack growth in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) under a methanol environment. To this end, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is first applied to measure the crack-tip displacement fields surrounding the fracture process zones in these polymers. These fields are subsequently equilibrium smoothed and used in the extraction of the cohesive-zone laws via an analytical solution method of the inverse problem, the planar field projection method (P-FPM) [Hong, S., Kim, K.-S., 2003. Extraction of cohesive-zone laws from elastic far-fields of a cohesive crack tip: a field projection method. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 51, 1267-1286]. Results show that the proposed framework of the P-FPM could provide a systematic way of finding the shape of the cohesive-zone laws governed by the different micro-mechanisms in the fracture processes. In HIPS, inter-particle multiple crazing develops and the craze zone broadens ahead of a crack-tip under mechanical loading. The corresponding cohesive-zone relationship of the multiple-craze zone is found to be highly convex, which indicates effectiveness of rubber particle toughening. It is also observed that the effective peak traction, 7 MPa, in the crack-tip cohesive zone of HIPS (30% rubber content) is lower than the uniaxial yield stress of 9 MPa, presumably due to stress multi-axiality effects. In contrast, in PMMA, methanol localizes the crack-tip craze, weakening the craze traction for craze-void initiation to about 9 MPa

  8. Materials for advanced turbine engines. Volume 1: Advanced blade tip seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelahy, J. W.; Fairbanks, N. P.

    1982-01-01

    Project 3, the subject of this technical report, was structured toward the successful engine demonstration of an improved-efficiency, long-life, tip-seal system for turbine blades. The advanced tip-seal system was designed to maintain close operating clearances between turbine blade tips and turbine shrouds and, at the same time, be resistant to environmental effects including high-temperature oxidation, hot corrosion, and thermal cycling. The turbine blade tip comprised an environmentally resistant, activated-diffussion-bonded, monocrystal superalloy combined with a thin layer of aluminium oxide abrasive particles entrapped in an electroplated NiCr matrix. The project established the tip design and joint location, characterized the single-crystal tip alloy and abrasive tip treatment, and established the manufacturing and quality-control plans required to fully process the blades. A total of 171 blades were fully manufactured, and 100 were endurance and performance engine-tested.

  9. Strain and texture evolution during mechanical loading of a crack tip in martensitic shape-memory NiTi.

    SciTech Connect

    Daymond, M. R.; Young, M. L.; Almer, J. D.; Dunand, D. C.; Queen's Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

    2007-06-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements are used to create two-dimensional maps of elastic strain and texture, averaged over a compact-tension specimen thickness, near a crack tip in a martensitic NiTi alloy. After fatigue crack propagation, the material ahead of the crack and in its wake exhibits a strong texture, which is eliminated by subsequent shape-memory heat treatment, indicating that this texture is due to detwinning, the main deformation mechanism of NiTi. Upon subsequent application of a static tensile stresses, the highly textured zone reappears and grows around the crack tip as the applied stress is increased. At the highest applied stress intensity of 35MPam1/2, large tensile strains are measured ahead of the crack tip and considerable elastic anisotropy is observed. This detwinning zone is similar to the plastic zone produced by dislocation slip present around cracks in other metals. The texture in this zone is not significantly altered after mechanical unloading, despite the development of substantial triaxial compressive residual strains in this zone.

  10. On the measurement of the crack tip stress field as a means of determining Delta K(sub eff) under conditions of fatigue crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallhead, Ian R.; Edwards, Lyndon; Poole, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The optical method of caustics has been successfully extended to enable stress intensity factors as low as 1MPa square root of m to be determined accurately for central fatigue cracks in 2024-T3 aluminium alloy test panels. The feasibility of using this technique to study crack closure, and to determine the effective stress intensity factor range, Delta K(sub eff), has been investigated. Comparisons have been made between the measured values of stress intensity factor, K(sub caus), and corresponding theoretical values, K(sub theo), for a range of fatigue cracks grown under different loading conditions. The values of K(sub caus) and K(sub theo) were in good agreement at maximum stress, where the cracks are fully open, while K(sub caus) exceeded K(sub theo) at minimum stress, due to crack closure. However, the levels of crack closure and values of Delta K(sub eff) obtained could not account for the variations of crack growth rate with loading conditions. It is concluded that the values of Delta K(sub eff), based on caustic measurements in a 1/square root of r stress field well outside the plastic zone, do not fully reflect local conditions which control crack tip behavior.

  11. Subcritical crack-growth behavior in advanced silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay

    Advanced silicon nitride ceramics (Sisb3Nsb4) are leading candidates for structural components in gas turbine and reciprocating engines. However, widespread use of these materials has been deterred due to their low fracture toughness under tensile loads. In the last decade, novel processing techniques have allowed extrinsic toughening of this material through grain bridging processes. The extrinsic toughening mechanisms, however, are prone to subcritical crack-growth processes through environmental, mechanical and high temperature degradation mechanisms. Understanding these failure mechanisms is critical for long term reliability and design. In the first part of this study, fracture and environmentally-assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were examined in bulk Y-Si-Al-O-N oxynitride glasses with compositions typical of the grain boundary phase of silicon nitride ceramics. Both long crack as well as short crack behavior were investigated to establish a reliable fracture toughness value and to elucidate the anomalous densification behavior of the oxynitride glass under indentation loads. Environmentally assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were studied in inert, moist and wet environments under both cyclic and static loading conditions and compared to commercial soda lime and borosilicate glasses. The second part of this study involved the effect of loading, microstructure and temperature on subcritical crack-growth behavior in silicon nitride ceramics. Crack-growth rates under an alternating applied stress intensity were compared to those under static loads. The effect of microstructure on fatigue crack-growth rates was determined in silicon nitrides sintered using different processing techniques and with different grain sizes. Unique experimental techniques were used to determine subcritical crack-growth behavior from room temperature to elevated temperatures of 1250sp°C. Frictional wear models were used to explain the trends in experimental data at

  12. Approximate Analysis on Strain Rate Effects and Behavior of Stress and Strain Fields at the Crack Tip in Mode II in Metallic Materials. Appendix Number 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    increasing the loading rate, specimens smaller in dimensions can be employed in KIC tests at high loading rates. An example of correlation between B and...difficulties arise in numerical simulation of crack behavior at high loading rates. An analytic solution for the stress field at a stationary crack tip in...with prime attention paid to use adequate stress-strain, strain-rate, temperature constitutive relations governing material behavior at the crack tip

  13. Visualizing In Situ Microstructure Dependent Crack Tip Stress Distribution in IN-617 Using Nano-mechanical Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Mohanty, Debapriya P.; Tomar, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Inconel 617 (IN-617) is a solid solution alloy, which is widely used in applications that require high-temperature component operation due to its high-temperature stability and strength as well as strong resistance to oxidation and carburization. The current work focuses on in situ measurements of stress distribution under 3-point bending at elevated temperature in IN-617. A nanomechanical Raman spectroscopy measurement platform was designed and built based on a combination of a customized open Raman spectroscopy (NMRS) system incorporating a motorized scanning and imaging system with a nanomechanical loading platform. Based on the scanning of the crack tip notch area using the NMRS notch tip, stress distribution under applied load with micron-scale resolution for analyzed microstructures is predicted. A finite element method-based formulation to predict crack tip stresses is presented and validated using the presented experimental data.

  14. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Zhao, Jiong; Cichocka, Magdalena Ola; Li, Lain-Jong; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-01-01

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation.

  15. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Zhao, Jiong; Cichocka, Magdalena Ola; Li, Lain-Jong; Lee, Young Hee

    2017-01-01

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation. PMID:28098140

  16. The equilibrium concentration of hydrogen atoms ahead of a mixed mode I-mode III crack tip in single crystal iron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.Y.; Hack, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Calculations of the equilibrium hydrogen concentration profiles about a mixed ode I-mode III crack in single crystal iron were performed. Both material anisotropy and the tetragonal nature of the distortion induced in the iron crystal structure by interstitial hydrogen were incorporated. Results show that, unlike the case of a spherical distortion, a strong coupling exists between the strain field of the interstitial hydrogen and the stress field of the crack for orientations of the crack plane that are not coincident with the cube axes of the lattice. As a result, the predicated enhancement of hydrogen in the crack tip region increases with increasing levels of mode III loading for those orientations. The results may help reconcile conflicting observations concerning the potential role of shear stresses in hydrogen embrittlement and preferential cracking of grains ahead of loaded crack tips in sustained load cracking experiments.

  17. Prediction of stable tearing of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy using the crack-tip opening angle approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G., Jr.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, the crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) approach was incorporated into a damage growth finite element program, MADGIC (Micromechanics Analysis and Damage Growth in Composites), and was used to predict stable tearing in a middle-crack tension 2024-T3 aluminum alloy specimen. The MADGIC code is a displacement based finite element program implemented with an incremental elastic-plastic algorithm used to model elastic-plastic behavior and a nodal splitting and nodal force relaxation algorithm used to generate crack surfaces. Predictions of the applied stress as a function of crack extension and applied stress as a function of load-line displacement were in good agreement with experiments and with similar predictions made using an existing finite element program, ZIP2D. In addition, path integrals, namely, the J-integral and T*-integral, were also evaluated and compared with the CTOA approach. There appears to be a weak relationship between the CTOA and the T*-integral evaluated on a specific integration path during crack extension beyond maximum applied stress. This study further verifies that the CTOA can be used as an effective elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter to predict crack growth.

  18. Sensitivity to temperature and material properties of hydrogen concentration at a crack tip in austenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schembri, Philip E

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that dissolved hydrogen interacts with the stress field at a crack tip, with one result being an intensification of the hydrogen concentration in the region of maximum crack tip stress. The current paper presents recent calculations in ongoing efforts to use coupled stress-diffusion finite element analyses to aid in the structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels containing tritium. The focus of the current work is quantification of the effect of material properties (structural and diffusion) and temperature on the values of maximum stress and hydrogen concentration at the tip of a crack. A one-way-coupled finite element model of a compact tension specimen is used in which the effect of stress and trapping on the hydrogen diffusion is accounted for. Results show that, within the ranges of inputs considered, maximum stress varies approximately linearly with a material's room temperature yield stress but nonlinearly with temperature. Also, peak lattice hydrogen is shown to be a strong function of solubility parameters, a moderate function of yield stress, but only a weak function of trap binding energy and density when trap density is relatively low.

  19. Finite element analysis of the plane strain crack-tip mechanical fields in pseudoelastic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxevanis, T.; Chemisky, Y.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2012-09-01

    The plane strain mechanical fields near a stationary crack tip in a pseudoelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) are analyzed via the finite element method. The small scale transformation assumption is employed for the calculations using displacement boundary conditions on a circular region that encloses the stress-induced phase transformation zone. The constitutive law used adopts the classical rate-independent small strain flow theory for the evolution equations of both the transformation and plastic strains. Results on the size and shape of the stress-induced transformation and plastic zone formed near the stationary crack are obtained and a fracture toughness criterion based on the J-integral is discussed in view of the observed path-dependence of J. Moreover, the obtained results are discussed in relation to results for stationary cracks in conventional elastic-plastic materials.

  20. A model emitting dislocation group from crack tip with stress singularity and its application to brittle-ductile transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yokobori, Toshimitsu A.Jr. . Dept. of Mechatronics and Precision Engineering); Isogai, Takeshi; Yokobori, Takeo . School of Science and Engineering)

    1993-05-01

    Taking into account the stress singularity near the crack tip, computer simulation of dislocation emission and motion has been carried out. A model is proposed in which the source emitting the dislocation group is located near by the crack tip. The numerical method has been used by programming to adjust time increment automatically. By this model and the analytical method, the converged solution has been obtained. The main results are as follows: The region where any dislocation does not exist along the slip plane near the stressed source, namely, dislocation free zone (DFZ) is found to appear. Also it has been found that inverse pile-up of dislocation against the tip of DFZ will appear. The formula is obtained correlating the maximum dislocation density with DFZ length. With increase of stress rate and decrease of the value of [mu]/[tau][sup *][sub 0], the inverse pile-up at the tip of DFZ becomes more significant. Based on these results, a new fracture criterion for brittle fracture is proposed assuming critical local stress requisite within DFZ, where high stress concentration is induced by dynamic inverse pile-up of dislocations.

  1. Recent advances in capacitance type of blade tip clearance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, John P.

    1988-01-01

    Two recent electronic advances at NASA-Lewis that meet the blade tip clearance needs of a wide class of fans, compressors, and turbines are described. The first is a frequency modulated (FM) oscillator that requires only a single low cost ultrahigh frequency operational amplifier. Its carrier frequency is 42.8 MHz when used with a 61 cm long hermetically sealed coaxial cable. The oscillator can be calibrated in the static mode and has a negative peak frequency deviation of 400 kHz for a typical rotor blade. High temperature performance tests of the probe and 13 cm of the adjacent cable show good accuracy up to 600 C, the maximum which produces a clearance error of + or - 10 microns at a clearance of 500 microns. In the second advance, a guarded probe configuration allows a longer cable capacitance. The capacitance of the probe is part of a small time constant feedback in a high speed operational amplifier. The solution of the governing differential equation is applied to a ramp type of input. The results show an amplifier output that contains a term which is proportional to the derivative of the feedback capacitance. The capacitance is obtained by subtracting a balancing reference channel followed by an integration stage.

  2. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Solomon, N. G.; Stetson, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Forty-one material systems were evaluated for potential use in turbine blade tip seal applications at 1370 C. Both ceramic blade tip inserts and abradable ceramic tip shoes were tested. Hot gas erosion, impact resistance, thermal stability, and dynamic rub performance were the criteria used in rating the various materials. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride were used, both as blade tips and abradables. The blade tip inserts were fabricated by hot pressing while low density and honeycomb abradables were sintered or reaction bonded.

  3. Analysis of growing crack tip deformation using both in-plane deformation and caustics obtained from out-of-plane displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, P.F.; Wang, J.S.; Chao, Y.J.; Sutton, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The stereo vision is used to study the fracture behavior in the compact tension (CT) specimen made from 304L stainless steel. During crack tip blunting, initiation, and growth in the CT specimen, both in-plane and out-of-plane displacement fields near the crack tip are measured by the stereo vision. Based on the plane stress assumption and the deformation theory of plasticity, the J integral is evaluated along several rectangular paths surrounding the crack tip by using the measured in-plane displacement field. Prior to crack growth, the J integral is path independent. For crack extension up to {Delta}a {approx} 3 mm, the near field J integral values are 6% to 10% lower than far field J integral values. For the crack extension of {Delta}a {approx} 4 mm, the J integral lost path independence. The far field J integral values are in good agreement with results obtained from Merkle-Corten`s formula. Both J-{Delta}a and CTOA-{Delta}a are obtained by computing the J integral value and crack tip opening angle (CTOA) at each {Delta}a. Results indicate that CTOA reached a nearly constant value at a crack extension of {Delta}a = 3 mm with a leveled resistance curve thereafter. Also, the J integral value is determined by the maximum transverse diameter of the shadow spots, which are generated by using the out-of-plane displacement field. Results indicate that for crack extension up to 0.25 mm, the J integral values evaluated by using the out-of- plane displacement are close to those obtained by using in-plane displacements and Merkle-Corten`s formula.

  4. An I-integral method for crack-tip intensity factor variation due to domain switching in ferroelectric single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongjun; Wang, Jie; Shimada, Takahiro; Wu, Huaping; Wu, Linzhi; Kuna, Meinhard; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, an I-integral method is established for solving the crack-tip intensity factors of ferroelectric single-crystals. The I-integral combined with the phase field model is successfully used to investigate crack-tip intensity factor variations due to domain switching in ferroelectricity subjected to electromechanical loadings, which exhibits several advantages over previous methods based on small-scale switching. First, the shape of the switching zone around a crack tip is predicted by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation, which does not require preset energy-based switching criterion. Second, the I-integral can directly solve the crack-tip intensity factors and decouple the crack-tip intensity factors of different modes based on superimposing an auxiliary state onto an actual state. Third, the I-integral is area-independent, namely, the I-integral is not affected by the integral area size, the polarization distributions, or domain walls. This makes the I-integral applicable to large-scale domain switching. To this end, the electro-elastic field intensity factors of an impermeable crack in PbTiO3 ferroelectric single crystals are evaluated under electrical, mechanical, and combined loading. The intensity factors obtained by the I-integral agree well with those obtained by the extrapolation technique. From numerical results, the following conclusions can be drawn with respect to fracture behavior of ferroelectrics under large-scale switching. Under displacement controlled mechanical loading, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) decrease monotonically due to the domain switching process, which means a crack tip shielding or effective switching-induced toughening occurs. If an external electric field is applied, the electric displacement intensity factor (EDIF) increases in all cases, i.e., the formed domain patterns enhance the electric crack tip loading. The energy release rate, expressed by the crack-tip J-integral, is reduced by the domain

  5. Corrosion fatigue crack propagation in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    This review assesses fracture mechanics data and mechanistic models for corrosion fatigue crack propagation in structural alloys exposed to ambient temperature gases and electrolytes. Extensive stress intensity-crack growth rate data exist for ferrous, aluminum and nickel based alloys in a variety of environments. Interactive variables (viz., stress intensity range, mean stress, alloy composition and microstructure, loading frequency, temperature, gas pressure and electrode potential) strongly affect crack growth kinetics and complicate fatigue control. Mechanistic models to predict crack growth rates were formulated by coupling crack tip mechanics with occluded crack chemistry, and from both the hydrogen embrittlement and anodic dissolution/film rupture perspectives. Research is required to better define: (1) environmental effects near threshold and on crack closure; (2) damage tolerant life prediction codes and the validity of similitude; (3) the behavior of microcrack; (4) probes and improved models of crack tip damage; and (5) the cracking performance of advanced alloys and composites.

  6. Influence of Crack-Tip Configurations on the Fracture Response of 0.04-Inch Thick 2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William M.; Newman, James C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of fracture tests were conducted on Middle-crack tension M(T) and compact tension C(T) specimens to determine the effects of specimen type, specimen width, notch tip sharpness and buckling on the fracture behavior of cracked thin sheet (0.04 inch thick) 2024-T3 aluminum alloy material. A series of M(T) specimens were tested with three notch tip configurations: (1) a fatigue pre-cracked notch, (2) a 0.010-inch-diameter wire electrical discharge machined (EDM) notch, and (3) a EDM notch sharpened with a razor blade. The test procedures are discussed and the experimental results for failure stress, load vs. crack extension and the material stress-strain response are reported.

  7. Advanced ceramic material for high temperature turbine tip seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, N. G.; Vogan, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic material systems are being considered for potential use as turbine blade tip gas path seals at temperatures up to 1370 1/4 C. Silicon carbide and silicon nitride structures were selected for study since an initial analysis of the problem gave these materials the greatest potential for development into a successful materials system. Segments of silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials over a range of densities, processed by various methods, a honeycomb structure of silicon nitride and ceramic blade tip inserts fabricated from both materials by hot pressing were tested singly and in combination. The evaluations included wear under simulated engine blade tip rub conditions, thermal stability, impact resistance, machinability, hot gas erosion and feasibility of fabrication into engine components. The silicon nitride honeycomb and low-density silicon carbide using a selected grain size distribution gave the most promising results as rub-tolerant shroud liners. Ceramic blade tip inserts made from hot-pressed silicon nitride gave excellent test results. Their behavior closely simulated metal tips. Wear was similar to that of metals but reduced by a factor of six.

  8. On the Relationship Between J-Integral and Crack Tip Opening Displacement in Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Marcos Venicius; Darwish, Fathi Aref; Campelo, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between J-integral ( J) and crack tip opening displacement (δ), considered fundamental for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be established based on prior knowledge of the constraint factor m, which depends on the work hardening exponent and the material's yield strain. Both J and δ were simultaneously determined at fracture initiation and at different points along the resistance curves for a number of structural steels. The corresponding m values were calculated and then compared with the predictions made by different models. The results indicate that the experimentally determined m values are in fair agreement with the predictions made by ASTM over the whole range of flow parameters considered in this study. The Hutchinson-Rice-Rosengren singularity-based predictions result in overestimating m for steels considered to be of low strength and high strain hardening exponent. Predictions made by other models are predominantly higher in comparison with their experimental counterparts.

  9. Extent of validity of three-parameter crack-tip strain fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. R.; Dally, J. W.; Sanford, R. J.

    Error maps showing the differences in strains determined from three-term series representation of the strain field are developed for several different crack lengths in a SEN fracture specimen. To assess the validity of the three-parameter strain field model, a series of FEM analyses was conducted to determine the series coefficients in a large-order expansion of the strain field. Through knowledge of the higher-order (nonsingular) terms, the error was examined over a reasonably sized area between strain calculated from a three-parameter model and a strain calculated using a large-order model. This error is studied by choosing a point in the field, calculating the strain at this point using both three- and large-parameter models, and comparing the two strain values. The gage inclusion/exclusion criteria are determined by performing this analysis for a variety of crack lengths.

  10. Modeling Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Nano- to Micro-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jake D.; Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2010-01-01

    Several efforts that are aimed at understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related to crack propagation at the nano-, meso- and micro-length scales including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity are discussed. The paper focuses on discussion of newly developed methodologies and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys. Examination of plastic mechanisms as a function of increasing length scale illustrates increasingly complex phenomena governing plasticity

  11. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

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    MedlinePlus

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    MedlinePlus

    ... are harmless, but sometimes producers add ingredients like amphetamines to make crack cheaper. These added ingredients raise ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Amphetamines Drugs: What to Know Dealing With Addiction Cocaine ...

  14. Modeling and Characterization of Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Micro- to Nano-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob; Smith, Stephen W.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Gupta, Vipul

    2011-01-01

    Methodologies for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related 10 crack propagation at the nano, meso- and micro-length scales are being developed. These efforts include the development and application of several computational methods including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity; and experimental methods including electron backscattered diffraction and video image correlation. Additionally, methodologies for multi-scale modeling and characterization that can be used to bridge the relevant length scales from nanometers to millimeters are being developed. The paper focuses on the discussion of newly developed methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys.

  15. Modeling and Characterization of Near-Crack-Tip Plasticity from Micro- to Nano-Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Saether, Erik; Hochhalter, Jacob; Smith, Stephen W.; Ransom, Jonathan B.; Yamakov, Vesselin; Gupta, Vipul

    2010-01-01

    Methodologies for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms related to crack propagation at the nano-, meso- and micro-length scales are being developed. These efforts include the development and application of several computational methods including atomistic simulation, discrete dislocation plasticity, strain gradient plasticity and crystal plasticity; and experimental methods including electron backscattered diffraction and video image correlation. Additionally, methodologies for multi-scale modeling and characterization that can be used to bridge the relevant length scales from nanometers to millimeters are being developed. The paper focuses on the discussion of newly developed methodologies in these areas and their application to understanding damage processes in aluminum and its alloys.

  16. Characterization of the roles of electrochemistry, convection and crack chemistry in stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, P.L.; Young, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    Understanding the role of ionic current flow within a crack and near the crack tip is fundamental to modeling of environmentally assisted crack advance. Critical conceptual issues and models related to ionic current flow within cracks, and the associated ``crevice`` chemistry and metal oxidation that results, are presented and examined in the light of experimental evidence. Various advanced techniques have been developed to evaluate the roles of electrochemistry, transport, and crack chemistry in stress corrosion cracking, with emphasis on high temperature ``pure`` water. These include high resolution crack length measurement by dc potential drop performed simultaneously with microsampling, electrochemical microprobe mapping, microinjection of species, and micropolarization of the crack. Conceptual issues addressed include the importance of the corrosion potential vs. oxidant concentration, the absence of oxidants and associated low corrosion potential within cracks, the location and role of macrocell currents associated with potential gradients from differential aeration cells, the localized nature of the microcell currents associated with dissolution at the crack tip, the importance of pH and adsorbed species on repassivation and crack advance, and the role of convection in crack chemistry and crack advance. Correct concepts are shown to be an essential pre-cursor to quantitative modeling.

  17. The reinitiation of fracture at the tip of an arrested crack in a reactor pressure vessel: The effect of ligaments on the reinitiation K value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.

    1986-02-01

    During a hypothetical thermal shock event involving a water-cooled nuclear reactor steel pressure vessel, it is possible for a crack to propagate deep into the reactor vessel thickness by a series of run-arrest-reinitiation events. Furthermore, within the transition temperature regime, crack propagation and arrest are associated with a combination of cleavage and ductile rupture processes, the latter being manifested by ligaments that are normal to the crack plane and parallel to the direction of crack propagation. Earlier work by the author has modelled the effect of ligaments on the reinitiation of fracture at the tip of an arrested crack. Proceeding from the basis that the ligaments fail by a ductile rupture process, reinitiation K values were calculated. These values were appreciably higher than the experimental reinitiation K values for cracks in model vessels subject to thermal shock; it was therefore argued that the ligaments, which are present at arrest, are unlikely to fail entirely by ductile rupture prior to the reinitiation of fracture at an arrested crack tip. Instead it was suggested that the ligaments fail by cleavage, and consequently do not markedly affect the reinitiation K value, which therefore correlates with K 1C This paper's theoretical analysis extends the earlier work by relaxing a key assumption in the earlier work that, when calculating the reinitiation K value on the basis that the ligaments fail by ductile rupture, they should disappear completely prior to reinitiation. The new results, however, show that the predicted reinitiation K values are still so much greater than the model test reinitiation K values, that it is unlikely that the ligaments fail solely by ductile rupture prior to reinitiation. The view that the ligaments can fail by cleavage is therefore reinforced.

  18. Fatigue fracture in thin plates subjected to tensile and shearing loads - Crack tip fields, J integral and preliminary experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnder, Alan T.; Viz, Mark J.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1992-01-01

    In one scenario of a crack in an airplane fuselage, the crack is subjected to cyclic tensile and out of plane shearing loads. To predict the fatigue crack growth in such a situation, experiments are being performed to measure the crack growth rate in laboratory specimens subjected to similar loadings. The mechanics of this problem are reviewed, the energy release rate is calculated and designs for an experiment are discussed along with some preliminary experimental observations.

  19. Power Law Versus Exponential Form of Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Dynamic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the strength versus In (stress rate) relation was found to be very reasonable for most of the materials. It was also found that preloading technique was equally applicable for the case of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n > 30. The major limitation in the exponential crack velocity formulation, however, was that an inert strength of a material must be known priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared to the conventional power-law crack velocity formulation.

  20. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear

  1. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  2. Crack Growth Processes at Elevated Temperatures in Advanced Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    34C. 9 The dependence of U = AK./AK on 1/Kr, for SEN specimens of 27 titanium alloys. (a) CORONA -5 and (b) 2411. 10 The dependence of U = AK.,/AK on 1...the slope of the line modified. Similar results are shown for the titanium alloys CORONA -5 and 2411 in Fig. 9. Closure levels have also been measured... CORONA -5 Ti-6AI-4V(RA) Crack growth rate 5.5±2 3.5±2 5.0±2 3.0±2 Mode 1 closure 5.8±0.5 not meas. = 6.7 not meas. Microstructure 4.0±0.5 4.0±0.5 6.6±1.5

  3. Theoretical Model of the Effect of Crack Tip Blunting on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Welds in 2219-T87 Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model representing blunting of a crack tip radius through diffusion of vacancies is presented. The model serves as the basis for a computer program which calculates changes, due to successive weld heat passes, in the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T81 aluminum. In order for the model to yield changes of the same order in the ultimate tensile strength as that observed experimentally, a crack tip radius of the order of .001 microns is required. Such sharp cracks could arise in the fusion zone of a weld from shrinkage cavities or decohered phase boundaries between dendrites and the eutectic phase, or, possibly, from plastic deformation due to thermal stresses encountered during the welding process. Microstructural observations up to X2000 (resolution of about .1 micron) did not, in the fusion zone, show structural details which changed significantly under the influence of a heat pass, with the exception of possible small changes in the configuration of the interdendritic eutectic and in porosity build-up in the remelt zone.

  4. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  5. Numerical Analysis of the Influence of In-Plane Constraints on the Crack Tip Opening Displacement for SEN(B) Specimens Under Predominantly Plane Strain Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graba, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the relationship between in-plane constraints and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) for single-edge notched bend (SEN(B)) specimens under predominantly plane strain conditions. It provides details of the numerical model and discusses the influence of external load and in-plane constraints on the CTOD. The work also reviews methods for determining the CTOD. The new formula proposed in this paper can be used to estimate the value of the coefficient dn as a function of the relative crack length, the strain hardening exponent and the yield strength - dn(n, σ0/E, a/W), with these parameters affecting the level of in-plane constraints. Some of the numerical results were approximated using simple mathematical formulae.

  6. Crack Branching and Fracture Mirror Data of Glasses and Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1998-01-01

    The fracture mirror and crack branching constants were determined from three glasses and nine advanced ceramics tested under various loading and specimen configurations in an attempt to use the constants as a data base for fractography. The ratios of fracture mirror or crack branching constant to fracture toughness were found to be approximately two for most ceramic materials tested. A demonstration of how to use the two constants as a tool for verifying stress measurements was presented for silicon nitride disk specimens subjected to high-temperature, constant stress-rate biaxial flexure testing.

  7. Tips and tricks of ureteroscopy: consensus statement. Part II. Advanced ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rukin, Nicholas J.; Patterson, Jake; Grey, Ben R.; Finch, William; McClinton, Sam; Parys, Bo; Young, Graham; Syed, Haider; Myatt, Andy; Samsudin, Azi; Inglis, John A.; Smith, Daron

    2015-01-01

    Our “tips and tricks” focuses on all aspects of upper tract endourology and we hope these will be of use to all trainees and consultants who perform ureteroscopy. We report an “expert consensus view” from experienced endourological surgeons, on all aspects of advanced ureteroscopic techniques, with a particular focus on avoiding and getting out of trouble while performing ureteroscopy. In this paper we provide a summary of placing ureteric access sheath, flexible ureteroscopy, intra renal stone fragmentation and retrieval, maintaining visual clarity and biopsy of ureteric and pelvicalyceal tumours. PMID:27123335

  8. Asymptotic analysis of stresses near a crack tip in a two-dimensional colloidal packing saturated with liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arijit; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2011-05-01

    The consolidation of colloidal particles in drying colloidal dispersions is influenced by various factors such as particle size and shape, and interparticle potential. The capillary pressure induced by the menisci, formed between the top layer of particles in the packed bed, compresses the bed of particles while the constraints imposed by the boundaries result in tensile stresses in the packing. Presence of flaws or defects in the bed determines its ultimate strength under such circumstances. In this study, we determine the asymptotic stress distribution around a flaw in a two-dimensional colloidal packing saturated with liquid and compare the results with those obtained from the full numerical solution of the problem. Using the Griffith’s criterion for equilibrium cracks, we relate the critical capillary pressure at equilibrium to the crack size and the mechanical properties of the packed bed. The analysis also gives the maximum allowable flaw size for obtaining a crack-free packing.

  9. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.

    2012-12-01

    Contraction cracks can form captivating patterns, such as the artistic craquelure sometimes found in pottery glazes, to the cracks in dried mud, or the polygonal networks covering the polar regions of Earth and Mars. Two types are frequently encountered: those with irregular rectilinear patterns, such as that formed by an homogeneous slurry when dried (or cooled) uniformly, and more regular hexagonal patterns, such as those typified by columnar joints. Once cracks start to form in a thin contracting layer, they will sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of cracks, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In this manner they relieve the stresses perpendicular to the pre-existing crack. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120°. In this presentation it will be shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and that a rectilinear, T-junction dominated pattern will develop into to a hexagonal pattern, with Y-junctions, if allowed to. Such an evolution can be explained as the result of three conditions: (1) if cracks advance through space, or heal and recur, that the previous positions of a crack tip acts as a line of weakness, guiding the next iteration of cracking; (2) that the order of opening of cracks can change in each iteration; and (3) that crack tips curve to maximise the local strain energy release rate. The ordering of crack patterns are seen in a number of systems: columnar joints in starch and lava; desiccation cracks in clays that are repeatedly wetted and dried; cracks in eroding gypsum-cemented sand layers; and the cracks in permafrost known as polygonal terrain. These patterns will each be briefly explored, in turn, and shown to obey the above principles of crack pattern evolution.

  10. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well. PMID:24998298

  11. Crack propagation in bamboo's hierarchical cellular structure.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Meisam K; Lu, Yang

    2014-07-07

    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  12. Aircraft corrosion and crack inspection using advanced magneto-optic imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, David K.; Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.; Skaugset, Richard L.; Shih, William C.

    1996-11-01

    A next generation magneto-optic imaging system, the MOI 303, has recently been introduced with the ability to generate real-time, complete, 2D eddy current images of cracks and corrosion in aircraft. The new imaging system described features advanced, digital remote control operation and on- screen display of setup parameters for ease of use. This instrument gives the inspector the capability to more rapidly scan large surfaces areas. The magneto-optic/eddy current imaging technology has already been formally approved for inspection of surface cracking on an aircraft fuselage. The improved magneto-optic imager is now poised to aid rapid inspection for corrosion and subsurface cracking. Previous magneto-optic imaging systems required the inspector to scan the surface twice for complete inspection coverage: a second scan was necessary with the imager rotated about 90 degrees from the orientation of the first pass. However, by providing eddy current excitation simultaneously from two orthogonal directions, complete, filled-in magneto-optic images are now generated regardless of the orientation of the imager. THese images are considerably easier to interpret and evaluate. In addition, there is a synergism obtained in applying eddy current excitation simultaneously in multiple directions: better penetration is obtained and the resulting images have better signal to noise levels compared to those produced with eddy current excitation applied only in one direction. Examples of these improved images are presented.

  13. Top 10 Tips for Using Advance Care Planning Codes in Palliative Medicine and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher A; Acevedo, Jean; Bull, Janet; Kamal, Arif H

    2016-12-01

    Although recommended for all persons with serious illness, advance care planning (ACP) has historically been a charitable clinical service. Inadequate or unreliable provisions for reimbursement, among other barriers, have spurred a gap between the evidence demonstrating the importance of timely ACP and recognition by payers for its delivery.(1) For the first time, healthcare is experiencing a dramatic shift in billing codes that support increased care management and care coordination. ACP, chronic care management, and transitional care management codes are examples of this newer recognition of the value of these types of services. ACP discussions are an integral component of comprehensive, high-quality palliative care delivery. The advent of reimbursement mechanisms to recognize these services has an enormous potential to impact palliative care program sustainability and growth. In this article, we highlight 10 tips to effectively using the new ACP codes reimbursable under Medicare. The importance of documentation, proper billing, and nuances regarding coding is addressed.

  14. Recent advances in the modelling of crack growth under fatigue loading conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekoning, A. U.; Tenhoeve, H. J.; Henriksen, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth associated with cyclic (secondary) plastic flow near a crack front is modelled using an incremental formulation. A new description of threshold behaviour under small load cycles is included. Quasi-static crack extension under high load excursions is described using an incremental formulation of the R-(crack growth resistance)- curve concept. The integration of the equations is discussed. For constant amplitude load cycles the results will be compared with existing crack growth laws. It will be shown that the model also properly describes interaction effects of fatigue crack growth and quasi-static crack extension. To evaluate the more general applicability the model is included in the NASGRO computer code for damage tolerance analysis. For this purpose the NASGRO program was provided with the CORPUS and the STRIP-YIELD models for computation of the crack opening load levels. The implementation is discussed and recent results of the verification are presented.

  15. Innovative Approach to Establish Root Causes for Cracking in Aggressive Reactor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.; Vetrano, John S.; Simonen, Edward P.

    2003-10-31

    The research focuses on the high-resolution characterization of degradation microstructures and microchemistries in specimens tested under controlled conditions for the environment and for the material where in-service complexities can be minimized. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of crack-tip processes is employed to analyze corrosion-induced structures and gain insights into degradation mechanisms. Novel mechanistic ''fingerprinting'' of crack-tip structures is used to isolate causes of environmental cracking in tandem with quantitative measurements of crack growth. Sample preparation methods and advanced analytical techniques are used to characterize corrosion/oxidation reactions and crack-tip structures at near atomic dimensions in order to gain insight into fundamental environmental cracking mechanisms. Reactions at buried interfaces, not accessible by conventional approaches, are being systematically interrogated. Crack-growth experiments in high-temperature water environments are evaluating and isolating the effects of material condition (matrix strength, grain boundary composition and precipitation) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The fundamental understanding of crack advance mechanisms will establish the basis to design new corrosion-resistant alloys for current light-water reactors and advanced reactor systems.

  16. Stable Crack Growth During Thermal Actuation of Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jape, S.; Baxevanis, T.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-03-01

    A finite element analysis of crack growth is carried out in shape memory alloys subjected to thermal variations under plane strain, mode I, constant applied loading. The crack is assumed to propagate at a critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate which is modeled using the virtual crack closure technique. The load level, applied at a high temperature at which the austenite phase is stable, is assumed sufficiently low so that the resulting crack-tip energy release rate is smaller than the critical value but sufficiently high so that the critical value is reached during cooling, initiating crack growth (Baxevanis and Lagoudas in Int J Fract 191:191-213, 2015). Stable crack growth is observed, mainly associated with the shielding effect of the transformed material left in the wake of the advancing crack. Results pertaining to the near-tip mechanical fields and fracture toughness are presented and their sensitivity to phase transformation metrics and bias load levels is investigated.

  17. Effect of Variable Stress Intensity Factor on Hydrogen Environment Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.

