Science.gov

Sample records for advancing earth system

  1. Earth Observing System (EOS) advanced altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Walsh, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    In the post-TOPEX era, satellite radar altimeters will be developed with the capability of measuring the earth's surface topography over a wide swath of coverage, rather than just at the satellite's nadir. The identification of potential spacecraft flight missions in the future was studied. The best opportunity was found to be the Earth Observing System (EOS). It is felt that an instrument system that has a broad appeal to the earth sciences community stands a much better chance of being selected as an EOS instrument. Consequently, the Topography and Rain Radar Imager (TARRI) will be proposed as a system that has the capability to profile the Earth's topography regardless of the surface type. The horizontal and height resolutions of interest are obviously significantly different over land, ice, and water; but, the use of radar to provide an all-weather observation capability is applicable to the whole earth. The scientific guidance for the design and development of this instrument and the eventual scientific utilization of the data produced by the TARRI will be provided by seven science teams. The teams are formed around scientific disciplines and are titled: Geology/Geophysics, Hydrology/Rain, Oceanography, Ice/Snow, Geodesy/Orbit/Attitude, Cartography, and Surface Properties/Techniques.

  2. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  3. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  4. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  5. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability begining in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. Also evaluated was the technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts and the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  6. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth systems. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…

  7. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 2: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of efforts to identify the technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems are reported. Topics discussed include: (1) design and definition of performance potential of vehicle systems, (2) advanced technology assessment, and (3) extended performance. It is concluded that the horizontal take-off concept is the most feasible system considered.

  8. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  9. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  10. Advanced scanners and imaging systems for earth observations. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Assessments of present and future sensors and sensor related technology are reported along with a description of user needs and applications. Five areas are outlined: (1) electromechanical scanners, (2) self-scanned solid state sensors, (3) electron beam imagers, (4) sensor related technology, and (5) user applications. Recommendations, charts, system designs, technical approaches, and bibliographies are included for each area.

  11. Advanced Systems Map, Monitor, and Manage Earth's Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    SpecTIR LLC, headquartered in Reno, Nevada, is recognized for innovative sensor design, on-demand hyperspectral data collection, and image-generating products for business, academia, and national and international governments. SpecTIR's current vice president of business development has brought a wealth of NASA-related research experience to the company, as the former principal investigator on a NASA-sponsored hyperspectral crop-imaging project. This project, made possible through a Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, aimed to enhance airborne hyperspectral sensing and ground-truthing means for crop inspection in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Areas of application for such technology include precision farming and irrigation; oil, gas, and mineral exploration; pollution and contamination monitoring; wetland and forestry characterization; water quality assessment; and submerged aquatic vegetation mapping. Today, SpecTIR maintains its relationship with Goddard through programs at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland, and at the U.S. Department of Agriculture campus in Beltsville, Maryland. Additionally, work continues on the integration of hyperspectral data with LIDAR systems and other commercial-off-the-shelf technologies.

  12. Advancement of Global-scale River Hydrodynamics Modelling and Its Potential Applications to Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global river routine models have been developed for representing freshwater discharge from land to ocean in Earth System Models. At the beginning, global river models had simulated river discharge along a prescribed river network map by using a linear-reservoir assumption. Recently, in parallel with advancement of remote sensing and computational powers, many advanced global river models have started to represent floodplain inundation assuming sub-grid floodplain topography. Some of them further pursue physically-appropriate representation of river and floodplain dynamics, and succeeded to utilize "hydrodynamic flow equations" to realistically simulate channel/floodplain and upstream/downstream interactions. State-of-the-art global river hydrodynamic models can well reproduce flood stage (e.g. inundated areas and water levels) in addition to river discharge. Flood stage simulation by global river models can be potentially coupled with land surface processes in Earth System Models. For example, evaporation from inundated water area is not negligible for land-atmosphere interactions in arid areas (such as the Niger River). Surface water level and ground water level are correlated each other in flat topography, and this interaction could dominate wetting and drying of many small lakes in flatland and could also affect biogeochemical processes in these lakes. These land/surface water interactions had not been implemented in Earth System Models but they have potential impact on the global climate and carbon cycle. In the AGU presentation, recent advancements of global river hydrodynamic modelling, including super-high resolution river topography datasets, will be introduces. The potential applications of river and surface water modules within Earth System Models will be also discussed.

  13. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  14. Satellite soil moisture for advancing our understanding of earth system processes and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Soil moisture products obtained from active and passive microwave satellites have reached maturity during the last decade (De Jeu and Dorigo, 2016): On the one hand, research algorithms that were initially applied to sensors designed for other purposes, e.g., for measuring wind speed (e.g. the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)), sea ice, or atmospheric parameters (e.g. the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System AMSR-E), have developed into fully operational products. On the other hand, dedicated soil moisture satellite missions were designed and launched by ESA (the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission) and NASA (the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission).

  15. Technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems: Summary report. [single stage to orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefeli, R. C.; Littler, E. G.; Hurley, J. B.; Winter, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology that are either critical or offer significant benefits to the development of future Earth-orbit transportation systems were identified. Technology assessment was based on the application of these technologies to fully reusable, single-state-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle concepts with horizontal landing capability. Study guidelines included mission requirements similar to space shuttle, an operational capability beginning in 1995, and main propulsion to be advanced hydrogen-fueled rocket engines. The technical and economic feasibility of this class of SSTO concepts were evaluated as well as the comparative features of three operational take-off modes, which were vertical boost, horizontal sled launch, and horizontal take-off with subsequent inflight fueling. Projections of both normal and accelerated technology growth were made. Figures of merit were derived to provide relative rankings of technology areas. The influence of selected accelerated areas on vehicle design and program costs was analyzed by developing near-optimum point designs.

  16. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  17. Technology requirements for advanced earth orbital transportation systems. Volume 3: Summary report - dual mode propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Bangsund, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The impact of dual-mode propulsion on cost-effective technology requirements for advanced earth-orbital transportation systems is considered. Additional objectives were to determine the advantages of the best dual mode concept relative to the LO2/LH2 concept of the basic study. Normal technology requirements applicable to horizontal take-off and landing single-stage-to-orbit systems utilizing dual mode rocket propulsion were projected to the 1985 time period. These technology projections were then incorporated in a vehicle parametric design analysis for two different operational concepts of a dual mode propulsion system. The resultant performance, weights and costs of each concept were compared. The selected propulsion concept was evaluated to confirm the parametric trending/scaling of weights and to optimize the configuration.

  18. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  19. Land-Use Change and Earth System Dynamics: Advancing the Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, George

    2010-05-01

    Quantifying the effects of land-use changes on Earth system dynamics requires adequate information on both past and future land-use activities in a format appropriate for models capable of tracking relevant impacts. This presentation will review past approaches to understanding the role of land-use change on the Earth system dynamics, and summarize new work involving ‘land-use harmonization' (Hurtt et al. 2009) to advance the understanding for IPCC-AR5 and beyond. Emphasis will be placed on the importance and accuracy of historical maps, uncertainties in future projections, and key challenges for the future. Hurtt, G. C., L. P. Chini, S. Frolking, R. Betts, J. Feedema, G. Fischer, K. Klein Goldewijk, K. Hibbard, A. Janetos, C. Jones, G. Kindermann, T. Kinoshita, K. Riahi, E. Shevliakova, S. Smith, E. Stehfest, A. Thomson, P. Thorton, D. van Vuuren, Y. Wang (2009), Harmonization of Global Land-Use Scenarios for the Period 1500-2100 for IPCC-AR5. Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study (iLEAPS) Newsletter 7:6-8.

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  1. DREAM: Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Advanced Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    The data associated with climate research is often generated, accessed, stored, and analyzed on a mix of unique platforms. The volume, variety, velocity, and veracity of this data creates unique challenges as climate research attempts to move beyond stand-alone platforms to a system that truly integrates dispersed resources. Today, sharing data across multiple facilities is often a challenge due to the large variance in supporting infrastructures. This results in data being accessed and downloaded many times, which requires significant amounts of resources, places a heavy analytic development burden on the end users, and mismanaged resources. Working across U.S. federal agencies, international agencies, and multiple worldwide data centers, and spanning seven international network organizations, the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) has begun to solve this problem. Its architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered yet united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces. However, significant challenges remain, including workflow provenance, modular and flexible deployment, scalability of a diverse set of computational resources, and more. Expanding on the existing ESGF, the Distributed Resources for the Earth System Grid Federation Advanced Management (DREAM) will ensure that the access, storage, movement, and analysis of the large quantities of data that are processed and produced by diverse science projects can be dynamically distributed with proper resource management. This system will enable data from an infinite number of diverse sources to be organized and accessed from anywhere on any device (including mobile platforms). The approach offers a powerful roadmap for the creation and integration of a unified knowledge base of an entire ecosystem, including its many geophysical, geographical, social, political, agricultural, energy, transportation, and cyber aspects. The

  2. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave SoundingUnit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Acquisition activities plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This is the acquisition activities plan for the software to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) system. This document is submitted in response to Contract NAS5-323 14 as CDRL 508. The procurement activities required to acquire software for the EOS/AMSU-A program are defined.

  3. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the twentieth monthly report for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 August 1994 through 31 August 1994. This period is the eighth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. During this period the number one priority for the program continued to be the issuance of Requests for Quotations (RFQ) to suppliers and the procurement of the long-lead receiver components. Significant effort was also dedicated to preparation and conduct of internal design reviews and preparation for the PDR scheduled in September. An overview of the program status, including key events, action items, and documentation submittals, is provided in Section 2 of this report. The Program Manager's 'Priority Issues' are defined in Section 3. Section 4 through 7 provide detailed progress reports for the system engineering effort, each subsystem, performance assurance, and configuration/data management. Contractual matters are discussed in Section 8.

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  5. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit: A (EOS/AMSU-A) Firmware Version Description Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisneros, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final submittal of the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A Firmware Version Description Document. Its purpose is to provide a precise description of the particular version of the firmware being released. This description also defines the version of the requirements and design applicable to this version.

  6. Building the EarthChem System for Advanced Data Management in Igneous Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K.; Walker, J. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sarbas, B.

    2004-12-01

    Several mature databases of geochemical analyses for igneous rocks are now available over the Internet. The existence of these databases has revolutionized access to data for researchers and students allowing them to extract data sets customized to their specific problem from global data compilations with their desktop computer within a few minutes. Three of the database efforts - PetDB, GEOROC, and NAVDAT - have initiated a collaborative effort called EarthChem to create better and more advanced and integrated data management for igneous geochemistry. The EarthChem web site (http://www.earthchem.org/) serves as a portal to the three databases and information related to EarthChem activities. EarthChem participants agreed to establish a dialog to minimize duplication of effort and share useful tools and approaches. To initiate this dialog, a workshop was run by EarthChem in October, 2003 to discuss cyberinfrastructure needs in igneous geochemistry (workshop report available at the EarthChem site). EarthChem ran an information booth with database and visualization demonstrations at the Fall 2003 AGU meeting (and will have one in 2004) and participated in the May 2003 GERM meeting in Lyon, France where we provided the newly established Publishers' Round Table a list of minimum standards of data reporting to ease the assimilation of data into the databases. Aspects of these suggestions already have been incorporated into new data policies at Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta and Chemical Geology (Goldstein et al. 2004), and are under study by the Geological Society of America. EarthChem presented its objectives and activities to the Solid Earth Sciences community at the Annual GSA Meeting 2003 (Lehnert et al, 2003). Future plans for EarthChem include expanding the types and amounts of data available from a single portal, giving researchers, faculty, students, and the general public the ability to search, visualize, and download geochemical and geochronological data for a

  7. Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep Sea and Advance Public Literacy in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.; Spargo, A.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.

    2014-12-01

    Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in both informal and formal education to display global datasets. By creating a narrative using multiple datasets, linkages between Earth systems - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere - can be conveyed. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth system science? We addressed this question in developing new content for digital globes that interweaves imagery obtained by deep-diving vehicles with global datasets, including a new dataset locating the world's known hydrothermal vents. Our two narratives, "Life Without Sunlight" (LWS) and "Smoke and Fire Underwater" (SFU), each focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) principles related to geology, biology, and exploration. We are preparing a summative evaluation for our content delivered on NOAA's Science on a Sphere as interactive presentations and as movies. We tested knowledge gained with respect to the STEM principles and the level of excitement generated by the virtual deep-sea exploration. We conducted a Post-test Only Design with quantitative data based on self-reporting on a Likert scale. A total of 75 adults and 48 youths responded to our questionnaire, distributed into test groups that saw either one of the two narratives delivered either as a movie or as an interactive presentation. Here, we report preliminary results for the youths, the majority (81%) of which live in towns with lower income and lower levels of educational attainment as compared to other towns in Massachusetts. For both narratives, there was knowledge gained for all 6 STEM principles and "Quite a Bit" of excitement. The mode in responses for knowledge gained was "Quite a Bit" for both the movie and the interactive presentation for 4 of the STEM principles (LWS geology, LWS biology, SFU geology, and SFU exploration) and "Some" for SFU biology. Only for LWS exploration was there a difference in mode between the

  8. Advancing Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: An Interdisciplinary Education Initiative for University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzeniak, T. L.; Wake, C. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Seidel, L. F.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and are teaching an Earth System Science course for upper-level undergraduate and entry-level graduate students at the University of New Hampshire supported by funding from the NASA Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century, UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, and the UNH Teaching Excellence Program. We have designed the course around seven objectives based on student learning outcomes. These learning objectives span the range of Bloom's Taxonomy from knowledge and comprehension, through application and analysis, to synthesis and evaluation. Learning objectives are mapped onto each and every lecture and laboratory exercise. The lecture portion of the course includes background information with a focus on advanced concepts in Earth system science and inquiry based learning. The laboratory section has students build a series of basic energy balance models of the Earth with increasing complexity using box models and Stellac computer software. Examples of additional applications of Earth system science will be provided to students and others in the UNH community via the Environmental Science Seminar Series which will feature five guest lecturers from NASA-Goddard. We have also developed a detailed plan for both formative and summative assessment of student learning which includes weekly classroom assessments, concept mapping, student interviews at the beginning and end of the course, formal student evaluations, as well as exams, papers, and homework exercises.

  9. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Calibration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Calibration Management Plan for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The plan defines calibration requirements, calibration equipment, and calibration methods for the AMSU-A, a 15 channel passive microwave radiometer that will be used for measuring global atmospheric temperature profiles from the EOS polar orbiting observatory. The AMSU-A system will also provide data to verify and augment that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder.

  10. Research Study to Identify Technology Requirements for Advanced Earth-Orbital Transportation Systems, Dual-Mode Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a study of dual mode propulsion concepts applied to advanced earth orbital transportation systems using reuseable single stage to orbit vehicle concepts were summarized. Both series burn and parallel burn modes of propulsion were analyzed for vertical takeoff, horizontal landing vehicles based on accelerated technology goals. A major study objective was to assess the merits of dual mode main propulsion concepts compared to single mode concepts for carrying payloads of Space Shuttle type to orbit.

  11. Recent advancements in information extraction methodology and hardware for earth resources survey systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Thomson, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses some recent developments in preprocessing and extractive processing techniques and hardware and in user applications model development for earth resources survey systems. The Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) is currently being developed, and is an attempt to solve the problem of real time multispectral data processing in an operational system. The main features and design philosophy of this system are described. Examples of wetlands mapping and land resource inventory are presented. A user model developed for predicting the yearly production of mallard ducks from remote sensing and ancillary data is described.

  12. JPL's Role in Advancing Earth System Science to Meet the Challenges of Climate and Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Objective 2.1.1: Improve understanding of and improve the predictive capability for changes in the ozone layer, climate forcing, and air quality associated with changes in atmospheric composition. Objective 2.1.2: Enable improved predictive capability for weather and extreme weather events. Objective 2.1.3: Quantify, understand, and predict changes in Earth s ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, including the global carbon cycle, land cover, and biodiversity. Objective 2.1.4: Quantify the key reservoirs and fluxes in the global water cycle and assess water cycle change and water quality. Objective 2.1.5: Improve understanding of the roles of the ocean, atmosphere, land and ice in the climate system and improve predictive capability for its future evolution. Objective 2.1.6: Characterize the dynamics of Earth s surface and interior and form the scientific basis for the assessment and mitigation of natural hazards and response to rare and extreme events. Objective 2.1.7: Enable the broad use of Earth system science observations and results in decision-making activities for societal benefits.

  13. Advanced earth-to-orbit transportation vehicles and their propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the advanced transportation systems and their associated propulsion systems being considered by MSFC for near-term missions (1980-1990), future missions (1990-2000), and far-term missions (post 2000). The near-term launch-vehicle considerations center around the growth Shuttle and the Shuttle-derived Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) systems. The future and far-term considerations support the development of larger more advanced transportation systems. In such cases, the changing nature of the propulsion requirements needed by the launch vehicle are identified. The evolvement of chemical propulsion launch vehicles into the far future is prognosticated, and where applicable from a launch vehicle or propulsion viewpoint, orbit transfer vehicles are discussed.

  14. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barnes, W. L.; Maymon, Peter W.; Montgomery, Harry E.; Ostrow, Harvey

    1989-01-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) is discussed as an earth-viewing sensor that is planned as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) scheduled to begin functioning in the mid-1990s. The MODIS is composed of two mutually supporting sensors that cover a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete two-day global coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise ratios are to be provided, e.g., 500 to 1 or greater with 10-12-bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the spectral bands. MODIS' lifetime is expected to be about ten years. One of the MODIS sensors is termed MODIS-N, where N signifies nadir-viewing. The companion to MODIS-N is MODIS-T, where T signifies a tiltable field-of-view. The development of the MODIS facility from conceptual design studies (Phase-A) into detailed design studies (Phase-B) is discussed.

  15. MODIS - Advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system. [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Barnes, W.; Montgomery, H.; Ostrow, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a key part of the Earth Observing System planned for the 1990's, is described. The complementary MODIS-T (64 channels) and MODIS-N (40 channels) instruments provide a multispectral observing capability that has application to land, ocean, and atmospheric research. The modules have a 500-1000 meter spatial resolution to accompany a swath width sufficient to provide two-day repeat coverage from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, space-station serviceable platform. High signal-to-noise capability (500/1 or better) and 10-12 bit quantization over the dynamic ranges of the various spectral bands will be provided by the two modules.

  16. Earth Observing System, Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Much is known about the Earth, but the unifying concepts are still only beginning to be established. An exposition of the key issues in Earth science is neither simple or concise. From the scientific questions at hand there are many interconnections among them and the view of the Earth as a system is essential to their solution. The Earth science goals for the 1990's are presented for the following areas: hydrologic cycle; biogeochemical cycles; climatological processes; geophysical processes; oceanography; and solid earth.

  17. The NASA/GSFC Advanced Data Grid: A Prototype for Future Earth Science Ground System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasster, Samuel D.; Lee, Craig; Davis, Brooks; Clark, Matt; AuYeung, Mike; Wilson, John R.; Ladwig, Debra M.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Background and motivation. Grid computing concepts. Advanced data grid (ADG) prototype development. ADG requirements and operations concept. ADG architecture. ADG implementation. ADG test plan. ADG schedule. Summary and status.

  18. Engineering the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. W.

    2005-12-01

    The post-war growth of the earth sciences has been fueled, in part, by a drive to quantify environmental insults in order to support arguments for their reduction, yet paradoxically the knowledge gained is grants us ever greater capability to deliberately engineer environmental processes on a planetary scale. Increased capability can arises though seemingly unconnected scientific advances. Improvements in numerical weather prediction such as the use of adjoint models in analysis/forecast systems, for example, means that weather modification can be accomplished with smaller control inputs. Purely technological constraints on our ability to engineer earth systems arise from our limited ability to measure and predict system responses and from limits on our ability to manage large engineering projects. Trends in all three constraints suggest a rapid growth in our ability to engineer the planet. What are the implications of our growing ability to geoengineer? Will we see a reemergence of proposals to engineer our way out of the climate problem? How can we avoid the moral hazard posed by the knowledge that geoengineering might provide a backstop to climate damages? I will speculate about these issues, and suggest some institutional factors that may provide a stronger constraint on the use of geoengineering than is provided by any purely technological limit.

  19. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  20. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-01-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  1. Advanced modulation technology development for earth station demodulator applications. Coded modulation system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Susan P.; Kappes, J. Mark; Layer, David H.; Johnson, Peter N.

    1990-04-01

    A jointly optimized coded modulation system is described which was designed, built, and tested by COMSAT Laboratories for NASA LeRC which provides a bandwidth efficiency of 2 bits/s/Hz at an information rate of 160 Mbit/s. A high speed rate 8/9 encoder with a Viterbi decoder and an Octal PSK modem are used to achieve this. The BER performance is approximately 1 dB from the theoretically calculated value for this system at a BER of 5 E-7 under nominal conditions. The system operates in burst mode for downlink applications and tests have demonstrated very little degradation in performance with frequency and level offset. Unique word miss rate measurements were conducted which demonstrate reliable acquisition at low values of Eb/No. Codec self tests have verified the performance of this subsystem in a stand alone mode. The codec is capable of operation at a 200 Mbit/s information rate as demonstrated using a codec test set which introduces noise digitally. The measured performance is within 0.2 dB of the computer simulated predictions. A gate array implementation of the most time critical element of the high speed Viterbi decoder was completed. This gate array add-compare-select chip significantly reduces the power consumption and improves the manufacturability of the decoder. This chip has general application in the implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders.

  2. Earth System Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  3. Advancing the understanding of the Sun-Earth interaction—the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shepherd, Marianna; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) implemented an international collaborative program called Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES), which was active from 2004 to 2008; this was followed by the CAWSES II program during the period of 2009-2013. The CAWSES program was aimed at improving the understanding of the coupled solar-terrestrial system, with special emphasis placed on the short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variability of solar activities and their effects on and responses of Geospace and Earth's environment. Following the successful implementation of CAWSES, the CAWSES II program pursued four fundamental questions addressing the way in which the coupled Sun-Earth system operates over time scales ranging from minutes to millennia, namely, (1) What are the solar influences on the Earth's climate? (2) How will Geospace respond to an altered climate? (3) How does short-term solar variability affect the Geospace environment? and (4) What is the Geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere? In addition to these four major tasks, the SCOSTEP and CAWSES promoted E-science and informatics activities including the creation of scientific databases and their effective utilization in solar-terrestrial physics research. Capacity building activities were also enhanced during CAWSES II, and this represented an important contribution of SCOSTEP to the world's solar-terrestrial physics community. This introductory paper provides an overview of CAWSES II activities and serves as a preface to the dedicated review papers summarizing the achievements of the program's four task groups (TGs) and the E-science component.

  4. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  5. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  6. The Role of Advanced Information System Technology in Remote Sensing for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prescott, Glenn; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future NASA Earth observing satellites will carry high-precision instruments capable of producing large amounts of scientific data. The strategy will be to network these instrument-laden satellites into a web-like array of sensors to facilitate the collection, processing, transmission, storage, and distribution of data and data products - the essential elements of what we refer to as "Information Technology." Many of these Information Technologies will enable the satellite and ground information systems to function effectively in real-time, providing scientists with the capability of customizing data collection activities on a satellite or group of satellites directly from the ground. In future systems, extremely large quantities of data collected by scientific instruments will require the fastest processors, the highest communication channel transfer rates, and the largest data storage capacity to insure that data flows smoothly from the satellite-based instrument to the ground-based archive. Autonomous systems will control all essential processes and play a key role in coordinating the data flow through space-based communication networks. In this paper, we will discuss those critical information technologies for Earth observing satellites that will support the next generation of space-based scientific measurements of planet Earth, and insure that data and data products provided by these systems will be accessible to scientists and the user community in general.

  7. Earth System science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has solidified a view of the Earth as a global-scale interactive system with complex chemical, physical, biological and dynamical processes that link the ocean, atmosphere, land (soils, ice, snow) and marine and terrestrial living organisms. These processes both within and between the major parts of the system help determine global and regional climate and control the biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles essential to life. The study of the Earth System requires measurements ranging from the scales of the smallest processes to the global scale. An ambitious satellite observational program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), carried out along with the complementary and ongoing World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) represents a major international effort to understand this System and predict its future changes. The complex and intriguing nature of the Earth System is discussed along with a number of closely coupled processes occurring within it. These are: clouds, precipitation and vegetation; ocean circulation, sea-surface temperature and phytoplankton; coupled oceanic and atmospheric circulation (the Southern Oscillation); biological activity, atmospheric chemistry and climate; and biological emissions and the ozone layer.

  8. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Stan; Dozier, Jeff

    1991-09-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), the centerpiece of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, is to study the interactions of the atmosphere, land, oceans, and living organisms, using the perspective of space to observe the earth as a global environmental system. To better understand the role of clouds in global change, EOS will measure incoming and emitted radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Then, to study characteristics of the atmosphere that influence radiation transfer between the top of the atmosphere and the surface, EOS wil observe clouds, water vapor and cloud water, aerosols, temperature and humidity, and directional effects. To elucidate the role of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and terrestrial and marine plants as a source or sink for carbon, EOS will observe the biological productivity of lands and oceans. EOS will also study surface properties that affect biological productivity at high resolution spatially and spectrally.

  9. The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Lisa Robock

    1992-01-01

    The restructuring of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), designed to provide comprehensive long term observations from space of changes occurring on the Earth from natural and human causes in order to have a sound scientific basis for policy decisions on protection of the future, is reported. In response to several factors, the original program approved in the fiscal year 1991 budget was restructured and somewhat reduced in scope. The resulting program uses three different sized launch vehicles to put six different spacecraft in orbit in the first phase, followed by two replacement launches for each of five of the six satellites to maintain a long term observing capability to meet the needs of global climate change research and other science objectives. The EOS system, including the space observatories, the data and information system, and the interdisciplinary global change research effort, are approved and proceeding. Elements of EOS are already in place, such as the research investigations and initial data system capabilities. The flights of precursor satellite and Shuttle missions, the ongoing data analysis, and the evolutionary enhancements to the integrated Earth science data management capabilities are all important building blocks to the full EOS program.

  10. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  11. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) worst-case analysis: Antenna beam pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a worst-case analysis of the EOS/AMSU-A (Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) Antenna beam-pointing accuracy. There are three sources of beam pointing error. These are mechanical tolerances in the manufacture and assembly of the parts, allowable axial displacement of the reflector relative to the motor shaft, and on-orbit thermal distortions. For the worst-case analysis, each will be assumed to act independently and thus each contribution is additive.

  12. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  13. CONDOR Advanced Visionics System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

    1996-06-01

    The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

  14. Sensors 2000! Program: Advanced Biosensor and Measurement Systems Technologies for Spaceflight Research and Concurrent, Earth-Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a specialized, integrated projects team organized to provide focused, directed, advanced biosensor and bioinstrumentation systems technology support to NASA's spaceflight and ground-based research and development programs. Specific technology thrusts include telemetry-based sensor systems, chemical/ biological sensors, medical and physiological sensors, miniaturized instrumentation architectures, and data and signal processing systems. A concurrent objective is to promote the mutual use, application, and transition of developed technology by collaborating in academic-commercial-govemment leveraging, joint research, technology utilization and commercialization, and strategic partnering alliances. Sensors 2000! is organized around three primary program elements: Technology and Product Development, Technology infusion and Applications, and Collaborative Activities. Technology and Product Development involves development and demonstration of biosensor and biotelemetry systems for application to NASA Space Life Sciences Programs; production of fully certified spaceflight hardware and payload elements; and sensor/measurement systems development for NASA research and development activities. Technology Infusion and Applications provides technology and program agent support to identify available and applicable technologies from multiple sources for insertion into NASA's strategic enterprises and initiatives. Collaborative Activities involve leveraging of NASA technologies with those of other government agencies, academia, and industry to concurrently provide technology solutions and products of mutual benefit to participating members.

  15. Earth Systems Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D A

    2006-02-21

    Providing the essential energy and water systems to support human needs while understanding and addressing their environmental consequences is a watershed problem for the 21st century. The LLNL Earth System Science and Engineering Program seeks to provide the scientific understanding and technological expertise to help provide solutions at both global and regional scales. Our work is highly collaborative with universities, laboratories and industrial partners across the world and involves observational data, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years have resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially abrupt, even catastrophic global climate change. The climate and energy problem is perhaps the greatest challenge ever faced by mankind. Fossil fuel remains the least expensive and most available source of energy and the basis of our economy. The use of fossil fuels, especially over the last 100 years has led to a 30% increase in CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The problem is growing. The population of the Earth will increase by several billion people in the next 50 years. If economic growth is to continue, the demand for energy is estimated to approximately double in the next 50 years so that we will need approximately 10 TW more energy than the 15 TW we use now. Much of this demand will come from the developing world where most of the population growth will occur and where advanced energy technology is not generally used. The problem affects and is affected by a complex system of systems. The climate and energy problem will affect resources, social structure and the probability of increased conflict. No one person, no one nation, no one technology can solve the problem. There is no

  16. The Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, P.; Muhlhaus, H.; Lister, G.; Dyskin, A.; Place, D.; Appelbe, B.; Nimmervoll, N.; Abramson, D.

    2001-12-01

    Numerical simulation of the physics and dynamics of the entire earth system offers an outstanding opportunity for advancing earth system science and technology but represents a major challenge due to the range of scales and physical processes involved, as well as the magnitude of the software engineering effort required. However, new simulation and computer technologies are bringing this objective within reach. Under a special competitive national funding scheme to establish new Major National Research Facilities (MNRF), the Australian government together with a consortium of Universities and research institutions have funded construction of the Australian Computational Earth Systems Simulator (ACcESS). The Simulator or computational virtual earth will provide the research infrastructure to the Australian earth systems science community required for simulations of dynamical earth processes at scales ranging from microscopic to global. It will consist of thematic supercomputer infrastructure and an earth systems simulation software system. The Simulator models and software will be constructed over a five year period by a multi-disciplinary team of computational scientists, mathematicians, earth scientists, civil engineers and software engineers. The construction team will integrate numerical simulation models (3D discrete elements/lattice solid model, particle-in-cell large deformation finite-element method, stress reconstruction models, multi-scale continuum models etc) with geophysical, geological and tectonic models, through advanced software engineering and visualization technologies. When fully constructed, the Simulator aims to provide the software and hardware infrastructure needed to model solid earth phenomena including global scale dynamics and mineralisation processes, crustal scale processes including plate tectonics, mountain building, interacting fault system dynamics, and micro-scale processes that control the geological, physical and dynamic

  17. Earth System Science and the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald R.; Ruzek, Martin; Kalb, Mike

    2000-07-01

    In 1991, NASA and the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) initiated a program to introduce college undergraduates to the interdisciplinary challenges of an emerging Earth system science approach to understanding our planet. Earth system science views the Earth as a synergistic physical system of interrelated phenomena, processes and cycles which remain largely unexplored in traditional disciplinary Earth science course offerings. The ongoing Cooperative University-based Program for Earth System Science Education (ESSE) challenges colleges and universities to develop and offer classroom courses which examine the Earth as a system and to share their progress, course materials and learning modules. Concurrent with the development of the ESSE community and its shared learning resources has been the exponential growth of the Internet and its suite of communication tools, which are a central resource for the ESSE Program. The Internet has enabled the rapid deployment of information and resources through shared repositories of learning materials and general Earth system science knowledge, all of which serve to create and maintain an active informed education community. ESSE participants are organizing to develop a suite of web-based Earth system science learning modules and sharing course materials and learning resources via the ESSE web site. The modular approach more easily assimilates peer-reviewed learning resources into a wide range of classroom environments. A web-based peer-reviewed Journal of Earth System Science Education is proposed to provide educators with quality classroom materials addressing the Earth as a system and to reward ESS resource developers with citable references. More sophisticated web search and retrieval functions, as well as advanced communication tools will be needed to maintain automated databases of networked resources and an informed user community as Earth system science and the Internet enter the new millennium.

  18. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  19. Advancing Earth System Science Literacy and Preparing the Future Geoscience Workforce Through Strategic Investments at the National Science Foundation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Weiler, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created 60 years ago by the U.S. Congress "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense…" NSF is the primary funding agency in the U.S. to support basic, frontier research across all fields in science, engineering, and education, except for medical sciences. With a FY 2011 budget request of more than $955 million, the NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) is the principle source of federal funding for university-based fundamental research in the geosciences and preparation of the next generation of geoscientists. Since its inception, GEO has supported the education and training of a diverse and talented pool of future scientists, engineers, and technicians in the Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric and Geospatial Sciences sub-fields, through support of graduate research assistants, post-doctoral fellows, and undergraduate research experiences. In the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, GEO initiated several programs that expanded these investments to also support improvements in pre-college and undergraduate geoscience education through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., professional development support for K-12 teachers, development of innovative undergraduate curricula, and scientist-mentored research experiences for elementary and secondary students). In addition to GEO’s Geoscience Education (GeoEd), Opportunities for Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences (OEDG), Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE), and Geoscience Teacher Training (GEO-Teach) programs, GEO participates in a number of cross-Foundation programs, including the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU), Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT), Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE), NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12), and Partnerships for International Research and Education

  20. Earth Observing System/Meteorological Satellite (EOS/METSAT). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Contamination Control Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, M.

    1998-01-01

    This Contamination Control Plan is submitted in response the Contract Document requirements List (CDRL) 007 under contract NAS5-32314 for the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A). In response to the CDRL instructions, this document defines the level of cleanliness and methods/procedures to be followed to achieve adequate cleanliness/contamination control, and defines the required approach to maintain cleanliness/contamination control through shipping, observatory integration, test, and flight. This plan is also applicable to the Meteorological Satellite (METSAT) except where requirements are identified as EOS-specific. This plan is based on two key factors: a. The EOS/METSAT AMSU-A Instruments are not highly contamination sensitive. b. Potential contamination of other EOS Instruments is a key concern as addressed in Section 9/0 of the Performance Assurance Requirements for EOS/METSAT Integrated Programs AMSU-A Instrument (MR) (NASA Specification S-480-79).

  1. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  2. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

  3. Imaging spectrometer technologies for advanced Earth remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kuperfman, P.; Salazar, R. P.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1982-01-01

    A major requirement of multispectral imaging systems for advanced Earth remote sensing is the provision for greater spectral resolution and more versatile spectral band selection. The imaging spectrometer instrument concept provides this versatility by the combination of pushbroom imaging and spectrally dispersing optics using area array detectors in the focal plane. The shuttle imaging spectrometer concept achieves 10- and 20-meter ground instantaneous fields of view with 20-nanometer spectral resolution from Earth Orbit. Onboard processing allows the selection of spectral bands during flight; this, in turn, permits the sensor parameters to be tailored to the experiment objectives. Advances in optical design, infrared detector arrays, and focal plane cooling indicate the feasibility of the instrument concept and support the practicability of a validation flight experiment for the shuttle in the late 1980s.

  4. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  5. Advances in Sun-Earth Connection Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, S. B.; Gavrishchaka, V. V.

    2003-06-01

    Space weather forecasting is a focus of a multidisciplinary research effort motivated by a sensitive dependence of many modern technologies on geospace conditions. Adequate understanding of the physics of the Sun-Earth connection and associated multi-scale magnetospheric and ionospheric processes is an essential part of this effort. Modern physical simulation models such as multimoment multifluid models with effective coupling from small-scale kinetic processes can provide valuable insight into the role of various physical mechanisms operating during geomagnetic storm/substorm activity. However, due to necessary simplifying assumptions, physical models are still not well suited for accurate real-time forecasting. Complimentary approach includes data-driven models capable of efficient processing of multi-scale spatio-temporal data. However, the majority of advanced nonlinear algorithms, including neural networks (NN), can encounter a set of problems called dimensionality curse when applied to high-dimensional data. Forecasting of rare/extreme events such as large geomagnetic storms/substorms is of the most practical importance but is also very challenging for many existing models. A very promising algorithm that combines the power of the best nonlinear techniques and tolerance to high-dimensional and incomplete data is support vector machine (SVM). We have summarized advantages of the SVM and described a hybrid model based on SVM and extreme value theory (EVT) for rare event forecasting. Results of the SVM application to substorm forecasting and future directions are discussed.