    2011-02-01

    Fitness-for-service evaluations of engineered components that are subject to environment assisted cracking (EAC) often require analyses of potentially large crack extensions through regions of variable stress intensity. However, there are few EAC data and models that directly address the effects of variable stress intensity factor on EAC crack growth. The model developed here is used to evaluate stress corrosion cracking (SCC) data that were obtained on a high-strength beta-titanium alloy under conditions of variable crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) rate. SCC of this Ti alloy in ambient temperature, near-neutral NaCl aqueous solution is thought to be due to hydrogen environment assisted cracking (HEAC). As the model equations developed here do not admit to a closed form solution for crack velocity as a function of applied stress intensity factor, K, a semiquantitative graphical solution is used to rationalize the crack growth data. The analyses support a previous suggestion that the observed crack growth rate behavior can be attributed to the effect of crack tip strain rate on rates of mechanical disruption and repair of an otherwise protective crack tip oxide film. Model elements introduced here to HEAC modeling include (1) an expression relating corrosion-active surface area to crack tip strain rate and repassivation rate, (2) an expression relating the critical grain boundary hydrogen to the applied stress intensity factor, and (3) an expression relating CTSR to both applied and crack advance strain rate components. Intergranular crack advance is modeled assuming diffusive segregation of corrosion-generated hydrogen to grain boundary trap sites causing embrittlement of the fracture process zone (FPZ). The model equations developed here provide a quantitative basis for understanding the physical significance of K-variation effects and, with additional development, will provide an engineering tool for analysis of crack growth in a variable K field.

  18. Multiscale modeling of crack initiation and propagation at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiari, Behrouz; Miller, Ronald E.

    2016-03-01

    Fracture occurs on multiple interacting length scales; atoms separate on the atomic scale while plasticity develops on the microscale. A dynamic multiscale approach (CADD: coupled atomistics and discrete dislocations) is employed to investigate an edge-cracked specimen of single-crystal nickel, Ni, (brittle failure) and aluminum, Al, (ductile failure) subjected to mode-I loading. The dynamic model couples continuum finite elements to a fully atomistic region, with key advantages such as the ability to accommodate discrete dislocations in the continuum region and an algorithm for automatically detecting dislocations as they move from the atomistic region to the continuum region and then correctly "converting" the atomistic dislocations into discrete dislocations, or vice-versa. An ad hoc computational technique is also applied to dissipate localized waves formed during crack advance in the atomistic zone, whereby an embedded damping zone at the atomistic/continuum interface effectively eliminates the spurious reflection of high-frequency phonons, while allowing low-frequency phonons to pass into the continuum region. The simulations accurately capture the essential physics of the crack propagation in a Ni specimen at different temperatures, including the formation of nano-voids and the sudden acceleration of the crack tip to a velocity close to the material Rayleigh wave speed. The nanoscale brittle fracture happens through the crack growth in the form of nano-void nucleation, growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip, and as such resembles fracture at the microscale. When the crack tip behaves in a ductile manner, the crack does not advance rapidly after the pre-opening process but is blunted by dislocation generation from its tip. The effect of temperature on crack speed is found to be perceptible in both ductile and brittle specimens.

  19. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case 1 loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case 1 loading history, and alumina for the Case 3 loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test materials.

  20. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth arid/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a Function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test material&

  1. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress- rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the rest materials.

  2. Assessment of Crack Detection in Cast Austenitic Piping Components Using Advanced Ultrasonic Methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Cast stainless steel pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employed a zone-focused, multi-incident angle inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging capabilities. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at 500 kHz and composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Re¬sults from laboratory studies for assessing detection, localization and sizing effectiveness are discussed in this paper.

  3. Advancing the Message: Tips and Suggestions for Communications People in Child Welfare Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Mary J.

    Nonprofit agencies involved in child welfare are increasingly interested in generating publicity for their work and improving their organization's public image. This booklet compiles information, tips, and resources helpful to public relations and communications professionals and agency personnel responsible for handling media relations for child…

  4. Information Retrieval in Tip of the Tongue States: New Data and Methodological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedermann, Britta; Ruh, Nicolas; Nickels, Lyndsey; Coltheart, Max

    2008-01-01

    Research on Tip of the Tongue (ToT) states has been used to determine whether access to syntactic information precedes access to phonological information. This paper argues that previous studies have used insufficient analyses when investigating the nature of seriality of access. In the first part of this paper, these complex issues are discussed…

  5. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  6. Tip-tilt mirror suspension: beam steering for advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory sensing and control signals.

    PubMed

    Slagmolen, Bram J J; Mullavey, Adam J; Miller, John; McClelland, David E; Fritschel, Peter

    2011-12-01

    We describe the design of a small optic suspension system, referred to as the tip-tilt mirror suspension, used to isolate selected small optics for the interferometer sensing and control beams in the advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors. The suspended optics are isolated in all 6 degrees of freedom, with eigenmode frequencies between 1.3 Hz and 10 Hz. The suspended optic has voice-coil actuators which provide an angular range of ±4 mrad in the pitch and yaw degrees of freedom.

  7. A model to predict deflection of bevel-tipped active needle advancing in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Datla, Naresh V; Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Podder, Tarun K; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2014-03-01

    Active needles are recently being developed to improve steerability and placement accuracy for various medical applications. These active needles can bend during insertion by actuators attached to their bodies. The bending of active needles enables them to be steered away from the critical organs on the way to target and accurately reach target locations previously unachievable with conventional rigid needles. These active needles combined with an asymmetric bevel-tip can further improve their steerability. To optimize the design and to develop accurate path planning and control algorithms, there is a need to develop a tissue-needle interaction model. This work presents an energy-based model that predicts needle deflection of active bevel-tipped needles when inserted into the tissue. This current model was based on an existing energy-based model for bevel-tipped needles, to which work of actuation was included in calculating the system energy. The developed model was validated with needle insertion experiments with a phantom material. The model predicts needle deflection reasonably for higher diameter needles (11.6% error), whereas largest error was observed for the smallest needle diameter (24.7% error).

  8. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 2. Crack Growth Analysis Methods for Attachment Lugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    GROUP SUB. GR. ,ttachment Lugs, Cracking, Aircraft, Damage Tolerance, 3 Analysis Methods, Straight Lugs, Tapered Lugs, Stresses, .3 3 Stress Intensity...the damage tolerance of aircraft attachment lugs are developed and presented. Stress and fracture analyses are conducted for simple male straight...Parameter Weight Function Approximation 78 3.3 Three-Dimensional Cracked Finite Element Method 85 4. Elastoplastic Analysis 100 IV STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS

  9. Chemistry and electrochemistry of environment-assisted cracking of an aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Kevin Richard

    2001-11-01

    The mechanism of environment-assisted cracking (EAC) of 7xxx-series alloys is unclear, involving uncertain contributions of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and anodic dissolution (AD). Fundamental understanding of the EAC mechanism is lacking in part because the role of the crack environment is not well understood. The objective of this research was to characterize and understand the role of the crack chemistry and electrochemistry during aqueous EAC of AA 7050. The crack environment can differ significantly from bulk conditions. Cations, produced by AD, hydrolyze causing local acidification; anions from the bulk electrolyte concentrate within the crack to maintain charge neutrality; ohmic potential drop results from ion migration and diffusion. A positive correlation exists between da/dt and [Al3+]Tip in chromate-chloride electrolyte wherein tip dissolution dominates flank corrosion in establishing the crack chemistry. Tip pH was 2 to 4 and determined by the reaction Al3+ + H 2O = AlOH2+ + H+. The tip potential (ETip) was approximately -0.90 VSCE and independent of EApp . The low ETip and pH promote H+ reduction, generating atomic and molecular H. Hydrogen bubbles restrict ion movement, substantially increasing the effective crack resistance over bulk conditions. Absorbed atomic hydrogen facilitates HE. The spontaneous transition from slow, incubation to high-rate da/dt coincides with the establishment of a critical aggressive tip chemistry and tip depolarization. Development of the critical occluded chemistry necessary for accelerated da/dt is a competitive process between opposing forces: AD, hydrolysis and migration promote an aggressive environment whereas diffusion reduces concentration gradients, thereby retarding the formation of an aggressive chemistry. Quantitative assessment of the contribution of tip dissolution to crack advance is hindered by a lack of knowledge of two key parameters: the tip corrosion front height and the effective crack conductivity

  10. Environmental effects on crack healing and static fatigue behavior of glass and polycrystalline ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brett Allen

    An Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) was used for in-situ studies of static fatigue growth of Vickers indent cracks in polycrystalline alumina. Clarks advanced via static fatigue along a tortuous path with grain bridging and crack deflections on the order of a single grain diameter. In-situ ESEM studies of healing of Vickers indent cracks in soda-lime silicate glass found healing to occur at 8% r.h. and at 400sp°C. Increased levels of initial humidity decreased the temperature at which healing initiated. The crack morphology included slow crack regression from the crack tip towards the indent impression and multiple crack pinch-off (above 550sp°C). Debris in a crack hindered complete healing. Conventional heating was used in healing of soda-lime silica glass where Vickers crack lengths were measured via optical microscopy. Microscopy showed crack tip blunting, pinch-off, and sub-surface spheroidization. The more complete healing observed for cracks aged in 45% r.h. than in 0% r.h. was attributed to water vapor entering the glass structure and decreasing the local glass transition temperature and viscosity along the crack faces. Crack healing experiments on polycrystalline alumina were performed using both conventional and microwave heating, No effect of aging environment was found for conventional healing of alumina. The relative crack healing ((2csbinitial-2csbheal) /2csbinitial) behavior for 49 and 98 N indent cracks was nearly identical. Crack healing was modeled by a diffusive transport model originally developed by Dutton and Stevens showing significantly lower activation energies for conventional compared to microwave heating. Microwave heating at 10sp°C/minute had much greater healing than at 75sp°C/minute.

  11. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Smith, Charles D.; Lemasurier, Philip

    1990-01-01

    During the design of a helicopter, the weight, engine, rotor speed, and rotor geometry are given significant attention when considering the specific operations for which the helicopter will be used. However, the noise radiated from the helicopter and its relationship to the design variables is currently not well modeled with only a limited set of full-scale field test data to study. In general, limited field data have shown that reduced main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach numbers result in reduced far-field noise levels. The status of a recent helicopter noise research project is reviewed. It is designed to provide flight experimental data which may be used to further understand helicopter main-rotor advancing blade-tip Mach number effects on far-field acoustic levels. Preliminary results are presented relative to tests conducted with a Sikorsky S-76A helicopter operating with both the rotor speed and the flight speed as the control variable. The rotor speed was operated within the range of 107 to 90 percent NR at nominal forward speeds of 35, 100, and 155 knots.

  12. Prediction of fatigue-crack growth under variableamplitude and spectrum loading using a closure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An existing analytical crack closure model was used to study crack growth under various load histories. The model was based on a concept like the Dugdale model, but modified to leave plastically deformed material in the wake of the advancing crack tip. The model was used to correlate crack growth rates under constant amplitude loading, and to predict crack growth under variable amplitude and aircraft spectrum loading on 2219-T851 aluminum alloy sheet material. The predicted crack growth lives agreed well with experimental data. For 80 crack growth tests subjected to various load histories, the ratio of predicted-to-experimental lives (N(P)/n(T)) ranged from 0.5 to 1.8. The mean value of N(P)/N(T) was 0.97 and the standard deviation was 0.27.

  13. Gear crack propagation investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Ballarini, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of gear rim thickness on crack propagation life. The FRANC (FRacture ANalysis Code) computer program was used to simulate crack propagation. The FRANC program used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, finite element modeling, and a unique re-meshing scheme to determine crack tip stress distributions, estimate stress intensity factors, and model crack propagation. Various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack propagation life based on the calculated stress intensity factors. Experimental tests were performed in a gear fatigue rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Test gears were installed with special crack propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending fatigue crack growth. Good correlation between predicted and measured crack growth was achieved when the fatigue crack closure concept was introduced into the analysis. As the gear rim thickness decreased, the compressive cyclic stress in the gear tooth fillet region increased. This retarded crack growth and increased the number of crack propagation cycles to failure.

  14. Helicopter blade tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyothier, R.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of improving helicopter performance and vibration level by proper shaping of helicopter blade tips are considered. The principle involved consists of reducing the extent of the supersonic zone above the advancing tip and of the turbulent interaction. For stationary and advancing flight, the influence of the rotor and the problems posed by blade tips are reviewed. The theoretical methods of dealing with the two types of flight are briefly stated, and the experimental apparatus is described, including model triple and quadruple rotors. Different blade tip shapes are shown and briefly discussed. The theoretical results include an advancing speed of 309 km/H and a blade tip rotational speed of 215 m/s. The experimental values are advancing speed of 302 km/h and blade tip Mach number 0.86 for both types of rotors.

  15. Development of a Low Data Event Timer for Monitoring an Advancing Crack in Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macon, D. J.; Totman, P. D.; Bodily, M. L.; Everton, R. L.; Eggett, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring the crack position and velocity in a fracture specimen can be difficult and laborious. In addition, the data storage requirements can be considerable depending upon the testing conditions. A low data event timer was developed to alleviate these problems. The test apparatus was applied to cantilever beams bonded with a structural epoxy and tested under different conditions such as stable to unstable transitions and different temperature extremes. The results indicate that the approach eliminates problems associated with other types of crack measurement and greatly simplifies the measuring process.

  16. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 3. Experimental Evaluation of Crack Growth Analysis Methods for Attachment Lugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-17

    Structural Lugs 10 6.00 TETM TESX, MARI LOCKHEED L𔃼.0 GRUP IIhA AND 2Rii * 2~~~~.0 .RUPINI .01 .05 1 .2 .5. 9 99PROABLTY F*ý,r 1-40 4oprsno R ato nTs rga...monitor loads and perform failsafe functions . A sinewave function generator provides load commands to the servo loop and a calibrated amplitude measurement...Simple Compounding Solution o 2-D Cracked Finite Element Procedure o Green’s Function Method 0 3-D Cracked Finite Element PrTocedure Parameters and

  17. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  18. Shear fatigue crack growth - A literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies of shear crack growth are reviewed, emphasizing test methods and data analyses. The combined mode I and mode II elastic crack tip stress fields are considered. The development and design of the compact shear specimen are described, and the results of fatigue crack growth tests using compact shear specimens are reviewed. The fatigue crack growth tests are discussed and the results of inclined cracks in tensile panels, center cracks in plates under biaxial loading, cracked beam specimens with combined bending and shear loading, center-cracked panels and double edge-cracked plates under cyclic shear loading are examined and analyzed in detail.

  19. Development of Advanced Life Prediction Tools for Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne; McGill, Preston; Swanson, Greg; Wells, Doug; Throckmorton, D. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to develop a systematic approach to improving the fracture control process, including analytical tools, standards, guidelines, and awareness. Analytical tools specifically for elastic-plastic fracture analysis is a regime that is currently empirical for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) and is handled by simulated service testing of pre-cracked panels.

  20. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 1. Cracking Data Survey and NDI (Nondestructive Inspection) Assessment for Attachment Lugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Origins of Primary Crack, 155 Lug Coupons (Kiddle [1]) 12 3-4 Number of Origins of Secondary Crack, 155 Lug Coupons ( Kiddie [i]) 13 3-5 Crack Types for...1CSTY: / +5 SURF. SRFC,•C--ONE S S SURFAC Figure 3-3. Number of Origins of Primary Crack, 155 Lug Coupons ( Kiddie [1]) 12 CRACK TYPES: CRACK...MULTIPLICITY’ SURFACE 1 CRACKS CORNER 12 /15 ONLY 2 CORNER SURFACE S;CORNER PT SURFACE Figure 3-4. Number of Origins of Secondary Crack, 155 Lug Coupons ( Kiddie

  1. Evaluation of the effect of crack closure on fatigue crack growth of simulated short cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Fisher, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A test program was performed to determine the influence of crack closure on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of short cracks. By use of the standard compact tension specimen, test procedures were devised to evaluate closure loads in the wake of the crack behind its tip. The first procedure determined the magnitude of crack closure as a function of the fatigued crack wave by incrementally removing the contacting wake surfaces and measuring closure load at each increment. The second procedure used a low-high loading sequence to simulate short crack behavior. Based on the results, it was concluded that crack closure is not the major reason for the more rapid growth of short cracks as compared to long crack growth.

  2. R and D advances in corrosion and crack monitoring for oil and gas lines

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, D.L.; Czura, W.; Krause, T.W.; Laursen, P.; Mergelas, B.; Hauge, C.

    1996-12-31

    Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) inspection techniques for in-line corrosion monitoring of pipelines continue to evolve rapidly. Current R and D is aimed at improving the accuracy and reliability of defect sizing. Major issues are the variability and consequent need to characterize the magnetic properties of the pipes and the effects of line pressure, residual and bending stresses on MFL signals. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) measurements are being used to study the stress-induced changes in magnetic anisotropy. Remote Field Eddy Current (RFEC) techniques are being investigated for detection and measurement of stress corrosion cracking in gas pipelines. Anomalous defect source models have improved the detailed explanation of crack defect interactions greatly.

  3. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  4. Zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer B; Westerfield, Monte

    2014-07-01

    Advances in genomics and next-generation sequencing have provided clinical researchers with unprecedented opportunities to understand the molecular basis of human genetic disorders. This abundance of information places new requirements on traditional disease models, which have the potential to be used to confirm newly identified pathogenic mutations and test the efficacy of emerging therapies. The unique attributes of zebrafish are being increasingly leveraged to create functional disease models, facilitate drug discovery, and provide critical scientific bases for the development of new clinical tools for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. In this short review and the accompanying poster, we highlight a few illustrative examples of the applications of the zebrafish model to the study of human health and disease.

  5. Intraoperative fracture of phacoemulsification tip.

    PubMed

    Angmo, Dewang; Khokhar, Sudarshan K; Ganguly, Anasua

    2014-01-01

    Phacoemulsification (phaco) is an established procedure for cataract extraction and has undergone a significant advances in techniques, machines and phaco tips. The Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) phaco tip was introduced for phacoemulsification in 1998. The ABS tip allows fluid to be drawn through the opening when the phaco tip is occluded by nuclear material. The ABS tip allowed the safe use of high vacuum and flow rates and improved chamber stability by decreasing surge and therefore reducing intraoperative complications. To date, no disadvantages of ABS tips have been reported. We report a unique case of an intraoperative break of an ABS phaco tip during routine cataract surgery.

  6. Crack analysis of unfilled natural rubber using infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeister, L.A.; Koenig, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The characterization and analysis of the crack tip region in unfilled natural rubber is crucial in developing a fatigue resistant material. Therefore, the molecular structure and orientation of the material in the crack tip region has been compared to the bulk. Cracks formed by different methods were evaluated using both transmission and reflection techniques of infrared microspectroscopy. The material around the crack tip and edges shows much higher absorbances than the bulk material for stressed rubber. This is due to more material and predominantly, from residual orientation effects. For unstressed material the crack tip region exhibits identical characteristics to the bulk material.

  7. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Current Status, Issues, and Suggestions for Further Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, S. P.

    2013-03-01

    Mechanisms and kinetics of metal-induced embrittlement, hydrogen-embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking are discussed, and long-standing controversies are addressed by reviewing critical observations. Recommendations are also made regarding further work (including repetition of previous work using more advanced measurement and characterisation techniques) that should be carried out in order to resolve some of the contentious issues. The evidence to date suggests that adsorption-based mechanisms, involving weakening of substrate interatomic bonds so that dislocation emission or decohesion is facilitated, accounts for embrittlement in many systems. Embrittling adsorbed species include some metal atoms, hydrogen, and complex ions produced by de-alloying. Other viable mechanisms of embrittlement include those based on (1) dissolution of anodic grain-boundary regions, and (2) decohesion at grain boundaries owing to segregated hydrogen and impurities. The hydrogen-enhanced localised-plasticity mechanism, based on solute hydrogen facilitating dislocation activity in the plastic zone ahead of cracks, makes a contribution in some cases, but is relatively unimportant compared with these other mechanisms for most fracture modes. The film-induced cleavage mechanism, proposed especially for stress-corrosion cracking in systems involving de-alloying at crack tips, is questionable on numerous grounds, and is probably not viable. Rate-controlling processes for environmentally assisted cracking are not well established, except for solid-metal induced embrittlement where surface self-diffusion of embrittling atoms to crack tips controls cracking kinetics. In some systems, adsorption kinetics are probably rate-controlling for liquid-metal embrittlement, hydrogen-environment embrittlement, and stress-corrosion cracking. In other cases, rate-controlling processes could include the rate of anodic or cathodic reactions at and behind crack tips (responsible for producing embrittling

  8. Atomic simulation of cracks under mixed mode loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, M.

    1984-01-01

    A discrete atomic model of a crack tip in iron under mixed mode loads is examined. The results indicate that the behavior of the crack at the atomic scale as a function of the ratio of mode I to mode II component of load is quite complex. In general, crack tip plasticity appears to increase as the mode II component of load increases.

  9. Advanced control improves MHC-VGO unit operation. [Mild HydroCracking-Vacuum Gas Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, L.; Watson, D. ); Danzinger, F.; Tuppinger, D.; Schuster, R.; Wilmsen, W. )

    1995-03-01

    Constraint and multivariable predictive (MPC) controllers were implemented on an FCC preheater (MHC-VGO unit), which runs in mild hydrocracking (MHC) mode. In only a few weeks following commissioning, better control provided an average reduction in steam use of 38%, an average reduction of 22% in DEA use and a 5 to 10% reduction in fuel consumption. OMV's refinery in Schwechat was commissioned in 1960 and is now one of the largest and most complex inland-refineries in Europe with an annual crude oil processing capacity of 10 million metric tons. Every product stream is desulfurized by hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units. As part of a refinery-wide advanced control (ADVC) project which includes 27 units implemented on four process computers and two DCSs, advanced controls were installed on the MHC-VGO unit. The entire project was executed over a period of two and a half years. The paper describes the process, advanced control, the weighted average bed temperature controller, feed maximization control, stripper feed temperature control, stripping steam/feed ratio controller, stripper pressure minimization, H[sub 2]/oil controller, recycle/DEA ratio controller, stripper bottoms level controller, and advanced control benefits.

  10. Effect of Measured Welding Residual Stresses on Crack Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Roy W.; Nelson, Drew; Doty, Laura W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in thin plate A516-70 steel and 2219-T87 aluminum butt weldments were measured by the strain-gage hole drilling and X-ray diffraction methods. The residual stress data were used to construct 3D strain fields which were modeled as thermally induced strains. These 3D strain fields were then analyzed with the WARP31) FEM fracture analysis code in order to predict their effect on fatigue and on fracture. For analyses of fatigue crack advance and subsequent verification testing, fatigue crack growth increments were simulated by successive saw-cuts and incremental loading to generate, as a function of crack length, effects on crack growth of the interaction between residual stresses and load induced stresses. The specimen experimental response was characterized and compared to the WARM linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis predictions. To perform the fracture analysis, the plate material's crack tearing resistance was determined by tests of thin plate M(T) specimens. Fracture analyses of these specimen were performed using WARP31D to determine the critical Crack Tip Opening Angle [CTOA] of each material. These critical CTOA values were used to predict crack tearing and fracture in the weldments. To verify the fracture predictions, weldment M(T) specimen were tested in monotonic loading to fracture while characterizing the fracture process.

  11. Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors

  12. Elevated Temperature Crack Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orange, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  13. Elevated temperature crack propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Orange, T.W.

    1994-02-01

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  14. Low-energy EDX--a novel approach to study stress corrosion cracking in SUS304 stainless steel via scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Meisnar, Martina; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Moody, Michael; Holland, James

    2014-11-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in type SUS304 stainless steels, tested under pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water conditions, has been characterized with unprecedented spatial resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and novel low-energy (∼3 kV) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An advancement of the large area silicon drift detector (SDD) has enhanced its sensitivity for X-rays in the low-energy part of the atomic spectrum. Therefore, it was possible to operate the SEM at lower accelerating voltages in order to reduce the interaction volume of the beam with the material and achieve higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise ratio. In addition to studying the oxide chemistry at the surface of intergranular stress corrosion cracks, the technique has proven capable of resolving Ni enrichment ahead of some crack tips. Active cracks could be distinguished from inactive ones due to the presence of oxides in the open crack and Ni-rich regions ahead of the crack tip. Furthermore, it has been established that SCC features can be better resolved with low-energy (3 kV) than high-energy (12 kV) EDX. The low effort in sample preparation, execution and data analysis makes SEM the ideal tool for initial characterization and selection of the most important SCC features such as dominant cracks and interesting crack tips, later to be studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT).

  15. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  16. Library Management Tips that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Carol, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There's no shortage of library management books out there--but how many of them actually tackle the little details of day-to-day management, the hard-to-categorize things that slip through the cracks of a larger handbook? "Library Management Tips that Work" does exactly that, addressing dozens of such issues facing library managers, including: (1)…

  17. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  18. Crack velocity jumps engendered by a transformational process zone.

    PubMed

    Boulbitch, A; Korzhenevskii, A L

    2016-06-01

    We study a concerted propagation of a fast crack with the process zone where a rearrangement of the solid structure takes place. The latter is treated as a second-order local phase transformation. We demonstrate that the propagation of such a zone gives rise to a nonlinear frictionlike force exerted on the crack tip, resisting its propagation. Depending on the temperature, it produces three regimes of crack motion, which differ in the behavior of the crack tip process zone: (i) always existing, (ii) only emerging at a high crack speed, and (iii) flickering. We show that the latter regime exhibits crack velocity jumps.

  19. Fracture Mechanics of Crack Growth During Sonic-IR Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. C.; Riddell, W. T.; Lick, Kyle; Wong, Chang-Hwa

    2007-03-01

    In past studies, we showed that cracks synthesized under carefully controlled conditions will propagate when subjected to sonic IR testing. The extent or severity of the propagation observed depended on several parameters including the stress intensity factor (which corresponds to crack growth rate) under which the crack was synthesized, the tightness of the crack closure, and the initial crack length. Furthermore, we showed that crack propagation during sonic IR testing occurs for 2024 aluminum, titanium and 304 stainless steel specimens. In this study, we extend the range of experimental conditions for synthesizing cracks to further elucidate their effect on the crack propagation, and we focus more specifically on the stress intensity factor. The stress intensity factor not only determines the rate of crack growth, but it has two profound effects on crack characteristics: the establishment of plastic zones around the crack tip and the variation of the topography of the mating crack surfaces. These two factors strongly affect crack propagation.

  20. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  1. Fatigue Behavior of Long and Short Cracks in Wrought and Powder Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    characterization of crack tip stress and deformation fields of short cracks due to extensive local plasticity, ii) notch tip stress and deformation field...long and short flaws at the same nominal driving force (e.g., same nominal stress intensity range based on applied stress , geometry and crack length...the short flaw is likely to experience a larger effective, near-tip stress intensity range, and will therefore show a larger crack growth increment

  2. Application of the V(R) resistance curve method to fracture of various crack configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Sutton, M. A.; Mcneill, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The fracture resistance curve method of Newman (1985), based on the crack-tip-opening displacement, V(R), for a 'stationary' crack, was applied to various crack configurations in 2024-T351 and 7075-T651 aluminum alloys tested at room temperature. Using a stationary crack solution, the crack-tip-displacement was calculated at the current crack length for the crack configurations which included compact, middle-crack, single-edge-crack, and three-hole-crack tension specimens. The results showed that the V(R) resistance curves are insensitive to crack length, specimen width, and specimen type up to maximum load. After the maximum load is reached, the V(R) remains nearly constant; this constant depends only on specimen type, specimen width, and crack length. The V(R) resistance curve method can be used with the strip-yield analyses to accurately predict stable crack growth and instability of cracked metallic materials.

  3. Inhibiting Corrosion Cracking: Crack Tip Chemistry and Physics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-14

    8217.. MacDill Fcrmula See Table 2. Erny Supply Co. Tampa, FL MBT C7H5NS 2 Eastman Kodak Co. -.... Rochester, NY Boric Acid H3B 3 Fisher Scientific Co. Fairlawn...alloy in 3 wt% NaCI 37 solution. 5. Anodic polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy in 1 wt% NaCl andi 38 nitrite/ borax Inhibitor. 6. Anodic polarization of...polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy ]n 1 wt% Naed and 42 * sodium oxalate. 9. Anodic polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy in 1 wt* N&Cl, 45 - " * nitrite/ borax

  4. The use of slow strain rate technique for studying stress corrosion cracking of an advanced silver-bearing aluminum-lithium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frefer, Abdulbaset Ali; Raddad, Bashir S.

    2013-12-16

    In the present study, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of naturally aged advanced silver-bearing Al-Li alloy in NaCl solution was investigated using slow strain rate test (SSRT) method. The SSRT’s were conducted at different strain rates and applied potentials at room temperature. The results were discussed based on percent reductions in tensile elongation in a SCC-causing environment over those in air tended to express the SCC susceptbility of the alloy under study at T3. The SCC behavior of the alloy was also discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic examinations.

  5. Subcritical crack growth in marble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Nishida, Yuki; Toshinori, Ii; Harui, Tomoki; Tanaka, Mayu; Kashiwaya, Koki

    2016-04-01

    observed generally in glass. It is considered that Region II of subcritical crack growth in glass is controlled by the mass-transport to the crack tip. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contains water. Since the porosity of Carrara marble is very low, the contained amount of water is also very low. Therefore, it is considered that Region II is observed in Carrara marble. Since the crack velocity increased in the environment with higher temperature and humidity, it is concluded that the condition with low humidity in air is desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass.

  6. Crack Formation in Cement-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprince, A.; Pakrastinsh, L.; Vatin, N.

    2016-04-01

    The cracking properties in cement-based composites widely influences mechanical behavior of construction structures. The challenge of present investigation is to evaluate the crack propagation near the crack tip. During experiments the tension strength and crack mouth opening displacement of several types of concrete compositions was determined. For each composition the Compact Tension (CT) specimens were prepared with dimensions 150×150×12 mm. Specimens were subjected to a tensile load. Deformations and crack mouth opening displacement were measured with extensometers. Cracks initiation and propagation were analyzed using a digital image analysis technique. The formation and propagation of the tensile cracks was traced on the surface of the specimens using a high resolution digital camera with 60 mm focal length. Images were captured during testing with a time interval of one second. The obtained experimental curve shows the stages of crack development.

  7. Fluid-driven fracturing of adhered elastica: evolution of the vapour tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Thomasina V.; Neufeld, Jerome A.

    2016-11-01

    The transient spreading of a viscous fluid beneath an elastic sheet is controlled by the dynamics at the tip. The large negative pressures needed to drive the viscous fluid into the narrowing gap necessitates a vapour tip separating the fluid front and the crack tip. Adhesion of the elastic sheet imposes a curvature at the tip giving rise to an elasto-capillary length scale and the possibility of a balance between elastic deformation and the strength of adhesion. Two dynamical regimes are therefore possible; viscosity dominant spreading controlled by the pressure in the vapour tip and adhesion dominant spreading controlled by interfacial adhesion. A series of constant flux experiments using clear PDMS elastic sheets allow for direct measurement of the vapour tip in the bending (thick sheet) limit. For small fluid fluxes, the experimental results can be explained by a constant interior pressure and a viscous boundary layer near the fluid front and result in an asymptotic model for the advance of adhesion and viscosity dominated fracture fronts resolving the vapour tip. Understanding the fluid-driven fracturing of adhered elastica provides insight into the spreading of shallow magmatic intrusions in the Earth's crust, and the fluid-driven fracturing of elastic media more generally.

  8. Fatigue Growth and Closure of Short Cracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-03

    stLdy has been carried out to investigate the growth and closure behavior of shortýýcracks in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy and four different conditions of...that short cracks show lessclosure behavior than longcracks. The estimates of initlal.crack lengths based on linearelastic data were made. tThese...anomalous behavior of short cracks. Advances in small crack growth have enabled increasingly quantitative studies that affect initi- ation and growth at

  9. Crack growth direction in unidirectional off-axis graphite epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herakovich, C. T.; Gregory, M. A.; Beuth, J. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An anisotropic elasticity crack tip stress analysis is implemented using three crack extension direction criteria (the normal stress ratio, the tensor polynominal and the strain energy density) to predict the direction of crack extension in unidirectional off axis graphite-epoxy. The theoretical predictions of crack extension direction are then compared with experimental results for 15 deg off axis tensile coupons with center cracks. Specimens of various aspect ratios and crack orientations are analyzed. It is shown that only the normal stress ratio criterion predicts the correct direction of crack growth.

  10. Fatigue crack growth with single overload - Measurement and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, D. L.; Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Dexter, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares experiments with an analytical model of fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude. The stereoimaging technique was used to measure displacements near the tips of fatigue cracks undergoing simple variations in load amplitude-single overloads and overload/underload combinations. Measured displacements were used to compute strains, and stresses were determined from the strains. Local values of crack driving force (Delta-K effective) were determined using both locally measured opening loads and crack tip opening displacements. Experimental results were compared with simulations made for the same load variation conditions using Newman's FAST-2 model. Residual stresses caused by overloads, crack opening loads, and growth retardation periods were compared.

  11. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Metallic Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked metallic structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  12. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  13. On the fracture toughness of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-11-24

    Few engineering materials are limited by their strength; rather they are limited by their resistance to fracture or fracture toughness. It is not by accident that most critical structures, such as bridges, ships, nuclear pressure vessels and so forth, are manufactured from materials that are comparatively low in strength but high in toughness. Indeed, in many classes of materials, strength and toughness are almost mutually exclusive. In the first instance, such resistance to fracture is a function of bonding and crystal structure (or lack thereof), but can be developed through the design of appropriate nano/microstructures. However, the creation of tough microstructures in structural materials, i.e., metals, polymers, ceramics and their composites, is invariably a compromise between resistance to intrinsic damage mechanisms ahead of the tip of a crack (intrinsic toughening) and the formation of crack-tip shielding mechanisms which principally act behind the tip to reduce the effective 'crack-driving force' (extrinsic toughening). Intrinsic toughening is essentially an inherent property of a specific microstructure; it is the dominant form of toughening in ductile (e.g., metallic) materials. However, for most brittle (e.g., ceramic) solids, and this includes many biological materials, it is largely ineffective and toughening conversely must be developed extrinsically, by such shielding mechanisms as crack bridging. From a fracture mechanics perspective, this results in toughening in the form of rising resistance-curve behavior where the fracture resistance actually increases with crack extension. The implication of this is that in many biological and high-strength advanced materials, toughness is developed primarily during crack growth and not for crack initiation. This is an important realization yet is still rarely reflected in the way that toughness is measured, which is invariably involves the use of single-value (crack-initiation) parameters such as the

  14. High-temperature fracture and fatigue-crack growth behavior of an XD gamma-based titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    McKelvey, A.L.; Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2000-05-01

    A study has been made of the effect of temperature (between 25 C and 800 C) on fracture toughness and fatigue-crack propagation behavior in an XD-processed, {gamma}-based titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy, reinforced with a fine dispersion of {approximately}1 vol pct TiB{sub 2} particles. It was found that, whereas crack-initiation toughness increased with increasing temperature, the crack-growth toughness on the resistance curve was highest just below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) at 600 C; indeed, above the DBTT, at 800 C, no rising resistance curve was seen. Such behavior is attributed to the ease of microcrack nucleation above and below the DBTT, which, in turn, governs the extent of uncracked ligament bridging in the crack wake as the primary toughening mechanism. The corresponding fatigue-crack growth behavior was also found to vary inconsistently with temperature. The fastest crack growth rates (and lowest fatigue thresholds) were seen at 600 C, while the slowest crack growth rates (and highest thresholds) were seen at 800 C; the behavior at 25 C was intermediate. Previous explanations for this anomalous temperature effect in {gamma}-TiAl alloys have focused on the existence of some unspecified environmental embrittlement at intermediate temperatures or on the development of excessive crack closure at 800 C; no evidence supporting these explanations could be found. The effect is now explained in terms of the mutual competition of two processes, namely, the intrinsic microstructural damage/crack-advance mechanism, which promotes crack growth, and the propensity for crack-tip blunting, which impedes crack growth, both of which are markedly enhanced by increasing temperature.

  15. Failure Diagram for Chemically Assisted Crack Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    A failure diagram that combines the thresholds for failure of a smooth specimen to that of a fracture mechanics specimen, similar to the modified Kitagawa diagram in fatigue, is presented. For a given material/environment system, the diagram defines conditions under which a crack initiated at the threshold stress in a smooth specimen becomes a propagating crack, by satisfying the threshold stress intensity of a long crack. In analogy with fatigue, it is shown that internal stresses or local stress concentrations are required to provide the necessary mechanical crack tip driving forces, on one hand, and reaction/transportation kinetics to provide the chemical potential gradients, on the other. Together, they help in the initiation and propagation of the cracks. The chemical driving forces can be expressed as equivalent mechanical stresses using the failure diagram. Both internal stresses and their gradients, in conjunction with the chemical driving forces, have to meet the minimum magnitude and the minimum gradients to sustain the growth of a microcrack formed. Otherwise, nonpropagating conditions will prevail or a crack formed will remain dormant. It is shown that the processes underlying the crack nucleation in a smooth specimen and the crack growth of a fracture mechanics specimen are essentially the same. Both require building up of internal stresses by local plasticity. The process involves intermittent crack tip blunting and microcrack nucleation until the crack becomes unstable under the applied stress.

  16. Numerical Modeling for Hole-Edge Cracking of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) Components in the Static Bend Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunok; Mohr, William; Yang, Yu-Ping; Zelenak, Paul; Kimchi, Menachem

    2011-08-01

    Numerical modeling of local formability, such as hole-edge cracking and shear fracture in bending of AHSS, is one of the challenging issues for simulation engineers for prediction and evaluation of stamping and crash performance of materials. This is because continuum-mechanics-based finite element method (FEM) modeling requires additional input data, "failure criteria" to predict the local formability limit of materials, in addition to the material flow stress data input for simulation. This paper presents a numerical modeling approach for predicting hole-edge failures during static bend tests of AHSS structures. A local-strain-based failure criterion and a stress-triaxiality-based failure criterion were developed and implemented in LS-DYNA simulation code to predict hole-edge failures in component bend tests. The holes were prepared using two different methods: mechanical punching and water-jet cutting. In the component bend tests, the water-jet trimmed hole showed delayed fracture at the hole-edges, while the mechanical punched hole showed early fracture as the bending angle increased. In comparing the numerical modeling and test results, the load-displacement curve, the displacement at the onset of cracking, and the final crack shape/length were used. Both failure criteria also enable the numerical model to differentiate between the local formability limit of mechanical-punched and water-jet-trimmed holes. The failure criteria and static bend test developed here are useful to evaluate the local formability limit at a structural component level for automotive crash tests.

  17. Inhibition of Crack Propagation of High Strength Steels through Single and Multifunctional Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    indicators to check the pH at the tip of a frozen crack as the solution at the crack tip thawed, reported that for cracks growing in 7075 aluminum and...which time the crack growth was arrested), the specimen was incrementally loaded and the crack started to grow once again at KI = 77 ksi /I-nch...to 50 ksi inch and the crack growth in region II increasedIPOC3xl0- 5 in/min. Again in Fig. 10, the results are seen for a crack allowed to grow in

  18. TIP list

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, M E

    2006-06-22

    Subcontractors and vendors providing services, including the installation of purchased goods, are required to complete a TIP List. This list does not include every Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) related concern at LLNL. It is intended to highlight major concerns common to most on-site service activities.

  19. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohl, Hollylynne; Harper, Suzanne R.

    2004-01-01

    Some of the graphing capabilities of The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) in the "Technology Tips" are introduced. The new graphing features of GSP allow teachers to implement the software not only in geometry classrooms but also into their algebra, precalculus and calculus classes.

  20. Technology Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos-Trigo, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic program for geometry called Cabri Geometry II is used to examine properties of figures like triangles and make connections with other mathematical ideas like ellipse. The technology tip includes directions for creating such a problem with technology and suggestions for exploring it.

  1. Crack growth resistance in nuclear graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2002-05-01

    Crack growth resistance curves for the non-linear fracture parameters KR, JR and R were measured for unirradiated PGA and IM1-24 graphites that are used as moderators in British Magnox and AGR nuclear reactors respectively. All the curves show an initial rising part, followed by a plateau region where the measured parameter is independent of crack length. JR and R decreased at large crack lengths. The initial rising curves were attributed to development of crack bridges in the wake of the crack front, while, in the plateau region, the crack bridging zone and the frontal process zone, ahead of the crack tip, reached steady state values. The decreases at large crack lengths were attributed to interaction of the frontal zone with the specimen end face. Microscopical evidence for graphite fragments acting as crack bridges showed that they were much smaller than filler particles, indicating that the graphite fragments are broken down during crack propagation. There was also evidence for friction points in the crack wake zone and shear cracking of some larger fragments. Inspection of KR curves showed that crack bridging contributed ~0.4 MPa m0.5 to the fracture toughness of the graphites. An analysis of JR and R curves showed that the development of the crack bridging zone in the rising part of the curves contributed ~20% to the total work of fracture. Energies absorbed during development of crack bridges and steady state crack propagation were greater for PGA than for IM1-24 graphite. These differences reflect the greater extent of irreversible processes occurring during cracking in the coarser microtexture of PGA graphite.

  2. Combustion in cracks of PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Berghout, H. L.; Son, S. F.; Bolme, C. A.; Hill, L. G.; Asay, B. W.; Dickson, P. M.; Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving the combustion of PBX 9501 explosive under confined conditions reveal the importance of crack and flaws in reaction violence. Experiments on room temperature confined disks of pristine and thermally damaged PBX 9501 reveal that crack ignition depends on hot gases entering existing or pressure induced cracks rather than on energy release at the crack tip. PBX 9501 slot combustion experiments show that the reaction propagation rate in the slot does not depend on the external pressure. We have observed 1500 d s in long slots of highly-confined PBX 9501. We present experiments that examine the combustion of mechanically and thermally damaged samples of PBX 9501.

  3. Fatigue behavior of Long and Short Cracks in Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    deposits ,37 40 irregular fracture morphologies coupled with crack tip shear displacements, 4 1 4 3 and fluid-induced pressure44 in addition to...Associated Auger measurements of the extent of crack surface corrosion deposits are shown in Fig. 4.6. In marked contrast to behavior in lower...6 8 10 12 CRACK LENGTH MEASURED FROM NOTCH (mm) Fig. 4.6: Scanning Auger spectroscopic measurements of excess crack surface oxide deposits as a

  4. Prevention of Hydrogen-Induced Cracking in HY-130 Weldments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-30

    crack tip, 2. A stress intensity of significant magnitude, 3. A susceptible microstructure, and h. A temperature in the range of -150 to l4O0°F...of internal cracks lowers the surface-free energy and thus reduces the critical fracture stress . Thus, the initial crack is formed by dislocation...theories have been criticized on the basis of the fact that the incubation time for crack initiation is reversible with respect to the applied stress

  5. A study of crack closure in fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. T.; Wei, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Crack closure phenomenon in fatigue was studied by using a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The occurrence of crack closure was directly measured by an electrical-potential method, and indirectly by load-strain measurement. The experimental results showed that the onset of crack closure depends on both the stress ratio, and the maximum stress intensity factor. No crack closure was observed for stress ratio, greater than 0.3 in this alloy. A two-dimensional elastic model was used to explain the behavior of the recorded load-strain curves. Closure force was estimated by using this model. Yield level stress was found near the crack tip. Based on this estimated closure force, the crack opening displacement was calculated. This result showed that onset of crack closure detected by electrical-potential measurement and crack-opening-displacement measurement is the same. The implications of crack closure on fatigue crack are considered. The experimental results show that crack closure cannot fully account for the effect of stress ratio, on crack growth, and that it cannot be regarded as the sole cause for delay.

  6. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton

    1981-01-01

    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, ..delta..t greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, ..delta..x, decreased linearly with ..delta..t. With ..delta..t less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, ..delta..x = ..delta..x* which approached a limiting value of 1 ..mu..m. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  7. On a separating method for mixed-modes crack growth in wood material using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou Pitti, R.; Dubois, F.; Pop, O.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the complex wood anatomy and the loading orientation, the timber elements are subjected to a mixed-mode fracture. In these conditions, the crack tip advance is characterized by mixed-mode kinematics. In order to characterize the fracture process function versus the loading orientation, a new mixed-mode crack growth timber specimen is proposed. In the present paper, the design process and the experimental validation of this specimen are proposed. Using experimental results, the energy release rate is calculated for several modes. The calculi consist on the separation of each fracture mode. The design of the specimen is based on the analytical approach and numerical simulation by finite element method. The specimen particularity is the stability of the crack propagation under a force control.

  8. Thermally activated dislocation creep model for primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.M., Jr

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing awareness that awareness that environmentally assisted creep plays an important role in integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of NiCrFe alloys in the primary coolant water environment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The expected creep mechanism is the thermally activated glide of dislocations. This mode of deformation is favored by the relatively low temperature of PWR operation combined with the large residual stresses that are most often identified as responsible for the SCC failure of plant components. Stress corrosion crack growth rate (CGR) equations that properly reflect the influence of this mechanism of crack tip deformation are required for accurate component life predictions. A phenomenological IGSCC-CGR model, which is based on an apriori assumption that the IGSCC-CGR is controlled by a low temperature dislocation creep mechanism, is developed in this report. Obstacles to dislocation creep include solute atoms such as carbon, which increase the lattice friction force, and forest dislocations, which can be introduced by cold prestrain. Dislocation creep also may be environmentally assisted due to hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. The IGSCC-CGR model developed here is based on an assumption that crack growth occurs by repeated fracture events occurring within an advancing crack-tip creep-fracture zone. Thermal activation parameters for stress corrosion cracking are obtained by fitting the CGR model to IGSCC-CGR data obtained on NiCrFe alloys, Alloy X-750 and Alloy 600. These IGSCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to activation parameters obtained from creep and stress relaxation tests. Recently reported CGR data, which exhibit an activation energy that depends on yield stress and the applied stress intensity factor, are used to benchmark the model. Finally, the effects of matrix carbon concentration, grain boundary carbides and absorbed hydrogen concentration are discussed within context of the model.

  9. Advances of two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process.

    PubMed

    Chaohe, Yang; Xiaobo, Chen; Jinhong, Zhang; Chunyi, Li; Honghong, Shan

    Two-stage riser catalytic cracking of heavy oil for maximizing propylene yield (TMP) process proposed by State Key Laboratory of Heavy oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, can remarkably enhance the propylene yield and minimize the dry gas and coke yields, and obtain high-quality light oils (gasoline and diesel). It has been commercialized since 2006. Up to now, three TMP commercial units have been put into production and other four commercial units are under design and construction. The commercial data showed that taking paraffinic based Daqing (China) atmospheric residue as the feedstock, the propylene yield reached 20.31 wt%, the liquid products yield (the total yield of liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, and diesel) was 82.66 wt%, and the total yield of dry gas and coke was 14.28 wt%. Moreover, the research octane number of gasoline could be up to 96.

  10. Mechanisms and Modelling of Environment-Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel Based Superalloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-12

    controlling mechanisms of this environment-dependent crack growth stage in Alloy 718 in order to develop the ability to predict the crack growth performance...stage crack-tip oxidation mechanism. According to this mechanism, the oxygen partial pressure controls the preferential formation of the oxide layers at...network. The reduction in grain boundary ductility due to oxidation is balanced by considering the effective strain at the crack tip resulting from

  11. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-02-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  12. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  13. Parametric tip effects for conformable rotor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantay, W. R.; Yeager, W. T., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A research study was initiated to systematically determine the impact of selected blade tip geometric parameters on aeroelasticity conformable rotor performance and loads characteristics. The model articulated rotors included baseline and torsionally soft blades with interchangeable tips. Seven blade tip designs were evaluated on the baseline rotor and three tip designs were tested on the torsionally soft blades. The designs incorporated a systematic variation in three geometric parameters: sweep, taper, and anhedral. The rotors were evaluated in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at several advance ratios, lift and propulsive force values, and tip Mach numbers. Based on the test results, tip parameter variations generated significant rotor performance and loads difference for both baseline and torsionally soft blades. Azimuthal variation of elastic twist generated by the tip parameters strongly correlated with rotor performance and loads, but the magnitude of advancing blade elastic twist did not correlate.

  14. In vivo oxide-induced stress corrosion cracking of Ti-6Al-4V in a neck-stem modular taper: Emergent behavior in a new mechanism of in vivo corrosion.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeremy L; Mali, Sachin; Urban, Robert M; Silverton, Craig D; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2012-02-01

    In vivo modular taper corrosion in orthopedic total joint replacements has been documented to occur for head-neck tapers, modular-body tapers, and neck-stem tapers. While the fretting corrosion mechanism by which this corrosion occurs has been described in the literature, this report shows new and as yet unreported mechanisms at play. A retrieved Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-6Al-4V neck-stem taper interface, implanted for 6 years is subjected to failure analysis to document taper corrosion processes that lead to oxide driven crack formation on the medial side of the taper. Metallurgical sectioning techniques and scanning electron microscopy analysis are used to document the taper corrosion processes. The results show large penetrating pitting attack of both sides of the taper interface where corrosion selectively attacks the beta phase of the microstructure and eventually consumes the alpha phase. The pitting attack evolves into plunging pits that ultimately develop into cracks where the crack propagation process is one of corrosion resulting in oxide formation and subsequent reorganization. This process drives open the crack and advances the front by a combination of oxide-driven crack opening stresses and corrosion attack at the tip. The oxide that forms has a complex evolving structure including a network of transport channels that provide access of fluid to the crack tip. This emergent behavior does not appear to require continued fretting corrosion to propagate the pitting and cracking. This new mechanism is similar to stress corrosion cracking where the crack tip stresses arise from the oxide formation in the crack and not externally applied tensile stresses.

  15. A numerical model for predicting crack path and modes of damage in unidirectional metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakuckas, J. G.; Tan, T. M.; Lau, A. C. W.; Awerbuch, J.

    1993-01-01

    A finite element-based numerical technique has been developed to simulate damage growth in unidirectional composites. This technique incorporates elastic-plastic analysis, micromechanics analysis, failure criteria, and a node splitting and node force relaxation algorithm to create crack surfaces. Any combination of fiber and matrix properties can be used. One of the salient features of this technique is that damage growth can be simulated without pre-specifying a crack path. In addition, multiple damage mechanisms in the forms of matrix cracking, fiber breakage, fiber-matrix debonding and plastic deformation are capable of occurring simultaneously. The prevailing failure mechanism and the damage (crack) growth direction are dictated by the instantaneous near-tip stress and strain fields. Once the failure mechanism and crack direction are determined, the crack is advanced via the node splitting and node force relaxation algorithm. Simulations of the damage growth process in center-slit boron/aluminum and silicon carbide/titanium unidirectional specimens were performed. The simulation results agreed quite well with the experimental observations.

  16. A study of crack propagation in metals in the presence of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petucci, Justin M.

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular statics (MS) simulations of crack propagation in the presence of defects in crystalline FCC metals under mode I loading are carried out on the (001)[100] crack system using the embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potential. Substitutional impurity point defects are introduced into a 3D thin-strip slab of 160000 atoms at various distances from the crack tip. The critical load required for the initiation of crack propagation is obtained, along with the atomic level stress distribution near the crack tip. The results indicate that the critical load is dependent on the defect species, geometry, and position. When located directly at the crack tip, the defects reduce the peak internal stress, increasing the critical load relative to the defect-free system. As the defects are moved away from the crack tip the critical load goes through a minimum and approaches the value of the pure material asymptotically.

  17. The crack problem in bonded nonhomogeneous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Joseph, P. F.; Kaya, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The plane elasticity problem for two bonded half planes containing a crack perpendicular to the interface was considered. The effect of very steep variations in the material properties near the diffusion plane on the singular behavior of the stresses and stress intensity factors were studied. The two materials were thus, assumed to have the shear moduli mu(o) and mu(o) exp (Beta x), x=0 being the diffusion plane. Of particular interest was the examination of the nature of stress singularity near a crack tip termination at the interface where the shear modulus has a discontinuous derivative. The results show that, unlike the crack problem in piecewise homogeneous materials for which the singularity is of the form r/alpha, 0 less than alpha less than 1, in this problem the stresses have a standard square-root singularity regardless of the location of the crack tip. The nonhomogeneity constant Beta has, however, considerable influence on the stress intensity factors.

  18. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks was considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem was solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses were calculated. For finite cracks the problem was reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results were obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  19. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks is considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem is solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses are calculated. For finite cracks the problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results are obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  20. Crack propagation, arrest and statistics in heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Kierfeld, J.; Vinokur, V.; Materials Science Division; Dortmund Univ. of Technology

    2008-04-01

    We investigate theoretically statistics and thermally activated dynamics of crack nucleation and propagation in a two-dimensional heterogeneous material containing quenched randomly distributed defects. We consider a crack tip dynamics accounting for dissipation, thermal noise and the random forces arising from the elastic interactions of the crack opening with the defects. The equation of motion is based on the generalized Griffith criterion and the dynamic energy release rate and gives rise to Langevin-type stochastic dynamics in a quenched disordered potential. For different types of quenched random forces, which are characterized (a) by the range of elastic interactions with the crack tip and (b) the range of correlations between defects, we derive a number of static and dynamic quantities characterizing crack propagation in heterogeneous materials both at zero temperature and in the presence of thermal activation. In the absence of thermal fluctuations we obtain the nucleation and propagation probabilities, typical arrest lengths, the distribution of crack lengths and of critical forces. For thermally activated crack propagation we calculate the mean time to fracture. Depending on the range of elastic interactions between crack tip and frozen defects, heterogeneous material exhibits brittle or ductile fracture. We find that aggregations of defects generating long-range interaction forces (e.g. clouds of dislocations) lead to anomalously slow creep of the crack tip or even to its complete arrest. We demonstrate that heterogeneous materials with frozen defects contain a large number of arrested microcracks and that their fracture toughness is enhanced to the experimentally accessible timescales.

  1. Plane-strain crack problems in microstructured solids governed by dipolar gradient elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgiotis, P. A.; Georgiadis, H. G.

    2009-11-01

    The present study aims at determining the elastic stress and displacement fields around the tips of a finite-length crack in a microstructured solid under remotely applied plane-strain loading (mode I and II cases). The material microstructure is modeled through the Toupin-Mindlin generalized continuum theory of dipolar gradient elasticity. According to this theory, the strain-energy density assumes the form of a positive-definite function of the strain tensor (as in classical elasticity) and the gradient of the strain tensor (additional term). A simple but yet rigorous version of the theory is employed here by considering an isotropic linear expression of the elastic strain-energy density that involves only three material constants (the two Lamé constants and the so-called gradient coefficient). First, a near-tip asymptotic solution is obtained by the Knein-Williams technique. Then, we attack the complete boundary value problem in an effort to obtain a full-field solution. Hypersingular integral equations with a cubic singularity are formulated with the aid of the Fourier transform. These equations are solved by analytical considerations on Hadamard finite-part integrals and a numerical treatment. The results show significant departure from the predictions of standard fracture mechanics. In view of these results, it seems that the classical theory of elasticity is inadequate to analyze crack problems in microstructured materials. Indeed, the present results indicate that the stress distribution ahead of the crack tip exhibits a local maximum that is bounded. Therefore, this maximum value may serve as a measure of the critical stress level at which further advancement of the crack may occur. Also, in the vicinity of the crack tip, the crack-face displacement closes more smoothly as compared to the standard result and the strain field is bounded. Finally, the J-integral (energy release rate) in gradient elasticity was evaluated. A decrease of its value is noticed

  2. Improved Stress Intensity Solutions Developed for the Multiple Site Damage Scenario: Two Unequal Through Cracks on Either Side of an Open Hole, Multiple Through Cracks, and Through Cracks Approaching an Open Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    so the stress intensity factor at each crack tip is a function of the length of both cracks. The handbook solution by Murakami [3], was reported to...G.R., "The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook," Second Edition, Paris Productions, Inc., St. Louis, MO, 1985 3. Murakami , Y., et al., "Stress

  3. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  4. Cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Otterstedt, J. E. A.; Jaras, S. G.; Pudas, R.; Upson, L. L.

    1985-05-07

    A cracking catalyst having good resistance to metal poisoning has at least two particle fractions of different particle sizes, the cracking catalyzing zeolite material being concentrated to the coarser particle size fractions, and the finer particle size fractions being formed from material having relatively lower or no or insignificant cracking catalyzing activity. The particles of the finer particle size fractions have a matrix of kaolin and amorphous alumina--silica and may contain for example, an SO /SUB x/ eliminating additive such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO and/or MgO. The coarser particle size fractions having cracking catalyzing effect have a mean particle size of from 80 to 125 ..mu..m and the finer particle size fractions a mean particle size of from 30 to 75 ..mu..m. The coarser particle size fractions have a zeolite content of at least 20 weight % and may have a zeolite content of up to 100 weight %, the remainder consisting essentially of material which has relatively lower or no or insignificant cracking-catalyzing activity and which consists of kaolin and amorphous alumina-silica. The catalyst mass as a whole may have a zeolite content of up to 50 weight %.

  5. Advanced Password Tips and Tricks

    MedlinePlus

    ... computer security . Tagged with: computer security , data breach , identity theft , online , online safety , password Blog Topics: Privacy, Identity & Online Security Comments MELVIN COVIL | July 30, 2015 | ...

  6. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.

    1997-02-01

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t{sub diss} which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t{sub diss} providing V{sub eac}, the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V{sub In}, the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V{sub eac} need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths.

  7. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  8. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A.; Martin, John C.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Stronglida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesphagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests. PMID:26026709

  9. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.

  10. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  11. Vacuum Levels Needed to Simulate Internal Fatigue Crack Growth in Titanium Alloys and Nickel-Base Superalloys Thermaodynamic Conditioners (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    pressure reduction from 10 Pa to 1 Pa, which was attributed to the enhanced plasticity leading to crack tip blunting at air pressures ≤ 1 Pa...feasible. From these considerations, it is expected that there is a lower level of reverse slip at the crack - tip during unloading portion of a fatigue...sustained-load tests at elevated temperatures of Ni-base superalloys is reported to occur by stress-assisted diffusion of oxygen ahead of crack - tip , and

  12. Digital Image Analysis System for Monitoring Crack Growth at Elevated Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    The objective of the research work reported here was to develop a new concept, based on Digital Image Analysis , for monitoring the crack-tip position...a 512 x 512 pixel frame. c) Digital Image Analysis software developed to locate and digitize the position of the crack-tip, on the observed image

  13. Tips for Daily Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips and Gadgets for Daily Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...

  14. First Aid Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > First Aid Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  15. A circumferential crack in a cylindrical shell under tension.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan-Fama, M. E.; Sanders, J. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A closed cylindrical shell under uniform internal pressure has a slit around a portion of its circumference. Linear shallow shell theory predicts inverse square-root-type singularities in certain of the stresses at the crack tips. This paper reports the computed strength of these singularities for different values of a dimensionless parameter based on crack length, shell radius and shell thickness.

  16. The crack problem for a nonhomogeneous plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The plane elasticity problem for a nonhomogeneous medium containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the Poisson's ratio of the medium is constant and the Young's modulus E varies exponentially with the coordinate parallel to the crack. First the half plane problem is formulated and the solution is given for arbitrary tractions along the boundary. Then the integral equation for the crack problem is derived. It is shown that the integral equation having the derivative of the crack surface displacement as the density function has a simple Cauchy type kernel. Hence, its solution and the stresses around the crack tips have the conventional square root singularity. The solution is given for various loading conditions. The results show that the effect of the Poisson's ratio and consequently that of the thickness constraint on the stress intensity factors are rather negligible.

  17. Fatigue Crack Detection Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawley, P.; Hutt, T. D.

    2009-03-01

    At present, detecting structural defects such as cracking and corrosion before they become critical is largely achieved by time consuming techniques such as eddy current and ultrasonic testing. These techniques require point-by-point scanning over the area to be tested. Digital Image Correlation could provide a cheaper and quicker testing technique. It works by correlating images of the structure surface in unloaded and loaded states taken with a standard digital camera, giving the displacement and strain fields. The specific case of a crack at a hole in an aluminium plate was investigated. It was found that the strain concentration around the crack tip is too localised to detect; however the displacement jump across the crack could be seen. This technique allows the cracks to be detected and would allow rapid testing of a structure if it can easily be loaded.

  18. A Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity study of elastodynamic shielding of stationary cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurrutxaga-Lerma, B.; Balint, D. S.; Dini, D.; Sutton, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Employing Dynamic Discrete Dislocation Plasticity (D3P), an elastodynamic analysis of the shielding of a stationary crack tip by dislocations is studied. Dislocations are generated via Frank-Read sources, and make a negligible contribution to the shielding of the crack tip, whereas dislocations generated at the crack tip via homogeneous nucleation dominate the shielding. Their effect is found to be highly localised around the crack, leading to a magnification of the shielding when compared to time-independent, elastostatic predictions. The resulting attenuation of KI(t) is computed, and is found to be directly proportional to the applied load and to √{ t }.

  19. Crack Turning in Integrally Stiffened Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Richard Glen

    2000-01-01

    Current emphasis in the aircraft industry toward reducing manufacturing cost has created a renewed interest in integrally stiffened structures. Crack turning has been identified as an approach to improve the damage tolerance and fail-safety of this class of structures. A desired behavior is for skin cracks to turn before reaching a stiffener, instead of growing straight through. A crack in a pressurized fuselage encounters high T-stress as it nears the stiffener--a condition favorable to crack turning. Also, the tear resistance of aluminum alloys typically varies with crack orientation, a form of anisotropy that can influence the crack path. The present work addresses these issues with a study of crack turning in two-dimensions, including the effects of both T-stress and fracture anisotropy. Both effects are shown to have relation to the process zone size, an interaction that is central to this study. Following an introduction to the problem, the T-stress effect is studied for a slightly curved semi-infinite crack with a cohesive process zone, yielding a closed form expression for the future crack path in an infinite medium. For a given initial crack tip curvature and tensile T-stress, the crack path instability is found to increase with process zone size. Fracture orthotropy is treated using a simple function to interpolate between the two principal fracture resistance values in two-dimensions. An extension to three-dimensions interpolates between the six principal values of fracture resistance. Also discussed is the transition between mode I and mode II fracture in metals. For isotropic materials, there is evidence that the crack seeks out a direction of either local symmetry (pure mode I) or local asymmetry (pure mode II) growth. For orthotropic materials the favored states are not pure modal, and have mode mixity that is a function of crack orientation.

  20. Experimental study on cracking behaviour of moulded gypsum containing two non-parallel overlapping flaws under uniaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afolagboye, Lekan Olatayo; He, Jianming; Wang, Sijing

    2016-12-01

    Failure of rock mass that is subjected to compressive loads occurs from initiation, propagation, and linkage of new cracks from preexisting fissures. Our research investigates the cracking behaviour and coalescence process in a brittle material with two non-parallel overlapping flaws using a high-speed camera. The coalescence tensile crack and tensile wing cracks were the first cracks to occur from the preexisting flaws. The initiation stresses of the primary cracks at the two tips of each flaw were simultaneous and decreased with reduced flaw inclination angle. The following types of coalescence cracks were identified between the flaws: primary tensile coalescence crack, tensile crack linkage, shear crack linkage, mixed tensile-shear crack, and indirect crack coalescence. Coalescence through tensile linkage occurred mostly at pre-peak stress. In contrast, coalescence through shear or mixed tensile-shear cracks occurred at higher stress. Overall, this study indicates that the geometry of preexisting flaws affect crack initiation and coalescence behaviour.

  1. Turbine blade tip durability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Laflen, J. H.; Spamer, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cooled turbine blade from an aircraft gas turbine engine chosen for its history of cracking was subjected to advanced analytical and life-prediction techniques. The utility of advanced structural analysis techniques and advanced life-prediction techniques in the life assessment of hot section components are verified. Three dimensional heat transfer and stress analyses were applied to the turbine blade mission cycle and the results were input into advanced life-prediction theories. Shortcut analytical techniques were developed. The proposed life-prediction theories are evaluated.

  2. Modeling of Stress Corrosion Cracking for High Level Radioactive-Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S C; Gordon, G M; Andresen, P L; Herrera, M L

    2003-06-20

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) model has been adapted for performance prediction of high level radioactive-waste packages to be emplaced in the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive-waste repository. SCC is one form of environmentally assisted cracking due to three factors, which must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. For waste packages of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository, the outer barrier material is Alloy 22, a highly corrosion resistant alloy, the environment is represented by the water film present on the surface of the waste package from dripping or deliquescence of soluble salts present in any surface deposits, and the stress is principally the weld induced residual stress. SCC has historically been separated into ''initiation'' and ''propagation'' phases. Initiation of SCC will not occur on a smooth surface if the surface stress is below a threshold value defined as the threshold stress. Cracks can also initiate at and propagate from flaws (or defects) resulting from manufacturing processes (such as welding). To account for crack propagation, the slip dissolution/film rupture (SDFR) model is adopted to provide mathematical formulas for prediction of the crack growth rate. Once the crack growth rate at an initiated SCC is determined, the time to through-wall penetration for the waste package can be calculated. The SDFR model relates the advance (or propagation) of cracks, subsequent to the crack initiation from bare metal surface, to the metal oxidation transients that occur when the protective film at the crack tip is continually ruptured and repassivated. A crack, however, may reach the ''arrest'' state before it enters the ''propagation'' phase. There exists a threshold stress intensity factor, which provides a criterion for determining if an initiated crack or pre-existing manufacturing flaw will reach the ''arrest'' state. This paper presents the research

  3. Fatigue crack growth model RANDOM2 user manual. Appendix 1: Development of advanced methodologies for probabilistic constitutive relationships of material strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyce, Lola; Lovelace, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    FORTRAN program RANDOM2 is presented in the form of a user's manual. RANDOM2 is based on fracture mechanics using a probabilistic fatigue crack growth model. It predicts the random lifetime of an engine component to reach a given crack size. Details of the theoretical background, input data instructions, and a sample problem illustrating the use of the program are included.

  4. Crack Healing in Quartz: Influence of Crack Morphology and pOH-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, J. A.; Kronenberg, A. K.; Popp, R. K.; Lamb, W. M.

    2004-12-01

    Crack healing in quartz has been investigated by optical microscopy and interferometry of rhombohedral r-cleavage cracks in polished Brazilian quartz prisms that were hydrothermally annealed. Quartz prisms were pre-cracked at room temperature and then annealed at temperatures T of 250° and 400° C for 2.4 to 240 hours, fluid pressure Pf = 41 MPa (equal to confining pressure Pc), and varying pOH- (from 5.4 to 1.2 at 250° C for fluids consisting of distilled water and NaOH solutions). Crack morphologies before and after annealing were recorded for each sample in plane light digital images and apertures were determined from interference fringes recorded using transmitted monochromatic light (λ = 598 nm). As documented in previous studies (Smith and Evans, 1984; Brantley et al., 1990; Beeler and Hickman, 1996), crack healing of quartz is driven by reductions in surface energy and healing rates appear to be limited by diffusional solute transport; sharply defined crack tips become blunted and break up into fluid-filled tubes and inclusions. However, fluid inclusion geometries are also observed with nonequilibrium shapes that depend on initial surface roughness. Crack healing is significant at 400° C after short run durations (24 hr) with healing rates reaching 10-5 mm/s. Crack healing is also observed at T=250° C, but only for smooth cracks with apertures < 0.6 μ m or for cracks subject to low pOH-. The extent of crack healing is sensitive to crack aperture and to hackles formed by fine-scale crack branching during crack growth. Initial crack apertures appear to be governed by the presence of fine particles, often found in the vicinity of hackles, which maintain the separation of crack surfaces. Where rough cracks exhibit healing, hackles are sites of either enhanced or reduced loss of fluid-solid interface depending on slight mismatches and sense of twist of opposing crack surfaces. Hackles of open r-cleavage cracks are replaced either by (1) healed curvilinear

  5. Propagation and interactions of cracks in Si induced by H supply into He-filled cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboh, S.; Barbot, J. F.; Beaufort, M. F.; Fitchner, P. F. P.

    2011-02-01

    The phenomena of interaction and propagation of cracks under the contribution of hydrogen were studied in (001) silicon substrate in which an array of scattered over-pressurized He-plates was previously introduced at a given depth. Their propagation under subcritical regime was activated through diffusional supply of H atoms introduced by implantation/annealing. Interactions between the tips of non coplanar cracks take place in a nanometric scale; they can be of plastic-type leading to the formation of extended defects or of elastic-type resulting in deviations of crack-tip propagation. While the planar interactions facilitate the propagation of cracks, those of non coplanar-type stop them. The observations were carried out by transmission electron microscopy and the results were discussed and modelled by using concepts of elasticity and fracture mechanics.

  6. Effect of crack meandering on dynamic, ductile fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, V.; Needleman, A.

    DYNAMIC crack growth is analyzed numerically for a plane strain edge cracked specimen subject to impulsive tensile loading at one end. An elastic—viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid is used to model ductile fracture by the nucleation and subsequent growth of voids to coalescence. Two populations of second-phase particles are represented: large inclusions with low strength, which result in large voids near the crack tip at an early stage, and small second-phase particles, which require large strains before cavities nucleate. Adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the resulting thermal softening are accounted for in the analyses. Various two-dimensional distributions of the larger inclusions in front of the crack tip are considered, while the small second-phase particles are taken to be uniformly distributed. It is found that in most cases cracks grow in a zig-zag manner, dependent on the distribution of larger inclusions. Predictions for the dynamic crack growth behavior and for the time variation of crack tip characterizing parameters are obtained for each case analyzed. The computed crack growth paths and speeds are entirely based on the ductile failure predictions of the material model, so that the present study is free from ad hoc assumptions regarding appropriate dynamic crack growth criteria.

  7. Simulation of fatigue crack growth under large scale yielding conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Christoph; Seifert, Thomas; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    A simple mechanism based model for fatigue crack growth assumes a linear correlation between the cyclic crack-tip opening displacement (ΔCTOD) and the crack growth increment (da/dN). The objective of this work is to compare analytical estimates of ΔCTOD with results of numerical calculations under large scale yielding conditions and to verify the physical basis of the model by comparing the predicted and the measured evolution of the crack length in a 10%-chromium-steel. The material is described by a rate independent cyclic plasticity model with power-law hardening and Masing behavior. During the tension-going part of the cycle, nodes at the crack-tip are released such that the crack growth increment corresponds approximately to the crack-tip opening. The finite element analysis performed in ABAQUS is continued for so many cycles until a stabilized value of ΔCTOD is reached. The analytical model contains an interpolation formula for the J-integral, which is generalized to account for cyclic loading and crack closure. Both simulated and estimated ΔCTOD are reasonably consistent. The predicted crack length evolution is found to be in good agreement with the behavior of microcracks observed in a 10%-chromium steel.

  8. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impeded hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.

  9. An investigation of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth in Q1N (HY80) steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboyejo, W. O.; Knott, J. F.

    1990-11-01

    Fatigue threshold tests have been conducted on through-thickness and semielliptic cracks in laboratory air, vacuum, and salt water at stress ratios (R = Kmin/Kmax @#@) of 0.2 and 0.7. The effects of stress ratio are rationalized by crack closure concepts. Environmental effects are explained by considerations of the irreversibility of slip at the crack tip and the role of debris on the fracture surfaces. Differences in the fatigue crack growth rates in the three environments are attributed largely to the extent of the irreversibility of slip due to the chemisorption of water/ water vapor at the crack tip. Debris in saltwater solutions is also shown to significantly affect the near-threshold growth through its influence on crack closure and the transportation of environment to the crack tip.

  10. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, S. N.; Vanstone, R. H.; Kim, K. S.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the ability of currently available P-I integrals to correlate fatigue crack propagation under conditions that simulate the turbojet engine combustor liner environment. The utility of advanced fracture mechanics measurements will also be evaluated during the course of the program. To date, an appropriate specimen design, a crack displacement measurement method, and boundary condition simulation in the computational model of the specimen were achieved. Alloy 718 was selected as an analog material based on its ability to simulate high temperature behavior at lower temperatures. Tensile and cyclic tests were run at several strain rates so that an appropriate constitutive model could be developed. Suitable P-I integrals were programmed into a finite element post-processor for eventual comparison with experimental data.

  11. The Effect of Water on Crack Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaede, O.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2009-04-01

    While the mechanical coupling between pore fluid and solid phase is relatively well understood, quantitative studies dealing with chemical-mechanical weakening in geological materials are rare. Many classical poroelastic problems can be addressed with the simple law of effective stress. Experimental studies show that the presence of a chemically active fluid can have effects that exceed the predictions of the law of effective stress. These chemical fluid-rock interactions alter the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Especially chemical-mechanical weakening has important ramifications for many areas of applied geosciences ranging from nuclear waste disposal over reservoir enhancement to fault stability. In this study, we model chemically induced changes of the size of the process zone around a crack tip. The knowledge of the process zone size is used to extend existing effective medium approximations of cracked solids. The stress distribution around a crack leads to a chemical potential gradient. This gradient will be a driver for mass diffusion through the solid phase. As an example, mass diffusion is towards the crack tip for a mode I crack. In this case a chemical reaction, that weakens the solid phase, will increase the size of the process zone around the crack tip. We apply our model to the prominent hydrolytic weakening effect observed in the quartz-water system (Griggs and Blacic, 1965). Hydrolytic weakening is generally attributed to water hydrolyzing the strong Si-O bonds of the quartz crystal. The hydrolysis replaces a Si-O-Si bridge with a relatively weak hydrogen bridge between two silanol groups. This enhances dislocation mobility and hence the yield stress is reduced. The plastic process zone around a crack tip is therefore larger in a wet crystal than in a dry crystal. We calculate the size of the process zone by solving this coupled mechanical-chemical problem with the Finite Element code ABAQUS. We consider single crack, collinear crack and

  12. Tips for Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellems, Ryan, Comp.; Morningstar, Mary E., Comp.

    2009-01-01

    The Tips for Transition contains 134 Transition Tips submitted from all over the country by practitioners. The purpose of the Tips was to identify grassroots transition practices being used by practitioners. Tips are categorized into the following domains: (1) Transition Planning; (2) Student Involvement; (3) Family Involvement; (4) Curriculum and…

  13. Elasto-plastic fracture mechanics of crack growth in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallett, P. D.; Newson, T. A.