  6. Earth System Science Education Interdisciplinary Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.

    2002-05-01

    Earth system science in the classroom is the fertile crucible linking science with societal needs for local, national and global sustainability. The interdisciplinary dimension requires fruitful cooperation among departments, schools and colleges within universities and among the universities and the nation's laboratories and agencies. Teaching and learning requires content which brings together the basic and applied sciences with mathematics and technology in addressing societal challenges of the coming decades. Over the past decade remarkable advances have emerged in information technology, from high bandwidth Internet connectivity to raw computing and visualization power. These advances which have wrought revolutionary capabilities and resources are transforming teaching and learning in the classroom. With the launching of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) the amount and type of geophysical data to monitor the Earth and its climate are increasing dramatically. The challenge remains, however, for skilled scientists and educators to interpret this information based upon sound scientific perspectives and utilize it in the classroom. With an increasing emphasis on the application of data gathered, and the use of the new technologies for practical benefit in the lives of ordinary citizens, there comes the even more basic need for understanding the fundamental state, dynamics, and complex interdependencies of the Earth system in mapping valid and relevant paths to sustainability. Technology and data in combination with the need to understand Earth system processes and phenomena offer opportunities for new and productive partnerships between researchers and educators to advance the fundamental science of the Earth system and in turn through discovery excite students at all levels in the classroom. This presentation will discuss interdisciplinary partnership opportunities for educators and researchers at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

  7. Research and Technology Development to Advance Environmental Monitoring, Food Systems, and Habitat Design for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Perchonek, M. H.; Ott, C. M.; Kaiser, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration missions will carry crews far beyond the relatively safe environs of cis-lunar space. Such trips will have little or no opportunity for resupply or rapid aborts and will be of a duration that far exceeds our experience to date. The challenges this imposes on the requirements of systems that monitor the life support and provide food and shelter for the crew are the focus of much research within the Human Research Program. Making all of these technologies robust and reliable enough for multi-year missions with little or no ability to run for home calls for a thorough understanding of the risks and impacts of failure. The way we currently monitor for microbial contamination of water, air, and surfaces, by sampling and growing cultures on nutrient media, must be reconsidered for exploration missions which have limited capacity for consumables. Likewise, the shelf life of food must be increased so that the nutrients required to keep the crewmembers healthy do not degrade over the life of the mission. Improved formulations, preservation, packaging, and storage technologies are all being investigated for ways slow this process or replace stowed food with key food items grown fresh in situ. Ensuring that the mass and volume of a spacecraft are used to maximum efficiency calls for infusing human factors into the design from its inception to increase efficiency, improve performance, and retain robustness toward operational realities. Integrating the human system with the spacecraft systems is the focus of many lines of investigation.

  8. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Software concept document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This document presents the concept for two separate but closely related software systems. The first is the special test equipment (STE) software used at Aerojet for AMSU-A instrument testing, and the second is the workstation software used at the spacecraft integration facility to monitor the AMSU-A instrument when installed on the spacecraft. The primary use of the STE software is to monitor the data output from the AMSU-A instruments, to command the instruments, and to perform automated thermal-vacuum calibration testing. The primary use of the workstation software is to monitor the AMSU-A instrument's performance through an Ethernet link during the instrument/spacecraft integration process.

  9. Earth System Environmental Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Margaret

    If every citizen could read the above quote and understand its underlying ecological concepts, economic challenges, social services, and spiritual heritage, then it is likely that sustainability education would be achieved. The notion of a tree and its ecosystem services illustrate sustainability in the simplest yet most robust sense. To plant and grow a tree, economists struggle with volatile currencies; ecologists juggle development and conservation; religious leaders advocate stewardship; and social scientists examine equity in a world of declining resources. Sustainability education requires an integrated approach between ecology, risk analyses, economics, social sciences, biological sciences, political sciences, languages, biotechnology, physical sciences, health sciences, and religion. All these practitioners (and many others) contribute to sustainability education, an emerging discipline that requires an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge, translated into practice, to insure the future of life on Earth.

  10. EarthScope's Transportable Array: Advancing Eastward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R. W.; Vernon, F.; Newman, R. L.; Astiz, L.

    2006-12-01

    EarthScope's Transportable Array has installed more than 200 high-quality broadband seismic stations over the last 3 years in the western US. These stations have a nominal spacing of 70 km and are part of an eventual 400 station array that migrates from west to east at a rate of 18 stations per month. The full 400 stations will be operating by September 2007. Stations have a residence time of about 2 years before being relocated to the next site. Throughout the continental US, 1623 sites are expected to be occupied. Standardized procedures and protocols have been developed to streamline all aspects of Transportable Array operations, from siting to site construction and installation to equipment purchasing and data archiving. Earned Value Management tools keep facility installation and operation on budget and schedule. A diverse, yet efficient, infrastructure installs and maintains the Transportable Array. Sensors, dataloggers, and other equipment are received and tested by the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center and shipped to regional storage facilities. To engage future geoscientists in the project, students are trained to conduct field and analytical reconnaissance to identify suitable seismic station sites. Contract personnel are used for site verification; vault construction; and installation of sensors, power, and communications systems. IRIS staff manages permitting, landowner communications, and station operations and maintenance. Seismic signal quality and metadata are quality-checked at the Array Network Facility at the University of California-San Diego and simultaneously archived at the IRIS Data Management Center in Seattle. Station equipment has been specifically designed for low power, remote, unattended operation and uses diverse two-way IP communications for real-time transmission. Digital cellular services, VSAT satellite, and commercial DSL, cable or wireless transport services are employed. Automatic monitoring of status, signal quality and

  11. Overview of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    data systems, NASA has had an active collaboration with a number of interagency and international partners. One of the mechanisms that has been extremely helpful in initiating and promoting this collaboration has been NASA's participation in the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and its Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS). The CEOS members, working together, have implemented an International Directory Network that enables users to locate collections of earth science data held by the international community and an International Catalog System to search and order specific data products. CEOS WGISS has also promoted the international interest in the Open GIS Consortium s specifications that further advance the access and use of geospatial data and the interoperation of GTS components. These are just a few highlights of the benefits that member agencies gain from CEOS participation.

  12. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  13. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  14. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System, which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5 micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  15. Advanced power systems for EOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit: two by NASA, two by the European Space Agency, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing 5-micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array, the total additional payload capability approaches 12 percent.

  16. Earth System Science Education Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in-depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Now sponsored by NSF, the network has expanded to nearly 40 institutions of higher learning committed to teacher Earth system science education. The program supports participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers are prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 K-12 teachers in Earth system science. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES is enhancing and building on the ESSEA foundation by: 1. Introducing extensive use of data, models and existing Earth system educational materials to support the courses; 2. Implementing a rigorous evaluation program designed to demonstrate growth in teachers' Earth

  17. Advanced manned earth-to-orbit vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    1986-10-01

    Advanced manned launch vehicle concepts which are designed to meet the space transportation architecture and mission needs for the early 21st century are described. Concepts are described which are based both on modest (evolutionary) and revolutionary advancements in performance technologies but with emphasis on defining operations cost. Design options feature fully reusable, vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing, rocket-powered concepts and include a variety of possible staging arrangements depending on the desired mission emphasis and the available technologies.

  18. Fire in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, S.; Lasslop, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is the most important disturbance process for vegetation impacting the land carbon cycle. Only recently fire models have been developed that are able to represent the important role of fire for vegetation dynamics and land carbon cycling at global scale. Here, we investigate how fire is represented in Earth System Models (ESMs) that participated in the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and present more recent advances in global fire modeling for upcoming CMIPs. Burned area and carbon emissions from fire are among the variables reported in CMIP5. ESMs from CMIP5 use common simulation and output protocols, enabling direct comparisons between models. For this study ESMs were selected from the CMIP5 repository based on the availability of burned area and/or carbon emissions from fires for the historical and the rcp2.6/4.5/8.5 simulations. All ESMs analyzed show a comparable global total burned area of about 150 to 200 Mha burned per year for the present day period, which is lower than satellite based observations (e.g. GFEDv3 ~370 Mha/year). Most models show over the historical period (1850 - 2005) only a weak change in global fire activity and for the future (2006 - 2100) strong increases in fire activity for rcp4.5 and rcp8.5, but only moderate changes for the rcp2.6 projection. Regionally the response differs strongly between the models, which is partly related to different climate projections. We further analysed the simulated changes in fire activity with respect to simulated changes in temperature and precipitation from which no general pattern of the sensitivity of fire carbon emissions towards changes in climate emerged. We will end the presentation with more recent results from the JSBACH-SPITFIRE model to give some insights into the capability of global fire models that will take part in upcoming CMIPs.

  19. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  20. Earth System Science Education Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, R.; Schwerin, T.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development program is providing in- depth geoscience content and teaching methods to pre- and in-service teachers. The program is building and expanding on NASA's successful ESSEA program that was funded from 2000-2005. Beginning in 2006 NSF funding will enable ESSEA will expand to 40 institutions of higher learning that are committed to teacher education in Earth system science. The program will support participating institutions with funding, training, and standards-aligned courses and resources for pre- and in-service teachers. As a result, teachers will be prepared to teach Earth system science using inquiry-based classroom methods, geoscience data and tools. From 1999-2005, the NASA funded ESSEA Program delivered online Earth system science professional development for K-12 teachers through a network of 20 colleges and universities. The program was led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and based on a trio of 16-week online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers) that had been developed and piloted by NASA's Classroom of the Future at Wheeling Jesuit University. The ESSEA program's mission was to: 1) support universities, colleges, and science education organizations delivering the K-12 online graduate courses; 2) strengthen teachers' understanding of Earth system science; 3) demonstrate the ability to deliver exceptional professional development to a national audience; and 4) create a solid infrastructure to sustain the program. As of spring 2006, the courses had been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 k-12 teachers in Earth system science. Although NASA funding ended in late 2005, the courses continue to be offered by 17 of the original 20 institutions. Through NSF funding beginning in late 2006, IGES will enhance and build upon the ESSEA foundation by: 1.Using the ESSEA courses as a model to introduce newly upgraded Earth

  1. Earth Institute at Columbia University ADVANCE Program: Addressing Needs for Women in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Cane, M.; Mutter, J.; Miller, R.; Pfirman, S.; Laird, J.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth Institute has received a major NSF ADVANCE grant targeted at increasing the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers in the Academy through institutional transformation. The Earth Institute at Columbia University includes 9 research institutes including Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Center for Environmental Research and Conservation (CERC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Research Institute (IRI) for Climate Prediction, Earth Engineering Center, NASA-Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Center for Risks and Hazards, Center for Globalization and Sustainable Development, and Center for Global Health and Economic Development and six academic departments including Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Biology (E3B, School of Arts and Sciences), Earth and Environmental Engineering (DEEE, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), Department of Environmental Health (School of Public Health), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DEES, School of Arts and Sciences), Department of International and Public Affairs (School of International and Policy Affairs), and Barnard College Department of Environmental Science. The Earth Institute at Columbia University's ADVANCE program is based both on a study of the status of women at Columbia and research on the progression of women in science elsewhere. The five major targets of the Columbia ADVANCE program are to (1) change the demographics of the faculty through intelligent hiring practices, (2) provide support to women scientists through difficult life transitions including elder care and adoption or birth of a child, (3) enhance mentoring and networking opportunities, (4) implement transparent promotion procedures and policies, and (5) conduct an institutional self study. The Earth Institute ADVANCE program is unique in that it addresses issues that tend to manifest themselves in the earth and environmental fields, such as extended

  2. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  3. Taming Typhon: Advancing Climate Literacy by Coordinating Federal Earth System Science Education Investments Through the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, J. L.; Niepold, F.; Wei, M.; Waple, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    consensus framework to define climate literacy; (2) a protocol and process for vetting, reviewing, and assuring scientific quality of educational materials related to climate change; (3) a Federal network of professionals who can share, access, and identify complementary educational materials; (4) a suite of evaluation tools to gauge effectiveness of interagency programs related to climate change education; (5) a clearinghouse or central repository of climate change education resources and expertise; and (6) professional development resources for educators seeking to improve their understanding of climate change and related Earth system science principles.

  4. Earth Science Information System (ESIS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1982-01-01

    The Earth Science Information System (ESIS) was developed in 1981 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of the Data Administrator. ESIS serves as a comprehensive data management facility designed to support the coordination, integration, and standardization of scientific, technical, and bibliographic data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). ESIS provides, through an online interactive computer system, referral to information about USGS data bases, data elements which are fields in the records of data bases, and systems. The data bases contain information about many subjects from several scientific disciplines such as: geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, cartography, oceanography, geography, minerals exploration and conservation, and satellite data sensing.

  5. NASA's mission to planet Earth: Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: global climate change; radiation, clouds, and atmospheric water; the ocean; the troposphere - greenhouse gases; land cover and the water cycle; polar ice sheets and sea level; the stratosphere - ozone chemistry; volcanoes; the Earth Observing System (EOS) - how NASA will support studies of global climate change?; research and assessment - EOS Science Investigations; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); EOS observations - instruments and spacecraft; a national international effort; and understanding the Earth System.

  6. Modeling the Earth System, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojima, Dennis (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered fall under the following headings: critical gaps in the Earth system conceptual framework; development needs for simplified models; and validating Earth system models and their subcomponents.

  7. Technology needs of advanced Earth observation spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, J. J.; Postuchow, J. R.; Schartel, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing missions were synthesized which could contribute significantly to the understanding of global environmental parameters. Instruments capable of sensing important land and sea parameters are combined with a large antenna designed to passively quantify surface emitted radiation at several wavelengths. A conceptual design for this large deployable antenna was developed. All subsystems required to make the antenna an autonomous spacecraft were conceptually designed. The entire package, including necessary orbit transfer propulsion, is folded to package within the Space Transportation System (STS) cargo bay. After separation, the antenna, its integral feed mast, radiometer receivers, power system, and other instruments are automatically deployed and transferred to the operational orbit. The design resulted in an antenna with a major antenna dimension of 120 meters, weighing 7650 kilograms, and operating at an altitude of 700 kilometers.

  8. Fire in the Earth system.

    PubMed

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  9. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  10. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  11. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  12. NPP and the Earth System

    NASA Video Gallery

    NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. NPP will continue to deliver data to all users on Earth who will use ...

  13. Advanced drilling systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    This work was initiated as part of the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technologies (NADET) Program. It is being performed through joint finding from the Department of Energy Geothermal Division and the Natural Gas Technology Branch, Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Interest in advanced drilling systems is high. The Geothermal Division of the Department of Energy has initiated a multi-year effort in the development of advanced drilling systems; the National Research Council completed a study of drilling and excavation technologies last year; and the MIT Energy Laboratory recently submitted a proposal for a national initiative in advanced drilling and excavation research. The primary reasons for this interest are financial. Worldwide expenditures on oil and gas drilling approach $75 billion per year. Also, drilling and well completion account for 25% to 50% of the cost of producing electricity from geothermal energy. There is incentive to search for methods to reduce the cost of drilling. Work on ideas to improve or replace rotary drilling technology dates back at least to the 1930`s. There was a significant amount of work in this area in the 1960`s and 1970`s; and there has been some continued effort through the 1980`s. Undoubtedly there are concepts for advanced drilling systems that have yet to be studied; however, it is almost certain that new efforts to initiate work on advanced drilling systems will build on an idea or a variation of an idea that has already been investigated. Therefore, a review of previous efforts coupled with a characterization of viable advanced drilling systems and the current state of technology as it applies to those systems provide the basis for the current study of advanced drilling.

  14. Advanced Land Imager Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Choate, Mike; Christopherson, Jon; Hollaren, Doug; Morfitt, Ron; Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Shar; Storey, James; Helder, Dennis; Ruggles, Tim; Kaita, Ed; Levy, Raviv; Ong, Lawrence; Markham, Brian; Schweiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager Assessment System (ALIAS) supports radiometric and geometric image processing for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) instrument onboard NASA s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. ALIAS consists of two processing subsystems for radiometric and geometric processing of the ALI s multispectral imagery. The radiometric processing subsystem characterizes and corrects, where possible, radiometric qualities including: coherent, impulse; and random noise; signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs); detector operability; gain; bias; saturation levels; striping and banding; and the stability of detector performance. The geometric processing subsystem and analysis capabilities support sensor alignment calibrations, sensor chip assembly (SCA)-to-SCA alignments and band-to-band alignment; and perform geodetic accuracy assessments, modulation transfer function (MTF) characterizations, and image-to-image characterizations. ALIAS also characterizes and corrects band-toband registration, and performs systematic precision and terrain correction of ALI images. This system can geometrically correct, and automatically mosaic, the SCA image strips into a seamless, map-projected image. This system provides a large database, which enables bulk trending for all ALI image data and significant instrument telemetry. Bulk trending consists of two functions: Housekeeping Processing and Bulk Radiometric Processing. The Housekeeping function pulls telemetry and temperature information from the instrument housekeeping files and writes this information to a database for trending. The Bulk Radiometric Processing function writes statistical information from the dark data acquired before and after the Earth imagery and the lamp data to the database for trending. This allows for multi-scene statistical analyses.

  15. The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenton-Madiec, Nicolas; Denvil, Sébastien; Greenslade, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) enterprise system is a collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of model output and observational data. ESGF's primary goal is to facilitate advancements in Earth System Science. It is an interagency and international effort led by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and co-funded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), Infrastructure for the European Network of Earth System Modelling (IS-ENES) and international laboratories such as the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) german Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ), the Australian National University (ANU) National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL), and the British Atmospheric Data Center (BADC). Its main mission is to support current CMIP5 activities and prepare for future assesments. The ESGF architecture is based on a system of autonomous and distributed nodes, which interoperate through common acceptance of federation protocols and trust agreements. Data is stored at multiple nodes around the world, and served through local data and metadata services. Nodes exchange information about their data holdings and services, trust each other for registering users and establishing access control decisions. The net result is that a user can use a web browser, connect to any node, and seamlessly find and access data throughout the federation. This type of collaborative working organization and distributed architecture context en-lighted the need of integration and testing processes definition to ensure the quality of software releases and interoperability. This presentation will introduce the ESGF project and demonstrate the range of tools and processes that have been set up to support release management activities.

  16. Advanced Energy Conversion Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Phillips, Dane J.; Laycock, Rustin L.; ONeill, Mark; Henley, Mark W.; Fork, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. There is a need to produce "proof-ofconcept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space surface sites. Space surface receiving sites of particular interest include the areas of permanent shadow near the moon s North and South poles, where WPT technologies could enable access to ice and other useful resources for human exploration. This paper discusses work addressing a promising approach to solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) applied to both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components (only the photovoltaic cells need to be different), economies of manufacturing and scale may be realized by using SLA on both ends of the laser power beaming

  17. Advanced Monitoring systems initiative

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Venedam; E.O. Hohman; C.F. Lohrstorfer; S.J. Weeks; J.B. Jones; W.J. Haas

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) actively searches for promising technologies and aggressively moves them from the research bench into DOE/NNSA end-user applications. There is a large unfulfilled need for an active element that reaches out to identify and recruit emerging sensor technologies into the test and evaluation function. Sensor research is ubiquitous, with the seeds of many novel concepts originating in the university systems, but at present these novel concepts do not move quickly and efficiently into real test environments. AMSI is a widely recognized, self-sustaining ''business'' accelerating the selection, development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of advanced monitoring systems and components.

  18. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  19. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  20. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  1. Advanced turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, C.; Mukavetz, D.W.; Knickerbocker, T.K.; Ali, S.A.

    1992-12-31

    In accordance with the goals of the DOE program, improvements in the gas turbine are the primary focus of Allison activity during Phase I. To this end Allison conducted a survey of potentially applicable gas turbine cycles and selected the advanced combined cycle as reference system. Extensive analysis of two versions of the advanced combined cycle was performed against the requirement for a 60% thermal efficiency (LHV) utility-sized, natural gas fired system. This analysis resulted in technology requirements for this system. Additional analysis determined emissions potential for the system, established a coal-fueled derivative system and a commercialization plan. This report deals with the technical requirements for a system that meets the thermal efficiency goal. Allison initially investigated four basic thermodynamic cycles: Humid air turbine, intercalate-recuperated systems, advanced combined cycle, chemically recuperated cycle. Our survey and cycle analysis indicated that au had the potential of reaching 60% thermal efficiency. We also concluded that engine hot section technology would be a critical technology regardless of which cycle was chosen. Based on this result Allison chose to concentrate on the advanced combined cycle. This cycle is well known and understood by the utility turbine user community and is therefore likely to be acceptable to users.

  2. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  3. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  4. Advanced Solar Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, J. H.; Hobgood, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Solar Power System (ASPS) concentrator uses a technically sophisticated design and extensive tooling to produce very efficient (80 to 90%) and versatile energy supply equipment which is inexpensive to manufacture and requires little maintenance. The advanced optical design has two 10th order, generalized aspheric surfaces in a Cassegrainian configuration which gives outstanding performance and is relatively insensitive to temperature changes and wind loading. Manufacturing tolerances also have been achieved. The key to the ASPS is the direct absorption of concentrated sunlight in the working fluid by radiative transfers in a black body cavity. The basic ASPS design concepts, efficiency, optical system, and tracking and focusing controls are described.

  5. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  6. Advanced Information Technology Investments at the NASA Earth Science Technology Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clune, T.; Seablom, M. S.; Moe, K.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) regularly makes investments for nurturing advanced concepts in information technology to enable rapid, low-cost acquisition, processing and visualization of Earth science data in support of future NASA missions and climate change research. In 2012, the National Research Council published a mid-term assessment of the 2007 decadal survey for future spacemissions supporting Earth science and applications [1]. The report stated, "Earth sciences have advanced significantly because of existing observational capabilities and the fruit of past investments, along with advances in data and information systems, computer science, and enabling technologies." The report found that NASA had responded favorably and aggressively to the decadal survey and noted the role of the recent ESTO solicitation for information systems technologies that partnered with the NASA Applied Sciences Program to support the transition into operations. NASA's future missions are key stakeholders for the ESTO technology investments. Also driving these investments is the need for the Agency to properly address questions regarding the prediction, adaptation, and eventual mitigation of climate change. The Earth Science Division has championed interdisciplinary research, recognizing that the Earth must be studied as a complete system in order toaddress key science questions [2]. Information technology investments in the low-mid technology readiness level (TRL) range play a key role in meeting these challenges. ESTO's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program invests in higher risk / higher reward technologies that solve the most challenging problems of the information processing chain. This includes the space segment, where the information pipeline begins, to the end user, where knowledge is ultimatelyadvanced. The objectives of the program are to reduce the risk, cost, size, and development time of Earth Science space-based and ground

  7. NASDA's earth observation satellite data archive policy for the earth observation data and information system (EOIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobue, Shin-ichi; Yoshida, Fumiyoshi; Ochiai, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    NASDA's new Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is scheduled for launch in August, 1996. ADEOS carries 8 sensors to observe earth environmental phenomena and sends their data to NASDA, NASA, and other foreign ground stations around the world. The downlink data bit rate for ADEOS is 126 MB/s and the total volume of data is about 100 GB per day. To archive and manage such a large quantity of data with high reliability and easy accessibility it was necessary to develop a new mass storage system with a catalogue information database using advanced database management technology. The data will be archived and maintained in the Master Data Storage Subsystem (MDSS) which is one subsystem in NASDA's new Earth Observation data and Information System (EOIS). The MDSS is based on a SONY ID1 digital tape robotics system. This paper provides an overview of the EOIS system, with a focus on the Master Data Storage Subsystem and the NASDA Earth Observation Center (EOC) archive policy for earth observation satellite data.

  8. Advanced Distribution Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avazov, Artur R.; Sobinova, Liubov A.

    2016-02-01

    This article describes the advisability of using advanced distribution management systems in the electricity distribution networks area and considers premises of implementing ADMS within the Smart Grid era. Also, it gives the big picture of ADMS and discusses the ADMS advantages and functionalities.

  9. Earth and ocean dynamics satellites and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of the present state of satellite and ground systems making observations of the dynamics of the solid earth and the oceans. Emphasis is placed on applications of space technology for practical use. Topics discussed include: satellite missions and results over the last two decades in the areas of earth gravity field, polar motions, earth tides, magnetic anomalies, and satellite-to-satellite tracking; laser ranging systems; development of the Very Long Baseline Interferometer; and Skylab radar altimeter data applications.

  10. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Laura

    2005-04-29

    Dept. of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-00-CH11061 was originally awarded to Honeywell International, Inc. Honeywell Power Systems Inc. (HPSI) division located in Albuquerque, NM in October 2000 to conduct a program titled Advanced Microturbine Systems (AMS). The DOE Advanced Microturbines Systems Program was originally proposed as a five-year program to design and develop a high efficiency, low emissions, durable microturbine system. The period of performance was to be October 2000 through September 2005. Program efforts were underway, when one year into the program Honeywell sold the intellectual property of Honeywell Power Systems Inc. and HPSI ceased business operations. Honeywell made an internal decision to restructure the existing program due to the HPSI shutdown and submitted a formal request to DOE on September 24, 2001 to transfer the Cooperative Agreement to Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services (HES&S) in Phoenix, AZ in order to continue to offer support for DOE's Advanced Microturbine Program. Work continued on the descoped program under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00-CH11061 and has been completed.

  11. Advanced dive monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Sternberger, W I; Goemmer, S A

    1999-01-01

    The US Navy supports deep diving operations with a variety of mixed-gas life support systems. A systems engineering study was conducted for the Naval Experimental Dive Unit (Panama City, FL) to develop a concept design for an advanced dive monitoring system. The monitoring system is intended primarily to enhance diver safety and secondarily to support diving medicine research. Distinct monitoring categories of diver physiology, life support system, and environment are integrated in the monitoring system. A system concept is proposed that accommodates real-time and quantitative measurements, noninvasive physiological monitoring, and a flexible and expandable implementation architecture. Human factors and ergonomic design considerations have been emphasized to assure that there is no impact on the diver's primary mission. The Navy has accepted the resultant system requirements and the basic design concept. A number of monitoring components have been implemented and successfully support deep diving operations.

  12. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  13. Advanced imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the Advanced Imaging System CCD based camera. The AIS1 camera system was developed at Photometric Ltd. in Tucson, Arizona as part of a Phase 2 SBIR contract No. NAS5-30171 from the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The camera project was undertaken as a part of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) project. This document is intended to serve as a complete manual for the use and maintenance of the camera system. All the different parts of the camera hardware and software are discussed and complete schematics and source code listings are provided.

  14. Earth As an Evolving Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Joseph G.

    2005-05-01

    ``System'' is an overused buzzword in textbooks covering geological sciences. Describing the Earth as a system of component parts is a reasonable concept, but providing a comprehensive framework for detailing the system is a more formidable task. Kent Condie lays out the systems approach in an easy-to-read introductory chapter in Earth as an Evolving Planetary System. In the book, Condie makes a valiant attempt at taking the mélange of diverse subjects in the solid Earth sciences and weaving them into a coherent tapestry.

  15. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  16. Radiometric calibration of the Earth observing system's imaging sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1987-01-01

    Philosophy, requirements, and methods of calibration of multispectral space sensor systems as applicable to the Earth Observing System (EOS) are discussed. Vicarious methods for calibration of low spatial resolution systems, with respect to the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), are then summarized. Finally, a theoretical introduction is given to a new vicarious method of calibration using the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the Earth's surfaces as the key input. This may provide an additional independent method for in-flight calibration.

  17. Modeling of Spacecraft Advanced Chemical Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benfield, Michael P. J.; Belcher, Jeremy A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of the Advanced Chemical Propulsion System (ACPS) model for Earth and Space Storable propellants. This model was developed by the System Technology Operation of SAIC-Huntsville for the NASA MSFC In-Space Propulsion Project Office. Each subsystem of the model is described. Selected model results will also be shown to demonstrate the model's ability to evaluate technology changes in chemical propulsion systems.

  18. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  19. The Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

  20. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Reliability prediction report for module A1 (channels 3 through 15) and module A2 (channels 1 and 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geimer, W.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the final reliability prediction performed on the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A). The A1 Module contains Channels 3 through 15, and is referred to herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A1'. The A2 Module contains Channels 1 and 2, and is referred herein as 'EOS/AMSU-A2'. The 'specified' figures were obtained from Aerojet Reports 8897-1 and 9116-1. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A1 meets the specified value and provides a Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) of 74,390 hours. The predicted reliability figure for the EOS/AMSU-A2 meets the specified value and provides a MTBF of 193,110 hours.

  1. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, Thilini; Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-theshelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  2. Advanced Clothing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Orndoff, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf fibers and antimicrobial treatments with the goal of directly reducing the mass and volume of a logistics item. The current clothing state-of-the-art on the International Space Station (ISS) is disposable, mostly cotton-based, clothing with no laundry provisions. Each clothing article has varying use periods and will become trash. The goal is to increase the length of wear of the clothing to reduce the logistical mass and volume. The initial focus has been exercise clothing since the use period is lower. Various ground studies and an ISS technology demonstration have been conducted to evaluate clothing preference and length of wear. The analysis indicates that use of ACS selected garments (e.g. wool, modacrylic, polyester) can increase the breakeven point for laundry to 300 days.

  3. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  4. Earth Penetration Radar Imaging System (EPRIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    The Earth Penetration Radar Imaging System (EPRIS) has been developed and has the capability to detect and locate buried mines, buried ordnance delivered by precision munitions, buried drums, buried waste/contaminants, and geological structures/features. The detected objects or features are mapped in three dimensions with high resolution. This information is then available for integration into a site characterization study. The EPRIS is a significant improvement in non-intrusive sensing and imaging capability. This phase of the EPRIS development has been extremely successful. Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) has implemented significant advances in technology into the EPRIS equipment. The frequency stepped radar sensor design has a very wide dynamic signal range and improved sensitivity over currently available equipment. The two- and three-dimensional image processing algorithms allow high-resolution placement and sizing of buried objects and/or features. The discussions related to the analog-to-digital converter and the spiral antenna, define the source of the dynamic range capability realized by EPRIS. The processing for this new radar makes use of unique synthetic aperature imaging (SAI) algorithms developed by CRC for frequency stepped radar systems. The SAI algorithms are necessary to obtain excellent spatial resolution on objects buried up to seven meters. The sensor signal processing represents a significant improvement in imaging systems. The CRC test facility permitted tests on objects buried up to 2.44 meters.

  5. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  6. Evolution of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack

    1994-01-01

    The tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system is reexamined. Several models of tidal friction are first compared in an averaged Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. With one of these models, full integrations of the tidally evolving Earth-Moon system are carried out in the complete, fully interacting, and chaotically evolving planetary system. Classic results on the history of the lunar orbit are confirmed by our more general model. A detailed history of the obliquity of the Earth which takes into account the evolving lunar orbit is presented.

  7. Future Earth: Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-08-01

    The Anthropocene, a term first coined in the 1980s by biologist Eugene Stoermer, is a word that encapsulates a powerful idea—that the world is now in the throes of a novel geological epoch, a period of time in which human activity, not natural cycles, dominates many of Earth's chemical, geological, and biological systems. The growing realization of our importance has caused a reanalysis, both scientifically and ethically, of our relationship with the natural world.

  8. Advanced Electrophysiologic Mapping Systems

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and demand in Ontario for catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias guided by advanced nonfluoroscopy mapping systems. Particular attention was paid to ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical Need Tachycardia Tachycardia refers to a diverse group of arrhythmias characterized by heart rates that are greater than 100 beats per minute. It results from abnormal firing of electrical impulses from heart tissues or abnormal electrical pathways in the heart because of scars. Tachycardia may be asymptomatic, or it may adversely affect quality of life owing to symptoms such as palpitations, headaches, shortness of breath, weakness, dizziness, and syncope. Atrial fibrillation, the most common sustained arrhythmia, affects about 99,000 people in Ontario. It is associated with higher morbidity and mortality because of increased risk of stroke, embolism, and congestive heart failure. In atrial fibrillation, most of the abnormal arrhythmogenic foci are located inside the pulmonary veins, although the atrium may also be responsible for triggering or perpetuating atrial fibrillation. Ventricular tachycardia, often found in patients with ischemic heart disease and a history of myocardial infarction, is often life-threatening; it accounts for about 50% of sudden deaths. Treatment of Tachycardia The first line of treatment for tachycardia is antiarrhythmic drugs; for atrial fibrillation, anticoagulation drugs are also used to prevent stroke. For patients refractory to or unable to tolerate antiarrhythmic drugs, ablation of the arrhythmogenic heart tissues is the only option. Surgical ablation such as the Cox-Maze procedure is more invasive. Catheter ablation, involving the delivery of energy (most commonly radiofrequency) via a percutaneous catheter system guided by X-ray fluoroscopy, has been used in place of surgical ablation for many patients. However, this conventional approach in catheter ablation

  9. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  10. Advancing Water and Water-Energy-Food Cluster Activities within Future Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.; Bhaduri, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.

    2014-12-01

    In building its emerging program, Future Earth has encouraged former Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) projects to redefine their objectives, priorities and problem approaches so they are aligned with those of Future Earth. These new projects will be characterized by more integrated applications of natural and social sciences as well as dialogue and science integrated across disciplinary boundaries to address a wide range of environmental and social issues. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) has had a heritage of integrating natural and social sciences, and recently started to also look at issues within the Water-Energy-Food (WEF) cluster using similar integrated approaches. As part of the growth of the scientific elements of this cluster, GWSP has approached Future Earth opportunities by addressing the sustainability for Water, Energy, and Food through integrated water information and improved governance.In this presentation the approaches being considered for promoting integration in both water and the WEF cluster will be discussed. In particular, potential contributions of Future Earth to research related to the use and management of water and to issues and science underpinning the W-E-F nexus deliberations will be identified. In both cases the increasing ability to utilize Earth observations and big data will advance this research agenda. In addition, the better understanding of the implications of governance structures in addressing these issues and the options for harmonizing the use of scientific knowledge and technological advances will be explored. For example, insights gained from water management studies undertaken within the GWSP are helping to focus plans for a "sustainable water futures" project and a WEF cluster within Future Earth. The potential role of the Sustainable Development Goals in bringing together the monitoring and science capabilities, and understanding of governance approaches, will be discussed as a framework for facilitating

  11. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  12. Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.

  13. Advanced information processing system for advanced launch system: Avionics architecture synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Jaskowiak, Kenneth R.; Rosch, Gene; Alger, Linda S.; Schor, Andrei L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a fault-tolerant distributed computer system architecture that was developed to meet the real time computational needs of advanced aerospace vehicles. One such vehicle is the Advanced Launch System (ALS) being developed jointly by NASA and the Department of Defense to launch heavy payloads into low earth orbit at one tenth the cost (per pound of payload) of the current launch vehicles. An avionics architecture that utilizes the AIPS hardware and software building blocks was synthesized for ALS. The AIPS for ALS architecture synthesis process starting with the ALS mission requirements and ending with an analysis of the candidate ALS avionics architecture is described.

  14. 1993 Earth Observing System reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem (Editor); Dokken, David Jon (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is a NASA-sponsored concept that uses space- and ground-based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. The space-based components of MTPE will provide a constellation of satellites to monitor the Earth from space. Sustained observations will allow researchers to monitor climate variables overtime to determine trends; however, space-based monitoring alone is not sufficient. A comprehensive data and information system, a community of scientists performing research with the data acquired, and extensive ground campaigns are all important components. Brief descriptions of the various elements that comprise the overall mission are provided. The Earth Observing System (EOS) - a series of polar-orbiting and low-inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans - is the centerpiece of MTPE. The elements comprising the EOS mission are described in detail.

  15. Earth Orbiter 1: Wideband Advanced Recorder and Processor (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terry; Kessler, John

    1999-01-01

    An advanced on-board spacecraft data system component is presented. The component is computer-based and provides science data acquisition, processing, storage, and base-band transmission functions. Specifically, the component is a very high rate solid state recorder, serving as a pathfinder for achieving the data handling requirements of next-generation hyperspectral imaging missions.