    2003-04-01

    A predominant variable in soil structure formation and degradation is crack propagation. Empirical models exist to predict fracture but these do not describe the underlying physical processes. Theoretical fracture mechanics models have been applied to soil, but most are not applicable when soil is in a wet, plastic state. Since the onset of crack formation in soil tends to occur in this condition, physically sound elasto-plastic fracture mechanics approaches are long overdue. We address this weakness by applying a new elasto-plastic fracture mechanics approach to describe crack formation in plastic soil. Samples are fractured using a deep-notch (modified 4-point) bend test, with data on load transmission, sample bending, crack growth, and crack mouth opening collected to assess the crack opening angle (COA), the crack tip opening angle (CTOA) and the plastic energy dissipation rate (Dpl). These are all material properties that can be used directly to predict and describe crack propagation. CTOA will be used to discuss the results here, although a full description of the other parameters will be provided in the conference presentation. It provides a powerful parameter for describing soil cracking since CTOA is induced by soil shrinkage (an easily measured parameter) and can be used to describe elasto-plastic fracture in finite element modelling packages. The test variables we have studied to date are clay platelet orientation, soil texture, clay mineralogy, and pore water salinity. All samples were formed by consolidating a soil slurry with a 120 kPa vertical stress. Tests on pure kaolinite showed that platelet orientation did not affect CTOA which was 0.23 ± 0.02 for both conditions. Soil texture did have a marked influence, however, with silica sand:kaolinite mixes of 20:80 and 40:60 reducing CTOA to 0.14 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 respectively. These lower values of CTOA indicate that less strain is required to induce fracture when the amount of clay is lowered

  14. Probe tip heating assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  15. Crack instability of ferroelectric solids under alternative electric loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-Sen; Wang, He-Ling; Pei, Yong-Mao; Wei, Yu-Jie; Liu, Bin; Fang, Dai-Ning

    2015-08-01

    The low fracture toughness of the widely used piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials in technological applications raises a big concern about their durability and safety. Up to now, the mechanisms of electric-field induced fatigue crack growth in those materials are not fully understood. Here we report experimental observations that alternative electric loading at high frequency or large amplitude gives rise to dramatic temperature rise at the crack tip of a ferroelectric solid. The temperature rise subsequently lowers the energy barrier of materials for domain switch in the vicinity of the crack tip, increases the stress intensity factor and leads to unstable crack propagation finally. In contrast, at low frequency or small amplitude, crack tip temperature increases mildly and saturates quickly, no crack growth is observed. Together with our theoretical analysis on the non-linear heat transfer at the crack tip, we constructed a safe operating area curve with respect to the frequency and amplitude of the electric field, and validated the safety map by experiments. The revealed mechanisms about how electro-thermal-mechanical coupling influences fracture can be directly used to guide the design and safety assessment of piezoelectric and ferroelectric devices.

  16. Analysis of Alloy 600 and X-750 stress corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.D.; Lewis, N.; Krasodomski, H.

    1993-06-01

    A few months ago, KAPL evidence supported the view that Primary or Pure Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 results from a hydrogen mechanism. Figure 1 shows an Analytical Electron Microscope (AEM) analysis of a stress corrosion crack (SCC) crack in an A600 split tube U-bend specimen exposed to primary water at 338{degree}C (640{degrees}F) for 462 days. The features which appear to confirm a hydrogen mechanism are: (1) A very narrow (< 200 {angstrom}) crack with a sharp tip, nearly free of deposits. (2) No evidence of severe plastic deformation in the region immediately ahead of the crack tip. (3) A line of small voids preceding the main crack tip, of which the largest is about 5 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm in length. Shen and Shewmon proposed that PWSCC of Alloy 600 occurs due to small microvoids ahead of a main crack tip. The hypothesis is that such voids result from pockets of methane gas formed by the reaction of atomic hydrogen with carbon in the base metal. The voids are about 10 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm diameter, approximately a factor of 2 larger than the largest voids.

  17. Fatigue life and crack growth prediction methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Phillips, E. P.; Everett, R. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model and life-prediction code to predict fatigue crack growth and fatigue lives of metallic materials are reviewed. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta(K(sub eff))) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta(K(sub eff))-rate relations were needed in the near threshold regime to fit small-crack growth rate behavior and endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and in some cases total fatigue lives, for several aluminum and titanium alloys under constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude, and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.

  18. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  19. Crack Closure Characteristics Considering Center Cracked and Compact Tension Specimens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    adjacent elements differed in size by no more than a factor of 2. The fine mesh elements near the crack tip were much smaller than the -7 2CTS with an area...N .1- £KO.~.-N 0 0 td t + U.Us* 0 C.+ *4 w O mcow K O4 ’ 4u 0. X Ulf! W I 2 0 Z K0 NO- N Cos.@-0S W.N a-1 WW m .M0 000004.*0 00 4-W-M. R800*x -3-o" 0

  20. Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vshivkov, A.; Iziumova, A.; Plekhov, O.

    2015-10-01

    This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.

  1. Scattering of impact wave by a crack in composite plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ju, T. H.; Datta, S. K.; Shah, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    The surface responses due to impact load on an infinite uniaxial graphite/epoxy plate with and without delamination cracks are investigated both in time and frequency domain by using a hybrid method combining the finite element discretization of the near-field with boundary integral representation of the field outside a contour enclosing completely the crack. This combined method leads to a set of linear unsymmetric complex matrix equations which are solved to obtain the response in the frequency domain by biconjugate gradient method. The time domain response is then obtained by using an FFT. In order to capture the time-domain characteristics accurately, high order finite elements have been used. Also, both the six node singular elements and eight node transition elements are used around the crack tips to model the crack-tip singularity. It is shown that from the numerical results for surface responses both depth and length of this crack can be identified.

  2. Experimental study of thermodynamics propagation fatigue crack in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vshivkov, A. Iziumova, A. Plekhov, O.

    2015-10-27

    This work is devoted to the development of an experimental method for studying the energy balance during cyclic deformation and fracture. The studies were conducted on 304 stainless steel AISE samples. The investigation of the fatigue crack propagation was carried out on flat samples with stress concentrators. The stress concentrator was three central holes. The heat flux sensor was developed based on the Seebeck effect. This sensor was used for measuring the heat dissipation power in the examined samples during the fatigue tests. The measurements showed that the rate of fatigue crack growth depends on the heat flux at the crack tip and there are two propagation mode of fatigue crack with different link between the propagation mode and heat flux from crack tip.

  3. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  4. Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or

  5. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelale, F.

    1982-01-01

    A shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. Extensive results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform inplane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  6. Crack instabilities of a heated glass strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Pomeau, Yves

    1995-10-01

    Recently, Yuse and Sano [Nature (London) 362, 329 (1993)] have observed that a crack traveling in a glass strip submitted to a nonuniform thermal diffusion field undergoes numerous instabilities. We study two cases of quasistatic crack propagation. The crack extension condition in straight propagation is determined. An asymptotic analysis of the elastic free energy is introduced and scaling laws are derived. A linear stability analysis of the straight propagation is performed, based on the assumption that the crack tip propagation deviates from the centered straight one as soon as it is submitted to a ``physical'' singular shear stress. It is shown that a straight propagation can become unstable after which a wavy instability appears. The condition for instability as well as the selected wavelength is calculated quantitatively. The results are compared with experiments and the agreement is favorable.

  7. Fatigue crack growth in unidirectional metal matrix composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The weight function method was used to determine the effective stress intensity factor and the crack opening profile for a fatigue tested composite which exhibited fiber bridging. The bridging mechanism was modeled using two approaches; the crack closure approach and the shear lag approach. The numerically determined stress intensity factor values from both methods were compared and correlated with the experimentally obtained crack growth rates for SiC/Ti-15-3 (0)(sub 8) oriented composites. The near crack tip opening profile was also determined for both methods and compared with the experimentally obtained measurements.

  8. Rock Failure and Crack Propagation Beneath Disc Cutters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entacher, Martin; Schuller, E.; Galler, R.

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of rock failure mechanisms beneath disc cutters are presented. Full-scale cutting tests are conducted to assess the global energy input in comparison with rock chips and excavated volume. Small-scale cutting tests are subsequently used for macro- and microscopic analyses of rupture modes and crack propagation. A high spatial resolution allows to obtain pictures of crack networks in different rock types. It is shown that all specimens develop lateral cracks in sufficiently confined areas whereas median cracks typically develop in boundary regions. Regarding cutting forces, a hypothesis is proposed that associates sudden force drops accompanied by sudden sound emission with grain crushing in the proximity of the cutter tip.

  9. Steady-state crack growth in single crystals under Mode I loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juul, K. J.; Nielsen, K. L.; Niordson, C. F.

    The active plastic zone that surrounds the tip of a sharp crack growing under plane strain Mode I loading conditions at a constant velocity in a single crystal is studied. Both the characteristics of the plastic zone and its effect on the macroscopic toughness is investigated in terms of crack tip shielding due to plasticity (quantified by employing the Suo, Shih, and Varias set-up). Three single crystals (FCC, BCC, HCP) are modelled in a steady-state elastic visco-plastic framework, with emphasis on the influence of rate-sensitivity and crystal structures. Distinct velocity discontinuities at the crack tip predicted by Rice [Rice J.R., 1987. Tensile crack tip fields in elastic-ideally plastic crystals. Mech. Mater. 6, pp. 317-335] for quasi-static crack growth are confirmed through the numerical simulations and highly refined details are revealed. Through a detailed study, it is demonstrated that the largest shielding effect develops in HCP crystals, while the lowest shielding exists for FCC crystals. Rate-sensitivity is found to affect the plastic zone size, but the characteristics overall remain similar for each individual crystal structure. An increasing rate-sensitivity at low crack velocities monotonically increases the crack tip shielding, whereas the opposite behaviour is observed at high velocities. This observation leads to the existence of a characteristic velocity at which the crack tip shielding becomes independent of the rate-sensitivity.

  10. Dynamic initiation and propagation of cracks in unidirectional composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Demirkan

    Dynamic crack growth along weak planes is a significant mode of failure in composites and other layered/sandwiched structures and is also the principal mechanism of shallow crustal earthquakes. In order to shed light on this phenomenon dynamic crack initiation and propagation characteristics of a model fiber-reinforced unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate was investigated experimentally. Dynamic fracture experiments were conducted by subjecting the composite plates to in-plane, symmetric and asymmetric, impact loading. The lateral shearing interferometric technique of coherent gradient sensing (CGS) in conjunction with high-speed photography was used to visualize the failure process in real time. It was found that mode-I cracks propagated subsonically with crack speeds increasing to the neighborhood of the Rayleigh wave speed of the composite. Also in mode-I, the dependence of the dynamic initiation fracture toughness on the loading rate was determined and was found to be constant for low loading rates and to increase rapidly above K˙dI>10 5 . The dynamic crack propagation toughness, KID, was observed to decrease with crack tip speed up to the Rayleigh wave speed of the composite. For asymmetric, mode-II, types of loading the results revealed highly unstable and intersonic shear-dominated crack growth along the fibers. These cracks propagated with unprecedented speeds reaching 7400 m/s which is the dilatational wave speed of the composite along the fibers. For intersonic crack growth, the interferograms, featured a shock wave structure typical of disturbances traveling with speeds higher than one of the characteristic wave speeds in the solid. In addition high speed thermographic measurements are conducted that show concentrated hot spots behind the crack tip indicating non-uniform crack face frictional contact. In addition, shear dominated dynamic crack growth is investigated along composite/Homalite interfaces subjected to impact loading. The crack

  11. Fatigue Behavior of Long and Short Cracks in Wrought and Powder Aluminum Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    deposits ,24-26 irregular fracture morphologies coupled with crack tip shear displacements,27-29 and fluid-induced pressure3 5 ,36 in addition to...compliance curves of load versus relative strain deviated from linearity. Crack surface corrosion deposits were measured with Scanning Auger Spectroscopy...linear with far fewer crack deflections. Associated Auger measurements of the extent of crack surface corrosion deposits are shown in Fig. 4.7. In marked

  12. A Constitutive Relationship between Crack Propagation and Specific Damping Capacity in Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    crack results from the accumulation of damping effects (i.e., from the fact that under a variable stress higher than the fatigue limit, constantly...flow occurs at the crack ends which are stress concentration sites, so that the crack growth is temporarily stayed. Stresses subsequently increase...theory was used to calculate the displacement in the vicinity of the crack tips due to this shear stress . It was then shown that, under certain

  13. Catalogue of maximum crack opening stress for CC(T) specimen assuming large strain condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graba, Marcin

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, values for the maximum opening crack stress and its distance from crack tip are determined for various elastic-plastic materials for centre cracked plate in tension (CC(T) specimen) are presented. Influences of yield strength, the work-hardening exponent and the crack length on the maximum opening stress were tested. The author has provided some comments and suggestions about modelling FEM assuming large strain formulation.

  14. Prediction of stable crack growth and instability using the V sub R-curve method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology is presented for predicting stable crack growth and instability of cracked structural components from results of laboratory tests on metallic materials under plane-stress conditions. The methodology is based on the displacement V sub R at the tip of a stably tearing crack. Basically, the V sub R-curve method is a resistance curve approach, such as K sub R and J sub R, except that the 'crack drive' is written in terms of crack-tip displacement instead of K or J. The relationship between crack-tip-opening displacement, crack length, specimen type, and tensile properties is derived from the Dugdale model for the cracked structure of interest. This report describes the laboratory test procedure and calculations used to obtain the V sub R resistance curve from fracture tests of compact or of middle-crack tension (formally center-crack) specimens. The analysis procedure used to predict stable crack growth and instability of any through-the-thickness crack configuration made of the same material and thickness, and tested under the same environmental conditions, is presented. The various limitations of the present V sub R curve method are given. Four example calculations and predictions are shown.

  15. Slender tip laser scalpel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2004-01-06

    A laser scalpel includes a ribbon optical waveguide extending therethrough and terminating at a slender optical cutting tip. A laser beam is emitted along the height of the cutting tip for cutting tissue therealong.

  16. Healthy Vision Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > Healthy Vision Tips All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  17. A model for predicting crack growth rate for mixed mode fracture under biaxial loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shliannikov, V. N.; Braude, N. Z.

    1992-09-01

    A model for predicting the crack growth rate of an initially angled crack under biaxial loads of arbitrary direction is suggested. The model is based on a combination of both the Manson-Coffin equation for low cycle fatigue and the Paris equation for fatigue crack propagation. The model takes into consideration the change in material plastic properties in the region around the crack tip due to the stress state, together with the initial orientation of the crack and also its trajectory of growth. Predictions of crack growth rate for any mixed mode fracture is based on the results of uniaxial tension experiments.

  18. Some advances/results in monitoring road cracks from 2D pavement images within the scope of the collaborative FP7 TRIMM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltazart, Vincent; Moliard, Jean-Marc; Amhaz, Rabih; Wright, Dean; Jethwa, Manish

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring road surface conditions is an important issue in many countries. Several projects have looked into this issue in recent years, including TRIMM 2011-2014. The objective of such projects has been to detect surface distresses, like cracking, raveling and water ponding, in order to plan effective road maintenance and to afford a better sustainability of the pavement. The monitoring of cracking conventionally focuses on open cracks on the surface of the pavement, as opposed to reflexive cracks embedded in the pavement materials. For monitoring surface condition, in situ human visual inspection has been gradually replaced by automatic image data collection at traffic speed. Off-line image processing techniques have been developed for monitoring surface condition in support of human visual control. Full automation of crack monitoring has been approached with caution, and depends on a proper manual assessment of the performance. This work firstly presents some aspects of the current state of monitoring that have been reported so far in the literature and in previous projects: imaging technology and image processing techniques. Then, the work presents the two image processing techniques that have been developed within the scope of the TRIMM project to automatically detect pavement cracking from images. The first technique is a heuristic approach (HA) based on the search for gradient within the image. It was originally developed to process pavement images from the French imaging device, Aigle-RN. The second technique, the Minimal Path Selection (MPS) method, has been developed within an ongoing PhD work at IFSTTAR. The proposed new technique provides a fine and accurate segmentation of the crack pattern along with the estimation of the crack width. HA has been assessed against the field data collection provided by Yotta and TRL with the imaging device Tempest 2. The performance assessment has been threefold: first it was performed against the reference data set

  19. Life prediction for bridged fatigue cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.N.

    1994-08-01

    One of the more promising classes of composites touted for high temperature applications, and certainly the most available, is that of relatively brittle matrices, either ceramic or intermetallic, reinforced by strong, aligned, continuous fibers. Under cyclic loading in the fiber direction, these materials develop matrix cracks that often run perpendicular to the fibers, while the fibers remain intact in the crack wake, supplying bridging tractions across the fracture surfaces. The bridging tractions shield the crack tip from the applied load, dramatically reducing the crack velocity from that expected in an unreinforced material subjected to the same value, {Delta}K{sub a}, of the cyclic applied stress intensity factor. An important issue in reliability is the prediction of the growth rates of the bridged cracks. The growth rates of matrix fatigue cracks bridged by sliding fibers are now commonly predicted by models based on the micromechanics of frictional interfaces. However, there exist many reasons, both theoretical and experimental, for suspecting that the most popular micromechanical models are probably wrong in detail in the context of fatigue cracks. Furthermore, a review of crack growth data reveals that the validity of the micromechanics-based predictive model has never been tested and may never be tested. In this paper, two alternative approaches are suggested to the engineering problem of predicting the growth rates of bridged cracks without explicit recourse to micromechanics. Instead, it is shown that the material properties required to analyze bridging effects can be deduced directly from crack growth data. Some experiments are proposed to test the validity of the proposals.

  20. Ultrasonic characterization of fatigue crack closure

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.B.; Buck, O.; Rehbein, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    The characterization of fatigue crack closure is an important objective because of its influence on fatigue crack propagation, particularly under conditions of variable amplitude loading. This paper describes a nontraditional technique for characterizing closure, in which ultrasonic scattering measurements are used to obtain estimates of the number density and size of asperities bridging the crack faces, with subsequent estimates of the crack tip shielding being based on those geometrical parameters. The paper first reviews the experimental configuration and the basic elasto-dynamic theory underlying the technique. It then presents recent results obtained in studies of the influence of block overloads and load shedding on the growth of fatigue cracks in aluminum alloys. In both cases, the change in the closure state after the overload can be unambiguously seen even in the raw data. Moreover, data analysis suggests that it may be possible to predict when the crack will reinitiate based on more subtle changes in the ultrasonically inferred closure state. In the case of load shedding, a massive closure region is observed, whose characteristics appear consistent with the notion that threshold phenomena can be explained in terms of crack closure. 20 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  2. Characterization of Cracking and Crack Growth Properties of the C5A Aircraft Tie-Box Forging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed destructive examinations were conducted to characterize the integrity and material properties of two aluminum alloy (7075-T6) horizontal stabilizer tie box forgings removed.from US. Air Force C5A and C5B transport aircraft. The C5B tie box forging was,found to contain no evidence of cracking. Thirteen cracks were found in the CSA,forging. All but one of the cracks observed in the C5A component were located along the top cap region (one crack was located in the bottom cap region). The cracks in the C5A component initiated at fastener holes and propagated along a highly tunneled intergranular crack path. The tunneled crack growth configuration is a likelv result of surface compressive stress produced during peening of the .forging suijace. The tie box forging ,fatigue crack growth, fracture and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) properties were characterized. Reported herein are the results of laboratory air ,fatigue crack growth tests and 95% relative humidity SCC tests conducted using specimens machined from the C5A ,forging. SCC test results revealed that the C5A ,forging material was susceptible to intergranular environmental assisted cracking: the C5A forging material exhibited a SCC crack-tip stress-intensity factor threshold of less than 6 MPadn. Fracture toughness tests revealed that the C5A forging material exhibited a fracture toughness that was 25% less than the C5B forging. The C5A forging exhibited rapid laboratory air fatigue crack growth rates having a threshold crack-tip stress-intensity factor range of less than 0.8 MPa sup m. Detailed fractographic examinations revealed that the ,fatigue crack intergranular growth crack path was similar to the cracking observed in the C5A tie box forging. Because both fatigue crack propagation and SCC exhibit similar intergranular crack path behavior, the damage mechanism resulting in multi-site cracking of tie box forgings cannot be determined unless local cyclic stresses can be quantified.

  3. Helicopter Rotor Blade With Free Tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, Robert H.; Young, Larry; Cawthorne, Matthew; Keys, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Free-tip rotor blades improve fuel efficiency and performance characteristics of helicopters. Outermost portion of blade pivots independently with respect to inboard portion about pitch axis parallel to blade axis, located forward of aerodynamic center. Centrifugal force acts on tension/torsion strap and biases tip nose-up. Airstream turns tip nose-down, other torques cause tip to "weathervane" to intermediate angular position resulting in net lift. Reduces fluctuations in lift, with two effects: flapwise vibratory loads on blade and vibratory loads on pitch-control mechanism reduced; negative lift produced by advancing fixed tip eliminated, reducing power required to achieve same overall lift. Applies to tilt rotors and tail rotors as well.

  4. User's manual for PEPSIG NASA tip vortex version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Tommy M.; Dejong, Frederick J.; Levy, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The tip vortex flowfield plays a significant role in the performance of advanced aircraft propellers. The flowfield in the tip region is complex, three-dimensional and viscous with large secondary velocities. A computer code was developed to predict the tip vortex flowfield of advanced aircraft propellers. This document is the user's manual. The analysis and a series of test cases are presented in NASA-CR-182179.

  5. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  6. Applications of advanced fracture mechanics to fuselage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanninen, M. F.; O'Donoghue, P. E.; Green, S. T.; Leung, C. P.; Roy, S.; Burnside, O. H.

    Multi-site damage (MSD) in the form of cracking at rivet holes in lap splice joints has been identified as a serious threat to the integrity of commercial aircraft nearing their design life targets. Consequently, to assure the safety of aircraft that have accumulated large numbers of flights, flight hours and years in service requires requires inspection procedures that are based on the possibility that MSD may be present. For inspections of aircraft components to be properly focused on me defect sizes that are critical for structural integrity, fracture analyses are needed. The current methods are essentially those of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) which are strictly valid only for cracks that extend in a quasi-static manner under small-scale crack tip plasticity conditions. While LEFM is very likely to be appropriate for subcritical crack growth, quantifying the conditions for fracture instability and subsequent propagation may require advanced fracture mechanics techniques. The specific focus in this paper was to identify the conditions in which inelastic-dynamic effects occur in (1) the linking up Of local damage in a lap splice joint to form a major crack, and (2) large-scale fuselage failure by a rapidly occurring fluid structure interaction process.

  7. Uncommon deformation mechanisms during fatigue-crack propagation in nanocrystalline alloys.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sheng; Lee, Soo Yeol; Li, Li; Lei, Changhui; Almer, Jon; Wang, Xun-Li; Ungar, Tamas; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K

    2013-03-29

    The irreversible damage at cracks during the fatigue of crystalline solids is well known. Here we report on in situ high-energy x-ray evidence of reversible fatigue behavior in a nanocrystalline NiFe alloy both in the plastic zone and around the crack tip. In the plastic zone, the deformation is fully recoverable as the crack propagates, and the plastic deformation invokes reversible interactions of dislocation and twinning in the nanograins. But around the crack tip lies a regime with reversible grain lattice reorientation promoted by a change of local stress state. These observations suggest unprecedented fatigue deformation mechanisms in nanostructured systems that are not addressed theoretically.

  8. Crack Growth Prediction Methodology for Multi-Site Damage: Layered Analysis and Growth During Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark Anthony

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been developed to perform quasi-static, elastic-plastic crack growth simulations. The model provides a general framework for mixed-mode I/II elastic-plastic fracture analysis using small strain assumptions and plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric finite elements. Cracks are modeled explicitly in the mesh. As the cracks propagate, automatic remeshing algorithms delete the mesh local to the crack tip, extend the crack, and build a new mesh around the new tip. State variable mapping algorithms transfer stresses and displacements from the old mesh to the new mesh. The von Mises material model is implemented in the context of a non-linear Newton solution scheme. The fracture criterion is the critical crack tip opening displacement, and crack direction is predicted by the maximum tensile stress criterion at the crack tip. The implementation can accommodate multiple curving and interacting cracks. An additional fracture algorithm based on nodal release can be used to simulate fracture along a horizontal plane of symmetry. A core of plane strain elements can be used with the nodal release algorithm to simulate the triaxial state of stress near the crack tip. Verification and validation studies compare analysis results with experimental data and published three-dimensional analysis results. Fracture predictions using nodal release for compact tension, middle-crack tension, and multi-site damage test specimens produced accurate results for residual strength and link-up loads. Curving crack predictions using remeshing/mapping were compared with experimental data for an Arcan mixed-mode specimen. Loading angles from 0 degrees to 90 degrees were analyzed. The maximum tensile stress criterion was able to predict the crack direction and path for all loading angles in which the material failed in tension. Residual strength was also accurately predicted for these cases.

  9. Crack, crack house sex, and HIV risk.

    PubMed

    Inciardi, J A

    1995-06-01

    Limited attention has been focused on HIV risk behaviors of crack smokers and their sex partners, yet there is evidence that the crack house and the crack-using life-style may be playing significant roles in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The purposes of this research were to study the attributes and patterns of "sex for crack" exchanges, particularly those that occurred in crack houses, and to assess their potential impact on the spread of HIV. Structured interviews were conducted with 17 men and 35 women in Miami, Florida, who were regular users of crack and who had exchanged sex for crack (or for money to buy crack) during the past 30 days. In addition, participant observation was conducted in 8 Miami crack houses. Interview and observational data suggest that individuals who exchange sex for crack do so with considerable frequency, and through a variety of sexual activities. Systematic data indicated that almost a third of the men and 89% of the women had had 100 or more sex partners during the 30-day period prior to study recruitment. Not only were sexual activities anonymous, extremely frequent, varied, uninhibited (often undertaken in public areas of crack houses), and with multiple partners but, in addition, condoms were not used during the majority of contacts. Of the 37 subjects who were tested for HIV and received their test results 31% of the men and 21% of the women were HIV seropositive.

  10. A cylindrical shell with an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The general problem of a shallow shell with constant curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the shell contains an arbitrarily oriented through crack and the material is specially orthotropic. The nonsymmetric problem is solved for arbitrary self equilibrating crack surface tractions, which, added to an appropriate solution for an uncracked shell, would give the result for a cracked shell under most general loading conditions. The problem is reduced to a system of five singular integral equations in a set of unknown functions representing relative displacements and rotations on the crack surfaces. The stress state around the crack tip is asymptotically analyzed and it is shown that the results are identical to those obtained from the two dimensional in plane and antiplane elasticity solutions. The numerical results are given for a cylindrical shell containing an arbitrarily oriented through crack. Some sample results showing the effect of the Poisson's ratio and the material orthotropy are also presented.

  11. Arctic climate tipping points.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  12. Residual strength of cracked 7075 T6 Al-alloy sheets under high loading rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasek, A.; Schijve, J.

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic tests were carried out on long sheet specimens with two collinear cracks. First the ligament between the two cracks fails, which implies that the cracks are linked up to a single crack. Linking up did increase the loading rate (dK/dt) of the outer crack tips up to 2 x 10(exp 4) MPa (sq root) m/s. COD measurements during the fast running crack were made. The residual strength was decreased by about 10 percent as compared to the quasi-static result. Fractographic evidence indicates that a high dK/dt has some effect on the shear lips. It promotes some plane-strain influence, associated with an increased yield stress, due to the high plastic strain rate in the crack tip zone. The results were evaluated in terms of fracture mechanics. The results are bearing on the damage tolerance of aircraft structures built up from 7075-T6 sheet material.

  13. Subcritical crack growth in glasses under cyclic loads: Effect of hydrodynamic pressure in aqueous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, K.S.; Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of hydrodynamic pressure developed in the wake of a crack growing in a brittle material under cyclic loads in an aqueous environment is considered. The pressure acts in opposition to the movement of the crack faces, thus shielding the crack up from the applied loads. A general hydrodynamic fluid pressure relation based on a one-dimensional Reynolds equation, which applicable to a crack with an arbitrary crack opening profile, is developed. The model is modified to account for side flow through the thickness of the sample and cavitation near the crack tip. Both effects significantly modify the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. Finally, the resulting hydrodynamic pressure relations are combined with a fracture mechanics model to account for the change in the near-tip stress intensity. Resulting predictions of the cyclic crack-growth rate are found to be in good agreement with measured values for a borosilicate glass tested at various frequencies in a water environment.

  14. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  15. Blade Tip Rubbing Stress Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary A.; Clough, Ray C.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical model was constructed to predict the magnitude of stresses produced by rubbing a turbine blade against its tip seal. This model used a linearized approach to the problem, after a parametric study, found that the nonlinear effects were of insignificant magnitude. The important input parameters to the model were: the arc through which rubbing occurs, the turbine rotor speed, normal force exerted on the blade, and the rubbing coefficient of friction. Since it is not possible to exactly specify some of these parameters, values were entered into the model which bracket likely values. The form of the forcing function was another variable which was impossible to specify precisely, but the assumption of a half-sine wave with a period equal to the duration of the rub was taken as a realistic assumption. The analytical model predicted resonances between harmonics of the forcing function decomposition and known harmonics of the blade. Thus, it seemed probable that blade tip rubbing could be at least a contributor to the blade-cracking phenomenon. A full-scale, full-speed test conducted on the space shuttle main engine high pressure fuel turbopump Whirligig tester was conducted at speeds between 33,000 and 28,000 RPM to confirm analytical predictions.

  16. Research on Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods for Materials, Process and Structures. Delivery Order 006: Computed Radiography Crack Detection Validation Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    image were measured using a measurement tool that calculated length based on pixel size. All CR crack images analyzed were stored in DICOM formats...which is a nonpro- prietary image data format that can be opened using ImageJ. The DICOM -formatted images also contain embedded tags which provide... dicom , and .fits. Image processing functions include logical and arithmetic operations between images, con- trast enhancement, convolution, and

  17. Mechanisms of time-dependent crack growth at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A.; Stock, S.R.

    1990-04-15

    Objective of this 3-y study was to conduct creep and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments and to characterize the crack tip damage mechanisms in a model material (Cu-1wt%Sb), which is known to cavitate at grain boundaries under creep deformation. Results were: In presence of large scale cavitation damage and crack branching, time rate of creep crack growth da/dt does not correlate with C[sub t] or C[sup *]. When cavitation damage is constrained, da/dt is characterized by C[sub t]. Area fraction of grain boundary cavitated is the single damage parameter for the extent of cavitation damage ahead of crack tips. C[sub t] is used for the creep-fatigue crack growth behavior. In materials prone to rapid cavity nucleation, creep cracks grow faster initially and then reach a steady state whose growth rate is determined by C[sub t]. Percent creep life exhausted correlates with average cavity diameter and fraction of grain boundary area occupied by cavities. Synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy was used to image individual cavities in Cu-1wt% Sb. A methodology was developed for predicting the remaining life of elevated temperature power plant components; (C[sub t])[sub avg] was used to correlate creep-fatigue crack growth in Cr-Mo and Cr-Mo-V steel and weldments.

  18. ECCI observations of dislocation structures around fatigue cracks in ferritic stainless steel single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Hashimoto, S.

    2009-07-01

    Dislocation structures around the crack tips of ferritic stainless steel single crystals were observed with electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) method. The ECCI method enables us to observe dislocations lying near surface using a scanning electron microscope. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on compact tension (CT) specimens having loading axes of [221] and [110] directions. In the specimen having the [110] loading axis at which the fatigue crack having Mode I and II component propagated, a thin band-like structure consisting of dislocation wall array was observed ahead of the crack tip. On the other hand, the dislocation structures around the crack having Mode I and III components could be divided into three regions in the specimen with the [221] loading axis: the cell structure, the dislocation wall structure and the vein structure were observed in order of ascending distance from crack tip. Difference between the dislocation structures near the fatigue cracks could be understood from the crack mode by which edge and screw dislocation emissions from the crack tips are strongly affected.

  19. A Continuum-Atomistic Analysis of Transgranular Crack Propagation in Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakov, V.; Saether, E.; Glaessgen, E.

    2009-01-01

    A concurrent multiscale modeling methodology that embeds a molecular dynamics (MD) region within a finite element (FEM) domain is used to study plastic processes at a crack tip in a single crystal of aluminum. The case of mode I loading is studied. A transition from deformation twinning to full dislocation emission from the crack tip is found when the crack plane is rotated around the [111] crystallographic axis. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [112] twinning direction, the crack propagates through a twinning mechanism. When the crack plane normal coincides with the [011] slip direction, the crack propagates through the emission of full dislocations. In intermediate orientations, a transition from full dislocation emission to twinning is found to occur with an increase in the stress intensity at the crack tip. This finding confirms the suggestion that the very high strain rates, inherently present in MD simulations, which produce higher stress intensities at the crack tip, over-predict the tendency for deformation twinning compared to experiments. The present study, therefore, aims to develop a more realistic and accurate predictive modeling of fracture processes.

  20. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  1. SIF-based fracture criterion for interface cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xing

    2016-06-01

    The complex stress intensity factor K governing the stress field of an interface crack tip may be split into two parts, i.e., hat{K} and s^{-iɛ}, so that K=hat{K}s^{-iɛ}, s is a characteristic length and ɛ is the oscillatory index. hat{K} has the same dimension as the classical stress intensity factor and characterizes the interface crack tip field. That means a criterion for interface cracks may be formulated directly with hat{K}, as Irwin (ASME J. Appl. Mech. 24:361-364, 1957) did in 1957 for the classical fracture mechanics. Then, for an interface crack, it is demonstrated that the quasi Mode I and Mode II tip fields can be defined and distinguished from the coupled mode tip fields. Built upon SIF-based fracture criteria for quasi Mode I and Mode II, the stress intensity factor (SIF)-based fracture criterion for mixed mode interface cracks is proposed and validated against existing experimental results.

  2. The effect of pre-stress cycles on fatigue crack growth - An analysis of crack growth mechanism. [in Al alloy plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, T. S.; Liu, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic prestress increases subsequent fatigue crack growth rate in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy. This increase in growth rate, caused by the prestress, and the increased rate, caused by temper embrittlement as observed by Ritchie and Knott (1973), cannot be explained by the crack tip blunting model alone. Each fatigue crack increment consists of two components, a brittle and a ductile component. They are controlled by the ductility of the material and its cyclic yield strength, respectively.

  3. Mode I stress intensity factors of slanted cracks in plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Ghazali, Mohd Zubir Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the roles of slanted cracks on the stress intensity factors (SIF) under mode I tension and bending loading. Based on the literature survey, lack of solution of SIFs of slanted cracks in plain strain plates are available. In this work, the cracks are modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. There are two important parameters such as slanted angles and relative crack length. SIFs at the crack tips are calculated according to domain integral method. Before the model is further used, it is validated with the existing model. It is found that the present model is well agreed with the previous model. According to finite element analysis, there are not only mode I SIFs produced but also mode II. As expected the SIFs increased as the relative crack length increased. However, when slanted angles are introduced (slightly higher than normal crack), the SIFs increased. Once the angles are further increased, the SIFs decreased gradually however they are still higher than the SIFs of normal cracks. For mode II SIFs, higher the slanted angels higher the SIFs. This is due to the fact that when the cracks are slanted, the cracked plates are not only failed due to mode I but a combination between both modes I and II.

  4. Hydrogen enhanced crack growth in 18 Ni maraging steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudak, S. J., Jr.; Wei, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The kinetics of sustained-load subcritical crack growth for 18 Ni maraging steels in high-purity hydrogen are examined using the crack-tip stress intensity factor K as a measure of crack driving force. Crack growth rate as a function of stress intensity exhibited a clearly defined K-independent stage (Stage II). Crack growth rates in an 18 Ni (grade 250) maraging steel are examined for temperatures from -6 to +100 C. A critical temperature was observed above which crack growth rates became diminishingly small. At lower temperatures the activation energy for Stage II crack growth was found to be 16.7 plus or minus 3.3 kJ/mole. Temperature and hydrogen partial pressure are shown to interact in a complex manner to determine the apparent Kth (stress intensity level below which no observable crack growth occurs) and the crack growth behavior. Comparison of results on '250' and '300' grades of 18 Ni maraging steel indicate a significant influence of alloy composition and/or strength level on the crack growth behavior.

  5. Crack analysis of unfilled natural rubber using infrared microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeister, L.A.; Koenig, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Several spectroscopic methods are available for characterizing the crack tip region of natural rubber on the molecular scale to develop a material with fatigue resistant properties. Attenuated total reflectance or ATR-IR has been used to characterize the structure of many different polymers, including rubbers. Transmission has also been well established as a viable technique for the molecular characterization of transparent materials including thin films of unfilled natural rubber. Unfilled natural rubber was stretched to 629% elongation until cracks in the surface. A cross section of the sample containing a crack was then microtomed at -85{degrees}C into slices approximately 0.5 {mu}m thick. Similarly, samples were cut with a razor and microtomed under the same conditions. The crack tip region was mapped using the IR{mu}s{trademark}/SIRM Molecular Microanalysis System. The map consisted of ten spectra taken in the x and y directions. The same region was analyzed for orientation of molecular structures. Points were selected along the crack tip, crack edges, and the bulk. Dichroic ratios of all prominent peaks were calculated. ATR was used to verify the results of the mapping experiments for both stressed unstressed material.