  16. The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, K. J.; Bryce, J. G.; Brown, D.; Darwish, A.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Furman, T.; Guertin, L.; Hale, S. R.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; Smith, M.; Varner, R.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    A partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Dillard University, Elizabeth City State University, and Pennsylvania State University has been established to prepare middle and high school teachers to teach Earth and environmental sciences from a processes and systems approach. Specific project goals include: providing Earth system science content instruction; assisting teachers in implementing Earth system science in their own classrooms; and creating opportunities for pre-service teachers to experience authentic research with Earth scientists. TESSE programmatic components comprise (1) a two-week intensive summer institutes for current and future teachers; (2) eight-week research immersion experiences that match preservice teachers with Earth science faculty mentors; and (3) a science liaison program involving the pairing of inservice teachers with graduate students or future teachers. The first year of the program supported a total of 49 participants (42 inservice and preservice teachers, as well as 7 graduate fellows). All participants in the program attended an intensive two-week summer workshop at UNH, and the academic-year science liaison program is underway. In future summers, all partnering institutions will hold similar two-week summer institutes. UNH will offer a more advanced course geared towards "hot topics" and research techniques in the Earth and environmental sciences.

  17. NASA University Research Centers Technical Advances in Aeronautics, Space Sciences and Technology, Earth Systems Sciences, Global Hydrology, and Education. Volumes 2 and 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Tommy L. (Editor); White, Bettie (Editor); Goodman, Steven (Editor); Sakimoto, P. (Editor); Randolph, Lynwood (Editor); Rickman, Doug (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This volume chronicles the proceedings of the 1998 NASA University Research Centers Technical Conference (URC-TC '98), held on February 22-25, 1998, in Huntsville, Alabama. The University Research Centers (URCS) are multidisciplinary research units established by NASA at 11 Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCU's) and 3 Other Minority Universities (OMU's) to conduct research work in areas of interest to NASA. The URC Technical Conferences bring together the faculty members and students from the URC's with representatives from other universities, NASA, and the aerospace industry to discuss recent advances in their fields.

  18. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2004-10-12

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  19. Advanced Containment System

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Kawamura, Hideki; Richardson, John G.; Noda, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    An advanced containment system for containing buried waste and associated leachate. A trench is dug on either side of the zone of interest containing the buried waste so as to accommodate a micro tunnel boring machine. A series of small diameter tunnels are serially excavated underneath the buried waste. The tunnels are excavated by the micro tunnel boring machine at a consistent depth and are substantially parallel to each other. As tunneling progresses, steel casing sections are connected end to end in the excavated portion of the tunnel so that a steel tube is formed. Each casing section has complementary interlocking structure running its length that interlocks with complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent casing section. Thus, once the first tube is emplaced, placement of subsequent tubes is facilitated by the complementary interlocking structure on the adjacent, previously placed, casing sections.

  20. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  1. The UK Earth System Model project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  2. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator); Barkstrom, Bruce R. (Principal Investigator)

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a key component of the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. The CERES instrument provides radiometric measurements of the Earth's atmosphere from three broadband channels. The CERES missions are a follow-on to the successful Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) mission. The first CERES instrument (PFM) was launched on November 27, 1997, as part of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Two CERES instruments (FM1 and FM2) were launched into polar orbit on board the EOS flagship Terra on December 18, 1999, and two additional CERES instruments (FM3 and FM4) were launched on board EOS Aqua on May 4,2002. [Mission Objectives] The scientific justification for the CERES measurements can be summarized by three assertions: (1) changes in the radiative energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system can cause long-term climate changes (e.g., carbon dioxide inducing global warming); (2) besides the systematic diurnal and seasonal cycles of incoming solar energy, changes in cloud properties (amount, height, optical thickness) cause the largest changes of the Earth's radiative energy balance; and (3) cloud physics is one of the weakest components of current climate models used to predict potential global climate change. CERES has four main objectives: 1) For climate change analysis, provide a continuation of the ERBE record of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), analyzed using the same algorithms that produced the ERBE data. 2) Double the accuracy of estimates of radiative fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface. 3) Provide the first long-term global estimates of the radiative fluxes within the Earth's atmosphere. 4) Provide cloud property estimates that are consistent with the radiative fluxes from surface to TOA. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  3. Advancements in Afterbody Radiative Heating Simulations for Earth Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher O.; Panesi, Marco; Brandis, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Four advancements to the simulation of backshell radiative heating for Earth entry are presented. The first of these is the development of a flow field model that treats electronic levels of the dominant backshell radiator, N, as individual species. This is shown to allow improvements in the modeling of electron-ion recombination and two-temperature modeling, which are shown to increase backshell radiative heating by 10 to 40%. By computing the electronic state populations of N within the flow field solver, instead of through the quasi-steady state approximation in the radiation code, the coupling of radiative transition rates to the species continuity equations for the levels of N, including the impact of non-local absorption, becomes feasible. Implementation of this additional level of coupling between the flow field and radiation codes represents the second advancement presented in this work, which is shown to increase the backshell radiation by another 10 to 50%. The impact of radiative transition rates due to non-local absorption indicates the importance of accurate radiation transport in the relatively complex flow geometry of the backshell. This motivates the third advancement, which is the development of a ray-tracing radiation transport approach to compute the radiative transition rates and divergence of the radiative flux at every point for coupling to the flow field, therefore allowing the accuracy of the commonly applied tangent-slab approximation to be assessed for radiative source terms. For the sphere considered at lunar-return conditions, the tangent-slab approximation is shown to provide a sufficient level of accuracy for the radiative source terms, even for backshell cases. This is in contrast to the agreement between the two approaches for computing the radiative flux to the surface, which differ by up to 40%. The final advancement presented is the development of a nonequilibrium model for NO radiation, which provides significant backshell

  4. Advances in target imaging of deep Earth structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Y.; Romanowicz, B. A.; Clouzet, P.

    2015-12-01

    A new generation of global tomographic models (Lekić and Romanowicz, 2011; French et al, 2013, 2014) has emerged with the development of accurate numerical wavefield computations in a 3D earth combined with access to enhanced HPC capabilities. These models have sharpened up mantle images and unveiled relatively small scale structures that were blurred out in previous generation models. Fingerlike structures have been found at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere, and vertically oriented broad low velocity plume conduits extend throughout the lower mantle beneath those major hotspots that are located within the perimeter of the deep mantle large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). While providing new insights into our understanding of mantle dynamics, the detailed morphology of these features, requires further efforts to obtain higher resolution images. The focus of our ongoing effort is to develop advanced tomographic methods to image remote regions of the Earth at fine scales. We have developed an approach in which distant sources (located outside of the target region) are replaced by an equivalent set of local sources located at the border of the computational domain (Masson et al., 2014). A limited number of global simulations in a reference 3D earth model is then required. These simulations are computed prior to the regional inversion, while iterations of the model need to be performed only within the region of interest, potentially allowing us to include shorter periods at limited additional computational cost. Until now, the application was limited to a distribution of receivers inside the target region. This is particularly suitable for studies of upper mantle structure in regions with dense arrays (e.g. see our companion presentation Clouzet et al., this Fall AGU). Here we present our latest development that now can include teleseismic data recorded outside the imaged region. This allows us to perform regional waveform tomography in the situation where

  5. Advanced hydrologic prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Brian A.; Braatz, Dean T.; Halquist, John B.; Deweese, Michael M.; Larson, Lee; Ingram, John J.

    1999-08-01

    As our Nation's population and infrastructure grow, natural disasters are becoming a greater threat to our society's stability. In an average year, inland flooding claims 133 lives and resulting property losses exceed 4.0 billion. Last year, 1997, these losses totaled 8.7 billion. Because of this blossoming threat, the National Weather Service (NWS) has requested funding within its 2000 budget to begin national implementation of the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction System (AHPS). With this system in place the NWS will be able to utilize precipitation and climate predictions to provide extended probabilistic river forecasts for risk-based decisions. In addition to flood and drought mitigation benefits, extended river forecasts will benefit water resource managers in decision making regarding water supply, agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and ecosystems. It's estimated that AHPS, if implemented nationwide, would save lives and provide $677 million per year in economic benefits. AHPS is used currently on the Des Moines River basin in Iowa and will be implemented soon on the Minnesota River basin in Minnesota. Experience gained from user interaction is leading to refined and enhanced product formats and displays. This discussion will elaborate on the technical requirements associated with AHPS implementation, its enhanced products and informational displays, and further refinements based on customer feedback.

  6. Mathematical simulation of Earth system dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymnikov, V. P.; Lykosov, V. N.; Volodin, E. M.

    2015-05-01

    The mathematical simulation of the Earth system, the dynamics of which depends on physical, chemical, biological, and other processes and which requires interdisciplinary approaches to studying this problem, is considered. The term "the Earth system" extends the concept "the climatic system," since additional geospheres (lithosphere, heliosphere, etc.) are taken into account and a wider range of physical, chemical, biological, and social interactions is described. The present-day level of climate modeling is discussed, and some data obtained at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences (INM RAS), are presented for this purpose. The prospects for further development of climate models toward the creation of the Earth system models based on a seamless approach, according to which a unified model is used to make short-term (several days) and long-term (climatic) prediction, are considered.

  7. Technical Considerations for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews concerns involving advanced propulsion systems. The problems involved with the use of Am-242m, is that it has a high "eta" plus an order of magnitude larger fission cross section than other fissionable materials, and that it is extremely rare. However other americium isotopes are much more common, but extremely effective isotopic separation is required. Deuterium-Tritium fusion is also not attractive for space propulsion applications. Because the pulsed systems cannot breed adequate amounts of tritium and it is difficult and expensive to bring tritium from Earth. The systems that do breed tritium have severely limited performance. However, other fusion processes should still be evaluated. Another problem with advanced propellants is that inefficiencies in converting the total energy generated into propellant energy can lead to tremendous heat rejection requirements. Therefore Many. advanced propulsion concepts benefit greatly from low-mass radiators.

  8. Earth orbital teleoperator systems evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Slaughter, P. H.; Brye, R. G.; Henderson, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanical extension of the human operator to remote and specialized environments poses a series of complex operational questions. A technical and scientific team was organized to investigate these questions through conducting specific laboratory and analytical studies. The intent of the studies was to determine the human operator requirements for remotely manned systems and to determine the particular effects that various system parameters have on human operator performance. In so doing, certain design criteria based on empirically derived data concerning the ultimate control system, the human operator, were added to the Teleoperator Development Program.

  9. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  11. Clouds and Radiation from the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, four EOS science missions are scheduled for launch, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation we will describe how scientists are using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer on the Terra (AM-1) satellite, for the remote sensing of cloud and aerosol properties. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 pm with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmosphere processes.

  12. Space life sciences: closed ecological systems: earth and space applications.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    This issue contains peer-reviewed papers from a workshop on Closed Ecological Systems: Earth and Space Applications at the 35th COSPAR General Assembly in Paris, France, convened in July 2004. The contributions reflected the wide range of international work in the field, especially Europe, Russia, Japan, and the United States. The papers are arranged according to four main themes: 1) Methods of evaluation and theory of closed ecological systems; 2) Reports from recent experiments in closed ecological system facilities; 3) Bioregenerative technologies to advance degree of closure and cycling; and 4) Laboratory studies of small closed ecological systems.

  13. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  14. Discover Earth: an earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.

    2011-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public's understanding of Earth's physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The Space Science Institute's National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. STAR-Net includes two exhibitions: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. The Discover Earth exhibition will focus on local earth science topics-such as weather, water cycle, and ecosystem changes-as well as a global view of our changing planet. The main take-away message (or Big Idea) for this exhibition is that the global environment changes - and is changed by - the host community's local environment. The project team is testing whether this approach will be a good strategy for engaging the public, especially in rural America. This presentation will provide an overview of the Discover Earth project and how it is integrating climate change ideas into the exhibit

  15. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    climate forecasts. Aqua is a major mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS), an international program centered in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to study the Earth in detail from the unique vantage point of space. Focused on key measurements identified by a consensus of U.S. and international scientists, EOS is further enabling studies of the complex interactions amongst the Earth's land, ocean, air, ice and biological systems. Aqua's contributions to monitoring water in the Earth's environment will involve all six of Aqua's instruments: the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). Frozen water in the oceans, in the form of sea ice, will be examined with both AMSR-E and MODIS data, the former allowing routine monitoring of sea ice at a coarse resolution and the latter providing greater spatial resolution but only under cloud-free conditions. Sea ice can insulate the underlying liquid water against heat loss to the often frigid overlying polar atmosphere and also reflects sunlight that would otherwise be available to warm the ocean. AMSR-E measurements will allow the routine derivation of sea ice concentrations in both polar regions, through taking advantage of the marked contrast in microwave emissions of sea ice and liquid water. This will continue, with improved resolution and accuracy, a 22-year satellite record of changes in the extent of polar ice. MODIS, with its finer resolution, will permit the identification of individual ice flows, when unobscured by clouds. AMSR-E and MODIS will also provide monitoring, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB combination will provide more-accurate space-based measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapor than have ever been obtained before, with the highest vertical

  16. Project Copernicus: An Earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation is presenting this proposal for Project Copernicus to fulfill the need for space-based remote sensing of Earth. Concentration is on data acquisition. Copernicus is designed to be a flexible system of spacecraft in a low near-polar orbit. The goal is to acquire data so that the scientists may begin to understand many Earth processes and interactions. The mission objective of Copernicus is to provide a space-based, remote-sensing measurement data acquisition and transfer system for 15 years. A description of the design project is presented.

  17. The Global Geodetic Infrastructure for Accurate Monitoring of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Neil; Blackwell, Juliana; Wang, Yan; Willis, Zdenka

    2014-05-01

    The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), two Program Offices within the National Ocean Service, NOAA, routinely collect, analyze and disseminate observations and products from several of the 17 critical systems identified by the U.S. Group on Earth Observations. Gravity, sea level monitoring, coastal zone and ecosystem management, geo-hazards and deformation monitoring and ocean surface vector winds are the primary Earth systems that have active research and operational programs in NGS and IOOS. These Earth systems collect terrestrial data but most rely heavily on satellite-based sensors for analyzing impacts and monitoring global change. One fundamental component necessary for monitoring via satellites is having a stable, global geodetic infrastructure where an accurate reference frame is essential for consistent data collection and geo-referencing. This contribution will focus primarily on system monitoring, coastal zone management and global reference frames and how the scientific contributions from NGS and IOOS continue to advance our understanding of the Earth and the Global Geodetic Observing System.

  18. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  19. Analysis of quasi-hybrid solid rocket booster concepts for advanced earth-to-orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of quasi-hybrid solid rocket boosters for advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles. Thermochemical calculations were conducted to determine the effect of liquid hydrogen addition, solids composition change plus liquid hydrogen addition, and the addition of an aluminum/liquid hydrogen slurry on the theoretical performance of a PBAN solid propellant rocket. The space shuttle solid rocket booster was used as a reference point. All three quasi-hybrid systems theoretically offer higher specific impulse when compared with the space shuttle solid rocket boosters. However, based on operational and safety considerations, the quasi-hybrid rocket is not a practical choice for near-term Earth-to-orbit booster applications. Safety and technology issues pertinent to quasi-hybrid rocket systems are discussed.

  20. Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) of Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for assessment of crop water stress at regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) derived Vegetation Water Content (VWC) at predawn (01:30 LST, descending pass) and afternoon (13:30 LST; ascending pass) were used to assess crop water stress condition over the selected meteorological subdivisions of India. The temporal profile of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to study the progression of crop growth. The Diurnal Difference Vegetation Water Content (ddVWC) was found to be sensitive to rainfall patterns (wet/dry spell) particularly in moderate to full crop cover condition (NDVI > 0.4). The ddVWC was found to be significantly (p = 0.05) correlated with the rainfall over the rainfed regions. The ddVWC was further characterized to represent different categories of crop water stress considering irrigated flooded rice crop as a benchmark. Inter year comparative analysis of temporal variations of the ddVWC revealed its capability to differentiate normal (2005) and sub-normal years (2008 and 2009) in term of intensity and persistence of crop water stress. Spatio-temporal patterns of ddVWC could capture regional progression of crop water stress at high temporal resolution in near real time.

  1. Advanced Concepts, Technologies and Flight Experiments for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Barry D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has established a tradition of excellence in scientific research and leading-edge system developments, which have contributed to improved scientific understanding of our Earth system. Specifically, LaRC advances knowledge of atmospheric processes to enable proactive climate prediction and, in that role, develops first-of-a-kind atmospheric sensing capabilities that permit a variety of new measurements to be made within a constrained enterprise budget. These advances are enabled by the timely development and infusion of new, state-of-the-art (SOA), active and passive instrument and sensor technologies. In addition, LaRC's center-of-excellence in structures and materials is being applied to the technological challenges of reducing measurement system size, mass, and cost through the development and use of space-durable materials; lightweight, multi-functional structures; and large deployable/inflatable structures. NASA Langley is engaged in advancing these technologies across the full range of readiness levels from concept, to components, to prototypes, to flight experiments, and on to actual science mission infusion. The purpose of this paper is to describe current activities and capabilities, recent achievements, and future plans of the integrated science, engineering, and technology team at Langley Research Center who are working to enable the future of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.

  2. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  3. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  4. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  5. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  6. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  7. Advanced Microturbine Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosfjord, T; Tredway, W; Chen, A; Mulugeta, J; Bhatia, T

    2008-12-31

    In July 2000, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) was one of five recipients of a US Department of Energy contract under the Advanced Microturbine System (AMS) program managed by the Office of Distributed Energy (DE). The AMS program resulted from several government-industry workshops that recognized that microturbine systems could play an important role in improving customer choice and value for electrical power. That is, the group believed that electrical power could be delivered to customers more efficiently and reliably than the grid if an effective distributed energy strategy was followed. Further, the production of this distributed power would be accomplished with less undesirable pollutants of nitric oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), and carbon monoxide (CO). In 2000, the electrical grid delivered energy to US customers at a national average of approximately 32% efficiency. This value reflects a wide range of powerplants, but is dominated by older, coal burning stations that provide approximately 50% of US electrical power. The grid efficiency is also affected by transmission and distribution (T&D) line losses that can be significant during peak power usage. In some locations this loss is estimated to be 15%. Load pockets can also be so constrained that sufficient power cannot be transmitted without requiring the installation of new wires. New T&D can be very expensive and challenging as it is often required in populated regions that do not want above ground wires. While historically grid reliability has satisfied most customers, increasing electronic transactions and the computer-controlled processes of the 'digital economy' demand higher reliability. For them, power outages can be very costly because of transaction, work-in-progress, or perishable commodity losses. Powerplants that produce the grid electrical power emit significant levels of undesirable NOx, UHC, and CO pollutants. The level of emission is quoted as either a technology

  8. Advances in Sensor Webs for NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Moe, K.; Smith, S.; Prescott, G.

    2007-12-01

    The world is slowly evolving into a web of interconnected sensors. Innovations such as camera phones that upload directly to the internet, networked devices with built-in GPS chips, traffic sensors, and the wireless networks that connect these devices are transforming our society. Similar advances are occurring in science sensors at NASA. NASA developed autonomy software has demonstrated the potential for space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect, analyze, and respond to science events. This software has also enabled NASA satellites to coordinate with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor web. A vision for NASA sensor webs for Earth science is to enable "on-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit." Several technologies for improved autonomous science and sensor webs are being developed at NASA. Each of these technologies advances the state of the art in sensorwebs in different areas including enabling model interactions with sensorwebs, smart autonomous sensors, and sensorweb communications. Enabling model interactions in sensor webs is focused on the creation and management of new sensor web enabled information products. Specifically, the format of these data products and the sensor webs that use them must be standardized so that sensor web components can more easily communicate with each other. This standardization will allow new components such as models and simulations to be included within sensor webs. Smart sensing implies sophistication in the sensors themselves. The goal of smart sensing is to enable autonomous event detection and reconfiguration. This may include onboard processing, self-healing sensors, and self-identifying sensors. The goal of communication enhancements, especially session layer management, is to support dialog control for autonomous operations

  9. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  10. The earth and its life: systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Veizer, J

    1988-01-01

    From the planetary point of view, the Earth can be imagined as a system comprised of interwined natural populations propagated through time via recycling. This recycling, or 'birth/death' process, imposes age patterns on natural populations of the solid earth, hydrosphere, atmosphere and living entities. Mathematically, the concept is analogous to that of population dynamics in living systems. The populations of the Earth system form a hierarchical structure. The hierarchy of geological tectonic realms contains populations of less than or equal to 10(24)-10(26) gr in size, with half-lives in the 10(7)-10(9) yr time range. The approximate parameters for the oceans are less than or equal to 10(24) gr and 10(2)-10(7) yr, for the atmosphere less than or equal to 10(21) gr and 10(-2)-10(7) yr, and for living systems less than or equal to 10(14)-10(19) gr and 10(-3)-10(-2) yr, respectively. In this perspective, and in departure from the GAIA hypothesis, the subordinate populations, such as those of living systems, are constrained to operate within limits imposed by the larger, and slower, hierarchies. They can overstep the imposed limits only on time scales shorter than the response time of the dominant populations. Isotopic record of past sea water shows that on time scales of 10(7) yr the solid earth, hydrosphere, atmosphere and life act as a unified system controlled by tectonics, that is by the hierarchy of the solid earth.

  11. Advanced Atmospheric Water Vapor DIAL Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; DeYoung, Russell J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of atmospheric water vapor is very important for understanding the Earth's climate and water cycle. The remote sensing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique is a powerful method to perform such measurement from aircraft and space. This thesis describes a new advanced detection system, which incorporates major improvements regarding sensitivity and size. These improvements include a low noise advanced avalanche photodiode detector, a custom analog circuit, a 14-bit digitizer, a microcontroller for on board averaging and finally a fast computer interface. This thesis describes the design and validation of this new water vapor DIAL detection system which was integrated onto a small Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with minimal weight and power consumption. Comparing its measurements to an existing DIAL system for aerosol and water vapor profiling validated the detection system.

  12. Modeling Earth system changes of the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutzbach, John E.

    1992-01-01

    This review outlines some of the challenging problems to be faced in understanding the causes and mechanisms of large climatic changes and gives examples of initial studies of these problems with climate models. The review covers climatic changes in three main periods of earth history: (1) the past several centuries; (2) the past several glacial-interglacial cycles; and (3) the past several million years. The review will concentrate on studies of climate but, where possible, will mention broader aspects of the earth system.

  13. 3D Printing of Advanced Biocomposites on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana M.; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because it can replicate and repair itself, and do a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology can greatly enhance and expand life's evolved repertoire. Using natural and synthetically altered organisms as the feedstock for additive manufacturing could one day make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. To this end our lab has produced a proof-of-concept bioprinter with nearly one-cell resolution. Genetically engineering yeast cells to secrete bioproducts subsequent to printing allows the potential to make biomaterials with a fine microstructure. Imagine a production system that, at a few micron scale resolution, can add mollusk shell for compressive strength per unit mass, spider silk or collagen for tensile strength per unit mass, and potentially biologically-deposited wires. Now imagine what new products can be enabled by such a technology, on earth or beyond

  14. Advanced border monitoring sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ronald A.; Winston, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    McQ has developed an advanced sensor system tailored for border monitoring that has been delivered as part of the SBInet program for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Technology developments that enhance a broad range of features are presented in this paper, which address the overall goal of the system to improving unattended ground sensor system capabilities for border monitoring applications. Specifically, this paper addresses a system definition, communications architecture, advanced signal processing to classify targets, and distributed sensor fusion processing.

  15. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  16. Addressing the Complexity of the Earth System

    SciTech Connect

    Nobre, Carlos; Brasseur, Guy P.; Shapiro, Melvyn; Lahsen, Myanna; Brunet, Gilbert; Busalacchi, Antonio; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Seitzinger, Sybil; Noone, Kevin; Ometto, Jean P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper highlights the role of the Earth-system biosphere and illustrates the complex: biosphere-atmosphere interactions in the Amazon Basin, changes in nitrogen cycling, ocean chemistry, and land use. It introduces three important requirements for accelerating the development and use of Earth system information. The first requirement is to develop Earth system analysis and prediction models that account for multi-scale physical, chemical and biological processes, including their interactions in the coupled atmosphere-ocean-land-ice system. The development of these models requires partnerships between academia, national research centers, and operational prediction facilities, and builds upon accomplishments in weather and climate predictions. They will highlight the regional aspects of global change, and include modules for water system, agriculture, forestry, energy, air quality, health, etc. The second requirement is to model the interactions between humans and the weather-climate-biogeochemical system. The third requirement is to introduce novel methodologies to account for societal drivers, impacts and feedbacks. This is a challenging endeavor requiring creative solutions and some compromising because human behavior cannot be fully represented within the framework of present-day physical prediction systems.

  17. Earth-like habitats in planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, J.; Bitsch, B.; Kührt, E.; Morbidelli, A.; Tornow, C.; Wünnemann, K.; Fernandes, V. A.; Grenfell, J. L.; Rauer, H.; Wagner, R.; Werner, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the concept of habitability is clearly related to an evolutionary knowledge of the particular planet-in-question. However, additional indications so-called "systemic aspects" of the planetary system as a whole governs a particular planet's claim on habitability. In this paper we focus on such systemic aspects and discuss their relevance to the formation of an "Earth-like" habitable planet. This contribution summarizes our results obtained by lunar sample work and numerical models within the framework of the Research Alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". We consider various scenarios which simulate the dynamical evolution of the Solar System and discuss the consequences for the likelihood of forming an Earth-like world orbiting another star. Our model approach is constrained by observations of the modern Solar System and the knowledge of its history. Results suggest that on the one hand the long-term presence of terrestrial planets is jeopardized due to gravitational interactions if giant planets are present. On the other hand the habitability of inner rocky planets may be supported in those planetary systems hosting giant planets. Gravitational interactions within a complex multiple-body structure including giant planets may supply terrestrial planets with materials which formed in the colder region of the proto-planetary disk. During these processes, water, the prime requisite for habitability, is delivered to the inner system. This may occur either during the main accretion phase of terrestrial planets or via impacts during a post-accretion bombardment. Results for both processes are summarized and discussed with reference to the lunar crater record. Starting from a scenario involving migration of the giant planets this contribution discusses the delivery of water to Earth, the modification of atmospheres by impacts in a planetary system context and the likelihood of the existence of extrasolar Earth-like habitable worlds.

  18. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  19. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  20. Efficient Bulk Data Replication for the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alex; Gunter, Dan; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie; Williams, Dean; Long, Jeff; Hick, Jason; Lee, Jason; Dart, Eli

    2010-03-10

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) community faces the difficult challenge of managing the distribution of massive data sets to thousands of scientists around the world. To move data replicas efficiently, the ESG has developed a data transfer management tool called the Bulk Data Mover (BDM). We describe the performance results of the current system and plans towards extending the techniques developed so far for the up- coming project, in which the ESG will employ advanced networks to move multi-TB datasets with the ulti- mate goal of helping researchers understand climate change and its potential impacts on world ecology and society.

  1. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology program overview: Impact of civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Earth-to-Orbit (ETO) Propulsion Technology Program is dedicated to advancing rocket engine technologies for the development of fully reusable engine systems that will enable space transportation systems to achieve low cost, routine access to space. The program addresses technology advancements in the areas of engine life extension/prediction, performance enhancements, reduced ground operations costs, and in-flight fault tolerant engine operations. The primary objective is to acquire increased knowledge and understanding of rocket engine chemical and physical processes in order to evolve more realistic analytical simulations of engine internal environments, to derive more accurate predictions of steady and unsteady loads, and using improved structural analyses, to more accurately predict component life and performance, and finally to identify and verify more durable advanced design concepts. In addition, efforts were focused on engine diagnostic needs and advances that would allow integrated health monitoring systems to be developed for enhanced maintainability, automated servicing, inspection, and checkout, and ultimately, in-flight fault tolerant engine operations.

  2. Advanced Chemical Propulsion System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portz, Ron; Alexander, Leslie; Chapman, Jack; England, Chris; Henderson, Scott; Krismer, David; Lu, Frank; Wilson, Kim; Miller, Scott

    2007-01-01

    A detailed; mission-level systems study has been performed to show the benefit resulting from engine performance gains that will result from NASA's In-Space Propulsion ROSS Cycle 3A NRA, Advanced Chemical Technology sub-topic. The technology development roadmap to accomplish the NRA goals are also detailed in this paper. NASA-Marshall and NASA-JPL have conducted mission-level studies to define engine requirements, operating conditions, and interfaces. Five reference missions have been chosen for this analysis based on scientific interest, current launch vehicle capability and trends in space craft size: a) GTO to GEO, 4800 kg, delta-V for GEO insertion only approx.1830 m/s; b) Titan Orbiter with aerocapture, 6620 kg, total delta V approx.210 m/s, mostly for periapsis raise after aerocapture; c) Enceladus Orbiter (Titan aerocapture) 6620 kg, delta V approx.2400 m/s; d) Europa Orbiter, 2170 kg, total delta V approx.2600 m/s; and e) Mars Orbiter, 2250 kg, total delta V approx.1860 m/s. The figures of merit used to define the benefit of increased propulsion efficiency at the spacecraft level include propulsion subsystem wet mass, volume and overall cost. The objective of the NRA is to increase the specific impulse of pressure-fed earth storable bipropellant rocket engines to greater than 330 seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and monomothylhydrazine propellants and greater than 335 , seconds with nitrogen tetroxide and hydrazine. Achievement of the NRA goals will significantly benefit NASA interplanetary missions and other government and commercial opportunities by enabling reduced launch weight and/or increased payload. The study also constitutes a crucial stepping stone to future development, such as pump-fed storable engines.

  3. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  4. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  5. Advanced satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  6. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Neal, John S; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Beck, P; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  7. Advances in the growth of alkaline-Earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, J. S.; Cherepy, N. J.; Beck, P. R.; Payne, S. A.; Burger, A.; Rowe, E.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-09-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystalgrowth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  8. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  9. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution smaller than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have some first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra: MODIS - 1.37 microns cirrus channel; 250 m daily cover for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - Global CO maps and CH4 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  10. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  11. Earth Observation Missions at OHB System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Kassebom, M.; Ziegler, B.; Mahal, S.; Greinacher, R.; Holsten, S.; Borowy, C.

    2008-08-01

    This paper covers the current OHB-System AG activities in the field of Earth Observation with small satellites ranging from science and research towards commercial and security missions. Very highresolution, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, as well as very high resolution SAR mission concepts are presented including the following projects: The SAR-Lupe constellation generates very high resolution SAR images for military reconnaissance purposes. It is developed by OHB-System and reaches full in-orbit deployment in 2008. EnMAP - featuring an innovative hyperspectral sensor systems for the detailed and global analysis of eco-system parameters. Very high resolution SAR and Optical Constellations of 1m resolution are currently investigated for emergency response and disaster management, which require a fast system response-time. Data Relay from GEO relaxes the typical EO bottle-neck in downloading data. Therefore it enables an increase of LEO observation time and reduces image ageing as well as system response time by direct EO satellite tasking. Ocean-Colour from GEO shall be a sustainable source for intra-daily observations of coastal zones for environment monitoring, fishery management and coastal water pollution. Next Generation very high resolution missions below 1m resolution are proposed for reconnaissance and dual-use applications for commercial customers. New services and products are under development for a range of applications, including hyperspectral data exploitation, data fusion with in-situ systems for maritime environment, security as well as for air quality services. The realisation of an end-user oriented infrastructure - including space and ground segment - for commercial Earth observation is a key element of OHB-System's Earth observation activities.

  12. Advanced Compact Holographic Data Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George

    2000-01-01

    JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Advanced Holographic Memory (AHM) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electro-optic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and highspeed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology to enhance mission capabilities for all NASA's Earth Science Mission. In this paper, recent technology progress in developing this CHDS at JPL will be presented.

  13. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    In this period of performance a conference (The 1994 Conference on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology) was organized and implemented by the University of Alabama in Huntsville and held May 15-17 to assemble and disseminate the current information on Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Propulsion Technology. The results were assembled for publication as NASA-CP-3282, Volume 1 and 2 and NASA-CP-3287.

  14. The Impact of Dimethyl Sulfide Emissions on the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Elliott, S.; Ghan, S. J.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Lucas, D. D.; Maltrud, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of many biologically derived gases and particles emitted from the ocean that has the potential to affect climate. In the case of DMS it is oxidized to sulfate, which increases the aerosol loading in the atmosphere either through nucleation or condensation on other aerosols, which in turn changes the energy balance of the Earth by reflection of sunlight either through direct reflection by the aerosols or by modifying clouds. We have previously shown that the geographical distribution of DMS emission from the ocean may be quite sensitive to climate changes, especially in the Southern Ocean. We have updated our state-of-the-art sulfur-cycle Earth system model (ESM), based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM) climate model, to include the indirect effect of DMS derived sulfate on clouds by using the Modal Aerosol Model (MAM), and have updated our ocean sulfur ecosystem model in light of updated ocean DMS observations. We are now simulating the impact of DMS on the energy balance and climate of the Earth system, and its sensitivity/feedback to climate change. The estimate from our initial simulations is that DMS in the pre-industrial era is responsible for ~3.5 W/m2 of reflected sunlight, globally averaged (other preindustrial aerosols were included). Our next set of simulations will estimate the sensitivity/feedback to climate change, including the effects of anthropogenic aerosols. Support for this work was provided through the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Imaging Spectroscopy Instrumentation for Earth Science and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Robert; Vane, Gregg

    2016-07-01

    Spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method based in physics that is used to investigate questions and test hypotheses across an extraordinary range of scientific disciplines as well as for quantitative applications. In the late 1970's the concept for an instrument that measured spectra for every point in an image was conceived and proposed using the most advanced infrared detector array available at the time. The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer as developed and first flew in 1982. New discoveries were made with the first flights of this instrument. Since that time increasingly advanced airborne and space imaging spectrometer have been developed and deployed. These instruments have been used for science and applications on Earth and for science and exploration throughout the solar system. This talk presents the advances in imaging spectrometer instrumentation and key discoveries of imaging spectrometers for Earth and elsewhere in our solar system. It also presents examples of new imaging spectrometer architectures enabled by new detectors and spectrometer design forms as well as some of the science and applications objectives that can be pursued ranging 50 micron spatial imaging for planetary surface rovers to spectroscopic instruments measuring exoplanet composition and structure.

  16. NASA's advanced space transportation system launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.

    1991-01-01

    Some insight is provided into the advanced transportation planning and systems that will evolve to support long term mission requirements. The general requirements include: launch and lift capacity to low earth orbit (LEO); space based transfer systems for orbital operations between LEO and geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), the Moon, and Mars; and Transfer vehicle systems for long duration deep space probes. These mission requirements are incorporated in the NASA Civil Needs Data Base. To accomplish these mission goals, adequate lift capacity to LEO must be available: to support science and application missions; to provide for construction of the Space Station Freedom; and to support resupply of personnel and supplies for its operations. Growth in lift capacity must be time phased to support an expanding mission model that includes Freedom Station, the Mission to Planet Earth, and an expanded robotic planetary program. The near term increase in cargo lift capacity associated with development of the Shuttle-C is addressed. The joint DOD/NASA Advanced Launch System studies are focused on a longer term new cargo capability that will significantly reduce costs of placing payloads in space.

  17. The Group on Earth Observations and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2006-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is leading a worldwide effort to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) over the next 10 years. The GEOSS vision, articulated in its 10-Year Implementation Plan, represents the consolidation of a global scientific and political consensus: the assessment of the state of the Earth requires continuous and coordinated observation of our planet at all scales. GEOSS aims to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth; increase understanding of Earth processes; and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. After the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 highlighted the urgent need for coordinated observations relating to the state of the Earth, GEO was established at the Third Earth Observation Summit in February 2005 and the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan was endorsed. GEO currently involves 60 countries; the European Commission; and 43 international organizations and has begun implementation of the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan. GEO programme activities cover nine societal benefit areas (Disasters; Health; Energy; Climate; Water; Weather; Ecosystems; Agriculture; Biodiversity) and five transverse or crosscutting elements (User Engagement; Architecture; Data Management; Capacity Building; Outreach). All these activities have as their final goal the establishment of the "system of systems" which will yield a broad range of basic societal benefits, including the reduction of loss of life and property from tsunamis, hurricanes, and other natural disasters; improved water resource and energy management; and improved understanding of environmental factors significant to public health. As a "system of systems", GEOSS will work with and build upon existing national, regional, and international systems to provide comprehensive, coordinated Earth observations from thousands of instruments worldwide

  18. Advanced training systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  19. Smouldering Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, G.

    2012-04-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless burning, represent the most persistent type of combustion phenomena and the longest continuously fires on Earth system. Indeed, smouldering mega-fires of peatlands occur with some frequency during the dry session in, for example, Indonesia, Canada, Russia, UK and USA. Smouldering fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the ground and can reach depth >5 m if large cracks, natural piping or channel systems exist. It threatens to release sequestered carbon deep into the soil. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains, weather changes or fire-fighting attempts, and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading deep and over extensive areas. Recent figures at the global scale estimate that average annual greenhouse gas emissions from smouldering fires are equivalent to 15% of man-made emissions. These fires are difficult or impossible to detect with current remote sensing methods because the chemistry is significantly different, their thermal radiation signature is much smaller, and the plume is much less buoyant. These wildfires burn fossil fuels and thus are a carbon-positive fire phenomena. This creates feedbacks in the climate system because soil moisture deficit and self-heating are enchanted under warmer climate scenarios and lead to more frequent fires. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in more frequent Artic fires. Unprecedented permafrost thaw is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to smouldering fires for the fist time since millennia. Although interactions between flaming fires and the Earth system have been a central focus, smouldering fires are as important but have received very little attention. DBut differences with flaming fires are important. This paper reviews the current knowledge on smouldering fires in the Earth system regarding combustion dynamics, damage to the soil, emissions, remote sensing and

  20. NASA Now: A-Train: Monitoring the Earth System

    NASA Video Gallery

    The topic for this NASA Now is the Earth system and how NASA uses a constellation of satellites called the A-Train to monitor the Earth system. All five satellites in the A-Train fly over the same ...

  1. Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) system definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An executive summary of a study on the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) was presented. It was concluded that the overall costs of space systems could be reduced significantly by the development of a modular shuttle compatible standard spacecraft, and the use of that spacecraft with the Shuttle Transportation System. It was also demonstrated that the development of the standard spacecraft is feasible, desirable, and cost effective if applied to a series of missions. The ability to initially retrieve, refurbish, and reuse the spacecraft and its payload, and ultimately to perform in-orbit servicing, would result in significant cost savings. A number of specific conclusions and recommendations were also suggested.

  2. The 1990 Reference Handbook: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System (EOS) including goals and requirements is given. Its role in the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the International--Biosphere Program is addressed. The EOS mission requirements, science, fellowship program, data and information systems architecture, data policy, space measurement, and mission elements are presented along with the management of EOS. Descriptions of the facility instruments, instrument investigations, and interdisciplinary investigations are also present. The role of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the mission is mentioned.

  3. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  4. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  5. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  6. Advanced Operating System Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cittolin, Sergio; Riccardi, Fabio; Vascotto, Sandro

    In this paper we describe an R&D effort to define an OS architecture suitable for the requirements of the Data Acquisition and Control of an LHC experiment. Large distributed computing systems are foreseen to be the core part of the DAQ and Control system of the future LHC experiments. Neworks of thousands of processors, handling dataflows of several gigaBytes per second, with very strict timing constraints (microseconds), will become a common experience in the following years. Problems like distributyed scheduling, real-time communication protocols, failure-tolerance, distributed monitoring and debugging will have to be faced. A solid software infrastructure will be required to manage this very complicared environment, and at this moment neither CERN has the necessary expertise to build it, nor any similar commercial implementation exists. Fortunately these problems are not unique to the particle and high energy physics experiments, and the current research work in the distributed systems field, especially in the distributed operating systems area, is trying to address many of the above mentioned issues. The world that we are going to face in the next ten years will be quite different and surely much more interconnected than the one we see now. Very ambitious projects exist, planning to link towns, nations and the world in a single "Data Highway". Teleconferencing, Video on Demend, Distributed Multimedia Applications are just a few examples of the very demanding tasks to which the computer industry is committing itself. This projects are triggering a great research effort in the distributed, real-time micro-kernel based operating systems field and in the software enginering areas. The purpose of our group is to collect the outcame of these different research efforts, and to establish a working environment where the different ideas and techniques can be tested, evaluated and possibly extended, to address the requirements of a DAQ and Control System suitable for LHC

  7. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  8. Advanced Data Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    Current and future requirements of the aerospace sensors and transducers field make it necessary for the design and development of new data acquisition devices and instrumentation systems. New designs are sought to incorporate self-health, self-calibrating, self-repair capabilities, allowing greater measurement reliability and extended calibration cycles. With the addition of power management schemes, state-of-the-art data acquisition systems allow data to be processed and presented to the users with increased efficiency and accuracy. The design architecture presented in this paper displays an innovative approach to data acquisition systems. The design incorporates: electronic health self-check, device/system self-calibration, electronics and function self-repair, failure detection and prediction, and power management (reduced power consumption). These requirements are driven by the aerospace industry need to reduce operations and maintenance costs, to accelerate processing time and to provide reliable hardware with minimum costs. The project's design architecture incorporates some commercially available components identified during the market research investigation like: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) Programmable Analog Integrated Circuits (PAC IC) and Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA); Digital Signal Processing (DSP) electronic/system control and investigation of specific characteristics found in technologies like: Electronic Component Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF); and Radiation Hardened Component Availability. There are three main sections discussed in the design architecture presented in this document. They are the following: (a) Analog Signal Module Section, (b) Digital Signal/Control Module Section and (c) Power Management Module Section. These sections are discussed in detail in the following pages. This approach to data acquisition systems has resulted in the assignment of patent rights to Kennedy Space Center under U.S. patent # 6

  9. Earth System Oxygenation: Toward an Integrated Theory of Earth Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The cause of the progressive oxygenation of Earth's biosphere remains poorly understood. The problem is bounded by the interplay of three irreversible, secular changes: the escape of H to space, which makes the planet more oxidized; the evolution of photoautotrophy - which converts solar energy into redox disequilbrium - and related metabolisms; and the cooling of the planet, which affects the exchange of material between Earth's reduced interior and relatively oxidized surface through a variety of processes. The first of these changes is quantitatively considered elsewhere, and is connected to the other two because H escape depends on atmospheric H2 and CH4 contents. The second of these changes is an area of vigorous research, particularly over the past decade. Important work included efforts to constrain the timing of key evolutionary events using organic geochemical and genomic records, and to understand the timing and tempo of environmental oxidation, particularly preceding the "Great Oxidation Event" (GOE) at ~2.4 Ga. As the community sorts through various debates, evidence is accumulating that the pre-GOE period was a dynamic era of transient "whiffs" of oxidation, most likely due to small amounts of biogenic O2 that appeared as early as ~3.0 Ga. The implication is that O2 sinks generally overwhelmed substantial O2 sources through the first half of Earth history, and that a decrease in sink strength and/or increase in source strength could have resulted in increasing instability of trace pO2 in the runup to the GOE. The most likely sinks are coupled to reductants in Earth's interior, which leads us to the third major change—secular cooling of the planet. It is almost certain that this cooling led to changes in mantle dynamics, rates of plate motion, and melting behaviors, which in turn affected volcanism, crust composition, hydrothermal and metamorphic alteration, ocean nutrient budgets, and recycling at subduction zones. These factors have all been

  10. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  11. Power Systems Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  12. Advanced imaging communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbert, E. E.; Rice, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Key elements of system are imaging and nonimaging sensors, data compressor/decompressor, interleaved Reed-Solomon block coder, convolutional-encoded/Viterbi-decoded telemetry channel, and Reed-Solomon decoding. Data compression provides efficient representation of sensor data, and channel coding improves reliability of data transmission.

  13. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Advanced PFBC (APFB) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC, PFBC and APFB in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of these advanced, solid fuel power generation cycles.

  14. Data management system advanced architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, ED

    1991-01-01

    The topics relating to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) are presented in view graph form and include: (1) the data management system (DMS) concept; (2) DMS evolution rationale; (3) the DMS advance architecture task; (4) DMS group support for Ames payloads; (5) DMS testbed development; (6) the DMS architecture task status; (7) real time multiprocessor testbed; (8) networked processor performance; (9) and the DMS advance architecture task 1992 goals.

  15. Earth System Science Online at Hampton University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2002-12-01

    Earth System Science Online is an innovative web-based science course for teachers and future teachers. Supported by NASA and offered by the Interdisciplinary Science Center at Hampton University, this course targets students interested in an asynchronous web-based learning environment. Earth System Science Online allows participants to earn three hours of science graduate credit through their online explorations of the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The incorporation of specific problems-based case studies, allow students to investigate weather phenomena, deforestation, and the various instruments and satellite data systems that are used to collect and analyze this data. This newly initiated web-based course delivers all lectures, text readings, and course assignments online. Assignments are given on a weekly basis, and participants are expected to conduct independent research that will enrich their online experience. The nature of the web allows registered participants to easily integrate text and graphics into their assignments and have access to their classmate's work. Participants meet online weekly and interact as a team. Team members take advantage of Hampton University's leadership in atmospheric sciences by meeting online to discuss course content with faculty and guest experts. Hampton University, a Historically Black University (HBCU), has built a unique partnership between the scientists at the Center for Atmospheric Sciences and the educators at the Interdisciplinary Science Center. Both centers work closely together and partner with NASA to provide outreach efforts for several NASA satellite-based research missions. The ISC has been recognized for the quality of its professional development for teachers for over eighteen years. Earth System Science Online brings together a unique partnership of educators and scientists providing an innovative online course for teachers.

  16. Earth orbit navigation study. Volume 2: System evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An overall systems evaluation was made of five candidate navigation systems in support of earth orbit missions. The five systems were horizon sensor system, unkown landmark tracking system, ground transponder system, manned space flight network, and tracking and data relay satellite system. Two reference missions were chosen: a low earth orbit mission and a transfer trajectory mission from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. The specific areas addressed in the evaluation were performance, multifunction utilization, system mechanization, and cost.

  17. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgough, J.; Moses, K.; Klafin, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture, requirements, and system elements of an ultrareliable, advanced flight control system are described. The basic criteria are functional reliability of 10 to the minus 10 power/hour of flight and only 6 month scheduled maintenance. A distributed system architecture is described, including a multiplexed communication system, reliable bus controller, the use of skewed sensor arrays, and actuator interfaces. Test bed and flight evaluation program are proposed.

  18. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  19. Earth system science: A program for global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Earth System Sciences Committee (ESSC) was appointed to consider directions for the NASA Earth-sciences program, with the following charge: review the science of the Earth as a system of interacting components; recommend an implementation strategy for Earth studies; and define the role of NASA in such a program. The challenge to the Earth system science is to develop the capability to predict those changes that will occur in the next decade to century, both naturally and in response to human activity. Sustained, long-term measurements of global variables; fundamental descriptions of the Earth and its history; research foci and process studies; development of Earth system models; an information system for Earth system science; coordination of Federal agencies; and international cooperation are examined.

  20. Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenton, T.M.; Held, H.; Lucht, W.; Rahmstorf, S.; Kriegler, E. |; Hall, J.W.; Schellnhuber, H.J. |

    2008-02-12

    The term 'tipping point' commonly refers to a critical threshold at which a tiny perturbation can qualitatively alter the state or development of a system. Here the authors introduce the term 'tipping element' to describe large-scale components of the Earth system that may pass a tipping point. They critically evaluate potential policy-relevant tipping elements in the climate system under anthropogenic forcing, drawing on the pertinent literature and a recent international workshop to compile a short list, and they assess where their tipping points lie. An expert elicitation is used to help rank their sensitivity to global warming and the uncertainty about the underlying physical mechanisms. Then the authors explain how, in principle, early warning systems could be established to detect the proximity of some tipping points.

  1. Development of Carbon Dioxide Removal Systems for Advanced Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Trinh, Diep; Gostowski, Rudy; King, Eric; Mattox, Emily M.; Watson, David; Thomas, John

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, evaluating structured sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the carbon dioxide (CO2) removal hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Resource Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program. A companion paper discusses development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations for this project.

  2. Discover Earth: An earth system science program for libraries and their communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, L.; Dusenbery, P.

    2010-12-01

    The view from space has deepened our understanding of Earth as a global, dynamic system. Instruments on satellites and spacecraft, coupled with advances in ground-based research, have provided us with astonishing new perspectives of our planet. Now more than ever, enhancing the public’s understanding of Earth’s physical and biological systems is vital to helping citizens make informed policy decisions especially when they are faced with the consequences of global climate change. In spite of this relevance, there are many obstacles to achieving broad public understanding of key earth system science (ESS) concepts. Strategies for addressing climate change can only succeed with the full engagement of the general public. As reported by U.S. News and World Report in 2010, small towns in rural America are emerging as the front line in the climate change debate in the country. The Space Science Institute’s National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) in partnership with the American Library Association (ALA), the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI), and the National Girls Collaborative Project (NGCP) have received funding from NSF to develop a national project called the STAR Library Education Network: a hands-on learning program for libraries and their communities (or STAR-Net for short). STAR stands for Science-Technology, Activities and Resources. There are two distinct components of STAR-Net: Discover Earth and Discover Tech. While the focus for education reform is on school improvement, there is considerable research that supports the role that out-of-school experiences can play in student achievement. Libraries provide an untapped resource for engaging underserved youth and their families in fostering an appreciation and deeper understanding of science and technology topics. The overarching goal of the project is to reach underserved youth and their families with informal STEM learning experiences. The Discover Earth part of STAR_Net will produce ESS

  3. MODIS Radiances for Earth System Science Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S. P.; Salomonson, V. V.; Barnes, W. L.; Xiong, X.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Serafino, G. N.

    2002-05-01

    MODIS, a major NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument, was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) for global monitoring of the atmosphere, the terrestrial ecosystems and oceans, to develop better understanding of the 'Total Earth System', and to study the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. MODIS with its 2330 km viewing swath width provides almost daily global coverage. It acquires data in 36 high spectral resolution bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micron with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands), and 1000 m (29 bands). This year a similar instrument will be flown on the EOS-Aqua satellite (1:30 pm equator crossing time). This will enable us to study diurnal variation of the rapidly varying systems. The radiance data measured by MODIS at high spatial resolution with some new channels (never used before for remote sensing from space) provides improved and valuable information about the physical structure of the Earth system, such as vertical distribution of temperature and humidity, cloud and aerosol characteristics, sources and sinks of trace gases, surface emissivity, land and sea surface temperature, land cover and primary productivity, snow cover and sea ice concentration, glacier and polar ice sheets, ocean currents, ocean color, and phytoplankton. Almost all key climate and environmental parameters are available as standard MODIS products and are derived from MODIS high spatial resolution radiances. However, these radiometrically corrected and geolocated high spatial resolution radiance data (referred as Level 1B product) are much in demand by the science user community. These radiances are needed to enhance existing algorithms, to test new algorithms for the retrieval of existing or new parameters, and for developing simulation datasets for characterization of new sensors. MODIS radiance counts, calibrated radiance/reflectance, geolocation

  4. Aerial data acquisition system for earth survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Bernd

    1990-11-01

    Zeiss, in cooperation with Niletus, have developed an airborne Data Recording and Control System using high resolution reconnaissance cameras combined with video tape recording. Sensors are installed in a Dornier DO-228 aircraft for special earth survey missions which provide forest damage assessment in mountainous regions. Sensors include KS-153A wide angle- and telelens camera configurations. A laser distance meter provides autofocus capability for the telelens camera. Flight and mission data are recorded on film and video for cross-reference purposes during photo-interpretation. Special photogrammetric interpretation equipment then produces detailed maps used to direct corrective activities.

  5. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  6. Environmental Sensor Networks: A revolution in the earth system science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Jane K.; Martinez, Kirk

    2006-10-01

    Environmental Sensor Networks (ESNs) facilitate the study of fundamental processes and the development of hazard response systems. They have evolved from passive logging systems that require manual downloading, into 'intelligent' sensor networks that comprise a network of automatic sensor nodes and communications systems which actively communicate their data to a Sensor Network Server (SNS) where these data can be integrated with other environmental datasets. The sensor nodes can be fixed or mobile and range in scale appropriate to the environment being sensed. ESNs range in scale and function and we have reviewed over 50 representative examples. Large Scale Single Function Networks tend to use large single purpose nodes to cover a wide geographical area. Localised Multifunction Sensor Networks typically monitor a small area in more detail, often with wireless ad-hoc systems. Biosensor Networks use emerging biotechnologies to monitor environmental processes as well as developing proxies for immediate use. In the future, sensor networks will integrate these three elements ( Heterogeneous Sensor Networks). The communications system and data storage and integration (cyberinfrastructure) aspects of ESNs are discussed, along with current challenges which need to be addressed. We argue that Environmental Sensor Networks will become a standard research tool for future Earth System and Environmental Science. Not only do they provide a 'virtual' connection with the environment, they allow new field and conceptual approaches to the study of environmental processes to be developed. We suggest that although technological advances have facilitated these changes, it is vital that Earth Systems and Environmental Scientists utilise them.

  7. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation I will describe the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data to improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  8. Earth Observing System: Science Objectives and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. In this presentation we review the key areas of scientific uncertainty in understanding climate and global change, and follow that with a description of the EOS goals, objectives, and scientific research elements that comprise the program (instrument science teams and interdisciplinary investigations). Finally, I will describe how scientists and policy makers intend to use EOS data improve our understanding of key global change uncertainties, such as: (i) clouds and radiation, including fossil fuel and natural emissions of sulfate aerosol and its potential impact on cloud feedback, (ii) man's impact on ozone depletion, with examples of ClO and O3 obtained from the UARS satellite during the Austral Spring, and (iii) volcanic eruptions and their impact on climate, with examples from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.

  9. Advanced technologies for future environmental satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittberner, Gerald J.; Crison, Michael J.; Bajpai, Shyam; Diedrich, Benjamin L.

    2004-09-01

    Environmental satellites today are designed to meet the most requirements possible within the constraints of budget, reliability, availability, robustness, manufacturability, and the state of the art in affordable technology. As we learn more and more about observing and forecasting, requirements continue to be developed and validated for measurements that can benefit from for advances in technology. The goal is to incorporate new technologies into operational systems as quickly as possible. Technologies that exist or are being developed in response to growing requirements can be categorized as "requirements pull" whereas technologies rooted in basic research and engineering exploration fall in to a "technology push" category. NOAA has begun exploration into technologies for future NOAA satellite systems. Unmet requirements exist that drive the need to locate, explore, exploit, assess, and encourage development in several technologies. Areas needing advanced technologies include: atmospheric aerosols; cloud parameters; precipitation; profiles of temperature, moisture, pressure, and wind; atmospheric radiation; trace gas abundance and distribution; land surface; ocean surface; and space weather components such as neutral density and electron density. One of the more interesting ideas in the technology push category is a constellation of satellites at Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) altitudes, here described as circular orbits near 11,000 km altitude. Consider the vision of being able to observe the environment anywhere on the Earth, at anytime, with any repeat look frequency, and being able to communicate these measurements to anyone, anywhere, anytime, in real time. Studies suggest that a constellation of MEO satellites occupying equatorial and polar orbits (inclination = 90 degrees) could, in principle, accomplish this task. Also new on the horizon is solar sail technology. NOAA has been looking at solar sails as providing a propulsive system that could be used to

  10. Advanced Dewatering Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell

    2008-07-31

    A new fine coal dewatering technology has been developed and tested in the present work. The work was funded by the Solid Fuels and Feedstocks Grand Challenge PRDA. The objective of this program was to 'develop innovative technical approaches to ensure a continued supply of environmentally sound solid fuels for existing and future combustion systems with minimal incremental fuel cost.' Specifically, this solicitation is aimed at developing technologies that can (i) improve the efficiency or economics of the recovery of carbon when beneficiating fine coal from both current production and existing coal slurry impoundments and (ii) assist in the greater utilization of coal fines by improving the handling characteristics of fine coal via dewatering and/or reconstitution. The results of the test work conducted during Phase I of the current project demonstrated that the new dewatering technologies can substantially reduce the moisture from fine coal, while the test work conducted during Phase II successfully demonstrated the commercial viability of this technology. It is believed that availability of such efficient and affordable dewatering technology is essential to meeting the DOE's objectives.

  11. Earth system modelling: a GAIM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, C.

    2003-04-01

    For over a decade the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Integration (formerly Interepretation) and Modelling (GAIM) has facilitated international, interdisciplinary research. The focus has been development, comparison and evaluation of models describing Earth system components, especially terrestrial and ocean carbon cycling and atmospheric transport. GAIM also sponsored the BIOME 6000 project, which produced snapshots of world vegetation patterns for the last glacial maximum (LGM) and mid-Holocene, and experiments in coupled atmosphere-biosphere modelling that used these results. The most successful achievements have brought together modellers and data experts so that model comparisons could be made “with open eyes”. The need to bring together different communities (such as data experts and modellers; ecologists and atmospheric scientists; economists and ecologists...) only increases, and is a major rationale for the continuation of GAIM. GAIM has recently set out 23 overarching questions which could define future directions in Earth system science. Many have a “human dimension”, reflecting the fact that the societal context is poorly defined. Natural scientists often appeal to societal reasons to study global change, but typically don’t incorporate human science perspectives in their research strategies. Other questions have a “physical dimension” as biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and physical climate science merge. As IGBP II begins, GAIM faces the challenge of tackling large gaps in our knowledge of how the coupled Earth system works, with and without human interfence. On the natural science side, the Vostok ice-core record dramatically illustrates our current state of ignorance. Vostok established that the Earth system’s response to orbital forcing is characterized by strong non-linear interactions between atmospheric greenhouse-gas and aerosol constituents and climate. The problem is that we don’t understand most of these

  12. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pratik

    climate forecasts. Aqua is a major mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS), an international program centered in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to study the Earth in detail from the unique vantage point of space. Focused on key measurements identified by a consensus of U.S. and international scientists, EOS is further enabling studies of the complex interactions amongst the Earth's land, ocean, air, ice and biological systems. Aqua's contributions to monitoring water in the Earth's environment will involve all six of Aqua's instruments: the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). Frozen water in the oceans, in the form of sea ice, will be examined with both AMSR-E and MODIS data, the former allowing routine monitoring of sea ice at a coarse resolution and the latter providing greater spatial resolution but only under cloud-free conditions. Sea ice can insulate the underlying liquid water against heat loss to the often frigid overlying polar atmosphere and also reflects sunlight that would otherwise be available to warm the ocean. AMSR-E measurements will allow the routine derivation of sea ice concentrations in both polar regions, through taking advantage of the marked contrast in microwave emissions of sea ice and liquid water. This will continue, with improved resolution and accuracy, a 22-year satellite record of changes in the extent of polar ice. MODIS, with its finer resolution, will permit the identification of individual ice flows, when unobscured by clouds. AMSR-E and MODIS will also provide monitoring, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB combination will provide more-accurate space-based measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapor than have ever been obtained before, with the highest vertical

  13. Technologies Involved in Configuring an Advanced Earth-to-Orbit Transport for Low Structural Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O.; Klich, Phillip J.

    1980-01-01

    The current space shuttle is expected to adequately meet Government and industry needs for the transport of cargo to and from orbit well into the 1990's. However, continual study of potential follow-on shuttle systems is necessary and desirable in order to complement ongoing research in materials, structures, propulsion, aerodynamics, and other related areas. By studying alternate systems well in advance, it will be possible to explore the various technologies and develop those for which there is the greatest apparent payoff. In this paper a single-stage Earth-to-orbit transport designed for delivery of approximately 29,500 kg (65,000 lb) payload will be described. The vehicle, which takes off vertically and lands horizontally, is 60 m (197 feet) long and weighs approximately 1.8 Gg (4 M lb) at liftoff. In the interest of weight reduction, a simple body of revolution is utilized for the main body shell. In this design the main propulsion tanks serve as a primary load-carrying structure. Further, in order to minimize structural mass, the cargo bay is located between two of the main propellant tanks. The cargo volume, at 396 cu m (14,000 cu feet), exceeds that provided by the shuttle; but the bay itself is nonconforming in shape - being approximately 10 m (32 feet) in diameter by 5 m (17 feet) long. Dual-fuel propulsion is employed, since a number of studies have shown that (though lowering performance) the operation of hydrocarbon (RP) engines in parallel with LOX/LH2 engines results in a net reduction in the vehicle's physical size and structural mass. Other weight-saving features entail the extensive use of honeycomb sandwiches, advanced materials, and advanced fabrication techniques. The vehicle presented is utilized only as a means to study and identify various technologies needed in order to develop a low mass Earth-to-orbit transportation system for the future. The conclusion of this study is that vehicle geometry and structural/materials technology are

  14. An advanced domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An updated traffic projection for U.S. domestic satellite communications service covering a period of 15 years; mid-1980 to mid-1995 was prepared. This model takes into account expected technology advances and reductions in transmission costs, legislative and regulatory changes permitting increased competition, and rising energy costs which will encourage more extensive substitution of telecommunications for travel. The historical development and current status of satellite systems are discussed as well as the characteristics of follow-on systems. Orbital arc utilization, spacecraft configuration for single shuttle launch, Earth station configuration, and system costs are examined. Areas which require technology development include multiple beam frequency reuse antennas, on-board switching, intersatellite links, and ka-band operation. Packing and deployment schemes for enclosing the satellite within the shuttle orbiter bay must also be devised.

  15. Smouldering Subsurface Fires in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Smouldering fires, the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, are an important phenomena in the Earth system. These fires propagate slowly through organic layers of the forest ground and are responsible for 50% or more of the total biomass consumed during wildfires. Only after the 2002 study of the 1997 extreme haze event in South-East Asia, the scientific community recognised the environmental and economic threats posed by subsurface fires. This was caused by the spread of vast biomass fires in Indonesia, burning below the surface for months during the El Niño climate event. It has been calculated that these fires released between 0.81 and 2.57 Gton of carbon gases (13-40% of global emissions). Large smouldering fires are rare events at the local scale but occur regularly at a global scale. Once ignited, they are particularly difficult to extinguish despite extensive rains or fire-fighting attempts and can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into the soil. Indeed, these are the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. Earth scientists are interested in smouldering fires because they destroy large amounts of biomass and cause greater damage to the soil ecosystem than flaming fires do. Moreover, these fires cannot be detected with current satellite remote sensing technologies causing inconsistencies between emission inventories and model predictions. Organic soils sustain smouldering fire (hummus, duff, peat and coal) which total carbon pool exceeds that of the world's forests or the atmosphere. This have important implications for climate change. Warmer temperatures at high latitudes are resulting in unprecedented permafrost thaw that is leaving large soil carbon pools exposed to fires. Because the CO2 flux from peat fires has been measured to be about 3000 times larger that the natural degradation flux, permafrost thaw is a risk for greater carbon release by fire and subsequently

  16. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  17. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  18. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  19. 3D Printing of Advanced Biocomposites on Earth and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and re-supply. Thus materials brought from earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because it can replicate and repair itself, and do a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing could make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. Image what new products can be enabled by such a technology, on earth or beyond!

  20. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGRSR) program are described in the quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education) and Research. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  1. Advances in percutaneous electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Mooney, V; Roth, A M

    1976-01-01

    In the past eight years, developing a percutaneous electrode system has advanced to a successful, yet simple, method to transmit electrical signals, overcoming the serious problems of excessive mechanical irritation at the skin interface. Experience with over 50-74% in the clinical applications of 1) chronic pain relief; 2) contracture correction; and 3) sensory feedback.

  2. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  3. ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-02-01

    The activities of the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program for this reporting period are described in this quarterly report. The report is divided into discussions of Membership, Administration, Technology Transfer (Workshop/Education), Research and Miscellaneous Related Activity. Items worthy of note are presented in extended bullet format following the appropriate heading.

  4. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  5. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  6. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 5: Earth storable design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and parametric design effort was conducted under the earth-storable phase of the program. Passive Acquisition/expulsion system concepts were evaluated for a reusable Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) application. The passive surface tension technique for providing gas free liquid on demand was superior to other propellant acquisition methods. Systems using fine mesh screens can provide the requisite stability and satisfy OMS mission requirements. Both fine mesh screen liner and trap systems were given detailed consideration in the parametric design, and trap systems were selected for this particular application. These systems are compatible with the 100- to 500-manned mission reuse requirements.

  7. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  8. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1982-01-01

    The proof of concept, feasibility, and verification of the advanced prop fan and of the integrated advanced prop fan aircraft are established. The use of existing hardware is compatible with having a successfully expedited testbed ready for flight. A prop fan testbed aircraft is definitely feasible and necessary for verification of prop fan/prop fan aircraft integrity. The Allison T701 is most suitable as a propulsor and modification of existing engine and propeller controls are adequate for the testbed. The airframer is considered the logical overall systems integrator of the testbed program.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench-scale test program has also been developed based

  10. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  11. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Felix L.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a computer systems philosophy, a set of validated hardware building blocks, and a set of validated services as embodied in system software. The goal of AIPS is to provide the knowledgebase which will allow achievement of validated fault-tolerant distributed computer system architectures, suitable for a broad range of applications, having failure probability requirements of 10E-9 at 10 hours. A background and description is given followed by program accomplishments, the current focus, applications, technology transfer, FY92 accomplishments, and funding.

  12. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): An Earth Observing System Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III; Smith, G. Louis; Cooper, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an investigation to examine the role of cloud/radiation feedback in the Earth's climate system. The CERES broadband scanning radiometers are an improved version of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) radiometers. The CERES instruments will fly on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites starting in 1998 and extending over at least 15 years. The CERES science investigations will provide data to extend the ERBE climate record of top-of-atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes CERES will also combine simultaneous cloud property data derived using EOS narrowband imagers to provide a consistent set of cloud/radiation data, including SW and LW radiative fluxes at the surface and at several selected levels within the atmosphere. CERES data are expected to provide top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes with a factor of 2 to 3 less error than the ERBE data Estimates of radiative fluxes at the surface and especially within the atmosphere will be a much greater challenge but should also show significant improvements over current capabilities.

  13. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) - An Earth Observing System experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the CERES experiment that is designed not only to monitor changes in the earth's radiant energy system and cloud systems but to provide these data with enough accuracy and simultaneity to examine the critical climate/cloud feedback mechanisms which may play a major role in determining future changes in the climate system. CERES will estimate not only the flow of radiation at the top of the atmosphere, but also more complete cloud properties that will permit determination of radiative fluxes within the atmosphere and at the surface. The CERES radiation budget data is also planned for utilization in a wide range of other Earth Observing System interdisciplinary science investigations, including studies of land, biological, ocean and atmospheric processes.

  14. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G. R.; Morse, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The addition of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites over the last decade to the data held by NASA data centers has created a data rich environment for the Earth science research and applications communities. The data products are being distributed to a large and diverse community of users. Due to advances in computational hardware, networks and communications, information management and software technologies, significant progress has been made in the last decade in archiving and providing data to users. However, to realize the full potential of the growing data archives, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. Sponsored by NASA s Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology (CICT) Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization through the addition of intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system (KBS). Potential Intelligent Archive concepts include: 1) Mining archived data holdings to improve metadata to facilitate data access and usability; 2) Building intelligence about transformations on data, information, knowledge, and accompanying services; 3) Recognizing the value of results, indexing and formatting them for easy access; 4) Interacting as a cooperative node in a web of distributed systems to perform knowledge building; and 5) Being aware of other nodes in the KBS, participating in open systems interfaces and protocols for virtualization, and achieving collaborative interoperability.

  15. The TXESS Revolution: A Partnership to Advance Earth and Space Science in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K. K.; Olson, H. C.; Willis, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Texas State Board of Education voted in 2006 to require a fourth year of science for graduation from high school and to authorize the creation of a new senior level Earth Systems and Space Science course as an option to fulfill that requirement. The new Earth Systems and Space Science course will be a capstone course for which three required science courses(biology, chemistry and physics)are prerequisites. Here, we summarize the collective efforts of business leaders, scientists and educators who worked collaboratively for almost a decade to successfully reinstate Earth science as part of Texas' standard high school curriculum and describe a new project, the Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution, a 5-year professional development program for 8th -12th grade minority and minority-serving science teachers and teacher mentors in Texas to help prepare them to teach the new capstone course. At the heart of TXESS Revolution is an extraordinary partnership, involving (1) two UT-Austin academic units, the Jackson School of Geosciences and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering; (2) TERC, a not-for-profit educational enterprise in Massachusetts with 30 years experience in designing science curriculum; (3) the University of South Florida; and (4) the Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching, a statewide network of teacher mentors and science teachers. With guidance from the Texas Education Agency, the state agency charged with overseeing education, the TXESS Revolution project will provide teachers with access to high quality materials and instruction aligned with the Texas educational standards for the new capstone course through: a program of eight different 3-day professional development academies offered to both teachers and teachers mentors; immersive summer institutes, field experiences, and a Petroleum Science and Technology Institute; training on how to implement Earth Science by Design, a teacher

  16. Planning for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, E.

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations was established to promote comprehensive, coordinated, and sustained Earth observations. Its mandate is to implement the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) in accord with the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan and Reference Document. During the months over which the GEOSS Implementation Plan was developed, many issues surfaced and were addressed. This article discusses several of the more interesting or challenging of those issues-e.g. fitting in with existing organizations and securing stable funding - some of which have yet to be resolved fully as of this writing. Despite the relatively short period over which the Implementation Plan had to be developed, there is a good chance that the work undertaken will be influential for decades to come. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  18. Debris hazard for the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madler, Ronald A.; Maclay, Timothy D.; Mcnamara, Roger; Culp, Robert D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is modeled to analyze the potential hazard of space debris and its impact on the effectiveness of the program. Specific attention is given to the hazard posed by untrackable debris and the velocities and impact rates of such debris. The NASA Debris Flux Model (DFM) is utilized, and the results are compared to those of the Frag model which predicts the background environment from known parameters and the Screen model for estimating collision probabilities. The probability of damaging impacts is shown to be significant and to increase over time; an EOS spacecraft has a 10 percent chance of being struck by a 1-cm object traveling at 14 km/s. The present analyses demonstrate the need to design the EOS spacecraft for a LEO environment in which collisions with debris are very likely.

  19. Assessing biosphere feedbacks on Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The evolution and ecology of plant life has been shaped by the direct and indirect influence of plate tectonics. Climatic change and environmental upheaval associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces have triggered biosphere level ecological change, physiological modification and pulses of both extinction and origination. This talk will investigate the influence of large scale changes in atmospheric composition on plant ecophysiology at key intervals of the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, I will assess the extent to which plant ecophysiological response can in turn feedback on earth system processes such as the global hydrological cycle and biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Palaeo-atmosphere simulation experiments, palaeobotanical data and recent historical (last 50 years) data-model comparison will be used to address the extent to which plant physiological responses to atmospheric CO2 can modulate global climate change via biosphere level feedback.

  20. Phanerozoic Earth system evolution and marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hannisdal, Bjarte; Peters, Shanan E

    2011-11-25

    The Phanerozoic fossil record of marine animal diversity covaries with the amount of marine sedimentary rock. The extent to which this covariation reflects a geologically controlled sampling bias remains unknown. We show that Phanerozoic records of seawater chemistry and continental flooding contain information on the diversity of marine animals that is independent of sedimentary rock quantity and sampling. Interrelationships among variables suggest long-term interactions among continental flooding, sulfur and carbon cycling, and macroevolution. Thus, mutual responses to interacting Earth systems, not sampling biases, explain much of the observed covariation between Phanerozoic patterns of sedimentation and fossil biodiversity. Linkages between biodiversity and environmental records likely reflect complex biotic responses to changing ocean redox conditions and long-term sea-level fluctuations driven by plate tectonics. PMID:22116884

  1. Informing Decisions with Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The emerging generation of earth system models offers the potential for significant improvements in region planning in the face of interlinked environmental and socio-economic changes. But these models also raise important questions about how to best use the information they contain to support decision-making, particularly in the face of the considerable uncertainty in many model projections. The decision support literature provides general guidance on this challenge, with its emphasize on the importance of grounding information provision in user needs, the importance of focusing on decision-making processes, and need to design for learning. This talk will build on this guidance to suggest an approach for using Earth System Models to inform regional planning decisions. In brief, this robust decision making approach suggests beginning with one or more specific plans (for instance, a specific regional plan and its supporting policies and investments), running the model many times to explore the performance of the plan in many potential future conditions, uses cluster analysis on the resulting database of model results to identify those conditions where a plan may fail to meet its goals, and then use this information to help decision-makers to consider and chose among potential modifications to their plans. This approach provides an effective means to characterize uncertainty and link to policy-makers' decision processes. In particular, it can support the development of adaptive policies designed to evolve over time in response to new information. This talk will demonstrate these approaches using examples from regional water management and discuss how one can use them to evaluate the value of different types of model-supplied information.