  6. On the variation in crack-opening stresses at different locations in a three-dimensional body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chermahini, R. G.; Blom, Anders F.

    1990-01-01

    Crack propagation and closure behavior of thin, and thick middle crack tension specimens under constant amplitude loading were investigated using a three dimensional elastic plastic finite element analysis of fatigue crack propagation and closure. In the thin specimens the crack front closed first on the exterior (free) surface and closed last in the interior during the unloading portion of cyclic loading; a load reduced displacement technique was used to determine crack opening stresses at specified locations in the plate from the displacements calculated after the seven cycle. All the locations were on the plate external surface and were located near the crack tip, behind the crack tip, at the centerline of the crack. With this technique, the opening stresses at the specified points were found to be 0.52, 0.42, and 0.39 times the maximum applied stress.

  7. Analyses of Fatigue Crack Growth and Closure Near Threshold Conditions for Large-Crack Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A plasticity-induced crack-closure model was used to study fatigue crack growth and closure in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy under constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold testing procedures. Two methods of calculating crack-opening stresses were compared. One method was based on a contact-K analyses and the other on crack-opening-displacement (COD) analyses. These methods gave nearly identical results under constant-amplitude loading, but under threshold simulations the contact-K analyses gave lower opening stresses than the contact COD method. Crack-growth predictions tend to support the use of contact-K analyses. Crack-growth simulations showed that remote closure can cause a rapid rise in opening stresses in the near threshold regime for low-constraint and high applied stress levels. Under low applied stress levels and high constraint, a rise in opening stresses was not observed near threshold conditions. But crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) were of the order of measured oxide thicknesses in the 2024 alloy under constant-R simulations. In contrast, under constant-K(sub max) testing the CTOD near threshold conditions were an order-of-magnitude larger than measured oxide thicknesses. Residual-plastic deformations under both constant-R and constant-K(sub max) threshold simulations were several times larger than the expected oxide thicknesses. Thus, residual-plastic deformations, in addition to oxide and roughness, play an integral part in threshold development.

  8. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  9. Crack Turning Mechanics of Composite Wing Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The safety of future composite wing skin integral stiffener panels requires a full understanding of failure mechanisms of these damage tolerance critical structures under both in-plane and bending loads. Of primary interest is to derive mathematical models using fracture mechanics in anisotropic cracked plate structures, to assess the crack turning mechanisms, and thereby to enhance the residual strength in the integral stiffener composite structures. The use of fracture mechanics to assess the failure behavior in a cracked structure requires the identification of critical fracture parameters which govern the severity of stress and deformation field ahead of the flaw, and which can be evaluated using information obtained from the flaw tip. In the three-year grant, the crack-tip fields under plane deformation, crack-tip fields for anisotropic plates and anisotropic shells have been obtained. In addition, methods for determining the stress intensity factors, energy release rate, and the T-stresses have been proposed and verified. The research accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Under plane deformation in anisotropic solids, the asymptotic crack-tip fields have been obtained using Stroh formalism; (2) The T-stress and the coefficient of the second term for sigma(sub y), g(sub 32), have been obtained using path-independent integral, the J-integral and Betti's reciprocal theorem together with auxiliary fields; (3) With experimental data performed by NASA, analyses indicated that the mode-I critical stress intensity factor K(sub Q) provides a satisfactory characterization of fracture initiation for a given laminate thickness, provided the failure is fiber-dominated and crack extends in a self-similar manner; (4) The high constraint specimens, especially for CT specimens, due to large T-stress and large magnitude of negative g(sub 32) term may be expected to inhibit the crack extension in the same plane and promote crack turning; (5) Crack turning out of

  10. Pulsed holographic microscopy as a measurement method of dynamic fracture toughness for fast propagating cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Homma, Hiroomi; Kusaka, Riichiro

    A METHOD OF pulsed holographic microscopy is applied to take instantaneous microscopic photographs of the neighborhoods of crack tips propagating through PMMA or through AISI 4340 steel specimens at a speed of several hundred meters per second. The cracks are in the opening mode. A fast propagating crack is recorded as a hologram at an instant during its propagation. A microscopic photograph of the crack is taken with a conventional microscope to magnify the reconstructed image from the hologram. From the microscopic photograph, crack opening displacement (COD) is measured along the crack in the vicinity of the crack tip. The COD is of the order often to one hundred microns, and in proportion to the square root of the distance from the crack tip. The dynamic fracture toughness KID is obtained using the formula for COD in the singular stress field of a fast propagating crack. Simultaneous KID measurement both through pulsed holographic microscopy and through the caustic method is furthermore carried out with PMMA specimens. The values of KID obtained through pulsed holographic microscopy are in agreement with those through the caustic method. Microcracks accompanied by a main crack are also photographed with the method of pulsed holographic microscopy.

  11. Dynamics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Balamurugan M.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic crack-interface interactions and the related mechanics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface are studied experimentally. The interface is oriented perpendicular to the incoming mode-I crack in an otherwise homogeneous bilayer. The focus of this investigation is on the effect of interface location and the associated crack-tip parameters within the bilayer on the mechanics of the ensuing fracture behavior based on the optical methodologies laid down in Ref. Sundaram and Tippur (2016). Time-resolved optical measurement of crack-tip deformations, velocity and stress intensity factor histories in different bilayer configurations is performed using Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) technique in conjunction with high-speed photography. The results show that the crack path selection at the interface and subsequently the second layer are greatly affected by the location of the interface within the geometry. Using optically measured fracture parameters, the mechanics of crack penetration and branching are explained. Counter to the intuition, a dynamically growing mode-I approaching a weak interface at a lower velocity and stress intensity factor penetrates the interface whereas a higher velocity and stress intensity factor counterpart gets trapped by the interface producing branched daughter cracks until they kink out into the next layer. An interesting empirical observation based on measured crack-tip parameters for crack penetration and branching is also made.

  12. Effect of multi-functional inhibitors on the electrochemistry within a corrosion crack

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, H.

    1984-01-01

    The electrochemical and mass transport mechanisms in stress corrosion cracking, which depend on the rate of metal dissolution and production of hydrogen, have been used to establish analytically the electrode potential distribution within the crack. When crack growth occurs by enhanced anodic dissolution of the plastically strained tip, the electrode potential at the crack tip always is more active than at the crack mouth because of the electric potential gradient that exists in the electrolyte within the crack. This also gives rise to additional or alternative electrochemical reactions such as hydrogen evolution and anodic dissolution at the crack tip. Furthermore, because of the potential difference from the crack mouth, the electrochemical driving force becomes more favorable for the development of corrosion inside the crack. The analysis predicts the distribution of electrode potential within a crack, and theoretical results have been compared with experimental measurements recorded from a model electrode system. Under free corrosion, a small potential difference may cause a concentration change of Cl/sup -/ ion and increase the chloride attack. In order to reduce the chloride and hydrogen attack, multifunctional inhibitors, such as borax-nitrite with small amounts of surfactant such as MBT or amino-methyl-propanol, are excellent inhibitors. The surfactant interferes in the dissolution reaction and blocks active chloride ion and hydrogen ion by interacting synergistically with the passive film produced by the borax-nitrite, which results in development of a stronger and thicker protective film.

  13. Damage, crack growth and fracture characteristics of nuclear grade graphite using the Double Torsion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. H.; Marrow, T. J.; Tait, R. B.

    2011-07-01

    The crack initiation and propagation characteristics of two medium grained polygranular graphites, nuclear block graphite (NBG10) and Gilsocarbon (GCMB grade) graphite, have been studied using the Double Torsion (DT) technique. The DT technique allows stable crack propagation and easy crack tip observation of such brittle materials. The linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) methodology of the DT technique was adapted for elastic-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) in conjunction with a methodology for directly calculating the J-integral from in-plane displacement fields (JMAN) to account for the non-linearity of graphite deformation. The full field surface displacement measurement techniques of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and digital image correlation (DIC) were used to observe and measure crack initiation and propagation. Significant micro-cracking in the fracture process zone (FPZ) was observed as well as crack bridging in the wake of the crack tip. The R-curve behaviour was measured to determine the critical J-integral for crack propagation in both materials. Micro-cracks tended to nucleate at pores, causing deflection of the crack path. Rising R-curve behaviour was observed, which is attributed to the formation of the FPZ, while crack bridging and distributed micro-cracks are responsible for the increase in fracture resistance. Each contributes around 50% of the irreversible energy dissipation in both graphites.

  14. Resolved shear stress intensity coefficient and fatigue crack growth in large crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, QI; Liu, Hao-Wen

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in large grain Al alloy was studied. Fatigue crack growth is caused primarily by shear decohesion due to dislocation motion in the crack tip region. The crack paths in the large crystals are very irregular and zigzag. The crack planes are often inclined to the loading axis both in the inplane direction and the thickness direction. The stress intensity factors of such inclined cracks are approximated from the two dimensional finite element calculations. The plastic deformation in a large crystal is highly anisotropic, and dislocation motion in such crystals are driven by the resolved shear stress. The resolved shear stress intensity coefficient in a crack solid, RSSIC, is defined, and the coefficients for the slip systems at a crack tip are evaluated from the calculated stress intensity factors. The orientations of the crack planes are closely related to the slip planes with the high RSSIC values. If a single slip system has a much higher RSSIC than all the others, the crack will follow the slip plane, and the slip plane becomes the crack plane. If two or more slip systems have a high RSSIC, the crack plane is the result of the decohesion processes on these active slip planes.

  15. Cracks measurement using fiber-phased array laser ultrasound generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2013-04-01

    A phased array laser ultrasound generation system by using fiber optic delivery and a custom-designed focusing objective lens has been developed for crack inspection. The enhancement of crack tip diffraction by using phased array laser ultrasound is simulated with finite element method and validated by experiment. A non-contact and non-destructive measurement of inner-surface cracks by time-of-flight diffraction method using fiber-phased array laser ultrasound generation and electromagnetic acoustic transducer detection has been studied.

  16. Hot Weather Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home HOT Weather Tips Printer-friendly version We all suffer in hot weather. However, for elderly and disabled people and ... stress and following these tips for dealing with hot weather. Wear cool clothing: See that the person ...

  17. Total Telephone Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This manual of telephone behavior tips for business and sales professionals offers ways to handle the disgruntled caller and makes suggestions on topics relevant to the telephone. The manual is divided into the following sections and subsections: (1) Common Courtesy (staff tips, answering the telephone, screening calls, transferring calls, taking…

  18. Evolution of residual-strain distribution through an overload-induced retardation period during fatigue-crack growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. Y.; Sun, Y.; An, K.; Choo, H.; Hubbard, C. R.; Liaw, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the crack-growth retardation phenomenon after a single tensile overload by mapping both one-dimensional and two-dimensional residual-strain distributions around the crack tip in a series of compact-tension specimens representing various crack-growth stages through an overload-induced retardation period. The results clearly show a large compressive residual-strain field near the crack tip immediately after the overload. As the fatigue crack propagates through the overload-induced plastic zone, the compressive residual strains are gradually relaxed, and a new compressive residual-strain field is developed around the propagating crack tip, illustrating that the subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone grows out of the large plastic zone caused by the overloading. The relationship between the overload-induced plastic zone and subsequent fatigue-induced plastic zone, and its influence on the residual-strain distributions in the perturbed plastic zone are discussed.

  19. Controlled crack growth in an oxidized nuclear grade graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouagne, Pierre; Neighbour, Gareth B.; McEnaney, Brian

    2004-11-01

    Curves of the crack growth resistance parameters KR, JR and R as a function of crack length were obtained for IM1-24 nuclear grade graphite subject to oxidation in CO2 at 900°C up to 20% burn-off. For the unoxidized graphite, the curves show three regions: (i) an initial rise attributed to the development of bridging in the crack wake zone, (ii) a plateau region where the process zone ahead of the crack tip and the crack bridging zone reach steady states and (iii) falling R and JR curves (or a rising KR curve) when the crack tip approaches the back of the edge specimen. For oxidation up to ~11% burn-off, the values of R, JR and KR decrease progressively and the plateaux become shorter. At higher burn-off values, the plateau is not found. These trends indicate that the process zone size increases progressively with oxidation, but the length of the crack bridging zone remains unaffected by oxidation at least up to 10% burn-off. The initial values of R and KR, are close to the values of the linear elastic fracture parameters KIc and GIc, respectively.

  20. Interaction between a circular inclusion and an arbitrarily oriented crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Gupta, G. D.; Ratwani, M.

    1973-01-01

    The plane interaction problem for a circular elastic inclusion imbedded into an elastic matrix which contains an arbitrarily oriented crack is considered. Using the existing solutions for the edge dislocations as Green's functions, first the general problem of a through crack in the form of an arbitrary smooth arc located in the matrix in the vicinity of the inclusion is formulated. The integral equations for the line crack are then obtained as a system of singular integral equation with simple Cauchy kernels. The singular behavior of the stresses around the crack tips is examined and the expressions for the stress intensity factors representing the strength of the stress singularities are obtained in terms of the asymptotic values of the density functions of the integral equations. The problem is solved for various typical crack orientations and the corresponding stress intensity factors are given.

  1. Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension. Previously announced in STAR as N83-13491

  2. Double noding technique for mixed mode crack propagation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liaw, B. M.; Kobayashi, A. S.; Emergy, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    A simple dynamic finite element algorithm for analyzing a propagating mixed mode crack tip is presented. A double noding technique, which can be easily incorporated into existing dynamic finite element codes, is used together with a corrected J integral to extract modes I and II dynamic stress intensity factors of a propagating crack. The utility of the procedure is demonstrated by analyzing test problems involving a mode I central crack propagating in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension, a mixed mode I and II stationary, slanted central crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial impact loading, and a mixed mode I and II extending, slanted single edge crack in a plate subjected to uniaxial tension.

  3. Temperature dependence of the intrinsic small fatigue crack growth behavior in ni-base superalloys based on measurement of crack closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, M.; Yamada, H.; Nohmi, S.

    1996-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the small fatigue crack growth behavior of a single crystal and directionally solidified Ni-base superalloys was investigated at temperatures between 873 to 1123 K by measuring the crack closure. The results were also compared with those of the physically long crack. It was found that the propagation resistance and the fatigue threshold of the long cracks increased with temperature in all the materials. The long crack growth rates at three temperatures were approximately represented by an unique curve, after taking account of crack closure level and elastic modulus. In contrast, the small crack growth resistance decreased with temperature even when the crack closure phenomenon was taken into consideration. Furthermore, the small fatigue cracks exhibited considerably higher growth rates than the long cracks at a given effective stress intensity factor range and also grew under effective stress intensity factor ranges below the long crack threshold. The factors responsible for the lack of similitude in propagation rates between small and long cracks were also discussed, based on these observations and the chemical analysis near the crack tip using the electron probe microanalyzer.

  4. Initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in low-alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, G.L.; Li, Y.Y.

    1996-06-01

    Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is activated by a critical level of sulfide ions at the crack tip, which is produced from dissolution of sulfide inclusions (MnS, FeS, etc.) in the steel following exposure by a growing crack. EAC of concern herein is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs at 240--300 C in high temperature LWR or boiler water environments. The initiation of EAC is the onset of the higher fatigue crack growth rates in fully developed cracks already presumed to be present due to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, or induced by fabrication. Initiation of EAC is induced by a change in loading parameters causing the fatigue crack growth rate to increase from a small multiple (2--4) to 40--100 times the air rate. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggests that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. However, more recent tests show that EAC can persist down to much lower velocities (100 times lower) in low oxygen water at slightly lower temperatures. A special set of experiments on high sulfur plate material demonstrate that EAC will not initiate from surface cracks with low sulfide inventories at low crack tip velocities. Transient diffusion calculations show that a finite crack extension at a high crack tip velocity is necessary to initiate EAC, providing a possible explanation for the lack of high crack growth observations reported in low alloy steels in structural applications involving low oxygen environments.

  5. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis of shallow cracks in single-edge-crack-tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Three dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite element results are presented for single-edge crack-tension specimens with several shallow crack-length-to-width ratios (0.05 less than or equal to a/W less than or equal to 0.5). Results showed the need to model the initial yield plateau in the stress-strain behavior to accurately model deformation of the A36 steel specimens. The crack-tip-opening-displacement was found to be linearly proportional to the crack-mouth-opening displacement. A new deformation dependent plastic-eta factor equation is presented for calculating the J-integral from test load-displacement records. This equation was shown to be accurate for all crack lengths considered.

  6. Three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis of shallow cracks in single-edge-crack-tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Three-dimensional, elastic-plastic, finite-element results are presented for single-edge crack-tension specimens with several shallow crack-length-to-width ratios (0.05 less than or equal to a/W less than or equal to 0.5). Results showed the need to model the initial yield plateau in the stress-strain behavior to accurately model deformation of the A36 steel specimens. The crack-tip-opening-displacement was found to be linearly proportional to the crack-mouth-opening displacement. A new deformation dependent plastic-eta factor equation is presented for calculating the J-integral from test load-displacement records. This equation was shown to be accurate for all crack lengths considered.

  7. Separation of crack extension modes in orthotropic delamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    In the analysis of an interface crack between dissimilar elastic materials, the mode of crack extension is typically not unique, due to oscillatory behavior of near-tip stresses and displacements. This behavior currently limits the applicability of interfacial fracture mechanics as a means to predict composite delamination. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used to extract mode 1 and mode 2 energy release rates from numerical fracture solutions. The mode of crack extension extracted from an oscillatory solution using the VCCT is not unique due to the dependence of mode on the virtual crack extension length, Delta. In this work, a method is presented for using the VCCT to extract Delta-independent crack extension modes for the case of an interface crack between two in-plane orthotropic materials. The method does not involve altering the analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, it is argued that physically reasonable, Delta-independent modes of crack extension can be extracted from oscillatory solutions. Knowledge of near-tip fields is used to determine the explicit Delta dependence of energy release rate parameters. Energy release rates are then defined that are separated from the oscillatory dependence on Delta. A modified VCCT using these energy release rate definitions is applied to results from finite element analyses, showing that Delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified technique has potential as a consistent method for extracting crack extension modes from numerical solutions. The Delta-independent modes extracted using this technique can also serve as guides for testing the convergence of finite element models. Direct applications of this work include the analysis of planar composite delamination problems, where plies or debonded laminates are modeled as in-plane orthotropic materials.

  8. Analysis of an arbitrarily oriented crack in a finite piezoelectric plane via the hybrid extended displacement discontinuity-fundamental solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, CuiYing; Zhao, MingHao; Wang, JiaPeng; Pan, Ernian

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze an arbitrarily oriented crack in a finite two-dimensional piezoelectric medium with the polarization saturation model near the crack tip. We first derive the extended Green's functions corresponding to the extended point-displacement discontinuities of an arbitrarily oriented crack based on the Green's functions of the extended point forces and the Somigliana identity. Then, the extended field intensity factors and the local J-integral near the crack tip are expressed in terms of the extended displacement discontinuity on crack faces. Finally, the nonlinear hybrid extended displacement discontinuity-fundamental solution method is proposed to analyze an electrically nonlinear crack in a finite piezoelectric medium. Numerical examples are carried out for both linear and nonlinear fracture models of the crack under electrically impermeable boundary conditions. The influence of the crack orientation and geometric size on the fracture behaviors of the crack is investigated.

  9. Evaluation of apical preparations performed with ultrasonic diamond and stainless steel tips at different intensities using a scanning electron microscope in endodontic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martos, Ramón; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Serrera-Figallo, María A.; Segura-Egea, Juan J.; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study is to analyse (with the help of scanning electron microscopes) the quality of the dental root surface and the appearance of dental cracks after performing apical preparations using two diffe-rent types of ultrasonic tips. Study design: We used 32 single-rooted teeth that underwent a root canal and apical resection. Afterwards, the teeth were divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth each, with preparations of the apical cavities in the following manner: Group 1: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 33KHz. Group 2: stainless steel ultrasonic tip at 30KHz. Group 3: diamond ultrasonic tip at 30KHz. Group 4: diamond ultrasonic tip at 33 KHz. The quality of the root surface and the presence of cracks were evaluated by one single observer using a scanning electron microscope. Results: All of the teeth in our study had cracks after the apical preparations. The mean number of cracks per tooth ranged between 6.1±1.9 (group 1) and 3.5±2.4 (group 4), with a significantly higher number found in the groups that used stainless steel tips (P=.03). The types of cracks produced involved: 8 complete cracks (4.5%), 167 incomplete cracks (94.4%), and 2 intradentinal cracks (1.1%), with no significant differences observed between the different frequencies used for each group. Conclusions: Stainless steel ultrasonic tips provoked a larger number of cracks than diamond tips. The frequency of vibration used did not have any effect on the number of cracks found. Key words:Apicoectomy, scanning electron microscope, therapeutic ultrasound, endodontic surgery, dentinal crack. PMID:22926471

  10. Fracture behaviors of pre-cracked monolayer molybdenum disulfide: A molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-huan; Tian, Xiao-geng

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fracture strength and crack propagation of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) sheets with various pre-existing cracks are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The uniaxial tensions of pre-cracked monolayer MoS2 sheets with different crack tips, different locations of crack, different crack lengths and angled cracks are simulated and studied. The results show that the configuration of crack tip can influence significantly the fracture behaviors of monolayer MoS2 sheets while the location of crack does not influence the fracture strength. With the increase of crack length, the fracture strength of monolayer MoS2 sheets reduces almost linearly, and the fracture of monolayer MoS2 sheets is transformed from almost brittle to ductile. By making comparison between the MDS results and the predictions of continuum fracture mechanics theories, including Inglis' model, Griffith's model with and without finite size effect, it is found that MDS results agree well with the predictions of Griffith's model with finite size effect, differ from the predictions of Inglis' model and Griffith's model without finite size effect. Finally, the MDS results of monolayer MoS2 sheets with different angled crack are also analyzed based on the continuum fracture mechanics model. PMID:27826515

  11. Take a Tip from the Cubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, James

    2016-01-01

    As legendary Cubs manager Joe Maddon did with his players, seeing students as people first works for teachers who hope to build cohesive classes that achieve. Maddon's strength was his emphasis on cultivating positive relationships among his players. Taking a tip from Maddon's strategy, Fornaciari, an Advanced Placement history teacher, shares…

  12. Fatigue Crack Growth and Crack Bridging in SCS-6/Ti-24-11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Kantzos, Pete; Telesman, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Interfacial damage induced by relative fiber/matrix sliding was found to occur in the bridged zone of unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-24Al-11Nb intermetallic matrix composite specimens subjected to fatigue crack growth conditions. The degree of interfacial damage was not uniform along the bridged crack wake. Higher damage zones were observed near the machined notch in comparison to the crack tip. The interfacial friction shear strength tau(sub f) measured in the crack wake using pushout testing revealed lower values than the as-received interface. Interfacial wear also reduced the strength of the bridging fibers. The reduction in fiber strength is thought to be a function of the magnitude of relative fiber/matrix displacements ind the degree of interfacial damage. Furthermore, two different fiber bridging models were used to predict the influence of bridging on the fatigue crack driving force. The shear lag model required a variable tau(sub f) in the crack wake (reflecting the degradation of the interface) before its predictions agreed with trends exhibited by the experimental data. The fiber pressure model did an excellent job in predicting both the FCG data and the DeltaCOD in the bridged zone even though it does not require a knowledge of tau(sub f).

  13. The effect of potential on the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low alloy steels: Part II, electrochemical results

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, W.C.; James, L.A.

    1997-04-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels was found to be dependent on externally applied potential in low sulfur steels in high temperature water. EAC could be turned on when the specimen was polarized anodically above a critical potential. However, hydrogen (H) additions inhibited the ability of potential to affect EAC. The behavior was related to formation of H ions during H oxidation at the crack mouth. A mechanism based on formation of H sulfide at the crack tip and H ions at the crack mouth is presented to describe the process by which sulfides and H ions affect the critical sulfide concentration at the crack tip.

  14. Fatigue-crack propagation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys at large and small crack sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzic, J.J.; Campbell, J.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    Most evaluations of the fracture and fatigue-crack propagation properties of {gamma}+{alpha}{sub 2} titanium aluminide alloys to date have been performed using standard large-crack samples, e.g., compact-tension specimens containing crack sizes which are on the order of tens of millimeters, i.e., large compared to microstructural dimensions. However, these alloys have been targeted for applications, such as blades in gas-turbine engines, where relevant crack sizes are much smaller ({lt}500 {micro}m) and where the small-crack fatigue threshold may be the most relevant design parameter. In this study, the authors compare and contrast the cyclic crack-growth behavior of both large (a {gt} 5 mm) and (c {approximately} 25--300 {micro}m) cracks in a {gamma}-TiAl based alloy, of composition Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr-0.2B (at.%), specifically for duplex (average grain size {approximately}17 {micro}m) and refined lamellar (average colony size {approximately}150 {micro}m) microstructures. It is found that, whereas the lamellar microstructure displays far superior fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth resistance in the presence of large cracks, in small-crack testing the duplex microstructure exhibits a better combination of properties. The reasons for such contrasting behavior are examined in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., crack bridging) contributions to cyclic crack advance.

  15. Bed Bug Tips

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  16. Tips for labor coaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...

  17. Insider conference tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Attending an educator conference and its associated exhibit hall can be a rewarding experience for your brain. But if you keep in mind these insider's tips, your feet, arms, stomach, and wallet will also thank you.

  18. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jim; Ashcraft, Nikki; Clarke, Paul M.; Wolf, Grant S.

    1999-01-01

    Four tips for use in the English-as-a-Second-Language classroom are highlighted: Mr. Bean in the Classroom; Defining Your Future; Coin Questions; Our Futures: Simple, Progressive, and Perfect. (Author/VWL)

  19. Tips for Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Tips for Chronic Pain The SSF thanks Stuart S. Kassan, MD, FACP, Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, for authoring ...

  20. Eye Drop Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  1. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan Newman, Roger C.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.

    2007-11-06

    indicate that IASCC in 289 C water is dominated by a crack-tip grain-boundary process that involves S. An initial IASCC model has been proposed. A crack growth test was completed on mill annealed Alloy 600 in high-purity water at 289 C and 320 C under various environmental and loading conditions. The results from this test are compared with data obtained earlier on several other heats of Alloy 600.

  3. Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crack initiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crack initiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  4. The equivalence between dislocation pile-ups and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Gao, Q.

    1990-01-01

    Cracks and dislocation pile-ups are equivalent to each other. In this paper, the physical equivalence between cracks and pile-ups is delineated, and the relationshps between crack-extension force, force on the leading dislocation, stress-intensity factor, and dislocation density are reviewed and summarized. These relations make it possible to extend quantitatively the recent advances in the concepts and practices of fracture mechanics to the studies of microfractures and microplastic deformations.

  5. Path dependence of J in three numerical examples. [J integral in three crack propagation problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karabin, M. E., Jr.; Swedlow, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Three cracked geometries are studied with the aid of a new finite element model. The procedure employs a variable singularity at the crack tip that tracks changes in the material response during the loading process. Two of the problems are tension-loaded center-crack panels and the other is a three-point bend specimen. Results usually agree with other numerical and analytical analyses, except the finding that J is path dependent as a substantial plastic zone develops. Credible J values are obtained near the crack tip and J shows a significant increase as the radius of J path increases over two orders of magnitude. Incremental and deformation theories are identical provided the stresses exhibit proportionality found in the far field stresses but not near the tip.

  6. Measurement and Modeling of Hydrogen Environment-Assisted Cracking in Monel K-500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Ha, Hung M.; Burns, James T.; Scully, John R.

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen environment-assisted cracking (HEAC) of Monel K-500 is quantified using slow-rising stress intensity loading with electrical potential monitoring of small crack propagation and elastoplastic J-integral analysis. For this loading, with concurrent crack tip plastic strain and H accumulation, aged Monel K-500 is susceptible to intergranular HEAC in NaCl solution when cathodically polarized at -800 mVSCE ( E A, vs saturated calomel) and lower. Intergranular cracking is eliminated by reduced cathodic polarization more positive than -750 mVSCE. Crack tip diffusible H concentration rises, from near 0 wppm at E A of -765 mVSCE, with increasing cathodic polarization. This behavior is quantified by thermal desorption spectroscopy and barnacle cell measurements of hydrogen solubility vs overpotential for planar electrodes, plus measured-local crevice potential, and pH scaled to the crack tip. Using crack tip H concentration, excellent agreement is demonstrated between measurements and decohesion-based model predictions of the E A dependencies of threshold stress intensity and Stage II growth rate. A critical level of cathodic polarization must be exceeded for HEAC to occur in aged Monel K-500. The damaging-cathodic potential regime likely shifts more negative for quasi-static loading or increasing metallurgical resistance to HEAC.

  7. Analysis of delamination in cross-ply laminates initiating from impact induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element analyses of (02/90(8)/02) glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates were performed to investigate some of the characteristics of damage development due to an impact load. A cross section through the thickness of the laminate with fixed ends, and carrying a transverse load in the center, was analyzed. Inclined matrix cracks, such as those produced by a low-velocity impact, were modeled in the 90 deg ply group. The introduction of the matrix cracks caused large interlaminar tensile and shear stresses in the vicinity of both crack tips in the 0/90 and 90/0 interfaces, indicating that matrix cracking may give rise to delamination. The ratio of Mode I to total strain energy release rate, G(I)/G(total), at the beginning of delamination, calculated at the two (top and bottom) matrix crack tips was 60 and 28 percent, respectively, in the glass/epoxy laminate. The corresponding ratio was 97 and 77 percent in the graphite/epoxy laminate. Thus, a significant Mode I component of strain energy release rate may be present at the delamination initiation due to an impact load. The value of strain energy release rate at either crack tip increased due to an increase in the delamination length at the other crack tip and may give rise to an unstable delamination growth under constant load.

  8. Microstructural characterization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in PWR primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yun Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2013-09-01

    Stress corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 compact tension specimens tested at 325 °C in a simulated primary water environment of a pressurized water reactor were analyzed using microscopic equipment. Oxygen diffused into the grain boundaries just ahead of the crack tips from the external primary water. As a result of oxygen penetration, Cr oxides were precipitated on the crack tips and the attacked grain boundaries. The oxide layer in the crack interior was revealed to consist of double (inner and outer) layers. Cr oxides were found in the inner layer, with NiO and (Ni,Cr) spinels in the outer layer. Cr depletion (or Ni enrichment) zones were created in the attacked grain boundary, the crack tip, and the interface between the crack and matrix, which means that the formation of Cr oxides was due to the Cr diffusion from the surrounding matrix. The oxygen penetration and resultant metallurgical changes around the crack tip are believed to be significant factors affecting the PWSCC initiation and growth behaviors of Alloy 600. For interpretation of color in Fig. 4, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

  9. Localization and characterization of fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Deborah; Datuin, Marvin; Aldrin, John; Warchol, Mark; Warchol, Lyudmila; Forsyth, David

    2017-02-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments and simulations that demonstrate the ability to localize fatigue cracks around fastener holes using spherically focused ultrasonic probes for shear-wave inspections. For the experiments, fatigue cracks were created in aluminum plates in a testing frame under cyclic loading. With the exceptions of one specimen with a mid-bore crack and another with a "through" crack, the remaining specimens contain surface-breaking cracks. All of the specimens were inspected for the cracks intersecting the back wall, and some were flipped over and re-inspected with the crack intersecting the front surface. Parameter and variable sensitivity studies were performed using CIVA Simulation Software. In contrast to C-scans where detection and localization of small cracks can be very difficult, modeling and initial experimental results demonstrate that cracks can be accurately located in "True" B-scans (B-scans projected in the part along the beam path). Initial results show that small-amplitude diffracted/scattered signals from the crack tips and edges are essential in obtaining clear crack traces in the True B-scans. It is important therefore that experimental data be acquired with sufficient gain to capture the diffracted/scattered signals. In all of the cases studied here, saturating the high-amplitude specular reflections from the fastener hole and crack enhanced the crack trace in the True B-scans.

  10. Fracture analysis of stiffened panels under biaxial loading with widespread cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite-element analysis with a critical crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion was used to model stable crack growth and fracture of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy (bare and clad) panels for several thicknesses. The panels had either single or multiple-site damage (MSD) cracks subjected to uniaxial or biaxial loading. Analyses were also conducted on cracked stiffened panels with single or MSD cracks. The critical CTOA value for each thickness was determined by matching the failure load on a middle-crack tension specimen. Comparisons were made between the critical angles determined from the finite-element analyses and those measured with photographic methods. Predicted load-against-crack extension and failure loads for panels under biaxial loading, panels with MSD cracks, and panels with various numbers of stiffeners were compared with test data whenever possible. The predicted results agreed well with the test data even for large-scale plastic deformations. The analyses were also able to predict stable tearing behavior of a large lead crack in the presence of MSD cracks. The analyses were then used to study the influence of stiffeners on residual strength in the presence of widespread fatigue cracking. Small MSD cracks were found to greatly reduce the residual strength for large lead cracks even for stiffened panels.

  11. Cross-validated detection of crack initiation in aerospace materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanniamparambil, Prashanth A.; Cuadra, Jefferson; Guclu, Utku; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2014-03-01

    A cross-validated nondestructive evaluation approach was employed to in situ detect the onset of damage in an Aluminum alloy compact tension specimen. The approach consisted of the coordinated use primarily the acoustic emission, combined with the infrared thermography and digital image correlation methods. Both tensile loads were applied and the specimen was continuously monitored using the nondestructive approach. Crack initiation was witnessed visually and was confirmed by the characteristic load drop accompanying the ductile fracture process. The full field deformation map provided by the nondestructive approach validated the formation of a pronounced plasticity zone near the crack tip. At the time of crack initiation, a burst in the temperature field ahead of the crack tip as well as a sudden increase of the acoustic recordings were observed. Although such experiments have been attempted and reported before in the literature, the presented approach provides for the first time a cross-validated nondestructive dataset that can be used for quantitative analyses of the crack initiation information content. It further allows future development of automated procedures for real-time identification of damage precursors including the rarely explored crack incubation stage in fatigue conditions.

  12. Fatigue-Life Prediction Methodology Using Small-Crack Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newmann, James C., Jr.; Phillips, Edward P.; Swain, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the capabilities of a plasticity-induced crack-closure model to predict fatigue lives of metallic materials using 'small-crack theory' for various materials and loading conditions. Crack-tip constraint factors, to account for three-dimensional state-of-stress effects, were selected to correlate large-crack growth rate data as a function of the effective-stress-intensity factor range (delta K(eff)) under constant-amplitude loading. Some modifications to the delta k(eff)-rate relations were needed in the near-threshold regime to fit measured small-crack growth rate behavior and fatigue endurance limits. The model was then used to calculate small- and large-crack growth rates, and to predict total fatigue lives, for notched and un-notched specimens made of two aluminum alloys and a steel under constant-amplitude and spectrum loading. Fatigue lives were calculated using the crack-growth relations and microstructural features like those that initiated cracks for the aluminum alloys and steel for edge-notched specimens. An equivalent-initial-flaw-size concept was used to calculate fatigue lives in other cases. Results from the tests and analyses agreed well.

  13. Crack Growth Simulation and Residual Strength Prediction in Airplane Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chuin-Shan; Wawrzynek, Paul A.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives were to create a capability to simulate curvilinear crack growth and ductile tearing in aircraft fuselages subjected to widespread fatigue damage and to validate with tests. Analysis methodology and software program (FRANC3D/STAGS) developed herein allows engineers to maintain aging aircraft economically, while insuring continuous airworthiness, and to design more damage-tolerant aircraft for the next generation. Simulations of crack growth in fuselages were described. The crack tip opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion, obtained from laboratory tests, was used to predict fracture behavior of fuselage panel tests. Geometrically nonlinear, elastic-plastic, thin shell finite element crack growth analyses were conducted. Comparisons of stress distributions, multiple stable crack growth history, and residual strength between measured and predicted results were made to assess the validity of the methodology. Incorporation of residual plastic deformations and tear strap failure was essential for accurate residual strength predictions. Issue related to predicting crack trajectory in fuselages were also discussed. A directional criterion, including T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy, was developed. Curvilinear crack growth was simulated in coupon and fuselage panel tests. Both T-stress and fracture toughness orthotropy were essential to predict the observed crack paths. Flapping of fuselages were predicted. Measured and predicted results agreed reasonable well.

  14. Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, R.P.L.; Bowes, E.; Green, G.J.; Marler, D.O.; Shihabi, D.S.; Socha, R.F.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes an improvement in a catalytic cracking process in which a hydrocarbon feed is cracked in a cracking zone in the absence of added hydrogen and in the presence of a circulating inventory of solid acidic cracking a catalyst which acquires a deposit of coke that contains chemically bound nitrogen while the cracking catalyst is in the cracking zone, the coke catalyst being circulated to t regeneration zone to convert the coke catalyst to a regenerated catalyst with the formation of a flue gas comprising nitrogen oxides: the improvement comprises incorporating into the circulating catalyst inventory an amount of additive particles comprising a synthetic porous crystalline material containing copper metal or cations, to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides in the flue gas.

  15. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  16. Dynamic of cold-atom tips in anharmonic potentials.