  2. Gas fired Advanced Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; White, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of the first phase of the Advanced Gas Turbine System (ATS) program was the concept definition of an advanced engine system that meets efficiency and emission goals far exceeding those that can be provided with today`s equipment. The thermal efficiency goal for such an advanced industrial engine was set at 50% some 15 percentage points higher than current equipment levels. Exhaust emissions goals for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UH) were fixed at 8 parts per million by volume (ppmv), 20 ppmv, and 20 ppmv respectively, corrected to 15% oxygen (O{sub 2}) levels. Other goals had to be addressed; these involved reducing the cost of power produced by 10 percent and improving or maintaining the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) at current levels. This advanced gas turbine was to be fueled with natural gas, and it had to embody features that would allow it bum coal or coal derived fuels.

  3. The integrated Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraucunas, I.; Clarke, L.; Dirks, J.; Hejazi, M. I.; Hibbard, K. A.; Huang, M.; Janetos, A. C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.; Kleese van Dam, K.; Leung, L.; Moss, R. H.; Rice, J.; Scott, M. J.; Thomson, A. M.; West, T. O.; Whitney, P.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) is a unique modeling framework being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate the interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. The framework unites high-resolution models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible software architecture. The framework is portable and can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, including (but not limited to) planning, implementation, and evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. iRESM also incorporates extensive stakeholder interactions and analysis to inform model development, coupling strategies, and characterization of uncertainties. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales, with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus and the penetration of renewable energy technologies in the upper U.S. Midwest. The iRESM framework also is being extended and applied to the U.S. Gulf Coast, with a particular emphasis on how changes in extreme events will affect both coastal in inland energy infrastructure in the region. This talk will focus on iRESM's development and capabilities, initial results from numerical experiments, and the challenges and opportunities associated with integrated regional modeling.

  4. Implementing Earth Systems Science, K-16: Results of the 2005 Coalition for Earth Systems Education Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireton, F.; Carpenter, J.; Lewis, G.; Leck, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 2005 Coalition for Earth Systems Education meeting was held at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center on September 23-24. The focus of the meeting was on increasing and improving implementation of the Earth System Science (ESS) in K-16 schools by creating a large-scale effort and unified voice to bring about greater and more widespread teaching of ESS. The goals of the meeting where: (1) to establish action items to work toward overcoming barriers to implementation of ESS and (2) to facilitate development of partnerships and collaborations to work on selected action items. Presentations from invited speakers highlighted related ESS initiatives, including status of the Revolution in K-12 Earth and Space Science Education and efforts in Texas and California to keep Earth science in state curricula. A special session featured information on federal education opportunities and initiatives-NSF, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. During a morning plenary session attendees worked collaboratively to determine which barriers to broader implementation are most significant then, based on the outcome, moved to breakout groups to develop working plans and action plans and to create partnerships for addressing action items. An interactive poster session allowed attendees to share projects they were working on. Attendees represented a broad cross section of the ESS community including representatives from ESS research, museums and science centers, federal agencies, professional and scientific societies, and university and K-12 schools. This paper will provide a backdrop for events leading up to the meeting, lessons learned during the meeting, and resulting projects.

  5. Advanced flight control system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G. L.; Wall, J. E., Jr.; Rang, E. R.; Lee, H. P.; Schulte, R. W.; Ng, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A fly by wire flight control system architecture designed for high reliability includes spare sensor and computer elements to permit safe dispatch with failed elements, thereby reducing unscheduled maintenance. A methodology capable of demonstrating that the architecture does achieve the predicted performance characteristics consists of a hierarchy of activities ranging from analytical calculations of system reliability and formal methods of software verification to iron bird testing followed by flight evaluation. Interfacing this architecture to the Lockheed S-3A aircraft for flight test is discussed. This testbed vehicle can be expanded to support flight experiments in advanced aerodynamics, electromechanical actuators, secondary power systems, flight management, new displays, and air traffic control concepts.

  6. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  7. Advanced gas turbine systems program

    SciTech Connect

    Zeh, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a program to develop fuel-efficient gas turbine-based power systems with low emissions. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE) have initiated an 8-year program to develop high-efficiency, natural gas-fired advanced gas turbine power systems. The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program will support full-scale prototype demonstration of both industrial- and utility-scale systems that will provide commercial marketplace entries by the year 2000. When the program targets are met, power system emissions will be lower than from the best technology in use today. Efficiency of the utility-scale units will be greater than 60 percent on a lower heating value basis, and emissions of carbon dioxide will be reduced inversely with this increase. Industrial systems will also see an improvement of at least 15 percent in efficiency. Nitrogen oxides will be reduced by at least 10 percent, and carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions will each be kept below 20 parts per million, for both utility and industrial systems.

  8. Parameters Describing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Davis, Bruce; Markham, Brian; Storey, Jim

    2003-01-01

    The Earth science community needs to generate consistent and standard definitions for spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric properties describing passive electro-optical Earth observing sensors and their products. The parameters used to describe sensors and to describe their products are often confused. In some cases, parameters for a sensor and for its products are identical; in other cases, these parameters vary widely. Sensor parameters are bound by the fundamental performance of a system, while product parameters describe what is available to the end user. Products are often resampled, edge sharpened, pan-sharpened, or compressed, and can differ drastically from the intrinsic data acquired by the sensor. Because detailed sensor performance information may not be readily available to an international science community, standardization of product parameters is of primary performance. Spatial product parameters described include Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), point spread function, line spread function, edge response, stray light, edge sharpening, aliasing, ringing, and compression effects. Spectral product parameters discussed include full width half maximum, ripple, slope edge, and out-of-band rejection. Radiometric product properties discussed include relative and absolute radiometry, noise equivalent spectral radiance, noise equivalent temperature diffenence, and signal-to-noise ratio. Geometric product properties discussed include geopositional accuracy expressed as CE90, LE90, and root mean square error. Correlated properties discussed include such parameters as band-to-band registration, which is both a spectral and a spatial property. In addition, the proliferation of staring and pushbroom sensor architectures requires new parameters to describe artifacts that are different from traditional cross-track system artifacts. A better understanding of how various system parameters affect product performance is also needed to better ascertain the

  9. Advanced photovoltaic power system technology for lunar base applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinker, David J.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced photovoltaic/electrochemical (batteries or regenerative fuel cells for storage) power system options for a lunar base are discussed and compared. Estimated system masses are compared with those projected for the SP-100 nuclear system. The results of the comparison are quantified in terms of the mass saved in a scenario which assembles the initial base elements in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and launches from there to the lunar surface. A brief summary is given of advances in photovoltaic/electrochemical power system technologies currently under development in the NASA/OAST program. A description of the planned focussed technology program for surface power in the new Pathfinder initiative is also provided.

  10. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  11. Sensor Web Technology Challenges and Advancements for the Earth Science Decadal Survey Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, Charles D.; Moe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Earth science decadal survey era and the role ESTO developed sensor web technologies can contribute to the scientific observations. This includes hardware and software technology advances for in-situ and in-space measurements. Also discussed are emerging areas of importance such as the potential of small satellites for sensor web based observations as well as advances in data fusion critical to the science and societal benefits of future missions, and the challenges ahead.

  12. The early Earth Observing System reference handbook: Earth Science and Applications Division missions, 1990-1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) series, NASA will launch and operate a wide variety of new earth science satellites and instruments, as well as undertake several efforts collecting and using the data from existing and planned satellites from other agencies and nations. These initiatives will augment the knowledge base gained from ongoing Earth Science and Applications Division (ESAD) programs. This volume describes three sets of ESAD activities -- ongoing exploitation of operational satellite data, research missions with upcoming launches between now and the first launch of EOS, and candidate earth probes.

  13. A planet under siege: Are we changing earth`s climate?. Global Systems Science, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, C.; Golden, R.

    1992-12-31

    Global Systems Science is an interdisciplinary course for high school students. It is divided into five volumes. Each volume contains laboratory experiments; home investigations; descriptions of recent scientific work; historical background; and consideration of the political, economic, and ethical issues associated with each problem area. Collectively, these volumes constitute a unique combination of studies in the natural and social sciences from which high school students may view the global environmental problems that they will confront within their lifetimes. The five volumes are: A Planet Under Siege: Are We Changing Earths Climate; A History of Fire and Ice: The Earth`s Climate System; Energy Paths: Use and Conservation of Energy; Ecological Systems: Evolution and Interdependence of Life; and, The Case of the Missing Ozone: Chemistry of the Earth`s Atmosphere.

  14. Stomata: key players in the earth system, past and present.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph A; Beerling, David J; Franks, Peter J

    2010-06-01

    Stomata have played a key role in the Earth System for at least 400 million years. By enabling plants to control the rate of evaporation from their photosynthetic organs, stomata helped to set in motion non-linear processes that led to an acceleration of the hydrologic cycle over the continents and an expansion of climate zones favorable for plant life. Global scale modeling of land-atmosphere interactions provides a way to explore parallels between the influence of vegetation on climate over time, and the influence of spatial and temporal variation in the activities of vegetation in the current Earth System on climate and weather. We use the logic in models that simulate land-atmosphere interactions to illustrate the central role played by stomatal conductance in the Earth System. In the modeling context, most of the activities of plants and their manifold interactions with their genomes and with the environment are communicated to the atmosphere through a single property: the aperture or conductance of their stomata. We tend to think of the controls on vegetation responses in the real world as being distributed among factors such as seasonal patterns of growth, the changing availability of soil water, or changes in light intensity and leaf water potential over a day. However, the impact of these controls on crucial exchanges of energy and water vapor with the atmosphere are also largely mediated by stomata. The decisions 'made by' stomata emerge as an important and inadequately understood component of these models. At the present time we lack effective ways to link advances in the biology of stomata to this decision making process. While not unusual, this failure to connect between disciplines, introduces uncertainty in modeling studies being used to predict weather and climate change and ultimately to inform policy decisions. This problem is also an opportunity.

  15. Research on advanced transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  16. Data Management and Analysis for the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bernholdt, D.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Henson, V.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Schwidder, J.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wilhelmi, N.; Su, M.

    2008-06-19

    The international climate community is expected to generate hundreds of petabytes of simulation data within the next five to seven years. This data must be accessed and analyzed by thousands of analysts worldwide in order to provide accurate and timely estimates of the likely impact of climate change on physical, biological, and human systems. Climate change is thus not only a scientific challenge of the first order but also a major technological challenge. To address this technological challenge, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy's Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)-2 program, with support from the offices of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Biological and Environmental Research. ESG-CET's mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with access to the data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate simulation datasets. Its specific goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing Grid technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet specific distributed database, data access, and data movement needs of national and international climate projects; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide-range of Grid-enabled climate data analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. Building on the successes of the previous Earth System Grid (ESG) project, which has enabled thousands of researchers to access tens of terabytes of data from a small number of ESG sites, ESG-CET is working to integrate a far larger number of distributed data providers, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and remote computers in a highly collaborative problem-solving environment.

  17. Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Technology: Earth Observing-1 PPT Operational and Advanced Components Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Frus, John; Hoskins, W. Andrew; Burton, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) mounted on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft was operated successfully in orbit. The two-axis thruster system is fully incorporated in the attitude determination and control system and is being used to automatically counteract disturbances in the pitch axis of the spacecraft. The first tests conducted in space demonstrated the full range of PPT operation, followed by calibration of control torques from the PPT in the attitude control system. Then the spacecraft was placed in PPT control mode. To date, it has operated for about 30 hr. The PPT successfully controlled pitch momentum during wheel de-spin, solar array acceleration and deceleration during array rewind, and environmental torques in nominal operating conditions. Images collected with the Advanced Landsat Imager during PPT operation have demonstrated that there was no degradation in comparison to full momentum wheel control. In addition, other experiments have been performed to interrogate the effects of PPT operation on communication packages and light reflection from spacecraft surfaces. Future experiments will investigate the possibility of orbit-raising maneuvers, spacecraft roll, and concurrent operation with the Hyperion imager. Future applications envisioned for pulsed plasma thrusters include longer life, higher precision, multiaxis thruster configurations for three-axis attitude control systems or high-precision, formationflying systems. Advanced components, such as a "dry" mica-foil capacitor, a wear-resistant spark plug, and a multichannel power processing unit have been developed under contract with Unison Industries, General Dynamics, and C.U. Aerospace. Over the last year, evaluation tests have been conducted to determine power processing unit efficiency, atmospheric functionality, vacuum functionality, thruster performance evaluation, thermal performance, and component life.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. NASA is executing this development within flat budgetary guidelines by using existing engines assets and heritage technology to ready an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability for launch in 2017, and then employing a block upgrade approach to evolve a 130-t capability after 2021. A key component of the SLS acquisition plan is a three-phased approach for the first-stage boosters. The first phase is to expedite the 70-t configuration by completing development of the Space Shuttle heritage 5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) for the initial flights of SLS. Since no existing boosters can meet the performance requirements for the 130-t class SLS, the next phases of the strategy focus on the eventual development of advanced boosters with an expected thrust class potentially double the current 5-segment solid rocket booster capability of 3.88 million pounds of thrust each. The second phase in the booster acquisition plan is the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort, for which contracts were awarded beginning in 2012 after a full and open competition, with a stated intent to reduce risks leading to an affordable advanced booster. NASA has awarded ABEDRR contracts to four industry teams, which are looking into new options for liquid-fuel booster engines, solid-fuel-motor propellants, and composite booster structures. Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss the status of this acquisition strategy and its results toward readying both the 70 t and 130 t configurations of SLS. The third and final phase will be a full and open

  19. Peptide synthesis in early earth hydrothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemke, K.H.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    We report here results from experiments and thermodynamic calculations that demonstrate a rapid, temperature-enhanced synthesis of oligopeptides from the condensation of aqueous glycine. Experiments were conducted in custom-made hydrothermal reactors, and organic compounds were characterized with ultraviolet-visible procedures. A comparison of peptide yields at 260??C with those obtained at more moderate temperatures (160??C) gives evidence of a significant (13 kJ ?? mol-1) exergonic shift. In contrast to previous hydrothermal studies, we demonstrate that peptide synthesis is favored in hydrothermal fluids and that rates of peptide hydrolysis are controlled by the stability of the parent amino acid, with a critical dependence on reactor surface composition. From our study, we predict that rapid recycling of product peptides from cool into near-supercritical fluids in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems will enhance peptide chain elongation. It is anticipated that the abundant hydrothermal systems on early Earth could have provided a substantial source of biomolecules required for the origin of life. Astrobiology 9, 141-146. ?? 2009 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2009.

  20. A Desktop Virtual Reality Earth Motion System in Astronomy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih Hung; Yang, Jie Chi; Shen, Sarah; Jeng, Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a desktop virtual reality earth motion system (DVREMS) is designed and developed to be applied in the classroom. The system is implemented to assist elementary school students to clarify earth motion concepts using virtual reality principles. A study was conducted to observe the influences of the proposed system in learning.…

  1. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  2. Regional Earth System Prediction for Policy Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtugudde, R. G.; Cbfs Team

    2010-12-01

    While the IPCC will continue to lead Earth System projections for global issues such as greenhouse gas levels and global temperature increase, high-resolution regional Earth System predictions will be crucial for producing effective decision-making tools for day-to-day, sustainable Earth System management and adaptive management of resources. Regional Earth System predictions and projections at the order of a few meters resolution from days to decades must be validated and provide uncertainties and skill scores to be usable. While the task is daunting, it would be criminally negligent of the global human not to embark on this task immediately. The observational needs for the integrated natural-human system for the regional Earth System are distinct from the global needs even though there are many overlaps. The process understanding of the Earth System at the micro-scale can be translated into predictive understanding and skillful predictions for sustainable management and adaptation by merging these observations with Earth System models to go from global scale predictions and projections to regional environmental manifestations and mechanistic depiction of human interactions with the Earth System and exploitation of its resources. Regional Earth System monitoring and predictions thus will continuously take the pulse of the planet to prescribe appropriate actions for participatory decision-making for sustainable and adaptive management of the Earth System and to avoid catastrophic domains of potential outcomes. An example of a regional Earth System prediction system over the Chesapeake Bay with detailed interactions with users is discussed. Routine forecasts of atmospheric and hydrodynamic forecasts are used to produce linked prediction products for water quality, hypoxia, sea nettles, harmful algal blooms, striped bass, pathogens, etc.

  3. Advanced Docking System With Magnetic Initial Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James L.; Carroll, Monty B.; Morales, Ray; Le, Thang

    2004-01-01

    An advanced docking system is undergoing development to enable softer, safer docking than was possible when using prior docking systems. This system is intended for original use in docking of visiting spacecraft and berthing the Crew Return Vehicle at the International Space Station (ISS). The system could also be adapted to a variety of other uses in outer space and on Earth, including mating submersible vehicles, assembling structures, and robotic berthing/handling of payloads and cargo. Heretofore, two large spacecraft have been docked by causing the spacecraft to approach each other at a speed sufficient to activate capture latches - a procedure that results in large docking loads and is made more difficult because of the speed. The basic design and mode of operation of the present advanced docking system would eliminate the need to rely on speed of approach to activate capture latches, thereby making it possible to reduce approach speed and thus docking loads substantially. The system would comprise an active subsystem on one spacecraft and a passive subsystem on another spacecraft with which the active subsystem will be docked. The passive subsystem would include an extensible ring containing magnetic striker plates and guide petals. The active subsystem would include mating guide petals and electromagnets containing limit switches and would be arranged to mate with the magnetic striker plates and guide petals of the passive assembly. The electromagnets would be carried on (but not rigidly attached to) a structural ring that would be instrumented with load sensors. The outputs of the sensors would be sent, along with position information, as feedback to an electronic control subsystem. The system would also include electromechanical actuators that would extend or retract the ring upon command by the control subsystem.

  4. Teachers' Perceived Pedagogical Changes in Earth System Science Instruction: An Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) Online Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    In cooperation with the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), Fort Hays State University conducted three online Earth System Science courses for teachers in Kansas during the 2007-2008 academic year. The teachers participating in the courses were given a pre- and a post- survey to ascertain if there were any perceived changes in their understanding of Earth System Science content and if there were any changes in their strategies for teaching Earth System Science. The three courses offered to the teacher participants were Climate Change,Natural Disasters,and Science in your Backyard. Outcomes and suggestions for course improvements will be presented in this poster session.

  5. Development of an advanced photovoltaic concentrator system for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piszczor, Michael F., Jr.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that significant increases in system performance (increased efficiency and reduced system mass) are possible for high power space based systems by incorporating technological developments with photovoltaic power systems. The Advanced Photovoltaic Concentrator Program is an effort to take advantage of recent advancements in refractive optical elements. By using a domed Fresnel lens concentrator and a prismatic cell cover, to eliminate metallization losses, dramatic reductions in the required area and mass over current space photovoltaic systems are possible. The advanced concentrator concept also has significant advantages when compared to solar dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle power systems in Low Earth Orbit applications where energy storage is required. The program is currently involved in the selection of a material for the optical element that will survive the space environment and a demonstration of the system performance of the panel design.

  6. Tropical forests and the changing earth system

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Simon L

    2005-01-01

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe. PMID:16553317

  7. Tropical forests and the changing earth system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon L

    2006-01-29

    Tropical forests are global epicentres of biodiversity and important modulators of the rate of climate change. Recent research on deforestation rates and ecological changes within intact forests, both areas of recent research and debate, are reviewed, and the implications for biodiversity (species loss) and climate change (via the global carbon cycle) addressed. Recent impacts have most likely been: (i) a large source of carbon to the atmosphere, and major loss of species, from deforestation and (ii) a large carbon sink within remaining intact forest, accompanied by accelerating forest dynamism and widespread biodiversity changes. Finally, I look to the future, suggesting that the current carbon sink in intact forests is unlikely to continue, and that the tropical forest biome may even become a large net source of carbon, via one or more of four plausible routes: changing photosynthesis and respiration rates, biodiversity changes in intact forest, widespread forest collapse via drought, and widespread forest collapse via fire. Each of these scenarios risks potentially dangerous positive feedbacks with the climate system that could dramatically accelerate and intensify climate change. Given that continued land-use change alone is already thought to be causing the sixth mass extinction event in Earth's history, should such feedbacks occur, the resulting biodiversity and societal consequences would be even more severe. PMID:16553317

  8. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS), Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, A. J.; Bailey, D. G.; Gaabo, R. J.; Lahn, T. G.; Larson, J. C.; Peterson, E. M.; Schuck, J. W.; Rodgers, D. L.; Wroblewski, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration advanced anionics system (DAAS) function description, hardware description, operational evaluation, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) are provided. Projected advanced avionics system (PAAS) description, reliability analysis, cost analysis, maintainability analysis, and modularity analysis are discussed.

  9. Advanced Microelectronics Technologies for Future Small Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkalai, Leon

    1999-01-01

    Future small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space exploration are greatly enabled by the technological advances in deep sub-micron microelectronics technologies. Whereas these technological advances are being fueled by the commercial (non-space) industries, more recently there has been an exciting new synergism evolving between the two otherwise disjointed markets. In other words, both the commercial and space industries are enabled by advances in low-power, highly integrated, miniaturized (low-volume), lightweight, and reliable real-time embedded systems. Recent announcements by commercial semiconductor manufacturers to introduce Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology into their commercial product lines is driven by the need for high-performance low-power integrated devices. Moreover, SOI has been the technology of choice for many space semiconductor manufacturers where radiation requirements are critical. This technology has inherent radiation latch-up immunity built into the process, which makes it very attractive to space applications. In this paper, we describe the advanced microelectronics and avionics technologies under development by NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program (also known as X2000). These technologies are of significant benefit to both the commercial satellite as well as the deep-space and Earth orbiting science missions. Such a synergistic technology roadmap may truly enable quick turn-around, low-cost, and highly capable small satellite systems for both Earth observation as well as deep-space missions.

  10. Earth-Systems Science. A Planetary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are the reasons why the earth sciences must play a major role in curriculum renovation. Philosophical, methodological, and conceptual contributions to K-12 curriculum content are discussed. (KR)

  11. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1992-02-01

    ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes. ASPEN can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations. It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computationmore » of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The ASPEN Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  12. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  13. Scientific Visualization & Modeling for Earth Systems Science Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj; Rodriguez, Waldo J.

    2003-01-01

    Providing research experiences for undergraduate students in Earth Systems Science (ESS) poses several challenges at smaller academic institutions that might lack dedicated resources for this area of study. This paper describes the development of an innovative model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research. In studying global climate change, experts typically use scientific visualization techniques applied to remote sensing data collected by satellites. In particular, many problems related to environmental phenomena can be quantitatively addressed by investigations based on datasets related to the scientific endeavours such as the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). Working with data products stored at NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers, visualization software specifically designed for students and an advanced, immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment, students engage in guided research projects during a structured 6-week summer program. Over the 5-year span, this program has afforded the opportunity for students majoring in biology, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering and science education to work collaboratively in teams on research projects that emphasize the use of scientific visualization in studying the environment. Recently, a hands-on component has been added through science student partnerships with school-teachers in data collection and reporting for the GLOBE Program (GLobal Observations to Benefit the Environment).

  14. Systems definition summary. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus for performing a variety of earth orbit missions in the late 1970's and 1980's is defined. Emphasis is placed on a low-cost, multimission capability, benefitting from the space shuttle system. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) performance requirements, (2) internal interfaces, (3) redundancy and reliability, (4) communications and data handling module design, (5) payload data handling, (6) application of the modular design to various missions, and (7) the verification concept.

  15. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  16. Altimetric system: Earth observing system. Volume 2h: Panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert A.; Born, George; Chase, Robert R. P.; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Parsons, Chester; Tapley, Byron

    1987-01-01

    A rationale and recommendations for planning, implementing, and operating an altimetric system aboard the Earth observing system (Eos) spacecraft is provided. In keeping with the recommendations of the Eos Science and Mission Requirements Working Group, a complete altimetric system is defined that is capable of perpetuating the data set to be derived from TOPEX/Poseidon, enabling key scientific questions to be addressed. Since the scientific utility and technical maturity of spaceborne radar altimeters is well documented, the discussion is limited to highlighting those Eos-specific considerations that materially impact upon radar altimetric measurements.

  17. ACCESS Earth: Promoting Accessibility to Earth System Science for Students with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locke, S. M.; Cohen, L.; Lightbody, N.

    2001-05-01

    ACCESS Earth is an intensive summer institute for high school students with disabilities and their teachers that is designed to encourage students with disabilities to consider careers in earth system science. Participants study earth system science concepts at a Maine coastal estuary, using Geographic Information Systems, remote sensing, and field observations to evaluate the impacts of climate change, sea level rise, and development on coastal systems. Teachers, students, and scientists work together to adapt field and laboratory activities for persons with disabilities, including those with mobility and visual impairments. Other sessions include demonstrations of assistive technology, career discussions, and opportunities for students to meet with successful scientists with disabilities from throughout the U.S. The summer institute is one of several programs in development at the University of Southern Maine to address the problem of underrepresentation of people with disabilities in the earth sciences. Other projects include a mentoring program for high school students, a web-based clearinghouse of resources for teaching earth sciences to students with disabilities, and guidebooks for adaptation of popular published earth system science curricula for disabled learners.

  18. Advanced Docking Berthing System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James

    2006-01-01

    In FY05 the Exploration Systems Technology Maturation Program selected the JSC advanced mating systems development to continue as an in-house project. In FY06, as a result of ESAS Study (60 Day Study) the CEV Project (within the Constellation Program) has chosen to continue the project as a GFE Flight Hardware development effort. New requirement for CEV to travel and dock with the ISS in 2011/12 in support of retiring the Shuttle and reducing the gap of time where US does not have any US based crew launch capability. As before, long-duration compatible seal-on-seal technology (seal-on-seal to support androgynous interface) has been identified as a risk mitigation item.

  19. Earth System and Space Science Curriculum for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Earth System and Space Science emphasizes the dynamic interrelationships between the atmosphere, the geosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the earth-universe system. There is a strong emphasis on internet-based and technology activities, and laboratory activities. Science skills and processes learned in this course prepare for continued development of scientific inquiry in other science disciplines. A partnership with the Goddard Space Flight Center and collaboration with Anne Arundel County Public Schools provides enhanced richness to the learning activities. Earth and Space scientists from NASA GSFC gave their expertise in the development of ESSS. Their suggestions were the foundation for the development of this curriculum. Earth System and Space Science is a course, which develops student knowledge and understanding of the Earth System and its place in the universe. This course seeks to empower students to understand their dynamic local and global environments and the Earth as part of a complex system. The student will learn the science content necessary to make wise personal and social decisions related to quality of life, and the management of the Earth's finite resources, environments, and hazards. During much of the recent past, scientists have been concerned with examining individual physical, chemical, and biological processes or groups of processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Recently, however, there has been a movement in Earth Science to take a planetary or "system" approach to investigating our planet. Satellite images show planet Earth as one entity without boundaries. There are concerns with environmental issues on regional, global, and even planetary scales. In Earth/Space Systems Science, Earth is viewed as a complex evolving planet that is characterized by continually interacting change over a wide scale of time and space.

  20. Low Earth orbit durability evaluation of protected silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Mccollum, Timothy A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for efficient, cost effective sources of electrical power in space has led to the development of photovoltaic power systems which make use of novel refractive solar concentrators. These concentrators have been conceived in both point-focus and linear-focus designs. Current concentrator lenses are fabricated from flexible silicones with Fresnel facets along their inside surface. To insure the efficient operation of these power systems, the concentrator lenses must be durable and the silicone material must remain specularly transmitting over a reasonable lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) and other space environments. Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in LEO these lenses have been coated with a multi-layer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this research was to evaluate the LEO durability of the multilayer coated silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays with respect to optical properties and microstructure. Flat metal oxide coated silicone samples were exposed to ground-laboratory and in-space atomic oxyqen for durability evaluation.

  1. Advanced Extravehicular Protective System (AEPS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of Advanced Extravehicular Protective Systems (AEPS) for the future missions beyond Skylab in earth orbit, on the lunar surface, and on the Martian surface. The study concentrated on the origination of regenerable life support concepts for use in portable extravehicular protective systems, and included evaluation and comparison with expendable systems, and selection of life support subsystems. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, subsystem concepts for performing life support functions in AEPS which are regenerable or partially regenerable were originated, and in addition, expendable subsystems were considered. Parametric data for each subsystem concept were evolved including subsystem weight and volume, power requirement, thermal control requirement; base regeneration equipment weight and volume, requirement. The second phase involved an evaluation of the impact of safety considerations involving redundant and/or backup systems on the selection of the regenerable life support subsystems. In addition, the impact of the space shuttle program on regenerable life support subsystem development was investigated.

  2. Advanced Autonomous Systems for Space Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Muscettola, N.; Barrett, A.; Mjolssness, E.; Clancy, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    New missions of exploration and space operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Inherently high levels of complexity, cost, and communication distances will preclude the degree of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of not only meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, but simultaneously dramatically reducing the design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health management capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of advanced space operations, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints will limit the current practice of monitoring and controlling missions by a standing army of ground-based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such on-board systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communication` distances as are not

  3. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G.; Lynnes, C.; Morse, S.; Isaac, D.

    2004-12-01

    The last decade's influx of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites to NASA data centers has created a data-rich environment for Earth science research and applications. For example, the Distributed Active Archive Centers of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System held over 2.8 petabytes of data at the end of 2003, growing at a rate of about 3 terabytes per day. The data products are distributed to a large community of scientific researchers, educators and operational government agencies. With advances in computational hardware, networks, information management and software technologies, much progress has been made over the last decade in data archiving and providing data access for a broad, diverse user community. However, to realize the full potential of the growing archives of valuable scientific data, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. The set of providers of data and services pertaining to archiving and distribution of Earth science data is quite heterogeneous and distributed today and is likely to be even more so in the future. This is due to the diversity of Earth Science disciplines and the distribution of expertise needed to provide data and services in those disciplines. Thus, in typical real world applications scenarios, the data and services will be obtained through service chains involving multiple data archive sites or systems. It is in this context that the development of technologies to improve data utilization must occur. Sponsored by NASA's Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization by adding intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system. Potential Intelligent Archive concepts

  4. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  5. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  6. Climate Change Education in Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    The course "Atmospheric Research - Climate Change" is offered to master Earth System Science students within the specialisation "Climate and Environment" at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg. This module takes a comprehensive approach to climate sciences, reaching from the natural sciences background of climate change via the social components of the issue to the statistical analysis of changes in climate parameters. The course aims at qualifying the students to structure the physical and chemical basics of the climate system including relevant feedbacks. The students can evaluate relevant drivers of climate variability and change on various temporal and spatial scales and can transform knowledge from climate history to the present and the future. Special focus is given to the assessment of uncertainties related to climate observations and projections as well as the specific challenges of extreme weather and climate events. At the end of the course the students are able to critically reflect and evaluate climate change related results of scientific studies and related issues in media. The course is divided into two parts - "Climate Change" and "Climate Data Analysis" and encompasses two lectures, one seminar and one exercise. The weekly "Climate change" lecture transmits the physical and chemical background for climate variation and change. (Pre)historical, observed and projected climate changes and their effects on various sectors are being introduced and discussed regarding their implications for society, economics, ecology and politics. The related seminar presents and discusses the multiple reasons for controversy in climate change issues, based on various texts. Students train the presentation of scientific content and the discussion of climate change aspects. The biweekly lecture on "Climate data analysis" introduces the most relevant statistical tools and methods in climate science. Starting with checking data quality via tools of exploratory

  7. Earth System Grid II, Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Don

    2006-08-01

    The Earth System Grid (ESG) II project, funded by the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing program, has transformed climate data into community resources. ESG II has accomplished this goal by creating a virtual collaborative environment that links climate centers and users around the world to models and data via a computing Grid, which is based on the Department of Energy’s supercomputing resources and the Internet. Our project’s success stems from partnerships between climate researchers and computer scientists to advance basic and applied research in the terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences. By interfacing with other climate science projects, we have learned that commonly used methods to manage and remotely distribute data among related groups lack infrastructure and under-utilize existing technologies. Knowledge and expertise gained from ESG II have helped the climate community plan strategies to manage a rapidly growing data environment more effectively. Moreover, approaches and technologies developed under the ESG project have impacted datasimulation integration in other disciplines, such as astrophysics, molecular biology and materials science.

  8. Advanced Space Surface Systems Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, Zachary Lynn; Mueller, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of advanced surface systems is becoming increasingly relevant in the modern age of space technology. Specifically, projects pursued by the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab are unparalleled in the field of planetary resourcefulness. This internship opportunity involved projects that support properly utilizing natural resources from other celestial bodies. Beginning with the tele-robotic workstation, mechanical upgrades were necessary to consider for specific portions of the workstation consoles and successfully designed in concept. This would provide more means for innovation and creativity concerning advanced robotic operations. Project RASSOR is a regolith excavator robot whose primary objective is to mine, store, and dump regolith efficiently on other planetary surfaces. Mechanical adjustments were made to improve this robot's functionality, although there were some minor system changes left to perform before the opportunity ended. On the topic of excavator robots, the notes taken by the GMRO staff during the 2013 and 2014 Robotic Mining Competitions were effectively organized and analyzed for logistical purposes. Lessons learned from these annual competitions at Kennedy Space Center are greatly influential to the GMRO engineers and roboticists. Another project that GMRO staff support is Project Morpheus. Support for this project included successfully producing mathematical models of the eroded landing pad surface for the vertical testbed vehicle to predict a timeline for pad reparation. And finally, the last project this opportunity made contribution to was Project Neo, a project exterior to GMRO Lab projects, which focuses on rocket propulsion systems. Additions were successfully installed to the support structure of an original vertical testbed rocket engine, thus making progress towards futuristic test firings in which data will be analyzed by students affiliated with Rocket University. Each project will be explained in

  9. Modeling the Earth system in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unninayar, Sushel; Bergman, Kenneth H.

    1993-01-01

    A broad overview is made of global earth system modeling in the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) era for the multidisciplinary audience encompassed by the Global Change Research Program (GCRP). Time scales of global system fluctuation and change are described in Section 2. Section 3 provides a rubric for modeling the global earth system, as presently understood. The ability of models to predict the future state of the global earth system and the extent to which their predictions are reliable are covered in Sections 4 and 5. The 'engineering' use of global system models (and predictions) is covered in Section 6. Section 7 covers aspects of an increasing need for improved transform algorithms and better methods to assimilate this information into global models. Future monitoring and data requirements are detailed in Section 8. Section 9 covers the NASA-initiated concept 'Mission to Planet Earth,' which employs space and ground based measurement systems to provide the scientific basis for understanding global change. Section 10 concludes this review with general remarks concerning the state of global system modeling and observing technology and the need for future research.

  10. Stratigraphic and Earth System approaches to defining the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Will; Leinfelder, Reinhold; Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Williams, Mark; Summerhayes, Colin; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Crutzen, Paul; Edgeworth, Matt; Ellis, Erle C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Galuszka, Agnieszka; Grinevald, Jacques; Haywood, Alan; Ivar do Sul, Juliana; Jeandel, Catherine; McNeill, J. R.; Odada, Eric; Oreskes, Naomi; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB.; Syvitski, James; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott L.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Schellnhuber, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    Stratigraphy provides insights into the evolution and dynamics of the Earth System over its long history. With recent developments in Earth System science, changes in Earth System dynamics can now be observed directly and projected into the near future. An integration of the two approaches provides powerful insights into the nature and significance of contemporary changes to Earth. From both perspectives, the Earth has been pushed out of the Holocene Epoch by human activities, with the mid-20th century a strong candidate for the start date of the Anthropocene, the proposed new epoch in Earth history. Here we explore two contrasting scenarios for the future of the Anthropocene, recognizing that the Earth System has already undergone a substantial transition away from the Holocene state. A rapid shift of societies toward the UN Sustainable Development Goals could stabilize the Earth System in a state with more intense interglacial conditions than in the late Quaternary climate regime and with little further biospheric change. In contrast, a continuation of the present Anthropocene trajectory of growing human pressures will likely lead to biotic impoverishment and a much warmer climate with a significant loss of polar ice.