    PubMed

    Menold, Tobias; Federsel, Peter; Rogulj, Carola; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in an anharmonic potential is essential for applications in the new field of cold-atom scanning probe microscopy. Therein, cold atomic ensembles are used as sensitive probe tips to investigate nanostructured surfaces and surface-near potentials, which typically cause anharmonic tip motion. Results: Besides a theoretical description of this anharmonic tip motion, we introduce a novel method for detecting the cold-atom tip dynamics in situ and real time. In agreement with theory, the first measurements show that particle interactions and anharmonic motion have a significant impact on the tip dynamics. Conclusion: Our findings will be crucial for the realization of high-sensitivity force spectroscopy with cold-atom tips and could possibly allow for the development of advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Q-control.

  17. Dynamic of cold-atom tips in anharmonic potentials

    PubMed Central

    Menold, Tobias; Federsel, Peter; Rogulj, Carola; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fortágh, József

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in an anharmonic potential is essential for applications in the new field of cold-atom scanning probe microscopy. Therein, cold atomic ensembles are used as sensitive probe tips to investigate nanostructured surfaces and surface-near potentials, which typically cause anharmonic tip motion. Results: Besides a theoretical description of this anharmonic tip motion, we introduce a novel method for detecting the cold-atom tip dynamics in situ and real time. In agreement with theory, the first measurements show that particle interactions and anharmonic motion have a significant impact on the tip dynamics. Conclusion: Our findings will be crucial for the realization of high-sensitivity force spectroscopy with cold-atom tips and could possibly allow for the development of advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Q-control. PMID:28144505

  18. Corrosion pitting and environmentally assisted small crack growth

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many applications, corrosion pits act as precursors to cracking, but qualitative and quantitative prediction of damage evolution has been hampered by lack of insights into the process by which a crack develops from a pit. An overview is given of recent breakthroughs in characterization and understanding of the pit-to-crack transition using advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography and focused ion beam machining with scanning electron microscopy. These techniques provided novel insights with respect to the location of crack development from a pit, supported by finite-element analysis. This inspired a new concept for the role of pitting in stress corrosion cracking based on the growing pit inducing local dynamic plastic strain, a critical factor in the development of stress corrosion cracks. Challenges in quantifying the subsequent growth rate of the emerging small cracks are then outlined with the potential drop technique being the most viable. A comparison is made with the growth rate for short cracks (through-thickness crack in fracture mechanics specimen) and long cracks and an electrochemical crack size effect invoked to rationalize the data. PMID:25197249

  19. The cracked tooth.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, G R

    1998-01-01

    Fractured molars and premolars are very common. Fractures usually result from cracks that develop and slowly extend until the tooth separates into buccal and lingual fragments. Sometimes, as these cracks expand, the patient exhibits symptoms of what is commonly referred to as "cracked tooth syndrome" (CTS). When CTS occurs, an opportunity exists to diagnose and treat these patients, to relieve their discomfort and prevent sequelae that would require more extensive treatment.

  20. Variations of a global constraint factor in cracked bodies under tension and bending loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Crews, J. H., Jr.; Bigelow, C. A.; Dawicke, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Elastic-plastic finite-element analyses were used to calculate stresses and displacements around a crack in finite-thickness plates for an elastic-perfectly plastic material. Middle- and edge-crack specimens were analyzed under tension and bending loads. Specimens were 1.25 to 20 mm thick with various widths and crack lengths. A global constraint factor alpha(sub g), an averaged normal-stress to flow-stress ratio over the plastic region, was defined to simulate three-dimensional (3D) effects in two-dimensional (2D) models. For crack lengths and uncracked ligament lengths greater than four times the thickness, the global constraint factor was found to be nearly a unique function of a normalized stress-intensity factor (related to plastic-zone size to thickness ratio) from small- to large-scale yielding conditions for various specimen types and thickness. For crack length-to-thickness ratios less than four, the global constraint factor was specimen type, crack length and thickness dependent. Using a 2D strip-yield model and the global constraint factors, plastic-zone sizes and crack-tip displacements agreed reasonably well with the 3D analyses. For a thin sheet aluminum alloy, the critical crack-tip-opening angle during stable tearing was found to be independent of specimen type and crack length for crack length-to-thickness ratios greater than 4.

  1. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.

    1999-01-01

    Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth

  2. Quenched catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Krambeck, F.J.; Penick, J.E.; Schipper, P.H.

    1990-12-18

    This paper describes improvement in a fluidized catalytic cracking process wherein a fluidizable catalyst cracking catalyst and a hydrocarbon feed are charged to a reactor riser at catalytic riser cracking conditions to form catalytically cracked vapor product and spent catalyst which are discharged into a reactor vessel having a volume via a riser reactor outlet equipped with a separation means to produce a catalyst lean phase. It comprises: a majority of the cracked product, and a catalyst rich phase comprising a majority of the spend catalyst. The the catalyst rich phase is discharged into a dense bed of catalyst maintained below the riser outlet and the catalyst lean phase is discharged into the vessel for a time, and at a temperature, which cause unselective thermal cracking of the cracked product in the reactor volume before product is withdrawn from the vessel via a vessel outlet. The improvement comprises: addition, after riser cracking is completed, and after separation of cracked products from catalyst, of a quenching stream into the vessel above the dense bed of catalyst, via a quench stream addition point which allows the quench stream to contact at least a majority of the volume of the vessel above the dense bed.

  3. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Alloy 718 crack growth experiments were conducted to assess the ability of the selected path-independent (P-I) integrals to describe the elevated temperature crack growth behavior. These tests were performed on single edge notch (SEN) specimens under displacement control with multiple extensometers to monitor the specimen and crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD). The displacements in these tests were sufficiently high to induce bulk cyclic inelastic deformation of the specimen. Under these conditions, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) parameter K does not correlate the crack growth data. The experimentally measured displacement gradients at the end of specimen gage length were used as the boundary conditions in elastic-plastic finite element method (FEM) analyses. These analyses were performed with a node release approach using CYANIDE, a GEAE FEM code, which included a gap element which is capable of efficiently simulating crack closure. Excellent correlation was obtained between the experimentally measured and predicted variation of stress and CMOD with crack length and the stress-CMOD loops for Alloy 718 tests conducted at 538 C. This confirmed the accuracy of the FEM crack growth simulation approach. The experimentally measured crack growth rate data correlated well the selected P-I integrals. These investigations have produced significant progress in developing P-I integrals as non-linear fracture mechanics parameters. The results suggest that this methodology has the potential of accurately describing elevated temperature crack growth behavior under the combined influence of thermal cycling and bulk elastic-inelastic deformation states.

  4. The mode III crack problem in bonded materials with a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Joseph, P. F.; Kaya, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The mode 3 crack problem for two bonded homogeneous half planes was considered. The interfacial zone was modelled by a nonhomogeneous strip in such a way that the shear modulus is a continuous function throughout the composite medium and has discontinuous derivatives along the boundaries of the interfacial zone. The problem was formulated for cracks perpendicular to the nominal interface and was solved for various crack locations in and around the interfacial region. The asymptotic stress field near the tip of a crack terminating at an interface was examined and it was shown that, unlike the corresponding stress field in piecewise homogeneous materials, in this case the stresses have the standard square root singularity and their angular variation was identical to that of a crack in a homogeneous medium. With application to the subcritical crack growth process in mind, the results given include mostly the stress intensity factors for some typical crack geometries and various material combinations.

  5. The mode 3 crack problem in bonded materials with a nonhomogeneous interfacial zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, Fazil; Kaya, A. C.; Joseph, P. F.

    1988-01-01

    The mode 3 crack problem for two bonded homogeneous half planes was considered. The interfacial zone was modelled by a nonhomogeneous strip in such a way that the shear modulus is a continuous function throughout the composite medium and has discontinuous derivatives along the boundaries of the interfacial zone. The problem was formulated for cracks perpendicular to the nominal interface and was solved for various crack locations in and around the interfacial region. The asymptotic stress field near the tip of a crack terminating at an interface was examined and it was shown that, unlike the corresponding stress field in piecewise homogeneous materials, in this case the stresses have the standard square root singularity and their angular variation was identical to that of a crack in a homogeneous medium. With application to the subcritical crack growth process in mind, the results given include mostly the stress intensity factors for some typical crack geometries and various material combinations.

  6. Fatigue crack growth in 2024-T3 aluminum under tensile and transverse shear stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viz, Mark J.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of transverse shear stresses on the fatigue crack growth rate in thin 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets is investigated experimentally. The tests are performed on double-edge cracked sheets in cyclic tensile and torsional loading. This loading generates crack tip stress intensity factors in the same ratio as the values computed for a crack lying along a lap joint in a pressurized aircraft fuselage. The relevant fracture mechanics of cracks in thin plates along with the details of the geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses used for the test specimen calibration are developed and discussed. Preliminary fatigue crack growth data correlated using the fully coupled stress intensity factor calibration are presented and compared with fatigue crack growth data from pure delta K(sub I)fatigue tests.

  7. Effects of microstructure banding on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth in X65 pipeline steels

    DOE PAGES

    Ronevich, Joseph A.; Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Chris W.

    2015-09-10

    Banded ferrite-pearlite X65 pipeline steel was tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to evaluate the effects of oriented pearlite on hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth. Test specimens were oriented in the steel pipe such that cracks propagated either parallel or perpendicular to the banded pearlite. The ferrite-pearlite microstructure exhibited orientation dependent behavior in which fatigue crack growth rates were significantly lower for cracks oriented perpendicular to the banded pearlite compared to cracks oriented parallel to the bands. Thus the reduction of hydrogen assisted fatigue crack growth across the banded pearlite is attributed to a combination of crack-tip branching and impededmore » hydrogen diffusion across the banded pearlite.« less

  8. Energy dissipation associated with crack extension in an elastic-plastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Crack extension in elastic-plastic material involves energy dissipation through the creation of new crack surfaces and additional yielding around the crack front. An analytical procedure, using a two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element method, was developed to calculate the energy dissipation components during a quasi-static crack extension. The fracture of an isotropic compact specimen was numerically simulated using the critical crack-tip-opening-displacement (CTOD) growth criterion. Two specimen sizes were analyzed for three values of critical CTOD. Results from the analyses showed that the total energy dissipation rate consisted of three components: the crack separation energy rate, the plastic energy dissipation rate, and the residual strain energy rate. All three energy dissipation components and the total energy dissipation rate initially increased with crack extension and finally reached constant values.

  9. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Effect of relative humidity on crack propagation in barrier films for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, W. P.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Bouten, P. C. P.

    2012-10-01

    A set of propagating cracks in a SiN barrier film on poly ethylene naphthalate (PEN) were subjected to differing levels of relative humidity. It was observed that the propagation speed of the cracks increased for increasing levels of relative humidity. This was shown using two independent, simultaneous techniques. One of the techniques (a resistance measurement) gives a qualitative measure of the averaged crack tip speed and the other (a microscopic technique) a quantitative measure. An attempt is made to quantify the resistance measurements in terms of crack tip speed. The effects that humidity may have on the crack driving force through differences in hygroscopic expansion are discussed, using independent determination of the diffusion constant of water into PEN. It is concluded that hygroscopic expansion alone cannot account for the observations.

  11. Atomistic Simulation of Environment-Assisted Crack Propagation Behavior of SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Akio

    A modified extended Tersoff interatomic potential function is proposed to simulate environment-assisted crack propagation behavior. First, the physical properties of Si, O2, H2, SiO2, and H2O were calculated by this modified function. It was confirmed that the calculated values agreed with the measured values very well. Next, the potential surface of the H2O molecular transporting process to the crack tip of SiO2 material was calculated by the same function. The relationship between the velocity of crack propagation "υ" and the stress intensity factor "K" was calculated based on this surface. The results agreed with the experimental results well. This simulation clarified that the crack velocity is controlled by the H2O transporting process in both regions I and II of the "υ-K curve". In region I, H2O molecules have physically limited access to the crack tip due to the small opening in the crack. This works as an energy barrier in transporting H2O molecules. Due to the relatively large crack opening in region II, H2O molecules have free access to the crack tip without any energy barrier. This difference makes a bend in the "υ-K curve" between regions I and II.

  12. Transition from fractal cracking to fragmentation due to projectile penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, F.; Halász, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We present a theoretical study of the fracture of two-dimensional disc-shaped samples due to the penetration of a projectile focusing on the dynamics of fracturing and on the geometrical structure of the generated crack pattern. The penetration of a cone is simulated into a plate of circular shape using a discrete element model of heterogeneous brittle materials varying the speed of penetration in a broad range. As the cone penetrates a destroyed zone is created from which cracks run to the external boundary of the plate. Computer simulations revealed that in the low speed limit of loading two cracks are generated with nearly straight shape. Increasing the penetration speed the crack pattern remains regular, however, both the number of cracks and their fractal dimension increases. High speed penetration gives rise to a crack network such that the sample gets fragmented into a large number of pieces. We give a quantitative analysis of the evolution of the system from simple cracking through fractal cracks to fragmentation with a connected crack network. Simulations showed that in the low speed limit of loading the growing cracks proceed in discrete jumps separated by periods when the crack tips are pinned. The statistics of the size of jumps and of the waitng times shows scale free behaviour, i.e. power law distributions are obtained with universal exponents. Dependence on the loading speed was pointed out only for the cutoffs of the distributions. In the high speed limit of loading the sample falls apart forming a large number of fragments. The size of fragments proved to be power law distributed where dependence on the loading speed is observed only for the cutoffs. The value of the exponent has good agreement with experiments.

  13. Effect of underloads on fatigue crack growth of titanium-17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Stephan M.

    An improved understanding of fatigue crack growth phenomenon applicable to titanium engine disks was developed through complimentary experimental and analytical investigations of Ti-17. Two significant findings resulted from this study. First, it was concluded that an R = 0.1 underload accelerated the fatigue crack growth rates of subsequent high- R cycles, even when closure was negligible and the traditional Delta Keff was identical to DeltaKapplied. Second, the strains ahead of the crack were determined to be higher following the underload and remained elevated for some time. A simplified variable-amplitude spectrum, consisting of high- R baseline cycles and periodic R = 0.1 underloads, was used to demonstrate a load-interaction effect which led to nonconservative life predictions using conventional fatigue crack growth predictive methodologies. A phenomenological model was formulated based on hypothesized changes in the propagation resistance, KPR, and fit to the test data. The results demonstrated that periodic R = 0.1 underloads increased fatigue crack growth rates of subsequent high-R cycles. When the number of baseline cycles was 100 or more, the higher fatigue crack growth rates led to significantly lower lifetimes than predicted using methods assuming no load-interaction effect. The model also predicted an observed decrease in threshold. A finite element model was developed to investigate what transpires in the wake and ahead of the crack tip. The results from finite element analyses compared favorably to experimental evidence acquired in the vicinity of a crack tip during a comparable test. The R = 0.1 underload cycle produced a subtle increase in the crack opening displacement profiles of the subsequent R = 0.7 cycles. More importantly, the simulations revealed an increase in the strains ahead of the crack tip after the underload, although the strain range was unchanged. It was concluded that the higher mean strains were an indication of increased damage

  14. Identifying and Understanding Environment-Induced Crack propagation Behavior in Ni-based Superalloy INCONEL 617

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Longzhou

    2012-11-30

    The nickel-based superalloy INCONEL 617 is a candidate material for heat exchanger applications in the next-generation nuclear plant (NGNP) system. This project will study the crack propagation process of alloy 617 at temperatures of 650°C-950°C in air under static/cyclic loading conditions. The goal is to identify the environmental and mechanical damage components and to understand in-depth the failure mechanism. Researchers will measure the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rate (da/dn) under cyclic and hold-time fatigue conditions, and sustained crack growth rates (da/dt) at elevated temperatures. The independent FCP process will be identified and the rate-controlled sustained loading crack process will be correlated with the thermal activation equation to estimate the oxygen thermal activation energy. The FCP-dependent model indicates that if the sustained loading crack growth rate, da/dt, can be correlated with the FCP rate, da/dn, at the full time dependent stage, researchers can confirm stress-accelerated grain-boundary oxygen embrittlement (SAGBOE) as a predominate effect. Following the crack propagation tests, the research team will examine the fracture surface of materials in various cracking stages using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an optical microscope. In particular, the microstructure of the crack tip region will be analyzed in depth using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) mapping techniques to identify oxygen penetration along the grain boundary and to examine the diffused oxygen distribution profile around the crack tip. The cracked sample will be prepared by focused ion beam nanofabrication technology, allowing researchers to accurately fabricate the TEM samples from the crack tip while minimizing artifacts. Researchers will use these microscopic and spectroscopic results to interpret the crack propagation process, as well as distinguish and understand the environment or

  15. Effect of characterization on fatigue crack growth in a SiC-reinforced silicon nitride composite at 1200{degree}C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Edwards, L.; Plumbridge, W.J.

    1998-02-13

    Subcritical crack growth in a high strength, SiC-reinforced Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} under sustained and cyclic loads at high temperature has been investigated to determine the influence of crystallization on crack growth velocity. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass phase did not produce an observable increase in fracture toughness but did produce increased fatigue crack growth resistance at high temperature. TEM study indicated that this improvement resulted from an observed reduction in glass flow and crack tip cavitation due to the significantly reduced glass phase content after crystallization. It is shown that high temperature fatigue crack growth is predominantly loading time dependent with a weak effect of stress cycles. An influence of loading frequency on crack growth rates occurred only at high loading rates in uncrystallized (high glass phase content) specimens where the crack tip stress intensity was reduced due to viscous bonding of the glass phase at the crack surfaces.

  16. Evolving Indications for Tips.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mitchell; Durham, Janette

    2016-03-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements including covered stents have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Evidence for other less frequent indications continues to accumulate, including the indications of primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding, gastric and ectopic variceal bleeding, primary treatment of medically refractory ascites, recurrent refractory ascites following liver transplantation, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatorenal syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, and portal vein thrombosis. Treatment of patients with high-risk acute variceal bleeding with early TIPS and using transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts as a primary therapy rather than large volume paracentesis for refractory ascites would likely be the 2 circumstances that permit expansion in the frequency of TIPS procedures. The remaining populations discussed above are relatively rare.

  17. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  18. Magnet pole tips

    DOEpatents

    Thorn, C.E.; Chasman, C.; Baltz, A.J.

    1981-11-19

    An improved magnet more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  19. Chemically short-crack behavior of the 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolley, Evan Jarrett, Jr.

    Commercial and military aircraft are exposed to deleterious environments (such as salt spray) that can enhance the fatigue-crack-growth (FCG) rates in structural components. This phenomenon, generically termed corrosion fatigue (CF) can have a large effect on their fatigue lives. CFCG behavior may be separated into two regimes: a chemically long-crack regime and a chemically short-crack regime. FCG rates in the chemically long-crack regime for the 7075-T6 aluminum alloy are approximately one order of magnitude greater than those in a dehumidified environment and exhibit growth rate similitude under a constant crack driving force ( D K). FCG rates in the chemically short-crack regime exhibit a breakdown in growth rate similitude at crack lengths shorter than 7 mm. The growth rates at 0.5 mm are 2 times greater than those in the long-crack regime and decay with increasing crack length to the long-crack rates at approximately 7 mm. The extent of the chemically short-crack behavior in the 7075-T6 aluminum alloy depends on D K, crack length and dissolved oxygen concentration in the aqueous solution. Mathematical modeling of the mass transport of dissolved oxygen to the crack tip region shows a good correlation between the chemically short-crack behavior and the amount of dissolved oxygen at the crack tip. The short-crack behavior is not observed in a deaerated solution. The enhanced growth rates are caused by hydrogen embrittlement. Fracture in dehumidified air occurs along the 100 fracture plane while cracking in the chemically short and long-crack regimes occur on 100 and 110 (flat brittle type fracture) planes with the fractional area of the 110 fracture decreasing with increasing crack length in the chemically short-crack regime. Predicted and actual FCG rates correlate well showing that the enhancement of growth rates in the deleterious environment depends on the amount of 110 fracture. The chemically short-crack behavior may reduce the FCG life of a structure by

  20. Elastic-plastic analysis of crack in ductile adhesive joint

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Toru; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Yamashita, Akira; Munakata, Tsuyoshi

    1995-11-01

    The fracture of a crack in adhesive is important to the structural integrity of adhesive structures and composite materials. Though the fracture toughness of a material should be constant according to fracture mechanics, it is said that the fracture toughness of a crack in an adhesive joint depends on the bond thickness. In the present study, the elastic-plastic stress analyses of a crack in a thin adhesive layer are performed by the combination of the boundary element method and the finite element method. The effect of adhesive thickness on the J-integral, the Q`-factor which is a modified version of the Q-factor, and the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) are investigated. It is found from the analyses that the CTOD begins to decrease at very thin bond thickness, the Q`-factor being almost constant. The decrease of the fracture toughness at very thin adhesive layer is expected by the present analysis.

  1. Cracked shells under skew-symmetric loading. [Reissner theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.

    1981-01-01

    The general problem of a shell containing a through crack in one of the principal planes of curvature and under general skew-symmetric loading is considered. By employing a Reissner type shell theory which takes into account the effect of transverse shear strains, all boundary conditions on the crack surfaces are satisfied separately. Consequently, unlike those obtained from the classical shell theory, the angular distributions of the stress components around the crack tips are shown to be identical to the distributions obtained from the plane and anti-plane elasticity solutions. Results are given for axially and circumferentially cracked cylindrical shells, spherical shells, and toroidal shells under uniform in-plane shearing, out of plane shearing, and torsion. The problem is formulated for specially orthostropic materials, therefore, the effect of orthotropy on the results is also studied.

  2. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z = 0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  3. The crack problem in a reinforced cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahsi, O. S.; Erdogan, F.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper a partially reinforced cylinder containing an axial through crack is considered. The reinforcement is assumed to be fully bonded to the main cylinder. The composite cylinder is thus modelled by a nonhomogeneous shell having a step change in the elastic properties at the z=0 plane, z being the axial coordinate. Using a Reissner type transverse shear theory the problem is reduced to a pair of singular integral equations. In the special case of a crack tip touching the bimaterial interface it is shown that the dominant parts of the kernels of the integral equations associated with both membrane loading and bending of the shell reduce to the generalized Cauchy kernel obtained for the corresponding plane stress case. The integral equations are solved and the stress intensity factors are given for various crack and shell dimensions. A bonded fiberglass reinforcement which may serve as a crack arrestor is used as an example.

  4. Finite element techniques applied to cracks interacting with selected singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The finite-element method for computing the extensional stress-intensity factor for cracks approaching selected singularities of varied geometry is described. Stress-intensity factors are generated using both displacement and J-integral techniques, and numerical results are compared to those obtained experimentally in a photoelastic investigation. The selected singularities considered are a colinear crack, a circular penetration, and a notched circular penetration. Results indicate that singularities greatly influence the crack-tip stress-intensity factor as the crack approaches the singularity. In addition, the degree of influence can be regulated by varying the overall geometry of the singularity. Local changes in singularity geometry have little effect on the stress-intensity factor for the cases investigated.

  5. Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation and Characterization of Crack Growth in the Weld Region of a Friction Stir Welded Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshadri, Banavara R.; Smith, Stephen W.; Newman, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) fabrication technology is being adopted in aerospace applications. The use of this technology can reduce production cost, lead-times, reduce structural weight and need for fasteners and lap joints, which are typically the primary locations of crack initiation and multi-site fatigue damage in aerospace structures. FSW is a solid state welding process that is well-suited for joining aluminum alloy components; however, the process introduces residual stresses (both tensile and compressive) in joined components. The propagation of fatigue cracks in a residual stress field and the resulting redistribution of the residual stress field and its effect on crack closure have to be estimated. To insure the safe insertion of complex integral structures, an accurate understanding of the fatigue crack growth behavior and the complex crack path process must be understood. A life prediction methodology for fatigue crack growth through the weld under the influence of residual stresses in aluminum alloy structures fabricated using FSW will be detailed. The effects and significance of the magnitude of residual stress at a crack tip on the estimated crack tip driving force are highlighted. The location of the crack tip relative to the FSW and the effect of microstructure on fatigue crack growth are considered. A damage tolerant life prediction methodology accounting for microstructural variation in the weld zone and residual stress field will lead to the design of lighter and more reliable aerospace structures

  6. Thermal-Mechanical Response of Cracked Satin Weave CFRP Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. Cryogenic mechanical response of multilayer satin weave CFRP composites with cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Takeda, T.; Narita, F.

    2008-07-01

    We deal with the thermomechanical response of multilayer satin weave carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks and temperature-dependent material properties subjected to tensile loading at cryogenic temperatures. The composite material is assumed to be under the generalized plane strain. Cracks are located in the transverse fiber bundles and extend to the interfaces between two fiber bundles. A finite-element model is employed to study the influence of residual thermal stresses on the mechanical behavior of multilayer CFRP woven laminates with cracks. Numerical calculations are carried out, and Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip are shown graphically.

  8. Accelerated Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of an Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Newman, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) research conducted in the near threshold regime has identified a room temperature creep crack growth damage mechanism for a fine grain powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloy (8009). At very low DK, an abrupt acceleration in room temperature FCG rate occurs at high stress ratio (R = Kmin/Kmax). The near threshold accelerated FCG rates are exacerbated by increased levels of Kmax (Kmax less than 0.4 KIC). Detailed fractographic analysis correlates accelerated FCG with the formation of crack-tip process zone micro-void damage. Experimental results show that the near threshold and Kmax influenced accelerated crack growth is time and temperature dependent.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of effect of hydrogen atoms on crack propagation behavior of α-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. Y.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, M. X.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen distribution on the mechanical properties of α-Fe with a pre-existing unilateral crack under tensile loading is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The results reveal that the models present good ductility when the front region of crack tip has high local hydrogen concentration. The peak stress of α-Fe decreases with increasing hydrogen concentration. The studies also indicate that for the samples with hydrogen atoms, the crack propagation behavior is independent of the model size and boundaries. In addition, the crack propagation behavior is significantly influenced by the distribution of hydrogen atoms.

  10. THERMAL-MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF CRACKED SATIN WEAVE CFRP COMPOSITES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.

    2008-03-03

    This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Estimation of crack closure stresses for in situ toughened silicon nitride with 8 wt pct scandia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    An 8-wt pct-scandia silicon nitride with an elongated grain structure was fabricated. The material exhibited high fracture toughness and a rising R-curve as measured by the indentation strength technique. The 'toughening' exponent m was found to be m about 0.1. The high fracture toughness and R-curve behavior was attributed mainly to bridging of the crack faces by the elongated grains. The crack closure (bridging) stress distribution in the wake region of the crack tip was estimated as a function of crack size from the R-curve data, with an arbitrarily assumed distribution function.

  12. Pyrolytic carbon indentation crack morphology.

    PubMed

    Ely, J L; Stupka, J; Haubold, A D

    1996-06-01

    In studying fatigue and fracture behavior of brittle materials, Vickers diamond indentation cracks are often used. Many of the studies of indentation cracks use crack system models such as the radial-median crack or Palmqvist crack. These systems are also used to study small crack growth in brittle materials, and have been studied for pyrolytic carbon. However, the true morphology of these cracks in pyrolytic carbon coatings on graphite substrates have not been described. This study examined Vickers diamond and spherical ball indentation cracks in pyrolytic carbon coatings using several techniques, including serial metallographic cross sections, indentation fracture in bending, acoustic emission, and residual surface indentation scanning. The crack systems developed using these techniques were not typical of either radial median or Palmqvist systems. The morphology is unique to this material, possibly because of the coating thickness limitations. Given the difference in crack system, the application of standard indentation crack equations in studying fracture mechanics, especially for small cracks, must be questioned.

  13. Crack propagation studies to determine benign or catastrophic failure modes for aerospace thin-rim gears. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, D.G.

    1996-05-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear tooth crack propagation. The goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. Gear tooth crack propagation was simulated using a finite element based computer program. Principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics were used. Quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. Crack tip stress intensity factors were estimated and used to determine crack propagation direction and fatigue crack growth rate. The computer program used had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically using an automated re-meshing scheme. In addition, experimental studies were performed in the NASA Lewis Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack path predictions. Also, specialized crack propagation gages were installed on the test gears to measure gear tooth crack growth rate. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios (film thickness divided by tooth height) of 3.3 and 1.0 produced tooth fractures while a backup ratio of 0.3 produced rim fractures. For a backup ratio of 0.5, the experiments produced rim fractures and the predictions produced both rim and tooth fractures, depending on the initial crack conditions. Good correlation between the predicted number of crack propagation cycles and measured number of cycles was achieved using both the Paris fatigue crack growth method and the Collipfiest crack growth equation when fatigue crack closure was considered.

  14. Crack layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  15. Modelling of crack deflection at core junctions in sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Andreasen, J. H.; Thomsen, O. T.

    2009-08-01

    The paper treats the problem of crack propagation in sandwich panels with interior core junctions. When a face-core interface crack approaches a trimaterial wedge, as it may occur at a sandwich core junction, two options exist for further crack advance; one is for the interface crack to penetrate the wedge along the face-core interface, and the second is deflection along the core junction interface. Crack deflection is highly relevant and a requirement for the functionality of a newly developed peel stopper for sandwich structures. The physical model presented in this paper enables the quantitative prediction of the ratio of the toughnesses of the two wedge interfaces required to control the crack propagation, and the derived results can be applied directly in future designs of sandwich structures. The solution strategy is based on finite element analysis (FEA), and a realistic engineering practice example of a tri-material composition corresponding to face and core materials is presented.

  16. EcoTipping Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Gerald G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Contrary to what we often hear and teach, there is good news to be found on the environmental front. Environmental success stories show us not only that sustainability is possible, but also how people have made it happen. We can make these stories and their lessons accessible to students with help from the EcoTipping Points Project, which has…

  17. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Teresa; De Gaetano, Yvonne; Weinstein-McShane, Ruth; Paez, Doris; McCarty, Laurie; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Bakken, Jeffrey P.

    1997-01-01

    This group of classroom tips discusses the benefits of peer coaching, peer group conversation about teachers' classroom experiences, using visual displays for collegial sharing, using cultural brokers in educational settings, and the role of picture books in developing literacy skills in diverse students with disabilities. (Author/CK)

  18. Tips for Energy Savers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    According to 1986 U.S. Department of Energy data, 48% of our residential energy is used to heat and cool our homes, 16% goes for heating water, 12% is used to refrigerators and freezers, and the remaining 24% goes into lighting, cooking, and running appliances. This booklet contains tips for saving energy, including sections on: (1) draft-proof…

  19. Newsletter Design Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Sally

    This paper presents detailed tips on newsletter design. Following an overview, it discusses effective design, anatomy of a page, type, designing tools (organizational tools, text organizers, emphasizing tools, and graphics, presented with some do's and don'ts), and a list of other items to consider. Three appendixes contain a brief glossary of…

  20. Moving singularity creep crack growth analysis with the /Delta T/c and C/asterisk/ integrals. [path-independent vector and energy rate line integrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, R. B.; Atluri, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    The physical meaning of (Delta T)c and its applicability to creep crack growth are reviewed. Numerical evaluation of (Delta T)c and C(asterisk) is discussed with results being given for compact specimen and strip geometries. A moving crack-tip singularity, creep crack growth simulation procedure is described and demonstrated. The results of several crack growth simulation analyses indicate that creep crack growth in 304 stainless steel occurs under essentially steady-state conditions. Based on this result, a simple methodology for predicting creep crack growth behavior is summarized.

  1. Creep crack growth behavior of several structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Shahinian, P.

    1983-07-01

    Creep crack growth behavior of several high temperature alloys, Inconel 600, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Hastelloy X, Nimonic PE-16, Incoloy 800, and Haynes 25 (HS-25) was examined at 540, 650, 760, and 870 °C. Crack growth rates were analyzed in terms of both linear elastic stress intensity factor and J*-integral parameter. Among the alloys Inconel 600 and Hastelloy X did not show any observable crack growth. Instead, they deformed at a rapid rate resulting in severe blunting of the crack tip. The other alloys, Inconel 625, Inconel X-750, Incoloy 800, HS-25, and PE-16 showed crack growth at one or two temperatures and deformed continuously at other temperatures. Crack growth rates of the above alloys in terms ofJ* parameter were compared with the growth rates of other alloys published in the literature. Alloys such as Inconel X-750, Alloy 718, and IN-100 show very high growth rates as a result of their sensitivity to an air environment. Based on detailed fracture surface analysis, it is proposed that creep crack growth occurs by the nucleation and growth of wedge-type cracks at triple point junctions due to grain boundary sliding or by the formation and growth of cavities at the boundaries. Crack growth in the above alloys occurs only in some critical range of strain rates or temperatures. Since the service conditions for these alloys usually fall within this critical range, knowledge and understanding of creep crack growth behavior of the structural alloys are important.

  2. Three-dimensional crack growth assessment by microtopographic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, W.R.; Piascik, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The initial stage of the stable tearing process in two 2.3 mm sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy M(T) specimens are analyzed using fracture surface microtopography reconstruction techniques. The local crack tip opening angles (CTOA) in the interior of the specimens are determined relative to both crack extension and through-thickness position. The microtopographic analysis of cracks grown in the L-T and T-L orientations reveal that interior CTOA is comparable to those measured on the surface using standard optical analysis methods. Similar to surface CTOA results, interior (mid-thickness) CTOA exhibit a transient behavior; CTOA transitions from high angles, at near crack initiation, to a lower steady-state value of 5 deg. and 4.2 deg. for L-T and T-L, respectively, at crack lengths greater than 1.5mm. Fracture surface topographic projection maps are used to study the evolution of crack front tunneling during the initial stage of the fracture process. Stable tearing initiates at mid-thickness followed by a crack front tunneling process to a depth of approximately 2mm. A brief discussion of the basis of the fracture process reconstruction method is provided and comments on the general utility of microtopographic fracture surface examination for general assessment of elastic-plastic and fully-plastic fracture processes are made.

  3. Transverse cracking and stiffness reduction in composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.; Selek, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A study of transverse cracking mechanism in composite laminates is presented using a singular hybrid finite element model. The model provides the global structural response as well as the precise local crack-tip stress fields. An elasticity basis for the problem is established by employing Lekhnitskii's complex variable potentials and method of eigenfunction expansion. Stress singularities associated with the transverse crack are obtained by decomposing the deformation into the symmetric and antisymmetric modes and proper boundary conditions. A singular hybrid element is thereby formulated based on the variational principle of a modified hybrid functional to incorporate local crack singularities. Axial stiffness reduction due to transverse cracking is studied. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with the existing experimental data. Comparison with simple shear lag analysis is also given. The effects of stress intensity factors and strain energy density on the increase of crack density are analyzed. The results reveal that the parameters approach definite limits when crack densities are saturated, an evidence of the existence of characteristic damage state.

  4. Use of Marker Bands for Determination of Fatigue Crack Growth Rates and Crack Front Shapes in Pre-Corroded Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    Groups of striations called marker bands generated on a fatigue fracture surface can be used to mark the position of an advancing fatigue crack at known intervals. A technique has been developed that uses the distance between multiple sets of marker bands to obtain a vs. N, crack front shape, and fatigue crack growth rate data for small cracks. This technique is particularly usefull for specimens that require crack length measurements during testing that cannot be obtained because corrosion obscures the surface of the specimen. It is also useful for specimens with unusual or non-symmetric shapes where it is difficult to obtain accurate crack lengths using traditional methods such as compliance or electric potential difference in the early stages of testing.

  5. Near-Neutral pH SCC Crack Initiation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, John

    4-Point bend studies on X-52 linepipe steel with ''natural'' surfaces (sigmamax = 95% SMYS, f = 0.001 Hz, R = 0.6) in synthetic soil solutions indicate that crack initiation and transgranular crack formation occurs more readily in C2 solutions than in C4 solutions. This increase is associated with solution compositions that increase general corrosion rates and that reduce the precipitation of carbonates. When it is assumed that relative differences in bulk solution properties are manifested at the crack tip, then these differences may promote a more favourable environment for crack tip dissolution, ion transport, and microplastic deformation. Although the results are not definitive, in these studies the development of longer and transgranular cracks appear to be associated more with differences in solution composition than with differences in surface finish. Increased corrosion and hydrogen permeation rates are associated with increased proton, carbonic acid, and bicarbonate ion concentrations and not explicitly with lower pH. Calculations show, at open circuit corrosion conditions, that FeCO3 precipitation can limit pH increases.

  6. Tipping off endothelial tubes: nitric oxide drives tip cells.

    PubMed

    Priya, Mani Krishna; Sahu, Giriraj; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Goldy, Naga; Sundaresan, Abaya Meenakshi; Jadhav, Vivek; Barathkumar, T R; Saran, Uttara; Jaffar Ali, B M; Roberts, David D; Bera, Amal Kanti; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2015-04-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is a complex process that warrants cell migration, proliferation, tip cell formation, ring formation, and finally tube formation. Angiogenesis is initiated by a single leader endothelial cell called "tip cell," followed by vessel elongation by "stalk cells." Tip cells are characterized by their long filopodial extensions and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and endocan. Although nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of angiogenesis, its role in angiogenic sprouting and specifically in tip cell formation is poorly understood. The present study tested the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/NO/cyclic GMP (cGMP) signaling in tip cell formation. In primary endothelial cell culture, about 40% of the tip cells showed characteristic sub-cellular localization of eNOS toward the anterior progressive end of the tip cells, and eNOS became phosphorylated at serine 1177. Loss of eNOS suppressed tip cell formation. Live cell NO imaging demonstrated approximately 35% more NO in tip cells compared with stalk cells. Tip cells showed increased level of cGMP relative to stalk cells. Further, the dissection of NO downstream signaling using pharmacological inhibitors and inducers indicates that NO uses the sGC/cGMP pathway in tip cells to lead angiogenesis. Taken together, the present study confirms that eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling defines the direction of tip cell migration and thereby initiates new blood vessel formation.