  11. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  12. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  13. Origin and evolution of the earth-moon system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.

    1972-01-01

    The general problem of formation of secondary bodies around a central body is studied, and comparison is made with other satellite systems (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus). The normal satellite systems of Neptune and the earth are reconstructed. The capture theory, the tidal evolution of the lunar orbit, destruction of a normal satellite system, asteroids and the earth-moon system, and accretion and heat structure of the moon are discussed. It is concluded that the moon originated as a planet accreted in a jet stream near the orbit of the earth, and was probably captured in a retrograde orbit.

  14. NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program: Advanced Concepts and Disruptive Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. M.; Moe, K.; Komar, G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) manages a wide range of information technology projects under the Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program. The AIST Program aims to support all phases of NASA's Earth Science program with the goal of enabling new observations and information products, increasing the accessibility and use of Earth observations, and reducing the risk and cost of satellite and ground based information systems. Recent initiatives feature computational technologies to improve information extracted from data streams or model outputs and researchers' tools for Big Data analytics. Data-centric technologies enable research communities to facilitate collaboration and increase the speed with which results are produced and published. In the future NASA anticipates more small satellites (e.g., CubeSats), mobile drones and ground-based in-situ sensors will advance the state-of-the-art regarding how scientific observations are performed, given the flexibility, cost and deployment advantages of new operations technologies. This paper reviews the success of the program and the lessons learned. Infusion of these technologies is challenging and the paper discusses the obstacles and strategies to adoption by the earth science research and application efforts. It also describes alternative perspectives for the future program direction and for realizing the value in the steps to transform observations from sensors to data, to information, and to knowledge, namely: sensor measurement concepts development; data acquisition and management; data product generation; and data exploitation for science and applications.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Newby; M.A. Alvin; G.J. Bruck; T.E. Lippert; E.E. Smeltzer; M.E. Stampahar

    2002-06-30

    Two advanced, hot gas, barrier filter system concepts have been proposed by the Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation to improve the reliability and availability of barrier filter systems in applications such as PFBC and IGCC power generation. The two hot gas, barrier filter system concepts, the inverted candle filter system and the sheet filter system, were the focus of bench-scale testing, data evaluations, and commercial cost evaluations to assess their feasibility as viable barrier filter systems. The program results show that the inverted candle filter system has high potential to be a highly reliable, commercially successful, hot gas, barrier filter system. Some types of thin-walled, standard candle filter elements can be used directly as inverted candle filter elements, and the development of a new type of filter element is not a requirement of this technology. Six types of inverted candle filter elements were procured and assessed in the program in cold flow and high-temperature test campaigns. The thin-walled McDermott 610 CFCC inverted candle filter elements, and the thin-walled Pall iron aluminide inverted candle filter elements are the best candidates for demonstration of the technology. Although the capital cost of the inverted candle filter system is estimated to range from about 0 to 15% greater than the capital cost of the standard candle filter system, the operating cost and life-cycle cost of the inverted candle filter system is expected to be superior to that of the standard candle filter system. Improved hot gas, barrier filter system availability will result in improved overall power plant economics. The inverted candle filter system is recommended for continued development through larger-scale testing in a coal-fueled test facility, and inverted candle containment equipment has been fabricated and shipped to a gasifier development site for potential future testing. Two types of sheet filter elements were procured and assessed in the program

  16. Measuring earth orientation with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Adam P.

    1991-01-01

    A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers which obtain data from the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may soon become an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in earth orientation. A covariance analysis has been performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS monitoring of earth orientation. Earth orientation parameters were modeled either as constants over observing windows of various lengths, or as stochastic process-noise variables. The sensitivity of earth orientation estimates to systematic errors in selected model parameters was also examined. GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques, and have the potential to generate nearly continuous centimeter-level earth orientation information to aid both spacecraft navigation and the study of high-frequency earth orientation-related processes.

  17. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  18. `Earth system' analysis and the second Copernican revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellnhuber, H. J.

    1999-12-01

    Optical magnification instruments once brought about the Copernican revolution that put the Earth in its correct astrophysical context. Sophisticated information-compression techniques including simulation modelling are now ushering in a second `Copernican' revolution. The latter strives to understand the `Earth system' as a whole and to develop, on this cognitive basis, concepts for global environmental management.

  19. Field study of earth tempered swine ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, W.D.; Peterson, W.H.; Muehling, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Four earth-tube heat exchanger systems for heating and cooling the ventilation air for swine farrowing and nursery buildings were studied. Results show appreciable winter heating and summer cooling from the earth tubes with minimal variation in the temperature of the discharge air. 5 refs.

  20. 2012 Community Earth System Model (CESM) Tutorial - Proposal to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Marika; Bailey, David A

    2013-03-18

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a fully-coupled, global climate model that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate states. This document provides the agenda and list of participants for the conference. Web materials for all lectures and practical sessions available from: http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/events/tutorials/073012/ .

  1. Supporting Inquiry-based Earth System Science Instruction with Middle and High School Earth Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, L.; Varner, R.; Froburg, E.; Smith, M.; Graham, K.; Hale, S.; Laura, G.; Brown, D.; Bryce, J.; Darwish, A.; Furman, T.; Johnson, J.; Porter, W.; von Damm, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project, a partnership between faculty at the University of New Hampshire, Pennsylvania State University, Elizabeth City State University and Dillard University, is designed to enrich the professional development of in-service and pre-service Earth science teachers. One goal of this effort is to help teachers use an inquiry-based approach to teaching Earth system science in their classrooms. As a part of the TESSE project, 42 pre-service and in-service teachers participated in an intensive two-week summer institute at UNH taught by Earth scientists and science educators from TESSE partnership institutions. The institute included instruction about a range of Earth science system topics as well as an introduction to teaching Earth science using an inquiry-based approach. In addition to providing teachers with information about inquiry-based science teaching in the form of sample lesson plans and opportunities to revise traditional lessons and laboratory exercises to make them more inquiry-based, TESSE instructors modeled an inquiry- based approach in their own teaching as much as possible. By the end of the Institute participants had developed lesson plans, units, or year-long course overviews in which they were expected to explain the ways in which they would include an inquiry-based approach in their Earth science teaching over the course of the school year. As a part of the project, graduate fellows (graduate students in the earth sciences) will work with classroom teachers during the academic year to support their implementation of these plans as well as to assist them in developing a more comprehensive inquiry-based approach in the classroom.

  2. Advanced Earth-to-orbit propulsion technology information, dissemination and research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1993-01-01

    A conference was held at MSFC in May 1992 describing the research achievements of the NASA-wide research and technology programs dealing with advanced oxygen/hydrogen and oxygen/hydrocarbon earth-to-orbit propulsion. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for the timely dissemination to the propulsion community of the results emerging from this program with particular emphasis on the transfer of information from the scientific/research to the designer.

  3. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  4. Advanced System for Process Engineering

    1998-09-14

    PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 (Advanced System for Process Engineering) is a state of the art process simulator and economic evaluation package which was designed for use in engineering fossil energy conversion processes and has been ported to run on a PC. PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 can represent multiphase streams including solids, and handle complex substances such as coal. The system can perform steady state material and energy balances, determine equipment size and cost, and carry out preliminary economic evaluations.more » It is supported by a comprehensive physical property system for computation of major properties such as enthalpy, entropy, free energy, molar volume, equilibrium ratio, fugacity coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient for specified phase conditions; vapor, liquid, or solid. The properties may be computed for pure components, mixtures, or components in a mixture, as appropriate. The PRO ASPEN/PC1.0 Input Language is oriented towards process engineers.« less

  5. Westinghouse Advanced Particle Filter System

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper reports on the development and status of testing of the Westinghouse Advanced Hot Gas Particle Filter (W-APF) including: W-APF integrated operation with the American Electric Power, 70 MW PFBC clean coal facility--approximately 6000 test hours completed; approximately 2500 hours of testing at the Hans Ahlstrom 10 MW PCFB facility located in Karhula, Finland; over 700 hours of operation at the Foster Wheeler 2 MW 2nd generation PFBC facility located in Livingston, New Jersey; status of Westinghouse HGF supply for the DOE Southern Company Services Power System Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama; the status of the Westinghouse development and testing of HGF`s for Biomass Power Generation; and the status of the design and supply of the HGF unit for the 95 MW Pinon Pine IGCC Clean Coal Demonstration.

  6. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  7. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  8. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  9. Increasing participation in the Earth sciences through engagement of K-12 educators in Earth system science analysis, inquiry and problem- based learning and teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, S.

    2012-12-01

    Given low course enrollment in geoscience courses, retention in undergraduate geoscience courses, and granting of BA and advanced degrees in the Earth sciences an effective strategy to increase participation in this field is necessary. In response, as K-12 education is a conduit to college education and the future workforce, Earth science education at the K-12 level was targeted with the development of teacher professional development around Earth system science, inquiry and problem-based learning. An NSF, NOAA and NASA funded effort through the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies led to the development of the Earth System Science Educational Alliance (ESSEA) and dissemination of interdisciplinary Earth science content modules accessible to the public and educators. These modules formed the basis for two teacher workshops, two graduate level courses for in-service teachers and two university course for undergraduate teacher candidates. Data from all three models will be presented with emphasis on the teacher workshop. Essential components of the workshop model include: teaching and modeling Earth system science analysis; teacher development of interdisciplinary, problem-based academic units for implementation in the classroom; teacher collaboration; daily workshop evaluations; classroom observations; follow-up collaborative meetings/think tanks; and the building of an on-line professional community for continued communication and exchange of best practices. Preliminary data indicate increased understanding of Earth system science, proficiency with Earth system science analysis, and renewed interest in innovative delivery of content amongst teachers. Teacher-participants reported increased student engagement in learning with the implementation of problem-based investigations in Earth science and Earth system science thinking in the classroom, however, increased enthusiasm of the teacher acted as a contributing factor. Teacher feedback on open

  10. A mixed fleet transportation system to low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Based on a provided mission model, this project considered three different classes of launch vehicles for possible use: (1) modifications to the current Space Transportation System, or replacement by a second-generation vehicle using current technology; (2) a heavy-lift cargo vehicle, designed to minimize the cost of bulk cargo to low earth orbit; and (3) an advanced man-rated system incorporating technology anticipated for the year 1995. The mission model provided included commercial, scientific, and military payloads for the years 1990 through 2010. Use of the current Space Transportation System was also permitted in the final fleet sizing analysis. The near-term shuttle group performed trade studies on a number of modifications and variations before selecting a new vehicle design, incorporating a fly-back reusable first stage and reduced-size orbiter. Orbiter payload was limited to 5000 kg (priority items), with up to 25,000 kg of payload carried in a forward payload bay within the nose shroud of the orbiter external tank. This allowed reduction of orbiter size, without significant loss of reusability.

  11. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  12. Earth resources ground data handling systems for the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvleck, E. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Pitts, S. W.; Slye, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The system requirements of an operational data handling system for earth resources in the decade of the 1980's are investigated. Attention is drawn to problems encountered in meeting the stringent agricultural user requirements of that time frame. Such an understanding of requirements is essential not only in designing the ground system that will ultimately handle the data, but also in design studies of the earth resources platform, sensors, and data relay satellites which may be needed.

  13. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  14. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  15. WHERE TO FIND HABITABLE ''EARTHS'' IN CIRCUMBINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Huigen; Zhang Hui; Zhou Jilin

    2013-04-20

    Six P-type planets have been found thus far around five binary systems, i.e., Kepler-16b, 34b, 35b, 38b, and 47b and c, which are all Neptune- or Jupiter-like planets. The stability of planets and the habitable zones are influenced by the gravitational and radiative perturbations of binary companions. In this Letter, we check the stability of an additional habitable Earth-mass planet in each system. Based on our simulations in 10 Myr, a habitable ''Earth'' is hardly stable in Kepler-16, while a stable ''Earth'' in Kepler-47 close to the boundaries of the habitable zone is possible. In contrast, Kepler-34, 35, and 38 seem to have high probabilities of being able to tolerante a stable ''Earth'' in their habitable zones. The affects of transit time variations are quite small due to the small mass of an undetected ''Earth,'' except that of Kepler-16b. With a time precision of 10{sup -3} day ({approx}88 s), an ''Earth'' in the corotational resonance with Kepler-16b can be detected in three years, while habitable ''Earths'' in the Kepler-34 and 38 systems can be detected in 10 yr. Habitable ''Earths'' in Kepler-35 and 47 are not likely to be detected in 10 yr under this precision.

  16. Advanced information processing system: Local system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Laura; Alger, Linda; Whittredge, Roy; Stasiowski, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is a multi-computer architecture composed of hardware and software building blocks that can be configured to meet a broad range of application requirements. The hardware building blocks are fault-tolerant, general-purpose computers, fault-and damage-tolerant networks (both computer and input/output), and interfaces between the networks and the computers. The software building blocks are the major software functions: local system services, input/output, system services, inter-computer system services, and the system manager. The foundation of the local system services is an operating system with the functions required for a traditional real-time multi-tasking computer, such as task scheduling, inter-task communication, memory management, interrupt handling, and time maintenance. Resting on this foundation are the redundancy management functions necessary in a redundant computer and the status reporting functions required for an operator interface. The functional requirements, functional design and detailed specifications for all the local system services are documented.

  17. Earth-moon system: Dynamics and parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical development of the equations of motion governing the earth-moon system is presented. The earth and moon were treated as finite rigid bodies and a mutual potential was utilized. The sun and remaining planets were treated as particles. Relativistic, non-rigid, and dissipative effects were not included. The translational and rotational motion of the earth and moon were derived in a fully coupled set of equations. Euler parameters were used to model the rotational motions. The mathematical model is intended for use with data analysis software to estimate physical parameters of the earth-moon system using primarily LURE type data. Two program listings are included. Program ANEAMO computes the translational/rotational motion of the earth and moon from analytical solutions. Program RIGEM numerically integrates the fully coupled motions as described above.

  18. Alisse : Advanced life support system evaluator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Jean; Gerbi, Olivier; André, Philippe; Davin, Elisabeth; Avezuela Rodriguez, Raul; Carbonero, Fernando; Soumalainen, Emilia; Lasseur, Christophe

    Long duration missions, such as the establishment of permanent bases on the lunar surface or the travel to Mars, require such an amount of life support consumables (e.g. food, water and oxygen) that direct supply or re-supply from Earth is not an option anymore. Regenerative Life Support Systems are therefore necessary to sustain long-term manned space mission to increase recycling rates and so reduce the launched mass. The architecture of an Environmental Controlled Life Support System widely depends on the mission scenario. Even for a given mission scenario, different architectures could be envisaged which need to be evaluated and compared with appropriate tools. As these evaluation and comparison, based on the single criterion of Equivalent System Mass, was not considered com-prehensive enough, ESA is developing a multi-criteria evaluation tool: ALISSE (Advanced Life Support System Evaluator). The main objective of ALISSE, and of the work presented here, is the definition and implemen-tation of a metrics system, addressing the complexity of any ECLSS along its Life Cycle phases. A multi-dimensional and multi-criteria (i.e. mass, energy, efficiency, risk to human, reliability, crew time, sustainability, life cycle cost) approach is proposed through the development of a computing support platform. Each criterion being interrelated with the others, a model based system approach is used. ALISSE is expected to provide significant inputs to the ESA Concurrent Design Facility and, as a consequence, to be a highly valuable tool for decision process linked to any manned space mission. Full contact detail for the contact author : Jean Brunet Sherpa Engineering General Manager Phone : 0033(0)608097480 j.brunet@sherpa-eng.com

  19. Towards a community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Community Climate System Model, version 2 (CCSM2), was released in June 2002. CCSM2 has several new components and features, which I will discuss briefly. I will also show a few results from a multi-century equilibrium run with this model, emphasizing the improvements over the earlier simulation using the original CSM. A few flaws and inadequacies in CCSM2 have been identified. I will also discuss briefly work underway to improve the model and present results, if available. CCSM2, with improvements, will be the basis for the development of a Community Earth System Model (CESM). The highest priority for expansion of the model involves incorporation of biogeosciences into the coupled model system, with emphasis given to the carbon, nitrogen and iron cycles. The overall goal of the biogeosciences project within CESM is to understand the regulation of planetary energetics, planetary ecology, and planetary metabolism through exchanges of energy, momentum, and materials among atmosphere, land, and ocean, and the response of the climate system through these processes to changes in land cover and land use. In particular, this research addresses how biogeochemical coupling of carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles affects climate and how human perturbations of these cycles alter climate. To accomplish these goals, the Community Land Model, the land component of CCSM2, is being developed to include river routing, carbon and nitrogen cycles, emissions of mineral aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds, dry deposition of various gases, and vegetation dynamics. The carbon and nitrogen cycles are being implemented using parameterizations developed as part of a state-of-the-art ecosystem biogeochemistry model. The primary goal of this research is to provide an accurate net flux of CO2 between the land and the atmosphere so that CESM can be used to study the dynamics of the coupled climate-carbon system. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds are also based on a

  20. A new program in earth system science education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley; Kalb, Michael W.; Johnson, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A program aimed at accelerating the development of earth system science curricula at the undergraduate level and at seeding the establishment of university-based mechanisms for cooperative research and education among universities and NASA has been initiated by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) in conjunction with NASA. Proposals were submitted by 100 U.S. research universities which were selected as candidates to participate in a three-year pilot program to develop undergraduate curricula in earth system science. Universities were then selected based upon peer review and considerations of overall scientific balance among proposed programs. The program will also aim to integrate a number of universities with evolving earth system programs, linking them with a cooperative curriculum, shared faculty, and NASA scientists in order to establish a stronger base for earth systems related education and interdisciplinary research collaboration.

  1. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina; Rodgers, Keith B.

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  2. The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hurrell, Jim; Holland, Marika M.; Gent, Peter R.; Ghan, Steven J.; Kay, Jennifer; Kushner, P.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Large, William G.; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Lipscomb, William; Long , Matthew; Mahowald, N.; Marsh, D.; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Vavrus, Steven J.; Vertenstein, Mariana; Bader, David C.; Collins, William D.; Hack, James; Kiehl, J. T.; Marshall, Shawn

    2013-09-30

    The Community Earth System Model (CESM) is a flexible and extensible community tool used to investigate a diverse set of earth system interactions across multiple time and space scales. This global coupled model is a natural evolution from its predecessor, the Community Climate System Model, following the incorporation of new earth system capabilities. These include the ability to simulate biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, ice sheets, and a high-top atmosphere. These and other new model capabilities are enabling investigations into a wide range of pressing scientific questions, providing new predictive capabilities and increasing our collective knowledge about the behavior and interactions of the earth system. Simulations with numerous configurations of the CESM have been provided to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and are being analyzed by the broader community of scientists. Additionally, the model source code and associated documentation are freely available to the scientific community to use for earth system studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth modeling system, its various possible configurations, and illustrate its capabilities with a few science highlights.

  3. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  4. Diffusion in solid-Earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, E. Bruce; Baxter, Ethan F.

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the acquisition and use of information on diffusive transport in phases relevant to the solid Earth (crystals, melts and fluids). Although far from complete, the data base on diffusion coefficients is now sufficiently large that broad constraints can be placed upon the length- and time scales of many natural transport phenomena in which diffusion plays a role. Conversely, observations of diffusion progress in specific natural samples can be used to extract time-temperature information for a variety of geologic and geochemical processes, ranging from sediment burial and crustal erosion to fluid-mediated reactions and biosignature retention. Despite this undeniable progress, several major challenges remain that largely define the frontiers of research in solid-Earth diffusion. Perhaps foremost among these is the need to address and understand the multi-scale, multi-path aspects of diffusion in many systems—a complication that is not limited to polyphase materials (individual mineral grains can exhibit clear indications of multi-path behavior even when visible evidence of such paths is lacking). Many other diffusion frontiers are linked in one way or another to this multi-scale issue; they include: diffusion of molecular H 2O and the effect of H species on diffusion in minerals and rocks; diffusive fractionation of multiple isotopes of a single element; diffusion at the extreme conditions of the deep Earth; reconciliation of observations from natural samples and laboratory studies; and development of theoretical approaches to 'predict' diffusion behavior in regions inaccessible to observation.

  5. Technical Note: The Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) - a new approach towards Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Sander, R.; Kerkweg, A.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.

    2005-02-01

    The development of a comprehensive Earth System Model (ESM) to study the interactions between chemical, physical, and biological processes, requires coupling of the different domains (land, ocean, atmosphere, ...). One strategy is to link existing domain-specific models with a universal coupler, i.e. an independent standalone program organizing the communication between other programs. In many cases, however, a much simpler approach is more feasible. We have developed the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy). It comprises (1) a modular interface structure to connect to a , (2) an extendable set of such for miscellaneous processes, and (3) a coding standard. MESSy is therefore not a coupler in the classical sense, but exchanges data between a and several within one comprehensive executable. The internal complexity of the is controllable in a transparent and user friendly way. This provides remarkable new possibilities to study feedback mechanisms (by two-way coupling). Note that the MESSy and the coupler approach can be combined. For instance, an atmospheric model implemented according to the MESSy standard could easily be coupled to an ocean model by means of an external coupler. The vision is to ultimately form a comprehensive ESM which includes a large set of submodels, and a base model which contains only a central clock and runtime control. This can be reached stepwise, since each process can be included independently. Starting from an existing model, process submodels can be reimplemented according to the MESSy standard. This procedure guarantees the availability of a state-of-the-art model for scientific applications at any time of the development. In principle, MESSy can be implemented into any kind of model, either global or regional. So far, the MESSy concept has been applied to the general circulation model ECHAM5 and a number of process boxmodels.

  6. Earth Sciences Requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, David E. (Editor); Katzberg, Steve J. (Editor); Wilson, R. Gale (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to further explore and define the earth sciences requirements for the Information Sciences Experiment System (ISES), a proposed onboard data processor with real-time communications capability intended to support the Earth Observing System (Eos). A review of representative Eos instrument types is given and a preliminary set of real-time data needs has been established. An executive summary is included.

  7. Syllabus for Weizmann Course: Earth System Science 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-01-01

    This course aims for an understanding of Earth System Science and the interconnection of its various "spheres" (atmosphere, hydrosphere, etc.) by adopting the view that "the microcosm mirrors the macrocosm". We shall study a small set of microcosims, each residing primarily in one sphere, but substantially involving at least one other sphere, in order to illustrate the kinds of coupling that can occur and gain a greater appreciation of the complexity of even the smallest Earth System Science phenomenon.

  8. Advances in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Dan S.

    1976-01-01

    Reports on technological advancements in the fields of solar collectors, thermal storage systems, and solar heating and cooling systems. Diagrams aid in the understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems. (CP)

  9. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  10. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  11. Earth's Deep Biosphere and Life in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, M.; Orcutt, B.; Girguis, P.

    2008-12-01

    Studies of Earth's deep biosphere over the past decade have shown that remarkable varieties of environments previously thought to be uninhabitable actually harbor significant quantities and a great diversity of microbial life. It has become apparent that many of the microorganisms living below the Earth's surface rely on geochemical reactions rather than photosynthesis as metabolic energy sources. Because of similarities in geochemical processes that are likely occurring, there are other examples of celestial bodies in our solar system that may also harbor subsurface biospheres, most notably Mars and the jovian moon, Europa. We can use lessons learned through investigations of Earth's deep biosphere to assess the possibility that life may exist below the surface of these worlds. In this presentation, we discuss some of what we know about Earth's deep biosphere and what it may tell us about the nature of life in similar environments outside of Earth. As plans are made for missions to search for deep biospheres on other worlds, we also explore what may be the most appropriate analogs here on Earth and how the methods being developed to study Earth's deep biosphere may aid in our search. Comparisons will be made between habitats on Earth that may be analgous to those postulated to exist on Mars and Europa.

  12. Earth System Grid and EGI interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raciazek, J.; Petitdidier, M.; Gemuend, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science data centers have developed a data grid called Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF) to give the scientific community world wide access to CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5) climate data. The CMIP5 data will permit to evaluate the impact of climate change in various environmental and societal areas, such as regional climate, extreme events, agriculture, insurance… The ESGF grid provides services like searching, browsing and downloading of datasets. At the security level, ESGF data access is protected by an authentication mechanism. An ESGF trusted X509 Short-Lived EEC certificate with the correct roles/attributes is required to get access to the data in a non-interactive way (e.g. from a worker node). To access ESGF from EGI (i.e. by earth science applications running on EGI infrastructure), the security incompatibility between the two grids is the challenge: the EGI proxy certificate is not ESGF trusted nor it contains the correct roles/attributes. To solve this problem, we decided to use a Credential Translation Service (CTS) to translate the EGI X509 proxy certificate into the ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate (the CTS will issue ESGF certificates based on EGI certificate authentication). From the end user perspective, the main steps to use the CTS are: the user binds his two identities (EGI and ESGF) together in the CTS using the CTS web interface (this steps has to be done only once) and then request an ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate every time is needed, using a command-line tools. The implementation of the CTS is on-going. It is based on the open source MyProxy software stack, which is used in many grid infrastructures. On the client side, the "myproxy-logon" command-line tools is used to request the certificate translation. A new option has been added to "myproxy-logon" to select the original certificate (in our case, the EGI one). On the server side, MyProxy server operates in Certificate Authority mode, with a new module

  13. Reference coordinate systems for Earth dynamics: A preview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is the subject of intensive international research during last decade. A common requirement for all investigations is the necessity of a well defined coordinate system attached to the Earth in some prescribed way. In addition, a well defined inertial coordinate system is also needed in which the motions of the terrestrial system can be monitored. The problems encountered when establishing such coordinate systems and the transformations between them are presented. In addition, problems related to the modeling of the deformable Earth are discussed. Finally, action items are listed which are necessary to assure that the reference system issue is resolved early and that uniformity is assured by means of international agreements.

  14. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  15. Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Progress and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M.; Johnson, D. R.; Wake, C.; Aron, J.

    2005-12-01

    Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century (ESSE 21) is a collaborative undergraduate/graduate Earth system science education program sponsored by NASA offering small grants to colleges and universities with special emphasis on including minority institutions to engage faculty and scientists in the development of Earth system science courses, curricula, degree programs and shared learning resources. The annual ESSE 21 meeting in Fairbanks in August, 2005 provided an opportunity for 70 undergraduate educators and scientists to share their best classroom learning resources through a series of short presentations, posters and skills workshops. This poster will highlight meeting results, advances in the development of ESS learning modules, and describe a community-led proposal to develop in the coming year a Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth system Science Education to be based upon the experience of the 63 NASA-supported ESSE teams over the past 15 years. As a living document on the Web, the Design Guide would utilize and share ESSE experiences that: - Advance understanding of the Earth as a system - Apply ESS to the Vision for Space Exploration - Create environments appropriate for teaching and learning ESS - Improve STEM literacy and broaden career paths - Transform institutional priorities and approaches to ESS - Embrace ESS within Minority Serving Institutions - Build collaborative interdisciplinary partnerships - Develop ESS learning resources and modules The Design Guide aims to be a synthesis of just how ESS has been and is being implemented in the college and university environment, listing items essential for undergraduate Earth system education that reflect the collective wisdom of the ESS education community. The Design Guide will focus the vision for ESS in the coming decades, define the challenges, and explore collaborative processes that utilize the next generation of information and communication technology.

  16. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  17. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity is

  18. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change.

    PubMed

    Wouters, B; Bonin, J A; Chambers, D P; Riva, R E M; Sasgen, I; Wahr, J

    2014-11-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data-provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)-can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography.

  19. Advanced Overfire Air system and design

    SciTech Connect

    Gene berkau

    2004-07-30

    The objective of the proposed project is to design, install and optimize a prototype advanced tangential OFA air system on two mass feed stoker boilers that can burn coal, biomass and a mixture of these fuels. The results will be used to develop a generalized methodology for retrofit designs and optimization of advanced OFA air systems. The advanced OFA system will reduce particulate and NOx emissions and improve overall efficiency by reducing carbon in the ash and excess oxygen. The advanced OFA will also provide capabilities for carrying full load and improved load following and transitional operations.

  20. Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modelling: An Earth Systems Modelling Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Sahagian, Dork

    1997-01-01

    The Goal of the GAIM is: To advance the study of the coupled dynamics of the Earth system using as tools both data and models; to develop a strategy for the rapid development, evaluation, and application of comprehensive prognostic models of the Global Biogeochemical Subsystem which could eventually be linked with models of the Physical-Climate Subsystem; to propose, promote, and facilitate experiments with existing models or by linking subcomponent models, especially those associated with IGBP Core Projects and with WCRP efforts. Such experiments would be focused upon resolving interface issues and questions associated with developing an understanding of the prognostic behavior of key processes; to clarify key scientific issues facing the development of Global Biogeochemical Models and the coupling of these models to General Circulation Models; to assist the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process by conducting timely studies that focus upon elucidating important unresolved scientific issues associated with the changing biogeochemical cycles of the planet and upon the role of the biosphere in the physical-climate subsystem, particularly its role in the global hydrological cycle; and to advise the SC-IGBP on progress in developing comprehensive Global Biogeochemical Models and to maintain scientific liaison with the WCRP Steering Group on Global Climate Modelling.

  1. LAWS (Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder) earth observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wind profiles can be measured from space using current technology. These wind profiles are essential for answering many of the interdisciplinary scientific questions to be addressed by EOS, the Earth Observing System. This report provides guidance for the development of a spaceborne wind sounder, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), discussing the current state of the technology and reviewing the scientific rationale for the instrument. Whether obtained globally from the EOS polar platform or in the tropics and subtropics from the Space Station, wind profiles from space will provide essential information for advancing the skill of numerical weather prediction, furthering knowledge of large-scale atmospheric circulation and climate dynamics, and improving understanding of the global biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles. The LAWS Instrument Panel recommends that it be given high priority for new instrument development because of the pressing scientific need and the availability of the necessary technology. LAWS is to measure wind profiles with an accuracy of a few meters per second and to sample at intervals of 100 km horizontally for layers km thick.

  2. Explicitly Representing Soil Microbial Processes In Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katrina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Mathew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-26

    Microbes influence soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) may make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here, we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models we suggest: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  3. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katerina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Matthew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) will make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models, we suggest the following: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  4. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  5. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  6. Development of the earth-moon system with implications for the geology of the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Established facts regarding the basic features of the earth and the moon are reviewed, and some important problems involving the moon are discussed (extent of melting, time of crustal differentiation and nature of bombardment, bulk chemical composition, and nature and source of mare basins), with attention given to the various existing theories concerning these problems. Models of the development of the earth-moon system from the solar nebula are examined, with particular attention focused on those that use the concept of capture with disintegration. Impact processes in the early crust of the earth are briefly considered, with attention paid to Green's (1972) suggestion that Archaean greenstone belts may be the terrestrial equivalent of lunar maria.

  7. Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, Stephen L.; Cooper, John E.; Miller, James; Harrison, Edwin F.; Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    1992-01-01

    The CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) experiment will play a major role in NASA's multi-platform Earth Observing System (EOS) program to observe and study the global climate. The CERES instruments will provide EOS scientists with a consistent data base of accurately known fields of radiation and of clouds. CERES will investigate the important question of cloud forcing and its influence on the radiative energy flow through the Earth's atmosphere. The CERES instrument is an improved version of the ERBE (Earth Radiation Budget Experiment) broadband scanning radiometer flown by NASA from 1984 through 1989. This paper describes the science of CERES, presents an overview of the instrument preliminary design, and outlines the issues related to spacecraft pointing and attitude control.

  8. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  9. Parametric design of ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denny, C.; Johnson, E. M.; Davis, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric system design technique has been applied to ground data processing/support systems for advanced sensor applications. The system establishes a direct link between budget analysts and system planners. Three primary phases are identified: the definition of requirements, system design, and system costing. The system is evaluated for three cases: (1) a study of ground data handling systems for earth resource satellites, (2) a ground data mass storage and processing system for agricultural remote-sensing studies, and (3) a parametric study of shuttle era data processing support required for atmospheric and space physics.

  10. Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1): Wideband Advanced Recorder and Processor (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Terry; Kessler, John

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Orbitor 1 (EO1) Wideband Advanced Recorder and Processor (WARP) is presented in viewgraph form. The WARP is a spacecraft component that receives, stores, and processes high rate science data and its associated ancillary data from multispectral detectors, hyperspectral detectors, and an atmospheric corrector, and then transmits the data via an X-band or S-band transmitter to the ground station. The WARP project goals are: (1) Pathfinder for next generation LANDSAT mission; (2) Flight prove architectures and technologies; and (3) Identify future technology needs.

  11. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Dark Current and Noise Characterization and Anomalous Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The dark current and noise characteristics of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager measured during ground calibration at MIT Lincoln Laboratory are presented. Data were collected for the nominal focal plane operating temperature of 220 K as well as supplemental operating temperatures (215 and 225 K). Dark current baseline values are provided, and noise characterization includes the evaluation of white, coherent, low frequency, and high frequency components. Finally, anomalous detectors, characterized by unusual dark current, noise, gain, or cross-talk properties are investigated.

  12. Earth orbital teleoperator visual system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, P. N.; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Kirkpatrick, M., III

    1977-01-01

    Visual system parameters and stereoptic television component geometries were evaluated for optimum viewing. The accuracy of operator range estimation using a Fresnell stereo television system with a three dimensional cursor was examined. An operator's ability to align three dimensional targets using vidicon tube and solid state television cameras as part of a Fresnell stereoptic system was evaluated. An operator's ability to discriminate between varied color samples viewed with a color television system was determined.

  13. Regional Earth System Prediction for the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtugudde, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    While the IPCC will continue to lead Earth System projections for global issues such as greenhouse gas levels and global temperature increase, high-resolution regional Earth System predictions will be crucial for producing effective decision-making tools for day-to-day, sustainable Earth System management and adaptive management of resources. Regional Earth System predictions and projections at the order of a few meters resolution from days to decades must be validated and provide uncertainties and skill scores to be usable. While the task is daunting, it would be criminally negligent of the global human not to embark on this task immediately. The observational needs for the integrated natural-human system for the regional Earth System are distinct from the global needs even though there are many overlaps. A prototype has been built for the Chesapeake Bay which issues routine seasonal outlooks and decadal projections for the air and watershed with linked products that include forecasts of pathogens, harmful algal blooms, sea nettles, fisheries, etc. A decision-making tool has been developed to allow the users to explore what-if scenarios and see the impact on the health of the Bay. Environmental indicators are being developed using mortality and morbidity data to generate predictive, pre-emptive, and personalized health forecasts. Skill of the forecasts and future plans will be discussed.

  14. Earth System Stability Through Geologic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Five times in the past 500 million years, mass extinctions haveresulted in the loss of greater than three-fourths of living species.Each of these events is associated with significant environmentalchange recorded in the carbon-isotopic composition of sedimentaryrocks. There are also many such environmental events in the geologicrecord that are not associated with mass extinctions. What makes themdifferent? Two factors appear important: the size of theenvironmental perturbation, and the time scale over which it occurs.We show that the natural perturbations of Earth's carbon cycle during thepast 500 million years exhibit a characteristic rate of change overtwo orders of magnitude in time scale. This characteristic rate isconsistent with the maximum rate that limits quasistatic (i.e., nearsteady-state) evolution of the carbon cycle. We identify this rate withmarginal stability, and show that mass extinctions occur on the fast,unstable side of the stability boundary. These results suggest thatthe great extinction events of the geologic past, and potentially a"sixth extinction" associated with modern environmental change, arecharacterized by common mechanisms of instability.

  15. A Reliable Earth Return System for Safe Recovery of Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, R.; Killough, B.; Mitcheltree, R.; Carroll, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of a Mars sample return mission is to bring selected Mars surface materials to Earth. Numerous approaches for the Earth-return segment have been analyzed including propulsive or aerocapture return to low-Earth orbit followed by Space Shuttle rendezvous and direct entry. Of these approaches, ballistic entry of a small capsule terminating in a ground landing has been shown to be the lowest risk strategy. Over the past two years, significant work has been performed towards development of a robust direct entry vehicle for Mars sample return. In June 1999, the NASA Planetary Protection Officer provided initial guidance to the former Mars Sample Return Project. The sample return phase of the mission was assigned a restricted Earth return planetary protection classification. The draft mission requirement states that the total mean probability of release of unsterilized Mars material into the Earth;s biosphere must be less than 1.0E-06 (1 in a million). This strict requirement drives the approach and design of the Earth return system. To meet this requirement, selection of the Earth return strategy and development of the Earth return system must be guided by risk, not performance, based decisions. An initial Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) was performed to address the direct entry Earth return system containment assurance reliability and to identify high-risk elements of this system. The results of this PRA identified risk elements that include thermal protection system performance during entry, spin-eject orientation and aerodynamic stability during entry, structural integrity under atmospheric deceleration and impact loads, and tracking/recovery of this system. This initial probabilistic risk quantification demonstrates that, with the proper development program, a prototypical direct entry design can satisfy the containment assurance reliability requirement. Through the current Mars Sample Return Advanced Technology Development effort, an extensive

  16. Accessing Earth science data from the EOS data and information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Kenneth R.; Calvo, Sherri

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, concentrating on the users' interactions with the system and highlighting those features that are driven by the unique requirements of the Global Change Research Program and the supported science community. However, a basic premise of the EOSDIS is that the system must evolve to meet changes in user needs and to incorporate advances in data system technology. Therefore, the development process which is being used to accommodate these changes and some of the potential areas of change are also addressed.

  17. Advanced Caution and Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Robinson, Peter I.; Liolios, Sotirios; Lee, Charles; Ossenfort, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The current focus of ACAWS is on the needs of the flight controllers. The onboard crew in low-Earth orbit has some of those same needs. Moreover, for future deep-space missions, the crew will need to accomplish many tasks autonomously due to communication time delays. Although we are focusing on flight controller needs, ACAWS technologies can be reused for on-board application, perhaps with a different level of detail and different display formats or interaction methods. We expect that providing similar tools to the flight controllers and the crew could enable more effective and efficient collaboration as well as heightened situational awareness.

  18. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  19. Improving sensitivity to vegetation variability in the EC-Earth Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo

    2014-05-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported in previous work to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth. The effective vegetation fractional coverage can vary at seasonal and interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation density to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th-century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, it is demonstrated an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows noticeable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization appears to correct the warm biases of the control simulations.

  20. Electromagnetic Calculation of Combined Earthing System with Ring Earth Electrode and Vertical Rods for Wind Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Toshiaki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ueda, Toshiaki

    With the worldwide spread of wind turbine installations, various problems such as landscape issues, bird strikes and grid connections have arisen. Protection of wind turbines from lightning is cited as one of the main problems. Wind turbines are often struck by lightning because of their open-air locations, such as in mountainous areas, and their special configuration and very-high construction. Especially, low-voltage and control circuits can fail or suffer burnout while blades can incur serious damage if struck by lightning. Wind turbine failures caused by lightning strikes account for approximately 25% of all failures. The problem is regarded as a global one that needs immediate resolution. It is important to understand the impedance characteristics of wind turbine earthing systems from the viewpoint of lightning protection. A report from IEC TR61400-24 recommends a “ring earth electrode”. This was originally defined in IEC 61024 (currently revised and re-numbered as IEC 62305), where such an electrode is recommended to reduce touch and step voltages in households and buildings. IEC TR61400-24 also recommended additional electrodes of vertical or horizontal rods. However, these concepts have not been fully discussed from the viewpoint of its application to wind turbines. To confirm the effect of a combination of a ring earth electrode and additional vertical rods for protection of a wind turbine, this report uses the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method to present an electromagnetic transient analysis on such a wind turbine earthing system. The results show that an optimal combination can be arranged from viewpoints of lightning protection and construction cost. Thus, this report discusses how to establish a quantitative design methodology of the wind turbine earthing system to provide effective lightning protection.

  1. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results.

  2. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.; Frederick, P. N.; Brye, R.; Malone, T. B.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an orbital teleoperator system which includes small dextrous servicing manipulators to be used in satellite servicing was examined. System/operator performance testing was implemented and the results of a fine positioning control test using two different manipulator systems varying widely in manipulator configuration and control systems are presented. Fine position control is viewed as representing a fundamental requirement placed on manipulator control. The relationship of position control to more complex tasks which directly represent on-orbit servicing operations are also presented.

  3. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  4. Report to Congress on the restructuring of the Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Contents: (1) The Science Objectives of EOS; (2) New Spacecraft Configurations; (3) The Impact of the Restructured EOS on Understanding the Climate; (4) The Impact of EOS on Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies; (5) EOS Data and Information System; (6) Interdisciplinary Investigations; (7) Missions in Advance of EOS; (8) The Role of the Departments of Energy and Defense; (9) Summary of the Mission to Planet Earth; and (10) Funding Requirement.

  5. Advanced Vehicle system concepts. [nonpetroleum passenger transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. S.; Langendoen, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various nonpetroleum vehicle system concepts for passenger vehicles in the 1990's are being considered as part of the Advanced Vehicle (AV) Assessment at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The vehicle system and subsystem performance requirements, the projected characteristics of mature subsystem candidates, and promising systems are presented. The system candidates include electric and hybrid vehicles powered by electricity with or without a nonpetroleum power source. The subsystem candidates include batteries (aqueous-mobile, flow, high-temperature, and metal-air), fuel cells (phosphoric acid, advanced acids, and solid polymer electrolyte), nonpetroleum heat engines, advanced dc and ac propulsion components, power-peaking devices, and transmissions.

  6. Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Group Support Systems and Facilities held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, July 19-20, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the status of advanced group support systems and to identify the potential of these systems for use in future collaborative distributed design and synthesis environments. The presentations covered the current status and effectiveness of different group support systems.

  7. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Bradshaw, Heather; Robinson, Frank; Neuberger, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This presentation walks through the lessons learned from design, hardware, analysis and testing perspective. ATLAS lessons learned include general thermal design, analysis, hardware, and testing issues as well as lessons specific to laser systems, two-phase thermal control, and optical assemblies with precision alignment requirements.

  8. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational TechnologiesTM at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system -- for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events -- volcanic eruptions

  9. Overview of the Earth System Science Education Alliance Online Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botti, J.; Myers, R.

    2002-12-01

    Science education reform has skyrocketed over the last decade in large part thanks to technology-and one technology in particular, the Internet. The World Wide Web has opened up dynamic new online communities of learners. It has allowed educators from around the world to share thoughts about Earth system science and reexamine the way science is taught. A positive offshoot of this reform effort is the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). This partnership among universities, colleges, and science education organizations is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies and the Center for Educational Technologiestm at Wheeling Jesuit University. ESSEA's mission is to improve Earth system science education. ESSEA has developed three Earth system science courses for K-12 teachers. These online courses guide teachers into collaborative, student-centered science education experiences. Not only do these courses support teachers' professional development, they also help teachers implement Earth systems science content and age-appropriate pedagogical methods into their classrooms. The ESSEA courses are open to elementary, middle school, and high school teachers. Each course lasts one semester. The courses begin with three weeks of introductory content. Then teachers develop content and pedagogical and technological knowledge in four three-week learning cycles. The elementary school course focuses on basic Earth system interactions between land, life, air, and water. In week A of each learning cycle, teachers do earth system activities with their students. In week B teachers investigate aspects of the Earth system-for instance, the reason rocks change to soil, the relationship between rock weathering and soil nutrients, and the consequent development of biomes. In week C teachers develop classroom activities and share them online with other course participants. The middle school course stresses the effects of real-world events-volcanic eruptions

  10. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  11. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  12. Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) Enables Comparative Climatology with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Kim; Lunine, J.; Coustenis, A.; Matson, D.; Beauchamp, P.; Erd, C.; Lebreton, J.

    2009-09-01

    Titan is a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on Earth. Its geology, from lakes and seas to broad river valleys and mountains, while carved in ice is, in its balance of processes, again most like Earth. Beneath this panoply of Earth-like processes an ice crust floats atop what appears to be a liquid water ocean. The Titan Saturn System Mission would seek to understand Titan as a system, in the same way that one would ask this question about Venus, Mars, and the Earth. How are distinctions between Titan and other worlds in the solar systems understandable in the context of the complex interplay of geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy? Is Titan an analogue for some aspect of Earth's history, past or future? Why is Titan endowed with an atmosphere when Ganymede is not? Titan is also rich in organic molecules_more so in its surface and atmosphere than anyplace in the solar system, including Earth (excluding our vast carbonate sediments). These molecules were formed in the atmosphere, deposited on the surface and, in coming into contact with liquid water may undergo an aqueous chemistry that could replicate aspects of life's origins. The second goal of the proposed TSSM mission is to understand the chemical cycles that generate and destroy organics and assess the likelihood that they can tell us something of life's origins. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory-California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.

  13. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Thomas S

    2008-11-28

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the CaIrO3-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones). PMID:18826921

  14. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Thomas S

    2008-11-28

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the CaIrO3-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  15. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T S

    2008-12-09

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  16. Earth Observing System: Present Capabilities and Promises for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    1999-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year 5 EOS science missions are scheduled for launch, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) atmospheric chemistry (both tropospheric and stratospheric). In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists intend to use MODIS, an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer to be launched on the Terra satellite in summer 1999, for the remote sensing of cloud and aerosol properties. MODIS will scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. In addition, I will describe key elements of other instruments recently launched or planned for flight in the coming months. Finally, I will lay out a plan for the future space-based observing system being planned by NASA and its partners.

  17. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  18. Scientific drilling and the evolution of the earth system: climate, biota, biogeochemistry and extreme systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Cohen, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A US National Science Foundation-funded workshop occurred 17-19 May 2013 at the University of Oklahoma to stimulate research using continental scientific drilling to explore earth's sedimentary, paleobiological and biogeochemical record. Participants submitted 3-page "pre-proposals" to highlight projects that envisioned using drill-core studies to address scientific issues in paleobiology, paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and biogeochemistry, and to identify locations where key questions can best be addressed. The workshop was also intended to encourage US scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous core records to answer important questions in the history of earth's sedimentary, biogeochemical and paleobiologic systems. Introductory talks on drilling and coring methods, plus best practices in core handling and curation, opened the workshop to enable all to understand the opportunities and challenges presented by scientific drilling. Participants worked in thematic breakout sessions to consider questions to be addressed using drill cores related to glacial-interglacial and icehouse-greenhouse transitions, records of evolutionary events and extinctions, records of major biogeochemical events in the oceans, reorganization of earth's atmosphere, Lagerstätte and exceptional fossil biota, records of vegetation-landscape change, and special sampling requirements, contamination, and coring tool concerns for paleobiology, geochemistry, geochronology, and stratigraphy-sedimentology studies. Closing discussions at the workshop focused on the role drilling can play in studying overarching science questions about the evolution of the earth system. The key theme, holding the most impact in terms of societal relevance, is understanding how climate transitions have driven biotic change, and the role of pristine, stratigraphically continuous cores in advancing our understanding of this linkage. Scientific drilling, and particularly drilling

  19. Assurance Technology Challenges of Advanced Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    2004-01-01

    The initiative to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system to revisit the moon and Mars post enormous technological challenges to the nation's space agency and aerospace industry. Key areas of technology development needs to enable the endeavor include advanced materials, structures and mechanisms; micro/nano sensors and detectors; power generation, storage and management; advanced thermal and cryogenic control; guidance, navigation and control; command and data handling; advanced propulsion; advanced communication; on-board processing; advanced information technology systems; modular and reconfigurable systems; precision formation flying; solar sails; distributed observing systems; space robotics; and etc. Quality assurance concerns such as functional performance, structural integrity, radiation tolerance, health monitoring, diagnosis, maintenance, calibration, and initialization can affect the performance of systems and subsystems. It is thus imperative to employ innovative nondestructive evaluation methodologies to ensure quality and integrity of advanced space systems. Advancements in integrated multi-functional sensor systems, autonomous inspection approaches, distributed embedded sensors, roaming inspectors, and shape adaptive sensors are sought. Concepts in computational models for signal processing and data interpretation to establish quantitative characterization and event determination are also of interest. Prospective evaluation technologies include ultrasonics, laser ultrasonics, optics and fiber optics, shearography, video optics and metrology, thermography, electromagnetics, acoustic emission, x-ray, data management, biomimetics, and nano-scale sensing approaches for structural health monitoring.

  20. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  1. Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

    2013-12-01

    With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the

  2. Climate-induced tree mortality: Earth system consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Henry D.; Macalady, Alison K.; Breshears, David D.; Allen, Craig D.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Saleska, Scott; Huxman, Travis E.; McDowell, Nathan G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties in global environmental change is predicting changes in feedbacks between the biosphere and the Earth system. Terrestrial ecosystems and, in particular, forests exert strong controls on the global carbon cycle and influence regional hydrology and climatology directly through water and surface energy budgets [Bonan, 2008; Chapin et al., 2008].According to new research, tree mortality associated with elevated temperatures and drought has the potential to rapidly alter forest ecosystems, potentially affecting feedbacks to the Earth system [Allen et al., 2010]. Several lines of recent research demonstrate how tree mortality rates in forests may be sensitive to climate change—particularly warming and drying. This emerging consequence of global change has important effects on Earth system processes (Figure 1).

  3. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): An opportunity for mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Donohoe, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a suite of instruments joined by a common data information system and will carry out multidisciplinary Earth science studies using a variety of remote sensing techniques. The mission is planned for the 1990's and will focus on the Earth as a system requiring measurements in the areas of hydrology, geology, forestry, meteorology, oceanography, and agriculture. Two platforms are envisioned on the U.S. side each carrying a payload of between 3500 and 4000 kgs. The European Space Agency and Japan are integrating plans for their own programs with EOS and will provide a third and fourth platform. The results of the EOS program will be applied to biogeochemistry and climate studies, and to environment management.

  4. Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byberg, Alicia; Russell, J. Kevin; Kaukler, Donna; Burdine, Robert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper will report risk issues associated with designing, manufacturing, and testing the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD). The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) will be developed as a lightweight primary mirror system that can be produced at a low cost and with a short manufacturing schedule. This technology will add to the knowledge base for selection for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), Space Based Laser (SBL), Research Laboratory mission (AFRL), and other government agency programs.

  5. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  6. Earth remote sensing as an effective tool for the development of advanced innovative educational technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayorova, Vera; Mayorov, Kirill

    2009-11-01

    Current educational system is facing a contradiction between the fundamentality of engineering education and the necessity of applied learning extension, which requires new methods of training to combine both academic and practical knowledge in balance. As a result there are a number of innovations being developed and implemented into the process of education aimed at optimizing the quality of the entire educational system. Among a wide range of innovative educational technologies there is an especially important subset of educational technologies which involve learning through hands-on scientific and technical projects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of educational technologies based on small satellites development as well as the usage of Earth remote sensing data acquired from these satellites. The increase in public attention to the education through Earth remote sensing is based on the concern that although there is a great progress in the development of new methods of Earth imagery and remote sensing data acquisition there is still a big question remaining open on practical applications of this kind of data. It is important to develop the new way of thinking for the new generation of people so they understand that they are the masters of their own planet and they are responsible for its state. They should desire and should be able to use a powerful set of tools based on modern and perspective Earth remote sensing. For example NASA sponsors "Classroom of the Future" project. The Universities Space Research Association in United States provides a mechanism through which US universities can cooperate effectively with one another, with the government, and with other organizations to further space science and technology, and to promote education in these areas. It also aims at understanding the Earth as a system and promoting the role of humankind in the destiny of their own planet. The Association has founded a Journal of Earth System

  7. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Imaging Performance On-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report analyzes the on-orbit imaging performance of the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite. The pre-flight calibrations are first summarized. The methods used to reconstruct and geometrically correct the image data from this push-broom sensor are described. The method used here does not refer to the position and attitude telemetry from the spacecraft. Rather, it is assumed that the image of the scene moves across the focal plane with a constant velocity, which can be ascertained from the image data itself. Next, an assortment of the images so reconstructed is presented. Color images sharpened with the 10-m panchromatic band data are shown, and the algorithm for producing them from the 30-m multispectral data is described. The approach taken for assessing spatial resolution is to compare the sharpness of features in the on-orbit image data with profiles predicted on the basis of the pre-flight calibrations. A large assortment of bridge profiles is analyzed, and very good fits to the predicted shapes are obtained. Lunar calibration scans are analyzed to examine the sharpness of the edge-spread function at the limb of the moon. The darkness of the space beyond the limb is better for this purpose than anything that could be simulated on the ground. From these scans, we find clear evidence of scattering in the optical system, as well as some weak ghost images. Scans of planets and stars are also analyzed. Stars are useful point sources of light at all wavelengths, and delineate the point-spread functions of the system. From a quarter-speed scan over the Pleiades, we find that the ALI can detect 6th magnitude stars. The quality of the reconstructed images verifies the capability of the ALI to produce Landsat-type multi spectral data. The signal-to-noise and panchromatic spatial resolution are considerably superior to those of the existing Landsat sensors. The spatial resolution is confirmed to be as good as it was designed to be.

  8. Spectroradiometric considerations for advanced land observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.

    1986-01-01

    Research aimed at improving the inflight absolute radiometric calibration of advanced land observing systems was initiated. Emphasis was on the satellite sensor calibration program at White Sands. Topics addressed include: absolute radiometric calibration of advanced remote sensing; atmospheric effects on reflected radiation; inflight radiometric calibration; field radiometric methods for reflectance and atmospheric measurement; and calibration of field relectance radiometers.

  9. Earth orbital teleoperator manipulator system evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brye, R. G.; Frederick, P. N.; Kirkpatrick, M., III; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The operator's ability to perform five manipulator tip movements while using monoptic and stereoptic video systems was assessed. Test data obtained were compared with previous results to determine the impact of camera placement and stereoptic viewing on manipulator system performance. The tests were performed using the NASA MSFC extendible stiff arm Manipulator and an analog joystick controller. Two basic manipulator tasks were utilized. The minimum position change test required the operator to move the manipulator arm to touch a target contract. The dexterity test required removal and replacement of pegs.

  10. SWEET- An Upper Level Ontology for Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) provides a set of upper-level ontologies constituting a concept space of Earth system science. These ontologies can be used, mapped, or extended by developers of specialized domain ontologies. SWEET components are being adopted within a diverse range of applications, including: the Geosciences Network (GEON), the Marine Metadata Initiative (MMI), the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO), and the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML). SWEET includes 12 ontologies, decomposed into component parts that can be reassembled to meet the needs of user communities. For example, the Property ontology terms (e.g., temperature, pressure) can be associated with measurable (observable) quantities of a dataset. The Substance ontology provides representations of the substance in which a property is being measured (e.g., air, water, rock). The Earth Realm ontology provides representations for the environmental regions of the Earth (e.g., atmospheric boundary layer, ocean mixed layer). The Data and Service ontology enables representations of how data are captured, stored, and accessed. The Numerics ontology entries represent 2-D and 3-D objects or spatial/temporal entities and relations. The Human Activities ontology captures the human side or applications of Earth science. The Phenomena ontology describes major geophysical or geophysical-related events. All of the ontologies are written in the OWL-DL language to give domain specialists a starting vocabulary, over which layers, synonyms, or extensions can be applied.

  11. Earth System Science Online Courses for K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwerin, T. G.

    2001-05-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is a partnership between the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) and the Center for Educational Technologies (CET) at Wheeling Jesuit University, through funding from NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. ESSEA is supporting universities, colleges, and science education organizations in offering K-12 Earth system science online graduate courses that have been developed within the CET at Wheeling Jesuit University for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The Earth system science courses use an inquiry-based instructional design model, are delivered over the Internet, and feature student-centered, knowledge-building virtual communities. They have been successfully implemented for both in-service and pre-service teacher education. An annual announcement by ESSEA solicits proposals from US teams interested in offering the courses. Currently 12 institutions from across the US are offering the courses to teachers, with plans to select 7 new organizations in early 2001. This presentation will focus on the content and structure of the courses, which can be freely downloaded and used by any organization, as well as lessons learned about online instruction.

  12. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  13. Small asteroids temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedicke, Robert; Bolin, Bryce; Bottke, William F.; Chyba, Monique; Fedorets, Grigori; Granvik, Mikael; Patterson, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    We present an update on our work on understanding the population of natural objects that are temporarily captured in the Earth-Moon system like the 2-3 meter diameter, 2006 RH120, that was discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. We use the term `minimoon' to refer to objects that are gravitationally bound to the Earth-Moon system, make at least one revolution around the barycenter in a co-rotating frame relative to the Earth-Sun axis, and are within 3 Earth Hill-sphere radii. There are one or two 1 to 2 meter diameter minimoons in the steady state population at any time, and about a dozen larger than 50 cm diameter. `Drifters' are also bound to the Earth-Moon system but make less than one revolution about the barycenter. The combined population of minimoons and drifters provide a new opportunity for scientific exploration of small asteroids and testing concepts for in-situ resource utilization. These objects provide interesting challenges for rendezvous missions because of their limited lifetime and complicated trajectories. Furthermore, they are difficult to detect because they are small, available for a limited time period, and move quickly across the sky.

  14. Representing plant hydraulics in a global Earth system model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, D.; Gentine, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models need improvement to reproduce observed seasonal and diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Model water stress parameterizations lag behind the plant physiology literature. A plant hydraulics model is developed and deployed in a global Earth system model (NCAR CESM 1.2.2 with CLM 4.5). Assimilation and transpiration are attenuated according to literature cavitation curves. Water stress is evaluated based on plant functional type hydraulic parameters forced by soil moisture and atmospheric conditions. Resolving the plant water status allows for modelling divergent strategies for water stress. The case of isohydric versus anisohydric species is presented, showing that including plant hydraulic traits alter modelled photosynthesis and transpiration.

  15. An Earth-Moon System Trajectory Design Reference Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Bosanac, Natasha; Guzzetti, Davide; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    As demonstrated by ongoing concept designs and the recent ARTEMIS mission, there is, currently, significant interest in exploiting three-body dynamics in the design of trajectories for both robotic and human missions within the Earth-Moon system. The concept of an interactive and 'dynamic' catalog of potential solutions in the Earth-Moon system is explored within this paper and analyzed as a framework to guide trajectory design. Characterizing and compiling periodic and quasi-periodic solutions that exist in the circular restricted three-body problem may offer faster and more efficient strategies for orbit design, while also delivering innovative mission design parameters for further examination.

  16. Embodying Earth's Place in the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Elementary students find it difficult to connect the apparent motion of objects in the sky with how celestial objects actually move in the solar system. As a university astronomy education researcher, the author has been investigating methods to help children learn astronomy through workshops and summer camps at science museums and planetariums.…

  17. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  18. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  19. The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, and the Earth Explorations Video Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth and Environmental Systems Podcast, a complete overview of the theoretical basics of Earth Science in 64 episodes, was completed in 2009, but has continued to serve the worldwide community as evidenced by listener feedback (e.g. "I am a 65 year old man. I have been retired for awhile and thought that retirement would be nothing more than waiting for the grave. However I want to thank you for your geo podcasts. They have given me a new lease on life and taught me a great deal." - FP, 2015). My current project is a video series on the practical basics of Earth Science titled "Earth Explorations". Each video is under 12 minutes long and tackles a major Earth Science concept. These videos go beyond a talking head, or even voice-over with static pictures or white-board graphics. Moving images are combined with animations created with Adobe After Effects, and aerial shots using a UAV. The dialog is scripted in a way to make it accessible at many levels, and the episodes as they currently stand have been used in K-12, and Freshman college levels with success. Though these videos are made to be used at this introductory level, they are also designed as remedial episodes for upper level classes, freeing up time given to review for new content. When completed, the series should contain close to 200 episodes, and this talk will cover the full range of resources I have produced, plan to produce, and how to access these resources. Both resources are available on iTunesU, and the videos are also available on YouTube.

  20. Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Adrian; Fellous, Jean-Louis; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Trenberth, Kevin; Asrar, Ghassem; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Burrows, John P.; Ciais, Philippe; Drinkwater, Mark; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gobron, Nadine; Guilyardi, Eric; Halpern, David; Heimann, Martin; Johannessen, Johnny; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Penner, Joyce; Scholes, Robert; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-05-01

    representations of processes that are already incorporated or through adding new processes or components, are discussed. Some important elements of Earth-system models are considered more fully. Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Inverse methods for surface-flux or model-parameter estimation are also covered. Reviews are given of the way observations and the processed datasets based on them are used for evaluating models, and of the combined use of observations and models for monitoring and interpreting the behaviour of the Earth system and for predicting and projecting its future. A set of concluding discussions covers general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of space-based observing systems, further long-term requirements for observations and other data, technological advances and data challenges, and the importance of enhanced international co-operation.

  1. Occurrence of Earth-like bodies in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1991-08-01

    Present theories of terrestrial planet formation predict the rapid ;;runaway formation'' of planetary embryos. The sizes of the embryos increase with heliocentric distance. These embryos then merge to form planets. In earlier Monte Carlo simulations of the merger of these embryos it was assumed that embryos did not form in the asteroid belt, but this assumption may not be valid. Simulations in which runaways were allowed to form in the asteroid belt show that, although the initial distributions of mass, energy, and angular momentum are different from those observed today, during the growth of the planets these distributions spontaneously evolve toward those observed, simply as a result of known solar system processes. Even when a large planet analogous to ;;Jupiter'' does not form, an Earth-sized planet is almost always found near Earth's heliocentric distance. These results suggest that occurrence of Earth-like planets may be a common feature of planetary systems.

  2. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Martin, Susana

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface. Our development and assessments show clearly that this kind of inflatable technology originally developed for the Martian atmosphere, is feasible for use by Earth entry and descent applications. The preliminary results are highly promising indicating that the current Mars probe design could be used as it is for the Earth. According tp our analyses, the higher atmospheric pressure at an altitude of 12 km and less requires an additional pressurizing device for the in atable system increasing the entry mass by approximately 2 kg. These analyses involved the calculation of 120 different atmospheric entry and descent trajectories. The analysis of the existing technologies and current trends have indicated that the kind of inflatable technology pursued by RITD has high potential to enhance the European space technology expertise. This kind of technology is clearly feasible for utilization by Earth entry and descent applications.

  3. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  4. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  5. Optimizing Advanced Power System Designs Under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Diwekar; Frey, H.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes recent developments in ongoing research to develop and demonstrate advanced computer-based methods for dealing with uncertainties that are critical to the design of advanced coal-based power systems. Recent developments include new deterministic and stochastic methods for simulation, optimization, and synthesis of advanced process designs. Results are presented illustrating the use of these new modeling tools for the design and analysis of several advanced systems of current interest to the U.S. Department of Energy, including the technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), advanced pressurized fluid combustion (PFBC), and the externally fired combined cycle (EFCC) process. The new methods developed in this research can be applied generally to any chemical or energy conversion process to reduce the technological risks associated with uncertainties in process performance and cost.

  6. EarthTutor: An Interactive Intelligent Tutoring System for Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. M.; Parton, K.; Smith, E.

    2005-12-01

    feedback and adaptive instruction, EarthTutor aims to offer the benefits of a one-on-one human instructor in a cost-effective, easy-to-use application. We are currently working with remote sensing experts to develop EarthTutor labs for diverse earth science subjects such as global vegetation, stratospheric ozone, oceanography, polar sea ice and natural hazards. These labs will be packaged with the first public release of EarthTutor in December 2005. Custom labs can be designed with the EarthTutor authoring tool. The tool is basic enough to allow teachers to construct tutorials to fit their classroom's curriculum and locale, but also powerful enough to allow advanced users to create highly-interactive labs. Preliminary results from an ongoing pilot study demonstrate that the EarthTutor system is effective and enjoyable teaching tool, relative to traditional satellite imagery teaching methods.

  7. Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

  8. Closed ecological systems: From test tubes to Earth's biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Robert J.; Mignon, George

    1992-01-01

    Artificially constructed closed ecological systems (CES) have been researched both experimentally and theoretically for over 25 years. The size of these systems have varied from less than one liter to many thousands of cubic meters in volume. The diversity of the included components has a similarly wide range from purely aquatic systems to soil based systems that incorporate many aspects of Earth's biosphere. While much has been learned about the functioning of these closed systems, much remains to be learned. In this paper, we compare and contrast the behavior of closed ecological systems of widely different sizes through an analysis of their atmospheric composition. In addition, we will compare the performance of relatively small CES with the behavior of Earth's biosphere. We address the applicability of small CES as replicable analogs for planetary biospheres and discuss the use of small CES as an experimental milieu for an examination of the evolution of extra-terrestrial colonies.

  9. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being

  10. Advanced Multimission Operations System (ATMO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrake, Lucas; Thompson, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The HiiHat toolbox developed for CAT/ENVI provides principal investigators direct, immediate, flexible, and seamless interaction with their instruments and data from any location. Offering segmentation and neutral region division, it facilitates the discovery of key endmembers and regions of interest larger than a single pixel. Crucial to the analysis of hyperspectral data from Mars or Earth is the removal of unwanted atmospheric signatures. For Mars and the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), residual atmospheric CO2 absorption is both directly problematic and indicative of processing errors with implications to the scientific utility of any particular image region. Estimating this residual error becomes key both in selecting regions of low distortion, and also to select mitigating methods, such as neutral region division. This innovation, the ATMO estimator, provides a simple, 0-1 normalized scalar that estimates this distortion (see figure). The metric is defined as the coefficient of determination of a quadratic fit in the region of distorting atmospheric absorption (approx 2 micron). This mimics the behavior of existing CRISM team mineralogical indices to estimate the presence of known, interesting mineral signatures. This facilitates the ATMO metric's assimilation into existing planetary geology workflows.

  11. Revolution in the Earth Sciences: Advances in the Past Half-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, James T.

    1984-04-01

    This volume is the proceedings of a symposium held at Carleton College to celebrate the 50th anniversary of its Department of Geology and to honor the founder of that department, Larry Gould, later the president of Carleton and long an internationally prominent figure in the area of polar research. The title of the volume may lead some to anticipate a more comprehensive treatment of the “revolution” than its articles provide. However, its stated purpose is to illuminate just how the substantial changes of recent decades came about in each of a wide variety of areas within earth science, in effect providing a set of case studies of the revolution. In this it succeeds admirably.The dramatic evolution of ideas in geotectonics is not directly treated here; indeed, it would be difficult to say much that is new in doing so. Instead, most of the 31 articles in this paperbound volume focus on developments in specific fields ranging from experimental rock deformation (considered by Tullis and Tullis) to the geology of Antarctica (by Rowley). A noteworthy and distinguishing feature of this collection is that the articles provide lucid reviews at a level accessible to undergraduates. Especially valuable for their concise treatment of major areas are papers on advances in high pressure experimentation (by Bishop), on the development of ideas about Archean tectonics (by Southwick), on current thinking about Precambrian crustal evolution (by Ernst) and on the application of radiogenic isotopic systems to geochronology and petrogenesis (by Bickford). Similarly, Hanor describes the development of thinking about subsurface sedimentary brines, Carson reviews ideas on sediment deposition and deformation at convergent margins, and Collier discusses the renaissance in invertebrate paleontology. Also present are excellent papers on aspects of geomorphology, hydrogeology, archaeological geology, venusian tectonics, and 11 articles on topics in economic geology and mineral and energy

  12. Data acquisition system for operational earth observation missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deerwester, J. M.; Alexander, D.; Arno, R. D.; Edsinger, L. E.; Norman, S. M.; Sinclair, K. F.; Tindle, E. L.; Wood, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The data acquisition system capabilities expected to be available in the 1980 time period as part of operational Earth observation missions are identified. By data acquisition system is meant the sensor platform (spacecraft or aircraft), the sensors themselves and the communication system. Future capabilities and support requirements are projected for the following sensors: film camera, return beam vidicon, multispectral scanner, infrared scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave scanner, microwave radiometer, coherent side-looking radar, and scatterometer.

  13. Engine health monitoring: An advanced system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, R. J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The advanced propulsion monitoring system is described. The system was developed in order to fulfill a growing need for effective engine health monitoring. This need is generated by military requirements for increased performance and efficiency in more complex propulsion systems, while maintaining or improving the cost to operate. This program represents a vital technological step in the advancement of the state of the art for monitoring systems in terms of reliability, flexibility, accuracy, and provision of user oriented results. It draws heavily on the technology and control theory developed for modern, complex, electronically controlled engines and utilizes engine information which is a by-product of such a system.

  14. Nonelastomeric Rod Seals for Advanced Hydraulic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, W. F.; Waterman, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced high temperature hydraulic system rod sealing requirements can be met by using seals made of nonelastomeric (plastic) materials in applications where elastomers do not have adequate life. Exploratory seal designs were optimized for advanced applications using machinable polyimide materials. These seals demonstrated equivalent flight hour lives of 12,500 at 350 F and 9,875 at 400 F in advanced hydraulic system simulation. Successful operation was also attained under simulated space shuttle applications; 96 reentry thermal cycles and 1,438 hours of vacuum storage. Tests of less expensive molded plastic seals indicated a need for improved materials to provide equivalent performance to the machined seals.

  15. The Earth System CoG Collaboration Environment: Connecting Resources in the Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; DeLuca, C.; Cinquini, L.; Overeem, I.; Edwards, P. N.; Jablonowski, C.; Rood, R. B.; Balaji, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Earth System CoG collaboration environment supports Earth science research and product development in virtual organizations comprised of multiple projects and communities. It provides data, metadata, and visualization services along with tools for collaboration, and can be used to host individual projects or to profile projects hosted elsewhere. All projects on CoG are described using a project ontology - an organized common vocabulary - that exposes information needed for collaboration and decision-making. Projects can be linked into a network, and the underlying ontology enables views of this information across the network. This access to information, and the community-driven evolution of a project ontology that includes a description of management and governance roles, bodies, and processes, promote the creation of active and knowledgeable project governance, at both individual and aggregate project levels. A description of the environment along with results of recent use by an model intercomparison project (MIP) and international software project will be presented.

  16. Activities for the Changing Earth System. Earth Systems Education, Middle School and High School Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Research Foundation.

    This book is intended to help teachers fulfill the need for children and future leaders to understand issues of global change and the science that lies behind them. Important changes are occurring in several of the earth's subsystems. The changes are thought to be the result from the expanding use of technology for the improvement of living…

  17. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  18. Freva - Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework for Scientific Infrastructures in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Schartner, Thomas; Kirchner, Ingo; Rust, Henning W.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework (Freva - freva.met.fu-berlin.de) is a software infrastructure for standardized data and tool solutions in Earth system science. Freva runs on high performance computers to handle customizable evaluation systems of research projects, institutes or universities. It combines different software technologies into one common hybrid infrastructure, including all features present in the shell and web environment. The database interface satisfies the international standards provided by the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Freva indexes different data projects into one common search environment by storing the meta data information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets in a database. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy-to-handle search tool supports users, developers and their plugins to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitation of the provision and usage of tools and climate data automatically increases the number of scientists working with the data sets and identifying discrepancies. The integrated web-shell (shellinabox) adds a degree of freedom in the choice of the working environment and can be used as a gate to the research projects HPC. Plugins are able to integrate their e.g. post-processed results into the database of the user. This allows e.g. post-processing plugins to feed statistical analysis plugins, which fosters an active exchange between plugin developers of a research project. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a database

  19. Native America: American Indian Geoscientists & Earth System Science Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands across the Americas. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all Tribal societies. These changes have accelerated the momentum to ensure the future of American Indian Geoscientists and Earth Systems Science Leaders. The presentation will bring to prominence the unique recruitment and mentoring necessary to achieve success that emerged through working with Tribal people. The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on recruitment and mentoring of Native/Tribal students in geoscience and earth systems science; 2) current Native leadership and research development; 3) unique collaborations "bridging" Native people across geographic areas (International) in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive geoscience and earth systems science knowledge of Tribal peoples throughout the Americas. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native geoscientists and earth systems science leaders.