  7. 14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TIP TOP MINE. TAILINGS LOCATED DIRECTLY WEST FROM TIP TOP HOUSE. ID-31-C-12 WOODEN STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE IN TOP LEFT. CABLES VISIBLE LEFT AND CENTER OF TAILINGS. HOUSE IS JUST OVER APEX OF TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. A Study of Failure in Small Pressurized Cylindrical Shells Containing a Crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barwell, Craig A.; Eber, Lorenz; Fyfe, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental The deformation in the vicinity of axial cracks in thin pressurized cylinders is examined using small experimental models. The loading applied was either symmetric or unsymmetric about the crack plane, the latter being caused by structural constraints such as stringers. The objective was two fold - one, to provide the experimental results which will allow computer modeling techniques to be evaluated for deformations that are significantly different from that experienced by flat plates, and the other to examine the deformations and conditions associated with the onset of crack kinking which often precedes crack curving. The stresses which control crack growth in a cylindrical geometry depend on conditions introduced by the axial bulging, which is an integral part of this type of failure. For the symmetric geometry, both the hoop and radial strain just ahead off the crack, r = a, were measured and these results compared with those obtained from a variety of structural analysis codes, in particular STAGS [1], ABAQUS and ANSYS. In addition to these measurements, the pressures at the onset of stable and unstable crack growth were obtained and the corresponding crack deformations measured as the pressures were increased to failure. For the unsymmetric cases, measurements were taken of the crack kinking angle, and the displacements in the vicinity of the crack. In general, the strains ahead of the crack showed good agreement between the three computer codes and between the codes and the experiments. In the case of crack behavior, it was determined that modeling stable tearing with a crack-tip opening displacement fracture criterion could be successfully combined with the finite-element analysis techniques as used in structural analysis codes. The analytic results obtained in this study were very compatible with the experimental observations of crack growth

  9. Fracture Analysis of Semi-Elliptical Surface Cracks in Ductile Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniewicz, S. R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Leach, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate life assessment of structural components may require advanced life prediction criteria and methodologies. Structural components often exhibit several different types of defects, among the most prevalent being surface cracks. A semi-elliptical surface crack subjected to monotonic loading will exhibit stable crack growth until the crack has reached a critical size, at which the crack loses stability and fracture ensues (Newman, 2000). The shape and geometry of the flaw are among the most influential factors. When considering simpler crack configurations, such as a through-the-thickness crack, a three-dimensional (3D) geometry may be modeled under the approximation of two-dimensional (2D) plane stress or plane strain. The more complex surface crack is typically modeled numerically with the Finite Element Method (FEM). A semi-elliptical surface crack is illustrated in Figure 1-1.

  10. Safety Tips: Baseball (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... by U.S.A. Little League and the American Sports Medicine Institute: 7-8 years old: 50 pitches a ... ON THIS TOPIC Signing Kids Up for Sports Sports Medicine Center Safety Tips: Hockey Safety Tips: Basketball Competitive ...

  11. Residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, J.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes a wide variety of residual stress effects in stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metallic materials on the basis of previous research of the author on high-strength steel in the form of hot-rolled bars and cold-drawn wires for prestressed concrete. It is seen that internal residual stress fields in the material play a very important -- if not decisive -- role in the SCC behavior of any engineering material, especially residual stresses generated near the free surface or in the vicinity of a crack tip.

  12. Chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth in nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher Francis

    The research presented in this dissertation is a surface chemistry study of the chemical aspects of environmentally enhanced crack growth (EECG) in commercial, Ni-based superalloys. Previous studies have shown that oxygen increases the crack growth rates in superalloys at high temperatures, compared to those observed in an inert environment. Proposed mechanisms have attributed this enhancement to (a) the preferential oxidation of Ni and Fe at the crack tip to form an oxide "wedge" and (b) the oxidation of carbon and metallic carbides at grain boundaries to form high, internal pressures of CO and CO2. These mechanisms, however, cannot explain the observed differences in fracture surface morphology and crack growth kinetics for several superalloys. An alternative mechanism, therefore, was proposed which attributes EECG to oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip during crack growth and the subsequent oxidation of NbC (and possibly Ni3Nb) on grain boundary surfaces. To assess these mechanisms, a surface chemistry study was undertaken to determine the relative reactivity of several superalloys and grain boundary phases (such as NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni3Al) with oxygen at elevated temperatures, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS analyses were also made of fracture surfaces that were produced during crack growth studies in oxygen. The results showed the first direct confirmation of oxygen penetration ahead of the crack tip, leading to the oxidation of Cr, NbC, Ni3Nb, Ni3Ti and Ni 3Al on grain boundary surfaces. These observations are consistent with the high temperature oxidation studies for each alloy and pure phase, and support crack growth enhancement mechanisms that involve the oxidation of alloying phases ahead of the crack tip. Qualitative models were then developed, based on the results of this dissertation research, that considered the role of internal oxidation in oxygen enhanced crack growth. From these models, it was concluded that oxygen atoms

  13. The energy release rate of a pressurized crack in soft elastic materials: effects of surface tension and large deformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianshu; Long, Rong; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present a theoretical study on how surface tension affects fracture of soft solids. In classical fracture theory, the resistance to fracture is partly attributed to the energy required to create new surfaces. Thus, the energy released to the crack tip must overcome the surface energy in order to propagate a crack. In soft materials, however, surface tension can cause significant deformation and can reduce the energy release rate for crack propagation by resisting the stretch of crack surfaces. We quantify this effect by studying the inflation of a penny-shaped crack in an infinite elastic body with applied pressure. To avoid numerical difficulty caused by singular fields near the crack tip, we derived an expression for the energy release rate which depends on the applied pressure, the surface tension, the inflated crack volume and the deformed crack area. This expression is evaluated using a newly developed finite element method with surface tension elements. Our calculation shows that, when the elasto-capillary number ω ≡ σ/Ea is sufficiently large, where σ is the isotropic surface tension, E is the small strain Young's modulus and a is the initial crack radius, both the energy release rate and the crack opening displacement of an incompressible neo-Hookean solid are significantly reduced by surface tension. For a sufficiently high elasto-capillary number, the energy release rate can be negative for applied pressure less than a critical amount, suggesting that surface tension can cause crack healing in soft elastic materials.

  14. Using capillary electrophoresis to study the chemical conditions within cracks in aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K R; Kelly, R G

    1999-07-30

    The environment-assisted cracking (EAC) susceptibility of some aluminum alloys used for airplane structural components currently limits their use in the peak strength condition. Understanding the mechanism of EAC will facilitate the development of crack-resistant alloys with optimum mechanical properties. One component towards understanding the fundamental processes responsible for EAC is a comprehensive knowledge of the chemical conditions within cracks. The present work uses capillary electrophoresis (CE) to quantify the crack chemistry in order to provide insight into the nature of the mechanism controlling cracking. The highly restricted geometry of cracks in metals means that a crack typically contains less than 10 microliters of solution. The high mass sensitivity combined with the inherently robust nature of CE makes it an ideal analytical technique for this application. Complicating factors in the accurate determination of the crack environment include high levels of sodium present from the test solution. Low sample volume and analyte matrix complexity necessitated the development of specific sampling, extraction and analysis methods. Analysis of the crack solutions in EAC-susceptible material revealed high levels of Al3+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Cl- near the crack tip. Cations arise from the anodic dissolution of the alloy, whereas chloride ingress from the external environment occurs to maintain solution electroneutrality within the crack. In contrast, EAC-resistant material exhibited significantly lower concentrations of dissolution products.

  15. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  16. A cracked sheet stiffened by several partially debonded intact or broken stringers. [reinforcement (structures) and structural stability of metal sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arin, K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of several stringers on the stress intensity factors at the tips of a crack is considered. The stringers which were continuously attached to the plate and placed perpendicular to the crack may be partially debonded due to high stress concentrations. Since the stringers may even break under excessive loading conditions, both intact and broken stringers are considered to investigate the effect of rupture. The continuity of displacements along the bond lines leads to an integral equation which is solved to give the shear stress distribution in the adhesive and the stress intensity factors at the crack tips.

  17. On the micromechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum- lithium alloys: Sheet vs. plate material

    SciTech Connect

    Rao Venkateswara, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Bucci, R.J. . Alcoa Labs.)

    1989-12-01

    Micromechanisms influencing the propagation of long (>10 mm) fatigue cracks in aluminum-lithium alloys are examined by specifically comparing crack-growth kinetics in a peak-aged Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy 2090, processed as 1.6-mm thin (T83) sheet and 12.7-mm thick (T81) plate. It is found that in general crack-growth rates are significantly faster in the sheet material at equivalent stress-intensity levels, due to differences in the role of crack-tip shielding, resulting from crack deflection and consequent crack closure from wedging of fracture-surface asperities. Microstructurally, such differences are related to variations in the degree of recrystallization, grain structure and deformation texture in the two wrought-product forms. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Mode 1 crack surface displacements for a round compact specimen subject to a couple and force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, B.

    1979-01-01

    Mode I displacement coefficients along the crack surface are presented for a radially cracked round compact specimen, treated as a plane elastostatic problem, subjected to two types of loading; a uniform tensile stress and a nominal bending stress distribution across the net section. By superposition the resultant displacement coefficient or the corresponding influence coefficient can be obtained for any practical load location. Load line displacements are presented for A/D ratios ranging from 0.40 to 0.95, where A is the crack length measured from the crack mouth to the crack tip and D is the specimen diameter. Through a linear extrapolation procedure crack mouth displacements are also obtained. Experimental evidence shows that the results are valid over the range of A/D ratios analyzed for a practical pin loaded round compact specimen.

  19. Computational modeling of the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendales, E. D.; Orjuela, F. A.; Chamarraví, O.

    2016-02-01

    In this article theoretical models and some existing data sets were examined in order to model the two main causes (hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion-cracking under stress) of the called environmentally assisted cracking phenomenon (EAC). Additionally, a computer simulation of flat metal plate subject to mechanical stress and cracking due both to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion was developed. The computational simulation was oriented to evaluate the effect on the stress-strain behavior, elongation percent and the crack growth rate of AISI SAE 1040 steel due to three corrosive enviroments (H2 @ 0.06MPa; HCl, pH=1.0; HCl, pH=2.5). From the computer simulation we conclude that cracking due to internal corrosion of the material near to the crack tip limits affects more the residual strength of the flat plate than hydrogen embrittlement and generates a failure condition almost imminent of the mechanical structural element.

  20. Effect of cracking on the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, A. B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, J.; Du, J. K.; Xie, C.

    2017-01-01

    Analytical solutions for a rectangular thermoelectric plate with a crack under combined electrical and temperature loadings are obtained. The electric current density and energy flux intensity factors at the crack tip are calculated. The effective thermoelectric properties are obtained. From the results, it is found that both effective electric and heat conductivities are reduced by increasing the crack size. However, the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric plate is independent of the crack size if the crack face boundary conditions are assumed to be electrically and thermally insulated. In addition, the effect of thermoelectric properties and size of an inclusion on the thermoelectric conversion efficiency is also discussed, and the condition for high efficiency thermoelectric materials is identified. This is the first theoretical paper to study the effect of cracking on the thermoelectric properties by a rigorous inference of mathematics and physics.

  1. Investigation of wing crack formation with a combined phase-field and experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Reber, Jacqueline E.; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2016-08-01

    Fractures that propagate off of weak slip planes are known as wing cracks and often play important roles in both tectonic deformation and fluid flow across reservoir seals. Previous numerical models have produced the basic kinematics of wing crack openings but generally have not been able to capture fracture geometries seen in nature. Here we present both a phase-field modeling approach and a physical experiment using gelatin for a wing crack formation. By treating the fracture surfaces as diffusive zones instead of as discontinuities, the phase-field model does not require consideration of unpredictable rock properties or stress inhomogeneities around crack tips. It is shown by benchmarking the models with physical experiments that the numerical assumptions in the phase-field approach do not affect the final model predictions of wing crack nucleation and growth. With this study, we demonstrate that it is feasible to implement the formation of wing cracks in large scale phase-field reservoir models.

  2. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible. PMID:27578388

  3. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-08-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible.

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Malik, S. N.; Laflen, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to examine the applicability of path-independent (P-I) integrals to crack growth problems in hot section components of gas turbine aircraft engines. Alloy 718 was used and the experimental parameters included combined temperature and strain cycling, thermal gradients, elastic-plastic strain levels, and mean strains. A literature review was conducted of proposed P-I integrals, and those capable of analyzing hot section component problems were selected and programmed into the postprocessor of a finite element code. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analyses were conducted to simulate crack growth and crack closure of the test specimen, and to evaluate the P-I integrals. It was shown that the selected P-I integrals are very effective for predicting crack growth for isothermal conditions.

  5. Ethylene by Naphta Cracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the manufacture of ethylene by thermal cracking of hydrocarbon feedstocks that is useful for introducing the subject of industrial chemistry into a chemistry curriculum. (MLH)

  6. Inspecting cracks in foam insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, L. W.; Jung, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dye solution indicates extent of cracking by penetrating crack and showing original crack depth clearly. Solution comprised of methylene blue in denatured ethyl alcohol penetrates cracks completely and evaporates quickly and is suitable technique for usage in environmental or structural tests.

  7. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  8. Seismic Radiation from Crack Coalescence Model and Reconstruction of Seismically Equivalent Single Crack Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kame, N.; Uchida, K.

    2006-12-01

    We simulate dynamic rupture propagation in which two mode II cracks coalesce on a planar fault using a boundary integral equation method. Our main interests are in the rupture complexity and resultant seismic radiation due to coalescence and in the reconstruction of seismically equivalent another dynamic model that could be inferred only from the waveforms. First we analyze crack coalescence model (CCM) with homogeneous source parameters except on two pre- slipped regions. In CCM, a main crack nucleates, propagates and coalesces with a nucleating subsidiary crack. Our analysis shows that local high slip-rate pulse is generated by coalescence and a secondary Rayleigh slip pulse subsequently begins to propagate trailing the rupture front. Second we reconstruct a single crack model (SCM) with heterogeneous source parameters that can reproduce the same slip-rate history in CCM, that is, both models are seismically equivalent. In SCM we found singular increase in the stress drop and sudden decrease in the strength excess corresponding to the coalescence pulse region, which means that these two inhomogeneities appeared in SCM originally resulted from the stress interaction between approaching crack tips in CCM. Third we synthesize seismic radiation from CCM and successfully identify distinct phases associated with two pulses: the coalescence pulse phase shows seismic radiation similar to the stopping phase that has a typical ω-2 behavior at high frequency, which is also consistent with theoretically predicted radiation by the singular stress drop in SCM. Rayleigh slip-pulse phase appears dominantly in transverse component with strong forward directivity similar to rupture front phase although disappears in parallel component except very near the fault.

  9. Corrosion Product Film-Induced Stress Facilitates Stress Corrosion Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhiliang; Ren, Xuechong; Guan, Yongjun; Su, Yanjing

    2015-01-01

    Finite element analyses were conducted to clarify the role of corrosion product films (CPFs) in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Flat and U-shaped edge-notched specimens were investigated in terms of the CPF-induced stress in the metallic substrate and the stress in the CPF. For a U-shaped edge-notched specimen, the stress field in front of the notch tip is affected by the Young’s modulus of the CPF and the CPF thickness and notch geometry. The CPF-induced tensile stress in the metallic substrate is superimposed on the applied load to increase the crack tip strain and facilitate localized plasticity deformation. In addition, the stress in the CPF surface contributes to the rupture of the CPFs. The results provide physical insights into the role of CPFs in SCC. PMID:26066367

  10. Slow crack propagation in glass and creep prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, Celine; Fortin, Jerome; Gueguen, Yves

    2013-04-01

    The context of our study is the observation of the time-dependent deformation of cracked glass. The aim of our study is to observe the slow crack propagation, to quantify it and to predict finally the creep behavior. We performed creep experiments in compaction conditions in a triaxial cell, on cracked boro-silicate glass samples. The chemical composition of the investigated glass is very close to the composition of waste vitrified packages. The matrix of the original glass (OG) is perfectly amorphous, without porosity. A few isolated air bubbles are trapped during the glass flow. Cracks are introduced in the OG through thermal shocks. Strain and acoustic emission (AE) are recorded. Several experiments are performed at different confining pressures (15 or 25 MPa), different pore fluid conditions (with argon gas, considered as the dry case, with tap water saturated porosity, or with distilled water) and different temperatures (ambiant temperature, 50oC or 80oC). Linear increase of the volumetric strain is first observed. A dilatancy increase is recorded. Note that dilatancy does not appear in constant strain rate tests. Constant stress tests show that dilatancy develops during a time interval that depends on the stress level. In addition AE rate are recorded. A non zero AE rate is an evidence of crack propagation. We use a micro-mechanical model that gives the stress intensity factor at the crack tips. This factor depends on stress and geometrical parameters (all known). An exponential law describe the rate of crack propagation, as a function of temperature, environment and applied stresses. This model allows us to predict the creep rate in glass. Assuming a constant crack aspect ratio, crack length and volumetric strain are related. The volumetric strain rate is calculated from model and compared to the data.

  11. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongle, Ding; Baowei, Song; Peng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  12. Time-of-Flight Tip-Clearance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhadwal, H. S.; Kurkov, A. P.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a time-of-flight probe system incorporating the two integrated fiber optic probes which are tilted equally relative to the probe holder centerline, is applied for the first time to measure the tip clearance of an advanced fan prototype. Tip clearance is largely independent of the signal amplitude and it relies on timing measurement. This work exposes optical effects associated with the fan blade stagger angle that were absent during the original spin-rig experiment on the zero stagger rotor. Individual blade tip clearances were measured with accuracy of +/- 127-mm (+/- 0.005-in). Probe features are discussed and improvements to the design are suggested.

  13. The activation energy for dislocation nucleation at a crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, James R.; Beltz, Glenn E.

    1994-02-01

    T HE ACTIVATION energy for dislocation nucleation from a stressed crack tip is calculated within the Peierls framework, in which a periodic shear stress vs displacement relation is assumed to hold on a slip plane emanating from the crack tip. Previous results have revealed that the critical G (energy release rate corresponding to the "screened" crack tip stress field) for dislocation nucleation scales with γ us (the unstable stacking energy), in an analysis which neglects any coupling between tension and shear along the slip plane. That analysis represents instantaneous nucleation and takes thermal effects into account only via the weak temperature dependence of the elastic constants. In this work, the energy required to thermally activate a stable, incipient dislocation into its unstable "saddle-point" configuration is directly calculated for loads less than that critical value. We do so only with the simplest case, for which the slip plane is a prolongation of the crack plane. A first calculation reported is 2D in nature, and hence reveals an activation energy per unit length. A more realistic scheme for thermal activation involves the emission of a dislocation loop, an inherently 3D phenomenon. Asymptotic calculations of the activation energy for loads close to the critical load are performed in 2D and in 3D. It is found that the 3D activation energy generally corresponds to the 2D activation energy per unit length multiplied by about 5-10 Burgers vectors (but by as many as 17 very near to the critical loading). Implications for the emission of dislocations in copper, α-iron, and silicon at elevated temperature are discussed. The effects of thermal activation are very significant in lowering the load for emission. Also, the appropriate activation energy to correspond to molecular dynamics simulations of crack tips is discussed. Such simulations, as typically carried out with only a few atomic planes in a periodic repeat direction parallel to the crack tip, are

  14. Final Technical Report: Electrohydrodynamic Tip Streaming

    SciTech Connect

    Basaran, Osman

    2016-01-06

    When subjected to strong electric fields, liquid drops and films form conical tips and emit thin jets from their tips. Such electrodydrodynamic (EDH) tip streaming or cone-jetting phenomena, which are sometimes referred to as electrospraying, occur widely in nature, e.g., in ejection of streams of small charged drops from pointed tips of raindrops in thunderclouds, and technology, e.g., in electrospray mass spectrometry or electric field-driven solvent extraction. More recently, EHD cone-jetting has emerged as a powerful technique for direct printing of solar cells, micro- and nano- particle production, and microencapsulation for controlled release. In many of the aforementioned situations, of equal importance to the processes by which one drop disintegrates to form several drops are those by which (a) two drops come together and coalesce and (b) two drops are coupled to form a double droplet system (DDS) or a capillary switch (CS). the main objective of this research program is to advance through simulation, theory, and experiment the breakup, coalescence, and oscillatory dynamics of single and pairs of charged as well as uncharged drops.

  15. Mechanics of finite cracks in dissimilar anisotropic elastic media considering interfacial elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Dingreville, Rémi

    2017-02-01

    Interfacial crack fields and singularities in bimaterial interfaces (i.e., grain boundaries or dissimilar materials interfaces) are considered through a general formulation for two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropic elasticity while accounting for the interfacial structure by means of an interfacial elasticity paradigm. The interfacial elasticity formulation introduces boundary conditions that are effectively equivalent to those for a weakly bounded interface. This formalism considers the 2-D crack-tip elastic fields using complex variable techniques. While the consideration of the interfacial elasticity does not affect the order of the singularity, it modifies the oscillatory effects associated with problems involving interface cracks. Constructive or destructive "interferences" are directly affected by the interface structure and its elastic response. This general formulation provides an insight on the physical significance and the obvious coupling between the interface structure and the associated mechanical fields in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  16. Electric and Heat Conductions Across a Crack in a Thermoelectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hao-Peng; Song, Kun

    2016-03-01

    The crack problem in a thermoelectric material is studied in this paper. Two kinds of crack surface conditions are discussed. The closed form solutions are derived, based on the complex variable method. The field intensity factors as well as the conversion efficiency are discussed in detail. The results show that the electric current density and thermal flux density exhibit traditional square-root singularity at the crack tip in case 1, while the electric current density has no singularity at the crack tip in case 2. It is proved due to the electric current flow and thermal flux separation, that the thermoelectric conversion efficiency can be higher than the maximum conversion efficiency of one-dimensional thermoelec- tric under the same temperature condition. In the numerical example, the conversion efficiency is increased by 29.6% as compared to the maximum conversion efficiency of one-dimensional thermoelectric.

  17. The Evolution of Stress Intensity Factors and the Propagation of Cracks in Elastic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hu, Bei; Velazquez, Juan J. L.

    When a crack Γs propagates in an elastic medium the stress intensity factors evolve with the tip x(s) of Γs. In this paper we derive formulae which describe the evolution of these stress intensity factors for a homogeneous isotropic elastic medium under plane strain conditions. Denoting by ψ=ψ(x,s) the stress potential (ψ is biharmonic and has zero traction along the crack Γs) and by κ(s) the curvature of the crack at the tip x(s), we prove that the stress intensity factors A1(s), A2(s), as functions of s, satisfy: where , are stress intensity factors of the tangential derivative of in the polar coordinate system at x(s) with θ=0 in the direction of the crack at x(s). The case of antiplane shearing is also briefly considered; in this case ψ is harmonic.

  18. Mechanics of finite cracks in dissimilar anisotropic elastic media considering interfacial elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, Pierre -Alexandre; Dingreville, Remi

    2016-10-31

    Interfacial crack fields and singularities in bimaterial interfaces (i.e., grain boundaries or dissimilar materials interfaces) are considered through a general formulation for two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropic elasticity while accounting for the interfacial structure by means of an interfacial elasticity paradigm. The interfacial elasticity formulation introduces boundary conditions that are effectively equivalent to those for a weakly bounded interface. This formalism considers the 2-D crack-tip elastic fields using complex variable techniques. While the consideration of the interfacial elasticity does not affect the order of the singularity, it modifies the oscillatory effects associated with problems involving interface cracks. Constructive or destructive “interferences” are directly affected by the interface structure and its elastic response. Furthermore, this general formulation provides an insight on the physical significance and the obvious coupling between the interface structure and the associated mechanical fields in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  19. Investigation of the stress distribution around a mode 1 crack with a novel strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, M.; Khatibi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress concentrations at the tip of a sharp crack have extensively been investigated in the past century. According to the calculations of Inglis, the stress ahead of a mode 1 crack shows the characteristics of a singularity. This solution is exact in the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). From the viewpoint of multiscale modelling, however, it is evident that the stress at the tip of a stable crack cannot be infinite, because the strengths of atomic bonds are finite. In order to prevent the problem of this singularity, a new version of strain gradient elasticity is employed here. This theory is implemented in the commercial FEM code ABAQUS through user subroutine UEL. Convergence of the model is proved through consecutive mesh refinement. In consequence, the stresses ahead of a mode 1 crack become finite. Furthermore, the model predicts a size effect in the sense “smaller is stronger”.

  20. Mechanics of finite cracks in dissimilar anisotropic elastic media considering interfacial elasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Juan, Pierre -Alexandre; Dingreville, Remi

    2016-10-31

    Interfacial crack fields and singularities in bimaterial interfaces (i.e., grain boundaries or dissimilar materials interfaces) are considered through a general formulation for two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropic elasticity while accounting for the interfacial structure by means of an interfacial elasticity paradigm. The interfacial elasticity formulation introduces boundary conditions that are effectively equivalent to those for a weakly bounded interface. This formalism considers the 2-D crack-tip elastic fields using complex variable techniques. While the consideration of the interfacial elasticity does not affect the order of the singularity, it modifies the oscillatory effects associated with problems involving interface cracks. Constructive or destructive “interferences” aremore » directly affected by the interface structure and its elastic response. Furthermore, this general formulation provides an insight on the physical significance and the obvious coupling between the interface structure and the associated mechanical fields in the vicinity of the crack tip.« less

  1. Study of matrix crack-tilted fiber bundle interaction using caustics and finite element method.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhu, Qi; Yuan, Yanan

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the interaction between the matrix crack and a tilted fiber bundle was investigated via caustics and the finite element method (FEM). First, the caustic patterns at the crack tip with different distances from the tilted fiber were obtained and the stress intensity factors were extracted from the geometry of the caustic patterns. Subsequently, the shielding effect of the fiber bundle in front of the crack tip was analyzed. Furthermore, the interaction between the matrix crack and the broken fiber bundle was discussed. Finally, a finite element simulation was carried out using ABAQUS to verify the experimental results. The results demonstrate that the stress intensity factors extracted from caustic experiments are in excellent agreement with the data calculated by FEM.

  2. The application of an atomistic J-integral to a ductile crack.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A; Jones, Reese E

    2013-04-17

    In this work we apply a Lagrangian kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data to estimate the J-integral for the emission dislocations from a crack tip. Face-centered cubic (fcc) gold and body-centered cubic (bcc) iron modeled with embedded atom method (EAM) potentials are used as example systems. The results of a single crack with a K-loading compare well to an analytical solution from anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics. We also discovered that in the post-emission of dislocations from the crack tip there is a loop size-dependent contribution to the J-integral. For a system with a finite width crack loaded in simple tension, the finite size effects for the systems that were feasible to compute prevented precise agreement with theory. However, our results indicate that there is a trend towards convergence.

  3. The application of an atomistic J-integral to a ductile crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Jones, Reese E.

    2013-04-01

    In this work we apply a Lagrangian kernel-based estimator of continuum fields to atomic data to estimate the J-integral for the emission dislocations from a crack tip. Face-centered cubic (fcc) gold and body-centered cubic (bcc) iron modeled with embedded atom method (EAM) potentials are used as example systems. The results of a single crack with a K-loading compare well to an analytical solution from anisotropic linear elastic fracture mechanics. We also discovered that in the post-emission of dislocations from the crack tip there is a loop size-dependent contribution to the J-integral. For a system with a finite width crack loaded in simple tension, the finite size effects for the systems that were feasible to compute prevented precise agreement with theory. However, our results indicate that there is a trend towards convergence.

  4. Separating plasticity-induced closure and residual stress contributions to fatigue crack retardation following an overload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Enrico; Zhang, Hongjia; Fong, Kai Soon; Song, Xu; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an overload or underload within a constant amplitude loading fatigue test leads to a retardation or acceleration of the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR). The understanding of the causes of these effects is essential in the context of variable amplitude fatigue loading, since in principle any loading history can be represented as a sequence of overloads and underloads. In the case of overload, along with some other minor causes, the residual stress changes at the crack tip and crack closure behind the tip can be thought of as the main factors that affect the fatigue crack growth rate. Whilst this has been recognised and accepted for many decades, controversy persists regarding the relative significance and presence of these two effects, and consensus is yet to emerge. The effect of crack closure, when the baseline loading ratio is high enough, can be inhibited so that the main cause of retardation becomes doubtless the residual stress present ahead the crack tip. In the present paper we report our attempt to deconvolve the contributions of crack closure and residual stress on crack retardation following an overload. To accomplish this task we analyse the results of fatigue tests run at two baseline load ratios, namely R=0.1 and R=0.7. At the load ratio of R=0.7 the crack closure effect is not operative, as confirmed by Digital Image Correlation analysis of the crack flanks close to the tip, and post mortem fractographic analysis of crack surfaces. Therefore, for R=0.7 the compressive residual stress region created by the overload ahead of the crack tip is the sole mechanism causing crack retardation. Therefore, for R=0.7 the focus must be placed entirely on the strain field around the crack tip. To this end, line profiles along the crack bisector of elastic strain in the crack opening direction were collected at several stages of crack propagation past the overload using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (SXRPD) technique. By

  5. Pattern formation during healing of fluid-filled cracks: an analog experiment

    SciTech Connect

    F. Renard; D. K. Dysthe; J. G. Feder; Paul Meakin; S.J.S. Morris; B. Jamtveit

    2009-11-01

    The formation and subsequent healing of cracks and crack networks may control such diverse phenomena as the strengthening of fault zones between earthquakes, fluid migrations in the Earth's crust, or the transport of radioactive materials in nuclear waste disposal. An intriguing pattern-forming process can develop during healing of fluid-filled cracks, where pockets of fluid remain permanently trapped in the solid as the crack tip is displaced driven by surface energy. Here, we present the results of analog experiments in which a liquid was injected into a colloidal inorganic gel to obtain penny-shaped cracks that were subsequently allowed to close and heal under the driving effect of interfacial tension. Depending on the properties of the gel and the injected liquid, two modes of healing were obtained. In the first mode, the crack healed completely through a continuous process. The second mode of healing was discontinuous and was characterized by a 'zipper-like' closure of a front that moved along the crack perimeter, trapping fluid that may eventually form inclusions trapped in the solid. This instability occurred only when the velocity of the crack tip decreased to zero. Our experiments provide a cheap and simple analog to reveal how aligned arrays of fluid inclusions may be captured along preexisting fracture planes and how small amounts of fluids can be permanently trapped in solids, modifying irreversibly their material properties.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Electric Currents and Electromagnetic Blunting of Cracks in Thin Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    Specimen Geometries 89 4.2 Electromagnetic Blunting Apparatus 92 4.3 Blunted Hole Geometries 94 4.4 Effective Crack-Tip Radius vs. Current in SS304 ...100 4.5 Equivalent Circular Hole Diameter vs. Current in SS304 lOi 4.6 Ultimate Stress vs. Current in SS304 102 4.7 Ultimate Stress vs...Effective Crack-Tip Radius in SS304 103 4.8 Ultimate Stress vs. Drilled Hole Size in SS304 Razor Notched Specimens 106 4.9 Ultimate Stress vs. Drilled

  7. Predicting weld solidification cracking using damage mechanics -- LDRD summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Dike, J.J.; Brooks, J.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Li, M.; Krafcik, J.S.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts to develop and validate a finite element based model to predict weld solidification cracking behavior. Such a model must capture the solidification behavior, the thermal behavior in the weld pool region, the material mechanical response, and some failure criteria to determine when solidification cracking will occur. For such a program to be successful, each aspect of the model had to be accurately modeled and verified since the output of one portion of the model served as the input to other portions of the model. A solidification model which includes dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling was developed and used in both the thermal and mechanical finite element analysis. High magnification video techniques were developed to measure strains for validation of the mechanical predictions using a strain rate and temperature dependent constitutive model. This model was coupled with a ductile void growth damage model and correlated with experimental observations to determine capabilities of predicting cracking response. A two phase (solid + liquid) material model was also developed that can be used to more accurately capture the mechanics of weld solidification cracking. In general, reasonable agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment for location of crack initiation and extent of cracking for 6061-T6 aluminum. 35 refs.

  8. Damage Tolerance Predictions for Spar Web Cracking in a Diminishing Stress Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    0.005 inch to 0.010 inch.26 An example of a program-specific analysis input is the crack retardation parameter, or Shutoff Overload Ratio ( SOLR ... SOLR is the parameter that characterizes the amount of retardation used in the Willenborg Retardation model. It is the ratio of overload maximum...size of the yield zone in front of the crack tip. SOLR testing has been performed under the direction of the A-10 analysis group for specific

  9. [A microstructural approach to fatigue crack processes in poly crystalline BCC materials]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1992-12-31

    Objective was to study fatigue where a combination of low temperature and cyclic loading produced cyclic cleavage in bcc Fe-base systems. Both dislocation dynamics and quasi-statics of crack growth were probed. This document reviews progress over the past 6 years: hydrogen embrittlement and cleavage, computations (stress near crack tip), dislocation emission from grain boundaries, fracture process zones, and understanding brittle fracture at the atomistic/dislocation scales and at the microscopic/macroscopic scale.

  10. [A microstructural approach to fatigue crack processes in poly crystalline BCC materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gerberich, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Objective was to study fatigue where a combination of low temperature and cyclic loading produced cyclic cleavage in bcc Fe-base systems. Both dislocation dynamics and quasi-statics of crack growth were probed. This document reviews progress over the past 6 years: hydrogen embrittlement and cleavage, computations (stress near crack tip), dislocation emission from grain boundaries, fracture process zones, and understanding brittle fracture at the atomistic/dislocation scales and at the microscopic/macroscopic scale.

  11. Fracture Mechanics of Thin, Cracked Plates Under Tension, Bending and Out-of-Plane Shear Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnder, Alan T.; Hui, C. Y.; Potdar, Yogesh; Zucchini, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Cracks in the skin of aircraft fuselages or other shell structures can be subjected to very complex stress states, resulting in mixed-mode fracture conditions. For example, a crack running along a stringer in a pressurized fuselage will be subject to the usual in-plane tension stresses (Mode-I) along with out-of-plane tearing stresses (Mode-III like). Crack growth and initiation in this case is correlated not only with the tensile or Mode-I stress intensity factor, K(sub I), but depends on a combination of parameters and on the history of crack growth. The stresses at the tip of a crack in a plate or shell are typically described in terms of either the small deflection Kirchhoff plate theory. However, real applications involve large deflections. We show, using the von-Karman theory, that the crack tip stress field derived on the basis of the small deflection theory is still valid for large deflections. We then give examples demonstrating the exact calculation of energy release rates and stress intensity factors for cracked plates loaded to large deflections. The crack tip fields calculated using the plate theories are an approximation to the actual three dimensional fields. Using three dimensional finite element analyses we have explored the relationship between the three dimensional elasticity theory and two dimensional plate theory results. The results show that for out-of-plane shear loading the three dimensional and Kirchhoff theory results coincide at distance greater than h/2 from the crack tip, where h/2 is the plate thickness. Inside this region, the distribution of stresses through the thickness can be very different from the plate theory predictions. We have also explored how the energy release rate varies as a function of crack length to plate thickness using the different theories. This is important in the implementation of fracture prediction methods using finite element analysis. Our experiments show that under certain conditions, during fatigue crack

  12. Micromechanism of the transition of fibrous cracking to cleavage to C-Mn base and weld steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.H.; Wang, G.Z. )

    1994-07-01

    In this present work, crack opening displacement (COD), four-point bending (4PB), Charpy V, and three-point bending (3NB) tests of specimens of C-Mn base and weld steel were carried out in the brittle-ductile transition temperature region. Some specimens were fractured and some specimens were unloaded prior to fracture after fibrous cracking occurred and extended to various lengths. Through detailed observation of the variation in the shapes of microcavities located at the tip or on the two sides of fibrous cracks in unloaded specimens and the variations of shapes of dimples located at various lengths of cracks on fracture surfaces, the micromechanism of the change from fibrous cracking to cleavage was analyzed. It was revealed that no matter whether a specimen was notched or precracked, as long as a fibrous crack initiated and propagated in it, the critical event for cleavage fracture is the unstable extension of a ferrite grainsized crack. The main factor promoting the transition from the fibrous crack to cleavage was the increase of the local tensile stress ahead of the crack which was caused by the increase of the triaxiality of stress and the apparent normal stress in the remaining ligament. The considerable scattering of toughness values in the transition temperature region is due to the random variation of the widths of the tips of the fibrous cracks during their extension and the random distribution of the weakest constituents in the microstructure.

  13. Fracture mechanics of propagating 3-D fatigue cracks with parametric dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akiyuki; Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2013-07-01

    Propagation of 3-D fatigue cracks is analyzed using a discrete dislocation representation of the crack opening displacement. Three dimensional cracks are represented with Volterra dislocation loops in equilibrium with the applied external load. The stress intensity factor (SIF) is calculated using the Peach-Koehler (PK) force acting on the crack tip dislocation loop. Loading mode decomposition of the SIF is achieved by selection of Burgers vector components to correspond to each fracture mode in the PK force calculations. The interaction between 3-D cracks and free surfaces is taken into account through application of the superposition principle. A boundary integral solution of an elasticity problem in a finite domain is superposed onto the elastic field solution of the discrete dislocation method in an infinite medium. The numerical accuracy of the SIF is ascertained by comparison with known analytical solution of a 3-D crack problem in pure mode I, and for mixed-mode loading. Finally, fatigue crack growth simulations are performed with the Paris law, showing that 3-D cracks do not propagate in a self-similar shape, but they re-configure as a result of their interaction with external boundaries. A specific numerical example of fatigue crack growth is presented to demonstrate the utility of the developed method for studies of 3-D crack growth during fatigue.

  14. Fracture analysis of multi-site cracking in fuselage lap joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuth, J. L.; Hutchinson, J. W.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional plane stress elastic fracture mechanics analysis of a cracked lap joint fastened by rigid pins is presented and results are applied to the problem of multi-site damage (MSD) in riveted lap joints of aircraft fuselage skins. Two problems are addressed, the problem of equal length MSD cracks and the problem of alternating length MSD cracks. For the problem of equal length cracks, two models of rivet/skin interactions are studied and the role of residual stresses due to the riveting process is explored. Stress intensity factors are obtained as a function of normalized crack length. Also, the load distribution among rivet rows and the compliance change of the joint due to MSD cracking are obtained. For the problem of alternating length cracks, attention is focussed on how load is distributed between columns of rivets and how this load shedding can alter crack tip stress intensity factors. The equal and alternating length crack analyses reveal no clear-cut mechanism to explain the relative uniformity of fatigue cracks emerging from lap joint rivet holes in actual aircraft and in mechanical lap joint tests.

  15. A three-dimensional analysis of crack trapping and bridging by tough particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A. F.; Ortiz, M.

    THE TOUGHNESS of a brittle material may be substantially improved by adding small quantities of tough particles to the solid. Three mechanisms may be responsible. Firstly, the front of a crack propagating through the solid can be trapped by the particles, causing it to bow out between them. Secondly, the particles may remain intact in the wake of the crack, thereby pinning its faces and reducing the crack tip stress intensity factors. Finally, the toughness may be enhanced by frictional energy dissipation as particles are pulled out in the wake of the crack. This paper estimates the improvement in toughness that might be expected due to these mechanisms, by means of a three-dimensional model. The analysis considers a semi-infinite crack propagating through a brittle matrix material, which contains a regular distribution of tough particles. Particles in the wake of the crack are modelled by finding an appropriate distribution of point forces that pin the crack faces; and the effect of the crack bowing between obstacles is included by means of an incremental perturbation method based on work by RICE [ J. Appl. Mech.56, 619 (1985)]. The calculation predicts the shape of the crack as it propagates through the solid; the resulting R-curve behaviour; and the length of the bridged zone in the wake of the crack.

  16. Effects of loading on the growth rates of deep stress-corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Christman, T.K.

    1990-08-01

    The goal of this research program was to determine the effects of loading on growth of stress-corrosion cracks (SCC) in line pipe steel and whether special loading procedures could actually inhibit crack growth. Of particular interest was the effect of hydrostatic retesting on the subsequent growth of existing cracks. The growth rate experiments showed that the slow-strain rate loading could successfully nucleate a group of fine cracks with depths up to 0.025 inches (0.64 mm). However, the subsequent cyclic loading at typical operating stress levels (lower than experienced during the slow- strain rate loading) produced minimal crack growth and stopped soon after the test was started. The limited growth is believed to be a real phenomenon which means this is not a suitable procedure for the measurement of average crack growth rates. These experiments indicate that cracks grown at high stress (as in the slow-strain rate phase) do not readily propagate at lower stress levels. This may be because of crack closure (compressive crack tip residual stress) induced by the initial higher stress level. If that is true, then hydrostatic retests could inhibit the growth of existing stress-corrosion cracks, especially if the hydrostatic tests are conducted at high stress levels. 15 figures, 3 tabs.

  17. Fracture Property of Y-Shaped Cracks of Brittle Materials under Compression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zheming; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the properties of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression, compression tests by using square cement mortar specimens with Y-shaped crack were conducted. A true triaxial loading device was applied in the tests, and the major principle stresses or the critical stresses were measured. The results show that as the branch angle θ between the branch crack and the stem crack is 75°, the cracked specimen has the lowest strength. In order to explain the test results, numerical models of Y-shaped cracks by using ABAQUS code were established, and the J-integral method was applied in calculating crack tip stress intensity factor (SIF). The results show that when the branch angle θ increases, the SIF KI of the branch crack increases from negative to positive and the absolute value KII of the branch crack first increases, and as θ is 50°, it is the maximum, and then it decreases. Finally, in order to further investigate the stress distribution around Y-shaped cracks, photoelastic tests were conducted, and the test results generally agree with the compressive test results. PMID:25013846

  18. Fracture property of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Zheming; Liu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the properties of Y-shaped cracks of brittle materials under compression, compression tests by using square cement mortar specimens with Y-shaped crack were conducted. A true triaxial loading device was applied in the tests, and the major principle stresses or the critical stresses were measured. The results show that as the branch angle θ between the branch crack and the stem crack is 75°, the cracked specimen has the lowest strength. In order to explain the test results, numerical models of Y-shaped cracks by using ABAQUS code were established, and the J-integral method was applied in calculating crack tip stress intensity factor (SIF). The results show that when the branch angle θ increases, the SIF K I of the branch crack increases from negative to positive and the absolute value K II of the branch crack first increases, and as θ is 50°, it is the maximum, and then it decreases. Finally, in order to further investigate the stress distribution around Y-shaped cracks, photoelastic tests were conducted, and the test results generally agree with the compressive test results.

  19. Surface energy and surface tension at holes and cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajapakse, Y. D. S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of surface tension and surface energy of solids was used by Griffith to obtain a criterion for the extension of cracks in brittle materials. Griffith, however, neglected the stresses due to the normal traction at the crack implied by the surface tension. A complete solution to the problem of an elliptic hole in an infinite plate with surface tension loading at the hole is given. Complex potentials are given in closed form in terms of elliptic integrals of the first, second, and third kinds. Stress distributions are studied. For a flat crack, the nature of the singularity at the tip is shown to be radically different from that usually encountered in fracture mechanics. The implications of our analysis for theories of fracture in brittle materials are discussed.

  20. Blunt-crack band propagation in finite-element analysis for concrete structures. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Bazant, Z.P.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The knowledge of concrete fracture is needed in nuclear reactor safety. The question of safety arises from the potential of concrete to crack under thermal loading. It has been postulated that structural concrete could be exposed to very high temperature, which may result from hot reactor coolant or even core debris coming in direct contact with the concrete. The utilization of the blunt crack approach for simulating concrete cracking in a general-purpose code is explored. The difficulties encountered in establishing the proper direction of crack propagation in an arbitrary discretization are described. Crack propagation is considered within the context of two types of solution techniques: (1) implicit solution of the static crack advance, and (2) explicit time integration using a dynamic relaxation technique to simulate the static crack advance. Also, in both solution techniques an elastic model is used to characterize the concrete.

  1. Interface crack between a compressible elastomer and a rigid substrate with finite slippage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Tamran H.; Qi, Yuan; Schiavone, Peter; Long, Rong

    2016-05-01

    We study the deformation of a crack between a soft elastomer and a rigid substrate with finite interfacial slippage. It is assumed that slippage occurs when the interfacial shear traction exceeds a threshold. This leads to a slip zone ahead of the crack tip where the shear traction is assumed to be equal to the constant threshold. We perform asymptotic analysis and determine closed-form solutions describing the near-tip crack opening displacement and the corresponding stress distributions. These solutions are consistent with numerical results based on finite element analysis. Our results reveal that slippage can significantly affect the deformation and stress fields near the tip of the interface crack. Specifically, depending on the direction of slippage, the crack opening profile may appear more blunted or sharpened than the parabola arising from for the case of zero interfacial shear traction or free slippage. The detailed crack opening profile is determined by the constant shear traction in the slip zone. More importantly, we find that the normal stress perpendicular to the interface can increase or decrease when slippage occurs, depending on the direction of slippage and the shear traction in the slip zone.

  2. Fatigue and Creep Crack Propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 in the Annealed and Aged Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Julian K. Benz; Richard N. Wright

    2013-10-01

    The crack propagation behaviour of Alloy 617 was studied under various conditions. Elevated temperature fatigue and creep-fatigue crack growth experiments were conducted at 650 and 800 degrees C under constant stress intensity (triangle K) conditions and triangular or trapezoidal waveforms at various frequencies on as-received, aged, and carburized material. Environmental conditions included both laboratory air and characteristic VHTR impure helium. As-received Alloy 617 displayed an increase in the crack growth rate (da/dN) as the frequency was decreased in air which indicated a time-dependent contribution component in fatigue crack propagation. Material aged at 650°C did not display any influence on the fatigue crack growth rates nor the increasing trend of crack growth rate with decreasing frequency even though significant microstructural evolution, including y’ (Ni3Al) after short times, occurred during aging. In contrast, carburized Alloy 617 showed an increase in crack growth rates at all frequencies tested compared to the material in the standard annealed condition. Crack growth studies under quasi-constant K (i.e. creep) conditions were also completed at 650 degrees C and a stress intensity of K = 40 MPa9 (square root)m. The results indicate that crack growth is primarily intergranular and increased creep crack growth rates exist in the impure helium environment when compared to the results in laboratory air. Furthermore, the propagation rates (da/dt) continually increased for the duration of the creep crack growth either due to material aging or evolution of a crack tip creep zone. Finally, fatigue crack propagation tests at 800 degrees C on annealed Alloy 617 indicated that crack propagation rates were higher in air than impure helium at the largest frequencies and lowest stress intensities. The rates in helium, however, eventually surpass the rates in air as the frequency is reduced and the stress intensity is decreased which was not observed at 650

  3. EFFECT OF UNBROKEN LIGAMENTS ON STRESS CORROSION CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF ALLOY 82H WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.J. and Brown, C.M.

    2003-02-20

    Previously reported stress corrosion cracking (SCC) rates for Alloy 82H gas-tungsten-arc welds tested in 360 C water showed tremendous variability. The excessive data scatter was attributed to the variations in microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses that are common in welds. In the current study, however, re-evaluation of the SCC data revealed that the large data scatter was an anomaly due to erroneous crack growth rates inferred from crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) measurements. Apparently, CMOD measurements provided reasonably accurate SCC rates for some specimens, but grossly overestimated rates in others. The overprediction was associated with large unbroken ligaments that often form in welds in the wake of advancing crack fronts. When ligaments were particularly large, they prevented crack mouth deflection, so apparent crack incubation times (i.e. period of time before crack advance commences) based on CMOD measurements were unrealistically long. During the final states of testing, ligaments began to separate allowing the crack mouth to open rather quickly. This behavior was interpreted as a rapid crack advance, but it actually reflects the ligament separation rate, not the SCC rate. Revised crack growth rates obtained in this study exhibit substantially less scatter than that previously reported. The effects of crack orientation and fatigue flutter loading on SCC rates in 82H welds are also discussed.

  4. Experimental and Finite Element Modeling of Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth for the K-Decreasing Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; Newman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental methods to determine near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate data are prescribed in ASTM standard E647. To produce near-threshold data at a constant stress ratio (R), the applied stress-intensity factor (K) is decreased as the crack grows based on a specified K-gradient. Consequently, as the fatigue crack growth rate threshold is approached and the crack tip opening displacement decreases, remote crack wake contact may occur due to the plastically deformed crack wake surfaces and shield the growing crack tip resulting in a reduced crack tip driving force and non-representative crack growth rate data. If such data are used to life a component, the evaluation could yield highly non-conservative predictions. Although this anomalous behavior has been shown to be affected by K-gradient, starting K level, residual stresses, environmental assisted cracking, specimen geometry, and material type, the specifications within the standard to avoid this effect are limited to a maximum fatigue crack growth rate and a suggestion for the K-gradient value. This paper provides parallel experimental and computational simulations for the K-decreasing method for two materials (an aluminum alloy, AA 2024-T3 and a titanium alloy, Ti 6-2-2-2-2) to aid in establishing clear understanding of appropriate testing requirements. These simulations investigate the effect of K-gradient, the maximum value of stress-intensity factor applied, and material type. A material independent term is developed to guide in the selection of appropriate test conditions for most engineering alloys. With the use of such a term, near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate tests can be performed at accelerated rates, near-threshold data can be acquired in days instead of weeks without having to establish testing criteria through trial and error, and these data can be acquired for most engineering materials, even those that are produced in relatively small product forms.

  5. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  6. Dating Tips for Divergence-Time Estimation.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Joseph E; dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-11-01

    The molecular clock is the only viable means of establishing an accurate timescale for Life on Earth, but it remains reliant on a capricious fossil record for calibration. 'Tip-dating' promises a conceptual advance, integrating fossil species among their living relatives using molecular/morphological datasets and evolutionary models. Fossil species of known age establish calibration directly, and their phylogenetic uncertainty is accommodated through the co-estimation of time and topology. However, challenges remain, including a dearth of effective models of morphological evolution, rate correlation, the non-random nature of missing characters in fossil data, and, most importantly, accommodating uncertainty in fossil age. We show uncertainty in fossil-dating propagates to divergence-time estimates, yielding estimates that are older and less precise than those based on traditional node calibration. Ultimately, node and tip calibrations are not mutually incompatible and may be integrated to achieve more accurate and precise evolutionary timescales.

  7. Crack propagation in Hastelloy X

    SciTech Connect

    Weerasooriya, T.; Strizak, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    The fatigue and creep crack growth rates of Hastelloy X were examined both in air and impure helium. Creep crack growth rate is higher in air and impure helium at 650/sup 0/C. Initial creep crack growth from the original sharp fatigue crack is by an intergranular mode of fracture. As the cracking accelerates at higher stress intensities, growth is by a mixed mode of both intergranular and transgranular fracture. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing temperature and decreasing frequency for the range of stress intensities reported in the literature and is lower in impure helium than in air.

  8. Fatigue crack growth monitoring of idealized gearbox spline component using acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Ozevin, Didem; Hardman, William; Kessler, Seth; Timmons, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. The acoustic emission (AE) method is a direct way of detecting active flaws; however, the method suffers from the influence of background noise and location/sensor based pattern recognition method. It is important to identify the source mechanism and adapt it to different test conditions and sensors. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method in a laboratory environment. The test sample has the major details of the spline component on a flattened geometry. The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges strategically positions on the structure. The fatigue test characteristics are 4 Hz frequency and 0.1 as the ratio of minimum to maximum loading in tensile regime. It is observed that there are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The frequency spectra of continuous emissions and burst emissions are compared to understand the difference of sudden crack growth and gradual crack growth. The predicted crack growth rate is compared with the AE data using the cumulative AE events at the notch tip. The source mechanism of sudden crack growth is obtained solving the inverse mathematical problem from output signal to input signal. The spline component of gearbox structure is a non-redundant element that requires early detection of flaws for preventing catastrophic failures. In this paper, the fatigue crack growth of a notched and flattened gearbox spline component is monitored using the AE method The AE data is continuously collected together with strain gauges. There are significant amount of continuous emissions released from the notch tip due to the formation of plastic deformation and slow crack growth. The source mechanism of

  9. Microtubule dynamic instability: the role of cracks between protofilaments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunlei; Li, Jun; Goodson, Holly V; Alber, Mark S

    2014-03-28

    Microtubules (MTs) are cytoplasmic protein polymers that are essential for fundamental cellular processes including the maintenance of cell shape, organelle transport and formation of the mitotic spindle. Microtubule dynamic instability is critical for these processes, but it remains poorly understood, in part because the relationship between the structure of the MT tip and the growth/depolymerization transitions is enigmatic. In previous work, we used computational models of dynamic instability to provide evidence that cracks (laterally unbonded regions) between protofilaments play a key role in the regulation of dynamic instability. Here we use computational models to investigate the connection between cracks and dynamic instability in more detail. Our work indicates that while cracks contribute to dynamic instability in a fundamental way, it is not the depth of the cracks per se that governs MT dynamic instability. Instead, what matters more is whether the cracks terminate in GTP-rich or GDP-rich regions of the MT. Based on these observations, we suggest that a functional "GTP cap" (i.e., one capable of promoting MT growth) is one where the cracks terminate in pairs of GTP-bound subunits, and that the likelihood of catastrophe rises significantly with the fraction of crack-terminating subunits that contain GDP. In addition to helping clarify the mechanism of dynamic instability, this idea could also explain how MT stabilizers work: proteins that introduce lateral cross-links between protofilaments would produce islands of GDP-bound tubulin that mimic GTP-rich regions in having strong lateral bonds, thus reducing crack propagation, suppressing catastrophe and promoting rescue.

  10. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  11. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 1; Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive slow-crack-growth (SCG) analysis was made using a primary exponential crack-velocity formulation under three widely used load configurations: constant stress rate, constant stress, and cyclic stress. Although the use of the exponential formulation in determining SCG parameters of a material requires somewhat inconvenient numerical procedures, the resulting solutions presented gave almost the same degree of simplicity in both data analysis and experiments as did the power-law formulation. However, the fact that the inert strength of a material should be known in advance to determine the corresponding SCG parameters was a major drawback of the exponential formulation as compared with the power-law formulation.

  12. Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracks in X80 and X100 Pipe Steels in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jidong; Zheng, Wenyue; Bibby, Darren; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Tests were conducted on X80 and X100 pipe steels at 95% specified minimum yield stress in NS4 solution mixed with soil using specimens machined along the transverse direction of the pipes. Crack initiation in X100 is much easier than in X80. With test time increasing from 110 to 220 days, less numerous but deeper cracks were found in both pipe steels. Cracks showed higher growth rates in the transverse specimens than those in longitudinal ones. TEM results revealed concentration of Ni or Cr elements, formation of oxide layer at crack walls, and TiN-related dissolution at the crack tip.

  13. Cracked finite elements proposed for NASTRAN. [based on application of finite element method to fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aberson, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The recent introduction of special crack-tip singularity elements, usually referred to as cracked elements, has brought the power and flexibility of the finite-element method to bear much more effectively on fracture mechanics problems. This paper recalls the development of two cracked elements and presents the results of some applications proving their accuracy and economy. Judging from the available literature on numerical methods in fracture mechanics, it seems clear that the elements described have been used more extensively than any others in practical fracture mechanics applications.

  14. Convergence rates for finite element problems with singularities. Part 1: Antiplane shear. [crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plunkett, R.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of a finite crack in an infinite medium under antiplane shear load is considered. It is shown that the nodal forces at the tip of the crack accurately gives the order of singularity, that n energy release methods can give the strength to better than 1 percent with element size 1/10 the crack length, and that nodal forces give a much better estimate of the stress field than do the elements themselves. The finite element formulation and the factoring of tridiagonal matrices are discussed.

  15. Elasto-plastic analysis of a mode I edge crack with application to a surface notch.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    A finite element analysis has been undertaken of the mechanical state of a plate containing a crack subjected to mode I loading. Specifically, a localized, well-defined surface depression (dimple) previously observed on the back surface of plate specimens immediately behind the plane of the crack was examined. The approach taken is concerned with defining more precisely the dimpling behavior as a function of relative flaw depth and applied stress level, as well as the development of the plastic zone at the crack tip.

  16. Method for producing angled optical fiber tips in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, John J.; Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P.; Kyriacou, Panicos A.

    2016-02-01

    A simple laboratory method is presented for producing optical fibers with tips polished at various angles. Angled optical fiber tips are used in applications such as optical sensing and remote laser surgery, where they can be used to control the angle of light leaving the fiber or direct it to the side. This allows for greater control and allows areas to be reached that otherwise could not. Optical fibers were produced with tip angles of 45 deg using a Perspex mounting block with an aluminum base plate. The dispersion of light leaving the tip was tested using a blue (470 nm) LED. The angle imposed an angular shift on the light diffracting out of the tip of approximately 30 deg. Additionally, some light reflected from the tip surface to diffract at 90 deg through the side of the fiber. These observations are consistent with theory and those seen by other studies, validating the method. The method was simple to perform and does not require advanced manufacturing tools. The method is suitable for producing small quantities of angle-tipped optical fibers for research applications.

  17. Cracking the Credit Hour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  18. The crack problem in a specially orthotropic shell with double curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The crack problem of a shallow shell with two nonzero curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in one of the principal planes of curvature and the shell is under Mode I loading condition. The material is assumed to be specially orthotropic. After giving the general formulation of the problem the asymptotic behavior of the stress state around the crack tip is examined. The analysis is based on Reissner's transverse shear theory. Thus, as in the bending of cracked plates, the asymptotic results are shown to be consistent with that obtained from the plane elasticity solution of crack problems. Rather extensive numerical results are obtained which show the effect of material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors in cylindrical and spherical shells and in shells with double curvature. Other results include the stress intensity factors in isotropic toroidal shells with positive or negative curvature ratio, the distribution of the membrane stress resultant outside the crack, and the influence of the material orthotropy on the angular distribution of the stresses around the crack tip.

  19. The crack problem in a specially orthotropic shell with double curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1983-01-01

    The crack problem of a shallow shell with two nonzero curvatures is considered. It is assumed that the crack lies in one of the principal planes of curvature and the shell is under Mode I loading condition. The material is assumed to be specially orthotropic. After giving the general formulation of the problem the asymptotic behavior of the stress state around the crack tip is examined. The analysis is based on Reissner's transverse shear theory. Thus, as in the bending of cracked plates, the asymptotic results are shown to be consistent with that obtained from the plane elasticity solution of crack problems. Rather extensive numerical results are obtained which show the effect of material orthotropy on the stress intensity factors in cylindrical and spherical shells and in shells with double curvature. Other results include the stress intensity factors in isotropic toroidal shells with positive or negative curvature ratio, the distribution of the membrane stress resultant outside the crack, and the influence of the material orthotropy on the angular distribution of the stresses around the crack tip. Previously announced in STAR as N83-16782

  20. NASA/FLAGRO - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Structural flaws and cracks may grow under fatigue inducing loads and, upon reaching a critical size, cause structural failure to occur. The growth of these flaws and cracks may occur at load levels well below the ultimate load bearing capability of the structure. The Fatigue Crack Growth Computer Program, NASA/FLAGRO, was developed as an aid in predicting the growth of pre-existing flaws and cracks in structural components of space systems. The earlier version of the program, FLAGRO4, was the primary analysis tool used by Rockwell International and the Shuttle subcontractors for fracture control analysis on the Space Shuttle. NASA/FLAGRO is an enhanced version of the program and incorporates state-of-the-art improvements in both fracture mechanics and computer technology. NASA/FLAGRO provides the fracture mechanics analyst with a computerized method of evaluating the "safe crack growth life" capabilities of structural components. NASA/FLAGRO could also be used to evaluate the damage tolerance aspects of a given structural design. The propagation of an existing crack is governed by the stress field in the vicinity of the crack tip. The stress intensity factor is defined in terms of the relationship between the stress field magnitude and the crack size. The propagation of the crack becomes catastrophic when the local stress intensity factor reaches the fracture toughness of the material. NASA/FLAGRO predicts crack growth using a two-dimensional model which predicts growth independently in two directions based on the calculation of stress intensity factors. The analyst can choose to use either a crack growth rate equation or a nonlinear interpolation routine based on tabular data. The growth rate equation is a modified Forman equation which can be converted to a Paris or Walker equation by substituting different values into the exponent. This equation provides accuracy and versatility and can be fit to data using standard least squares methods. Stress

  1. Laser-optical blade tip clearance measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barranger, J. P.; Ford, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The need for blade tip clearance instrumentation has been intensified recently by advances in technology of gas turbine engines. A new laser-optical measurement system has been developed to measure single blade tip clearances and average blade tip clearances between a rotor and its gas path seal in rotating component rigs and complete engines. The system is applicable to fan, compressor and turbine blade tip clearance measurements. The engine mounted probe is particularly suitable for operation in the extreme turbine environment. The measurement system consists of an optical subsystem, an electronic subsystem and a computing and graphic terminal. Bench tests and environmental tests were conducted to confirm operation at temperatures, pressures, and vibration levels typically encountered in an operating gas turbine engine.

  2. Velocity mode transition of dynamic crack propagation in hyperviscoelastic materials: A continuum model study

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Atsushi; Umeno, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Experiments of crack propagation in rubbers have shown that a discontinuous jump of crack propagation velocity can occur as energy release rate increases, which is known as the “mode transition” phenomenon. Although it is believed that the mode transition is strongly related to the mechanical properties, the nature of the mode transition had not been revealed. In this study, dynamic crack propagation on an elastomer was investigated using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperviscoelastic material model. A series of pure shear test was carried out numerically with FEM simulations and crack velocities were measured under various values of tensile strain. As a result, our FEM simulations successfully reproduced the mode transition. The success of realising the mode transition phenomenon by a simple FEM model, which was achieved for the first time ever, helped to explain that the phenomenon occurs owing to a characteristic non-monotonic temporal development of principal stress near the crack tip. PMID:28186205

  3. Velocity mode transition of dynamic crack propagation in hyperviscoelastic materials: A continuum model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Umeno, Yoshitaka

    2017-02-01

    Experiments of crack propagation in rubbers have shown that a discontinuous jump of crack propagation velocity can occur as energy release rate increases, which is known as the “mode transition” phenomenon. Although it is believed that the mode transition is strongly related to the mechanical properties, the nature of the mode transition had not been revealed. In this study, dynamic crack propagation on an elastomer was investigated using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperviscoelastic material model. A series of pure shear test was carried out numerically with FEM simulations and crack velocities were measured under various values of tensile strain. As a result, our FEM simulations successfully reproduced the mode transition. The success of realising the mode transition phenomenon by a simple FEM model, which was achieved for the first time ever, helped to explain that the phenomenon occurs owing to a characteristic non-monotonic temporal development of principal stress near the crack tip.

  4. Hydride-phase formation and its influence on fatigue crack propagationbehavior in a Zircaloy-4 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Garlea, Elena; Choo, H.; Wang, G Y; Liaw, Peter K; Clausen, B; Brown, D. W.; Park, Jae-Sung; Rack, P. D.; Kenik, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of delta zirconium hydride ( -ZrH2) in the bulk, and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a pre-existing fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation were investigated. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip was measured using neutron diffraction. The combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are discussed.

  5. Crack healing behavior of hot pressed silicon nitride due to oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Tikare, V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that limited oxidation of an MgO-containing, hot-pressed silicon nitride ceramic at 800 deg C and above results in increased strength due to crack healing. Slight oxidation of the surface produces enstatite and cristobalite which fills in cracks. More extensive oxidation leads to strength degradation due to the formation of new flaws by the evolution of N2 gas at the surface. The apparent fracture toughness also increased at 800 deg C and above due to oxidation. Bonds formed between the two surfaces of the crack during oxidation leads to a reduction in stress intensity at the crack tip, suggesting that valid high-temperature toughness values cannot be obtained in an air environment. The increase in strength due to crack healing by oxidation can be achieved without compromising the fatigue properties of the silicon nitride ceramic.

  6. Velocity mode transition of dynamic crack propagation in hyperviscoelastic materials: A continuum model study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Atsushi; Umeno, Yoshitaka

    2017-02-10

    Experiments of crack propagation in rubbers have shown that a discontinuous jump of crack propagation velocity can occur as energy release rate increases, which is known as the "mode transition" phenomenon. Although it is believed that the mode transition is strongly related to the mechanical properties, the nature of the mode transition had not been revealed. In this study, dynamic crack propagation on an elastomer was investigated using the finite element method (FEM) with a hyperviscoelastic material model. A series of pure shear test was carried out numerically with FEM simulations and crack velocities were measured under various values of tensile strain. As a result, our FEM simulations successfully reproduced the mode transition. The success of realising the mode transition phenomenon by a simple FEM model, which was achieved for the first time ever, helped to explain that the phenomenon occurs owing to a characteristic non-monotonic temporal development of principal stress near the crack tip.

  7. Tips for Choir Tours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines 15 suggestions for preplanning and implementing choir tours. Briefly discusses; booking and travel agencies, options for financing, establishing educational objectives, parental permission forms, chaperons, housing, and performance apparel. Recommends planning a tour at least a year in advance. (MJP)

  8. Stable Tearing and Buckling Responses of Unstiffened Aluminum Shells with Long Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the nonlinear response of thin, unstiffened, aluminum cylindrical shells with a long longitudinal crack are presented. The shells are analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for internal pressure and for axial compression loads. The effect of initial crack length on the initiation of stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in typical shells subjected to internal pressure loads is predicted using geometrically nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analyses and the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The results of these analyses and of the experiments indicate that the pressure required to initiate stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in a shell subjected to internal pressure loads decreases as the initial crack length increases. The effects of crack length on the prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling responses of typical shells subjected to axial compression loads are also described. For this loading condition, the crack length was not allowed to increase as the load was increased. The results of the analyses and of the experiments indicate that the initial buckling load and collapse load for a shell subjected to axial compression loads decrease as the initial crack length increases. Initial buckling causes general instability or collapse of a shell for shorter initial crack lengths. Initial buckling is a stable local response mode for longer initial crack lengths. This stable local buckling response is followed by a stable postbuckling response, which is followed by general or overall instability of the shell.

  9. Stable Tearing and Buckling Responses of Unstiffened Aluminum Shells with Long Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the nonlinear response of thin, unstiffened, aluminum cylindrical shells with a long longitudinal crack are presented. The shells are analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for internal pressure and for axial compression loads. The effect of initial crack length on the initiation of stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in typical shells subjected to internal pressure loads is predicted using geometrically nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analyses and the crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. The results of these analyses and of the experiments indicate that the pressure required to initiate stable crack growth and unstable crack growth in a shell subjected to internal pressure loads decreases as the initial crack length increases. The effects of crack length on the prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling responses of typical shells subjected to axial compression loads are also described. For this loading condition, the crack length was not allowed to increase as the load was increased. The results of the analyses and of the experiments indicate that the initial buckling load and collapse load for a shell subjected to axial compression loads decrease as the initial crack length increases. Initial buckling causes general instability or collapse of a shell for shorter initial crack lengths. Initial buckling is a stable local response mode for longer initial crack lengths. This stable local buckling response is followed by a stable postbuckling response, which is followed by general or overall instability of the shell.

  10. Thermal cracking of retort oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dearth, J.D.; Smith, R.H.

    1980-10-14

    The thermal cracking of retort oil vapors in an elongated reactor is improved by passing the effluent oil vapors and gases from a retort to a thermal cracking unit before the temperature of the retort effluent falls below 680* F. This encourages the more desirable cracking reactions, increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and avoids preheater coking.

  11. The Macro - TIPS Course Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

    The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

  12. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  13. The results of a wind tunnel investigation of a model rotor with a free tip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, Robert H.; Young, Larry A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a wind-tunnel test of the free tip rotor are presented. The free tip extended over the outer 10% of the rotor blade and included a simple, passive controller mechanism. Wind-tunnel test hardware is described. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. The tip pitched freely and responded to airflow perturbation in a sharp, quick, and stable manner. Tip pitch-angle responses are presented for an advance ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a thrust coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. The free tip reduced power requirements, loads going into the control system, and some flatwise blade-bending moments. Chordwise loads were not reduced by the free tip.

  14. Crack propagation through adhesive interface in glass driven by dynamic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hwun

    spreading branched cracks increases in specimens having smaller width in dimension. The reflected waves from boundaries reaches cracks earlier because of the short traveling distance in the direction transverse to the cracks. These reflected waves interact with the crack and cause change of the branching shape. The fluctuation of stress intensity factors were observed with methods of caustics. A dark circular shadow at the ends of crack tips represents the stress intensity. The primary crack propagating early and carrying main load from the projectile can be switched if it stops at interface. Then, other cracks begin to receive the intensive load and are eventually extended to the second glass through the adhesive layer while other cracks still stay at the interface. The crack initiation, propagation and its interaction with interfaces were simulated with peridynamics. Peridynamics is a mathematical reformulation of continuum model by integrating pairwise penitential functions between two particles. These bond-based mechanics can represent discontinuity in peridynamics while traditional continuum mechanics cannot handle the discontinuity. The results from peridynamics show good agreements with experimental results in terms of the crack speeds and the branching shapes. Although the dimension of adhesive layers was not modeled exactly because of limitation of grid spacing, the resistance from interface to prevent crack propagation was shown in analogue with experimental results. The size of horizon where particle deformation and failure are computed, affect the interaction of cracks with interfaces.

  15. Crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics by the scratch test.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhongjun; Liu, Congcong; Wang, Haorong; Yang, Xue; Fang, Fengzhou; Tang, Junjie

    2016-12-01

    To eliminate the negative effects of surface flaws and subsurface damage of glass-ceramics on clinical effectiveness, crack propagation and the material removal mechanism of glass-ceramics were studied by single and double scratch experiments conducted using an ultra-precision machine. A self-manufactured pyramid shaped single-grit tool with a small tip radius was used as the scratch tool. The surface and subsurface crack propagations and interactions, surface morphology and material removal mechanism were investigated. The experimental results showed that the propagation of lateral cracks to the surface and the interaction between the lateral cracks and radial cracks are the two main types of material peeling, and the increase of the scratch depth increases the propagation angle of the radial cracks and the interaction between the cracks. In the case of a double scratch, the propagation of lateral cracks and radial cracks between paired scratches results in material peeling. The interaction between adjacent scratches depends on the scratch depth and separation distance. There is a critical separation distance where the normalized material removal volume reaches its peak. These findings can help reduce surface flaws and subsurface damage induced by the grinding process and improve the clinical effectiveness of glass-ceramics used as biological substitute and repair materials.

  16. Chemical and metallurgical aspects of environmentally assisted fatigue crack growth in 7075-T651 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Wei, R. P.; Pao, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    A comprehensive study has been carried out on a 7075-T651 alloy to examine the influence of water vapor on fatigue crack growth. The kinetics of fatigue crack growth were determined as a function of water vapor pressure at room temperature and at 353 K. Detailed fractographic analyses and surface chemistry studies were carried out to identify the micromechanisms and to quantify the chemical interactions for corrosion fatigue crack growth in this alloy. Experiments were also carried out in ultra-high vacuum and in oxygen to provide for comparisons. Two regions of fatigue crack growth response were identified. In the low pressure region (below 67 Pa at 5 Hz), crack growth is controlled by the rate of transport of water vapor to the crack tip, and the response can be described by a model for transport controlled crack growth. At pressures above 67 Pa, additional increases in crack growth rate occurred, which are attributed to the further reactions of water vapor with segregated magnesium in this alloy. Different micromechanisms for crack growth have been identified for vacuum, oxygen, and water vapor. These micromechanisms are considered in relation to the environmental parameters through a modified superposition model for corrosion fatigue.

  17. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  18. Accelerated Stress Corrosion Crack Initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Was, Gary S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloys 600 and 690 occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical and supercritical water. Tensile bars of Alloys 690 and 600 were strained in constant extension rate tensile experiments in hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 593 K to 723 K (320 °C to 450 °C), and the crack initiation behavior was characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy. Intergranular cracking was observed across the entire temperature range, and the morphology, structure, composition, and temperature dependence of initiated cracks in Alloy 690 were consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water. Crack initiation of Alloy 600 followed an Arrhenius relationship and did not exhibit a discontinuity or change in slope after crossing the critical temperature. The measured activation energy was 121 ± 13 kJ/mol. Stress corrosion crack initiation in Alloy 690 was fit with a single activation energy of 92 ± 12 kJ/mol across the entire temperature range. Cracks were observed to propagate along grain boundaries adjacent to chromium-depleted metal, with Cr2O3 observed ahead of crack tips. All measures of the SCC behavior indicate that the mechanism for stress corrosion crack initiation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 is consistent between hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water.

  19. A finite crack with arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    We study the contribution of arbitrarily varied surface piezoelectricity to the anti-plane deformation and in-plane electric fields of a hexagonal piezoelectric material containing a finite crack. The varied surface piezoelectricity is incorporated by using an extended version of the continuum-based surface/interface model of Gurtin and Murdoch. In our discussion, the surface properties, including the surface elastic stiffness, the surface piezoelectric modulus and the surface dielectric permittivity, are assumed to be varied arbitrarily along the crack surfaces. By using the Green’s function method, the original boundary value problem is reduced to a system of two coupled first-order Cauchy singular integro-differential equations. Through a diagonalization strategy, the coupled system is transformed into two independent singular integro-differential equations, each of which can be numerically solved by using the collocation method. Our results indicate that the variation of the surface electroelastic moduli exerts a significant influence on the crack opening displacement, the electric potential jump across the crack faces and on the strengths of the logarithmic singularity in stresses and electric displacements at the crack tips.

  20. A Review of Crack Closure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    OVERLOAD EFFECTS [27,32,36,55,65,80-94] 104 4.3 SHORT CRACK BEHAVIOUR 113 4.4 SURFACE CRACK BEHAVIOUR 116 4.5 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL STRESS 117 4.6...Compressive Stresses Developed 16 on a Growing Fatigue Crack During a Constant Amplitude Cyclic Load Control Test. 4 Plastic Zone and Residual Compressive... Stresses Developed 18 on a Saw Cut Sharp Crack During a Constant Amplitude Cyclic Load Control Test. Residual Stresses Developed in the Plane of Crack