  20. Anthropogenic biomes: a key contribution to earth-system science.

    PubMed

    Alessa, Lilian; Chapin, F Stuart

    2008-10-01

    Human activities now dominate most of the ice-free terrestrial surface. A recent article presents a classification and global map of human-influenced biomes of the world that provides a novel and potentially appropriate framework for projecting changes in earth-system dynamics.

  1. Advanced air revitalization system testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Hallick, T. M.; Schubert, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed experimental air revitalization system was tested cyclically and parametrically. One-button startup without manual interventions; extension by 1350 hours of tests with the system; capability for varying process air carbon dioxide partial pressure and humidity and coolant source for simulation of realistic space vehicle interfaces; dynamic system performance response on the interaction of the electrochemical depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator, the Sabatier carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, and the static feed water electrolysis oxygen generation subsystem, the carbon dioxide concentrator module with unitized core technology for the liquid cooled cell; and a preliminary design for a regenerative air revitalization system for the space station are discussed.

  2. An impact origin of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canup, R. M.; Asphaug, E.

    2001-12-01

    In the leading hypothesis for lunar origin, the Moon forms from debris ejected as a result of the collision of a roughly Mars-sized impactor with early Earth (Hartmann & Davis 1975; Cameron & Ward 1976). The likelihood of giant impact events has been substantiated by over a decade of planetary accretion simulations (e.g., Wetherill 1985, 1992; Agnor et al. 1999; Chambers 2001). The most recent simulations predict a median accretion time of 50 million years for an Earth analogue to reach 90% of its final mass (Chambers 2001), in good agreement with lunar and terrestrial formation times derived from Hf-W systematics (e.g., review by Halliday et al. 2000). Simulations of potential lunar forming impacts using a method known as smooth particle hydrodynamics, or SPH, can now achieve resolutions sufficient to study the production of bound debris necessary to yield the Moon. A wide variety of works have found that off-center, low-velocity collisions yield material in bound orbit from which a satellite may then accumulate. However, identifying impacts capable of producing the Earth-Moon system has proven difficult (Cameron 1997, 2000, 2001; Cameron & Canup 1998, Canup et al. 2001). Previous works (Cameron 1997, 2000, 2001) identified only two types of impacts capable of producing the Moon. The first involved an impact by an object with about 3 times the mass of Mars, and about twice the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system; the second involved an the impact of an object with about twice the mass of Mars with an Earth that was only about half formed. Both scenarios are more restrictive and problematic than that originally envisioned, since they require that the Earth-Moon system's mass or angular momentum be significantly modified after the Moon-forming event by either multiple large impacts, or selective subsequent accretion of material onto only the Earth and not the Moon. Recent scaling trends identified in the SPH simulation results (Canup et al. 2001) implied that

  3. Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackleson, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many

  4. Advanced EVA system design requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Design requirements and criteria for the Space Station Advanced Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) including crew enclosures, portable life support systems, maneuvering propulsion systems, and related extravehicular activity (EVA) support equipment were defined and established. The EVA mission requirements, environments, and medical and physiological requirements, as well as opertional, procedures, and training issues were considered.

  5. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  6. Characterization of advanced electric propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristic parameters of several advanced electric propulsion systems are evaluated and compared. The propulsion systems studied are mass driver, rail gun, argon MPD thruster, hydrogen free radical thruster and mercury electron bombardment ion engine. Overall, ion engines have somewhat better characteristics as compared to the other electric propulsion systems.

  7. Using Advanced Remote Sensing Data Fusion Techniques for Studying Earth Surface Processes and Hazards: A Landslide Detection Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.

    2014-12-01

    A major problem in earth surface process and hazards research is we have little to no knowledge of precisely where and when the next significant event may occur. This makes it nearly impossible to set up adequate instrumentation and observation ahead of time. Furthermore, it is not practical to overcome this challenge by instrumenting and observing everywhere all the time. We can't be everywhere and see everything. Remote sensing helps us to fill that gap with missions such as Landsat and WorldView2 offering regular global coverage. However, remote sensing systems for global monitoring have several inherent compromises. Tradeoffs must be made between data storage, processing capacity, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and temporal resolution. Additionally, instruments and systems must be designed in advance and from a generalized standpoint to serve as many purposes as possible, often at the expense of high performance in specific tasks. Because of these practical constraints, when using remote sensing data to study earth surface processes it is critical to maximize signal content or information obtained from all available data. Several approaches, including multi-temporal data fusion, multi-sensor data fusion, and fusion with derivative products such as band ratios or vegetation indices can help expand how much information can be extracted from remote sensing acquisitions. Fused dataset results contain more coherent information than the sum of their individual constituents. Examples using Landsat and WorldView2 data in this study show this added information makes it possible to map earth surface processes and events, such as the 2011 Cinque Terre landslides, in a more automated and repeatable fashion over larger areas than is possible with manual imagery analysis techniques and with greater chance of successful detection.

  8. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  9. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The presentation describes the recently awarded ACCESS project to provide data management of NASA remote sensing data for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The project targets integration of remote sensing data from MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US-satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEP/NCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  10. Tidal-friction theory of the earth-moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttleton, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Serious errors contained in Jeffreys' (1952, 1959, 1970, 1976) discussion of tidal friction in the earth-moon system are identified and their consequences are discussed. A direct solution of the dynamical tidal equations for the couple from the earth acting upon the moon and the couple from the earth acting upon the sun, which were left unsolved by Jeffreys, is found to be incompatible with observations and the predictions of linear or quadratic friction theory, due to his failure to take into account the possible change of the moment of inertia of the earth with time in the derivation of the dynamical equations. Consideration of this factor leads to the conclusion that the earth must be contracting at a rate of 14.7 x 10 to the -11th/year, which can be accounted for only by the Ramsey theory, in which the terrestrial core is considered as a phase change rather than a change in chemical composition. Implications of this value for the rates of changes in day length and lunar distance are also indicated.

  11. Advances in rotorcraft system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Peter G.; Kaletka, Jürgen

    1997-03-01

    System identification can best be described as the extraction of system characteristics from measured flight test data. Therefore it provides an excellent tool for determining and improving mathematical models for a wide range of applications. The increasing need for accurate models for the design of high bandwidth control systems for rotorcraft has initiated a high interest in and a more intensive use of system identification. This development was supported by the AGARD FVP Working Group 18 on ‘Rotorcraft System Identification’, which brought together specialists from research organisations and industry, tasked with exploring the potential of this tool. In the Group, the full range of identification approaches was applied to dedicated helicopter flight-test-data including data quality checking and the determination and verification of flight mechanical models. It was mainly concentrated on the identification of six degrees of freedom rigid body models, which provide a realistic description of the rotorcraft dynamics for the lower and medium frequency range. The accomplishment of the Working Group has increased the demand for applying these techniques more routinely and, in addition, for extending the model order by including explicit rotor degrees of freedom. Such models also accurately characterize the higher frequency range needed for high bandwidth control system designs. In the specific case of the DLR In-Flight Simulator BO 105 ATTHeS, the application of the identified higher order models for the model-following control system was a major prerequisite for the obtained high simulation quality.

  12. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  13. Demonstration Advanced Avionics System (DAAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of developing an integrated avionics system suitable for general aviation was determined. A design of reliable integrated avionics which provides expanded functional capability that significantly enhances the utility and safety of general aviation at a cost commensurate with the general aviation market was developed. The use of a data bus, microprocessors, electronic displays and data entry devices, and improved function capabilities were emphasized. An avionics system capable of evaluating the most critical and promising elements of an integrated system was designed, built and flight tested in a twin engine general aviation aircraft.

  14. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (approx.185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. There are four major systems or spheres of Earth. They are: Atmosphere, Biosphere, Hydrosphe, and

  15. Enabling the dynamic coupling between sensor web and Earth system models - The Self-Adaptive Earth Predictive Systems (SEPS) framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di, L.; Yu, G.; Chen, N.

    2007-12-01

    The self-adaptation concept is the central piece of the control theory widely and successfully used in engineering and military systems. Such a system contains a predictor and a measurer. The predictor takes initial condition and makes an initial prediction and the measurer then measures the state of a real world phenomenon. A feedback mechanism is built in that automatically feeds the measurement back to the predictor. The predictor takes the measurement against the prediction to calculate the prediction error and adjust its internal state based on the error. Thus, the predictor learns from the error and makes a more accurate prediction in the next step. By adopting the self-adaptation concept, we proposed the Self-adaptive Earth Predictive System (SEPS) concept for enabling the dynamic coupling between the sensor web and the Earth system models. The concept treats Earth System Models (ESM) and Earth Observations (EO) as integral components of the SEPS coupled by the SEPS framework. EO measures the Earth system state while ESM predicts the evolution of the state. A feedback mechanism processes EO measurements and feeds them into ESM during model runs or as initial conditions. A feed-forward mechanism analyzes the ESM predictions against science goals for scheduling optimized/targeted observations. The SEPS framework automates the Feedback and Feed-forward mechanisms (the FF-loop). Based on open consensus-based standards, a general SEPS framework can be developed for supporting the dynamic, interoperable coupling between ESMs and EO. Such a framework can support the plug-in-and-play capability of both ESMs and diverse sensors and data systems as long as they support the standard interfaces. This presentation discusses the SEPS concept, the service-oriented architecture (SOA) of SEPS framework, standards of choices for the framework, and the implementation. The presentation also presents examples of SEPS to demonstrate dynamic, interoperable, and live coupling of

  16. Energy Transfer in the Earth-Sun System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Kamide, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Conference on Earth-Sun System Exploration: Energy Transfer; Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, USA, 16-20 January 2006; The goal of this conference, which was supported by several agencies and organizations, was to provide a forum for physicists engaged in the Earth-Sun system as well as in laboratory experiments to discuss and exchange knowledge and ideas on physical processes involving energy transfer. The motivation of the conference stemmed from the following realization: Space assets form an important fabric of our society, performing functions such as television broadcasting, cell- phone communication, navigation, and remote monitoring of tropospheric weather. There is increasing awareness of how much our daily activities can be adversely affected by space disturbances stretching all the way back to the Sun. In some of these energetic phenomena, energy in various forms can propagate long distances from the solar surface to the interplanetary medium and eventually to the Earth's immediate space environment, namely, its magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. In addition, transformation of energy can take place in these space disturbances, allowing charged-particle energy to be transformed to electromagnetic energy or vice versa. In- depth understanding of energy transformation and transmission in the Earth-Sun system will foster the identification of physical processes responsible for space disturbances and the prediction of their occurrences and effects. Participants came from 15 countries.

  17. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  18. Advances in food systems for space flight.

    PubMed

    Bourland, C T

    1998-01-01

    Food for space has evolved from cubes and tubes to normal Earth-like food consumed with common utensils. U.S. space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. When on-board water was abundant (e.g., Apollo and Shuttle fuel cells produced water) then dehydrated food was used extensively. The International Space Station will have limited water available for food rehydration so there is little advantage for using dehydrated foods. Experience from Skylab and the Russian Mir space station emphasizes that food variety and quality are important elements in the design of food for closed systems. The evolution of space food has accentuated Earth-like foods, which should be a model for closed environment food systems.

  19. Advances in food systems for space flight.

    PubMed

    Bourland, C T

    1998-01-01

    Food for space has evolved from cubes and tubes to normal Earth-like food consumed with common utensils. U.S. space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. When on-board water was abundant (e.g., Apollo and Shuttle fuel cells produced water) then dehydrated food was used extensively. The International Space Station will have limited water available for food rehydration so there is little advantage for using dehydrated foods. Experience from Skylab and the Russian Mir space station emphasizes that food variety and quality are important elements in the design of food for closed systems. The evolution of space food has accentuated Earth-like foods, which should be a model for closed environment food systems. PMID:11540467

  20. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Martynov, Maxim; Schmidt, Walter; Harri, Ari-Matti; Vsevolod Koryanov, D.; Kazakovtcev, Victor; Haukka, Harri; Arruego, Ignacio; Finchenko, Valery; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrei; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    Abstract A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) or Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth’s atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth’s atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. “Mini-1” category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: - qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, - Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, - m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, - V (m/s): re-entry velocity and - theta(deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet (“Mini-1” category) -type

  1. The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  2. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; et al

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  3. A summary of Michigan program for earth resource information systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A summary and guide to the development of earth resources information systems which employ multispectral remote sensing are reported. Major areas of activities center on improved throughput parallel processing systems, improved processing techniques, practical use of techniques in user applications, and improved sensors. Cost effectiveness considerations point to signature extension, parallel processing all-digital computers, and airborne multispectral imaging radar as some of the improvement technologies.

  4. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    State, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management were investigated as potential users of satellite remotely sensed data. This group's needs are assessed and alternative data management systems serving some of those needs are outlined. It is concluded that an operational earth observation data management system will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  5. Advanced Sensor Systems for Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 microW, which yields a lifetime of approximately 6 - 9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38 x 28 mm to 22 x 8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  6. Facilitating career advancement for women in the Geosciences through the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Kontak, R.; Holloway, T.; Kogan, M.; Laursen, S. L.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Steiner, A. L.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) is a network of women geoscientists, many of who are in the early stages of their careers. The mission of ESWN is to promote career development, build community, provide informal mentoring and support, and facilitate professional collaborations, all towards making women successful in their scientific careers. ESWN currently connects over 1000 women across the globe, and includes graduate students, postdoctoral associates, faculty from a diversity of colleges and universities, program managers, and government, non-government and industry researchers. ESWN facilitates communication between its members via an email listserv and in-person networking events, and also provides resources to the broader community through the public Earth Science Jobs Listserv that hosts over 1800 subscribers. With funding from a NSF ADVANCE PAID grant, our primary goals include growing our membership to serve a wider section of the geosciences community, designing and administering career development workshops, promoting professional networking at major scientific conferences, and developing web resources to build connections, collaborations, and peer mentoring for and among women in the Earth Sciences. Recognizing that women in particular face a number of direct and indirect biases while navigating their careers, we aim to provide a range of opportunities for professional development that emphasize different skills at different stages of career. For example, ESWN-hosted mini-workshops at national scientific conferences have targeted skill building for early career researchers (e.g., postdocs, tenure-track faculty), with a recent focus on raising extramural research funding and best practices for publishing in the geosciences literature. More concentrated, multi-day professional development workshops are offered annually with varying themes such as Defining Your Research Identity and Building Leadership Skills for Success in Scientific Organizations

  7. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  8. Advanced sensor systems for biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Inventor); Somps, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ricks, Robert D. (Inventor); Mundt, Carsten W. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to telemetry-based sensing systems that continuously measures physical, chemical and biological parameters. More specifically, these sensing systems comprise a small, modular, low-power implantable biotelemetry system capable of continuously sensing physiological characteristics using implantable transmitters, a receiver, and a data acquisition system to analyze and record the transmitted signal over several months. The preferred embodiment is a preterm labor and fetal monitoring system. Key features of the invention include Pulse Interval Modulation (PIM) that is used to send temperature and pressure information out of the biological environment. The RF carrier frequency is 174-216 MHz and a pair of RF bursts (pulses) is transmitted at a frequency of about 1-2 Hz. The transmission range is 3 to 10 feet, depending on the position of the transmitter in the body and its biological environment. The entire transmitter is encapsulated in biocompatible silicone rubber. Power is supplied by on-board silver-oxide batteries. The average power consumption of the current design is less than 30 .mu.W., which yields a lifetime of approximately 6-9 months. Chip-on-Board technology (COB) drastically reduces the size of the printed circuit board from 38.times.28 mm to 22.times.8 mm. Unpackaged dies are flip-chip bonded directly onto the printed circuit board, along with surface mount resistors and capacitors. The invention can monitor additional physiological parameters including, but not limited to, ECG, blood gases, glucose, and ions such as calcium, potassium, and sodium.

  9. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  10. Evolving Metadata in NASA Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M. F.; Walter, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of satellites for long term global observations. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research by providing end-to-end services from EOS instrument data collection to science data processing to full access to EOS and other earth science data. On a daily basis, the EOSDIS ingests, processes, archives and distributes over 3 terabytes of data from NASA's Earth Science missions representing over 3500 data products ranging from various types of science disciplines. EOSDIS is currently comprised of 12 discipline specific data centers that are collocated with centers of science discipline expertise. Metadata is used in all aspects of NASA's Earth Science data lifecycle from the initial measurement gathering to the accessing of data products. Missions use metadata in their science data products when describing information such as the instrument/sensor, operational plan, and geographically region. Acting as the curator of the data products, data centers employ metadata for preservation, access and manipulation of data. EOSDIS provides a centralized metadata repository called the Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHouse (ECHO) for data discovery and access via a service-oriented-architecture (SOA) between data centers and science data users. ECHO receives inventory metadata from data centers who generate metadata files that complies with the ECHO Metadata Model. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project established a Tiger Team to study and make recommendations regarding the adoption of the international metadata standard ISO 19115 in EOSDIS. The result was a technical report recommending an evolution of NASA data systems towards a consistent application of ISO 19115 and related standards including the creation of a NASA-specific convention for core ISO 19115 elements. Part of

  11. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  12. Westinghouse advanced particle filter system

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bruck, G.J.; Sanjana, Z.N.; Newby, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are being developed and demonstrated for commercial, power generation application. Hot gas particulate filters are key components for the successful implementation of IGCC and PFBC in power generation gas turbine cycles. The objective of this work is to develop and qualify through analysis and testing a practical hot gas ceramic barrier filter system that meets the performance and operational requirements of PFBC and IGCC systems. This paper updates the assessment of the Westinghouse hot gas filter design based on ongoing testing and analysis. Results are summarized from recent computational fluid dynamics modeling of the plenum flow during back pulse, analysis of candle stressing under cleaning and process transient conditions and testing and analysis to evaluate potential flow induced candle vibration.

  13. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  14. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  15. Advances in Microsphere Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. S.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    Microsphere insulation, typically consisting of hollow glass bubbles, combines in a single material the desirable properties that other insulations only have individually. The material has high crush strength, low density, is noncombustible, and performs well in soft vacuum. Microspheres provide robust, low-maintenance insulation systems for cryogenic transfer lines and dewars. They also do not suffer from compaction problems typical of perlite that result in the necessity to reinsulate dewars because of degraded thermal performance and potential damage to its support system. Since microspheres are load bearing, autonomous insulation panels enveloped with lightweight vacuum-barrier materials can be created. Comprehensive testing performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory located at the NASA Kennedy Space Center demonstrated competitive thermal performance with other bulk materials. Test conditions were representative of actual-use conditions and included cold vacuum pressure ranging from high vacuum to no vacuum and compression loads from 0 to 20 psi. While microspheres have been recognized as a legitimate insulation material for decades, actual implementation has not been pursued. Innovative microsphere insulation system configurations and applications are evaluated.

  16. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  17. The Advanced Technology Operations System: ATOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Laue, H. A.; Poulter, K.; Smith, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mission control systems supporting new space missions face ever-increasing requirements in terms of functionality, performance, reliability and efficiency. Modern data processing technology is providing the means to meet these requirements in new systems under development. During the past few years the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA) has carried out a number of projects to demonstrate the feasibility of using advanced software technology, in particular, knowledge based systems, to support mission operations. A number of advances must be achieved before these techniques can be moved towards operational use in future missions, namely, integration of the applications into a single system framework and generalization of the applications so that they are mission independent. In order to achieve this goal, ESA initiated the Advanced Technology Operations System (ATOS) program, which will develop the infrastructure to support advanced software technology in mission operations, and provide applications modules to initially support: Mission Preparation, Mission Planning, Computer Assisted Operations, and Advanced Training. The first phase of the ATOS program is tasked with the goal of designing and prototyping the necessary system infrastructure to support the rest of the program. The major components of the ATOS architecture is presented. This architecture relies on the concept of a Mission Information Base (MIB) as the repository for all information and knowledge which will be used by the advanced application modules in future mission control systems. The MIB is being designed to exploit the latest in database and knowledge representation technology in an open and distributed system. In conclusion the technological and implementation challenges expected to be encountered, as well as the future plans and time scale of the project, are presented.

  18. Development of advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, R.L.; Little, D.A.; Wiant, B.C.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of the Advanced Turbine Systems study is to investigate innovative natural gas fired cycle developments to determine the feasibility of achieving 60% efficiency within a 8-year time frame. The potential system was to be environmentally superior, cost competitive and adaptable to coal-derived fuels. Progress is described.

  19. Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lunt, D.J.; Haywood, A.M.; Schmidt, G.A.; Salzmann, U.; Valdes, P.J.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the equilibrium response of global temperatures to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is one of the cornerstones of climate research. Components of the Earths climate system that vary over long timescales, such as ice sheets and vegetation, could have an important effect on this temperature sensitivity, but have often been neglected. Here we use a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to simulate the climate of the mid-Pliocene warm period (about three million years ago), and analyse the forcings and feedbacks that contributed to the relatively warm temperatures. Furthermore, we compare our simulation with proxy records of mid-Pliocene sea surface temperature. Taking these lines of evidence together, we estimate that the response of the Earth system to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations is 30-50% greater than the response based on those fast-adjusting components of the climate system that are used traditionally to estimate climate sensitivity. We conclude that targets for the long-term stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations aimed at preventing a dangerous human interference with the climate system should take into account this higher sensitivity of the Earth system. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  1. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    SciTech Connect

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  2. NASA Earth Sciences Data Support System and Services for the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The presentation describes data management of NASA remote sensing data for Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Many types of ground and integrative (e.g., satellite, GIs) data will be needed and many models must be applied, adapted or developed for properly understanding the functioning of Northern Eurasia cold and diverse regional system. Mechanisms for obtaining the requisite data sets and models and sharing them among the participating scientists are essential. The proposed project targets integration of remote sensing data from AVHRR, MODIS, and other NASA instruments on board US- satellites (with potential expansion to data from non-US satellites), customized data products from climatology data sets (e.g., ISCCP, ISLSCP) and model data (e.g., NCEPNCAR) into a single, well-architected data management system. It will utilize two existing components developed by the Goddard Earth Sciences Data & Information Services Center (GES DISC) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: (1) online archiving and distribution system, that allows collection, processing and ingest of data from various sources into the online archive, and (2) user-friendly intelligent web-based online visualization and analysis system, also known as Giovanni. The former includes various kinds of data preparation for seamless interoperability between measurements by different instruments. The latter provides convenient access to various geophysical parameters measured in the Northern Eurasia region without any need to learn complicated remote sensing data formats, or retrieve and process large volumes of NASA data. Initial implementation of this data management system will concentrate on atmospheric data and surface data aggregated to coarse resolution to support collaborative environment and climate change studies and modeling, while at later stages, data from NASA and non-NASA satellites at higher resolution will be integrated into the system.

  3. Advanced Exploration Systems Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems that enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near-term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness-level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near- and long-term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit Environmental Control and Life Support Systems definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as identifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II focused on the near-term space exploration objectives by establishing an International Space Station-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long-term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  4. Habitability: From solar system planets to Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammer, H.

    2007-08-01

    For understanding the principles that generated Earth's long-time habitable environment compared with other terrestrial Solar System planets like Venus and Mars and terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zones of late-type stars, one has to understand the evolutionary influence of the solar/stellar radiation and particle environment to the atmosphere and surface. Because the spectral type of the star plays a major role in the photochemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres and their water inventories must be understood within the context of the evolving stellar energy and particle fluxes. An only stable and dense enough atmosphere, which allows water to be liquid over geological time periods and protects the planetary surface from hostile radiation, will allow the evolution of surface life and Earth-like biospheres. Such long-time habitable environments are ideal cases of course, but life may have also originated in other habitats in the young Solar System. Such habitats could have been the environments of early Venus and Mars, subsurface (during formation maybe surface) oceans of icy satellites like in Europa, Titan, Encleadus, in hydrocarbon lakes of Titan, etc. Therefore, studies related to habitability and comparative planetology in the Solar System are essential for precursor studies dedicated to the investigation of habitability of terrestrial exoplanets.With comparative planetology one means the investigation on how different planetary systems and their individual planets - and particularly Earth-like ones - are formed, how they evolve in their radiation and particle interaction with their host stars under different circumstances, how often they give rise to conditions that could in principle be benevolent enough for the origin of life to occur, and even whether life as we know it could have arisen on any world in Earth's neighborhood. The presentation will point out the synergy of these studies and latest theoretical models currently applied for

  5. Health management and controls for earth to orbit propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation for advanced rocket engine controllers are discussed focusing on advanced sensing systems and software which significantly improve component failure detection for engine safety and health management. Aerojet's Space Transportation Main Engine controller for the National Launch System is the state of the art in fault tolerant engine avionics. Health management systems provide high levels of automated fault coverage and significantly improve vehicle delivered reliability and lower preflight operations costs. Key technologies, including the sensor data validation algorithms and flight capable spectrometers, have been demonstrated in ground applications and are found to be suitable for bridging programs into flight applications.

  6. Earth science teachers' knowledge of the water system and its reflections in their lesson plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Younkyeong

    2011-12-01

    Over the last two decades, scientists have recognized the necessity of studying the earth as an integrated system. Consequently, the knowledge of physical earth systems and human interactions was integrated to form a new discipline, Earth System Science (ESS). Given the acceleration of environmental change, such as that of the global climate system, understanding the earth as a system has become essential in order to create a scientifically literate citizenry. However, our understanding of teachers' and students' conceptual understanding of earth as a system is still in its infancy. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ESS discipline as well as the complexity of the ESS knowledge structure, there is no consensus about important ESS knowledge for teachers or students. This study presents an analytical framework, Earth System Knowledge Framework (ESKF), to assess teachers' conceptual understanding of earth systems using the concept of water. By utilizing the framework, this study investigates five secondary earth science teachers' conceptual understandings of water in earth system. This study also probes how the teachers' conceptual understanding of water in the earth system affects their selection and organization of the topics and related content knowledge for lesson planning. Through intensive interviews with the teachers, this study employs multiple case studies using inductive and qualitative analysis methods. The findings of this study demonstrate that the teachers' conceptual understandings of water in earth system are highly related to their Earth System Knowledge (ESK). Furthermore, the science teachers' conceptual understanding of water in earth system directly affects the topic choices and content knowledge used for teaching the concept of water. This study implies that the teachers not only need to possess knowledge of physical earth systems but also knowledge of earth's biosphere and ecosystems to understand earth as a system. This study also

  7. German Cluster of WDCs for Earth System Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildenbrand, Beate; Lautenschlager, Michael; Diepenbroek, Michael; Grobe, Hannes; Klump, Jens; Höppner, Kathrin; Hildenbrand, Beate

    The World Data Center (WDC) System was established during the International Geophysical Year in 1957 and operated under the auspices of the International Council for Science (ICSU) for the benefit of the international scientific community. ICSU is an international organization in the fields of geoscience and environmental sciences. The WDC system provides an effective mechanism for international exchange of data and information in all disciplines related to the Earth, its environment and the sun. Individual fields of WDC concentrate on one or several disciplines and are operated on a long-term basis. In Germany three ICSU WDCs as well as another data center that is a candidate ICSU WDC have formed an alliance in order to promote Earth System Science and Research in Germany and abroad. This Cluster is actively pursuing a strategy, using information technology, to make data related to Earth Systems available to as wide and as interdisciplinary audience as possible. The World Data Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (WDC-MARE), the World Data Center for Climate (WDC-C), the World Data Center for Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (WDC-RSAT) and the candidate WDC of the Lithosphere (WDC-Terra) by GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (GFZ) are cooperating over several years on many issues, especially related to data archiving, publication, availability.

  8. UNH Data Cooperative: A Cyber Infrastructure for Earth System Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B. H.; Fekete, B. M.; Prusevich, A.; Gliden, S.; Magill, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth system scientists and managers have a continuously growing demand for a wide array of earth observations derived from various data sources including (a) modern satellite retrievals, (b) "in-situ" records, (c) various simulation outputs, and (d) assimilated data products combining model results with observational records. The sheer quantity of data, and formatting inconsistencies make it difficult for users to take full advantage of this important information resource. Thus the system could benefit from a thorough retooling of our current data processing procedures and infrastructure. Emerging technologies, like OPeNDAP and OGC map services, open standard data formats (NetCDF, HDF) data cataloging systems (NASA-Echo, Global Change Master Directory, etc.) are providing the basis for a new approach in data management and processing, where web- services are increasingly designed to serve computer-to-computer communications without human interactions and complex analysis can be carried out over distributed computer resources interconnected via cyber infrastructure. The UNH Earth System Data Collaborative is designed to utilize the aforementioned emerging web technologies to offer new means of access to earth system data. While the UNH Data Collaborative serves a wide array of data ranging from weather station data (Climate Portal) to ocean buoy records and ship tracks (Portsmouth Harbor Initiative) to land cover characteristics, etc. the underlaying data architecture shares common components for data mining and data dissemination via web-services. Perhaps the most unique element of the UNH Data Cooperative's IT infrastructure is its prototype modeling environment for regional ecosystem surveillance over the Northeast corridor, which allows the integration of complex earth system model components with the Cooperative's data services. While the complexity of the IT infrastructure to perform complex computations is continuously increasing, scientists are often forced

  9. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  10. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A.; Parks, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research & Development (R&D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R&D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  11. Plan for an Advanced Turbine Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.; Webb, H.A. ); Parks, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    A draft version of this paper was presented at the Clemson Clean, affordable, and reliable natural gas utilization technologies will play a growing role in meeting future power generation needs in the United States. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Strategy projected that total demand for natural gas will rise from 18.5 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 1990 to 24.2 tcf by the year 2000. Much of this increase is attributed to the increased use of natural gas as a fuel for electric power generation. Candidate technologies for gas fired power generation include gas turbine and fuel cell systems. The first workshop on research needs for advanced gas turbine systems for power generation was held on April 8-10, 1991 in Greenville, South Carolina. The goals of the Clemson-I Workshop were to identify research needs which would accelerate the development of advanced gas turbines and to consider new approaches to implement this research. The Clemson-I Workshop focused on advanced gas turbine systems which would have a lower cost of electricity or better environmental performance than systems currently under development. The workshop was cosponsored by the DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Clemson University, and the South Carolina Energy Research and Development Center. The proceedings from the workshop have been published. The 75 participants in the Clemson-I Workshop represented a broad spectrum of the gas turbine Research Development (R D) community as well as potential users of advanced gas turbines. Gas turbine manufacturers, the electric utility industry, the university community, as well as government and private sector R D sponsors were represented. Participants in the Clemson-I Workshop concluded that it is technically feasible to develop advanced turbine systems and that Government participation would accelerate the developmental effort. Advanced turbine systems could be operated on natural gas or adapted to coal or biomass firing.

  12. Technologies involved in configuring an advanced earth-to-orbit transport for low structural mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Klich, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A tradeoff study for a single-stage, earth-to-orbit transport spacecraft configured with low structural mass as the prime objective is presented. Among the major design elements affecting vehicle mass are: maneuverability and re-entry heating, the compatibility of an irregular cargo bay geometry to future mission requirements, the fabrication and assembly of large honeycomb structure fuselage sections, and the development of LOX/LH2 engine extendable nozzles and dual-propulsion schemes. It is shown that vehicle geometry and materials and structural technologies will be the critical areas in the development of such a system.

  13. Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Microgravity Acceleration Measurement Systems (AMAMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is part of the Instrument Technology Development program to develop advanced sensor systems. The primary focus of the AMAMS project is to develop microelectromechanical (MEMS) acceleration sensor systems to replace existing electromechanical-sensor-based systems presently used to assess relative gravity levels aboard spacecraft. These systems are used in characterizing both vehicle and payload responses to low-gravity vibroacoustic environments. The collection of microgravity acceleration data has cross-disciplinary utility to the microgravity life and physical sciences and the structural dynamics communities. The inherent advantages of semiconductor-based systems are reduced size, mass, and power consumption, while providing enhanced stability.

  14. Sustainability Indicators for Coupled Human-Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motesharrei, S.; Rivas, J. R.; Kalnay, E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last two centuries, the Human System went from having a small impact on the Earth System (including the Climate System) to becoming dominant, because both population and per capita consumption have grown extremely fast, especially since about 1950. We therefore argue that Human System Models must be included into Earth System Models through bidirectional couplings with feedbacks. In particular, population should be modeled endogenously, rather than exogenously as done currently in most Integrated Assessment Models. The growth of the Human System threatens to overwhelm the Carrying Capacity of the Earth System, and may be leading to catastrophic climate change and collapse. We propose a set of Ecological and Economic "Sustainability Indicators" that can employ large data-sets for developing and assessing effective mitigation and adaptation policies. Using the Human and Nature Dynamical Model (HANDY) and Coupled Human-Climate-Water Model (COWA), we carry out experiments with this set of Sustainability Indicators and show that they are applicable to various coupled systems including Population, Climate, Water, Energy, Agriculture, and Economy. Impact of nonrenewable resources and fossil fuels could also be understood using these indicators. We demonstrate interconnections of Ecological and Economic Indicators. Coupled systems often include feedbacks and can thus display counterintuitive dynamics. This makes it difficult for even experts to see coming catastrophes from just the raw data for different variables. Sustainability Indicators boil down the raw data into a set of simple numbers that cross their sustainability thresholds with a large time-lag before variables enter their catastrophic regimes. Therefore, we argue that Sustainability Indicators constitute a powerful but simple set of tools that could be directly used for making policies for sustainability.

  15. EarthSat spring wheat yield system test 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an operational test of the EarthSat System during the period 1 June - 30 August 1975 over the spring wheat regions of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota are presented. The errors associated with each sub-element of the system during the operational test and the sensitivity of the complete system and each major functional sub-element of the system to the observed errors were evaluated. Evaluations and recommendations for future operational users of the system include: (1) changes in various system sub-elements, (2) changes in the yield model to affect improved accuracy, (3) changes in the number of geobased cells needed to develop an accurate aggregated yield estimate, (4) changes associated with the implementation of future operational satellites and data processing systems, and (5) detailed system documentation.

  16. Advanced Turbine Systems Program. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    The Allison Gas Turbine Division (Allison) of General Motors Corporation conducted the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program feasibility study (Phase I) in accordance with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) contract DE-AC21-86MC23165 A028. This feasibility study was to define and describe a natural gas-fired reference system which would meet the objective of {ge}60% overall efficiency, produce nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions 10% less than the state-of-the-art without post combustion controls, and cost of electricity of the N{sup th} system to be approximately 10% below that of the current systems. In addition, the selected natural gas-fired reference system was expected to be adaptable to coal. The Allison proposed reference system feasibility study incorporated Allison`s long-term experience from advanced aerospace and military technology programs. This experience base is pertinent and crucial to the success of the ATS program. The existing aeroderivative technology base includes high temperature hot section design capability, single crystal technology, advanced cooling techniques, high temperature ceramics, ultrahigh turbomachinery components design, advanced cycles, and sophisticated computer codes.

  17. Advanced orbit transfer vehicle propulsion system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cathcart, J. A.; Cooper, T. W.; Corringrato, R. M.; Cronau, S. T.; Forgie, S. C.; Harder, M. J.; Mcallister, J. G.; Rudman, T. J.; Stoneback, V. W.

    1985-01-01

    A reuseable orbit transfer vehicle concept was defined and subsequent recommendations for the design criteria of an advanced LO2/LH2 engine were presented. The major characteristics of the vehicle preliminary design include a low lift to drag aerocapture capability, main propulsion system failure criteria of fail operational/fail safe, and either two main engines with an attitude control system for backup or three main engines to meet the failure criteria. A maintenance and servicing approach was also established for the advanced vehicle and engine concepts. Design tradeoff study conclusions were based on the consideration of reliability, performance, life cycle costs, and mission flexibility.

  18. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2015-12-22

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  19. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-12-31

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.

  20. FORTRAN M as a language for building earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1992-01-01

    FORTRAN M is a small set of extensions to FORTRAN 77 that supports a modular or object-oriented approach to the development of parallel programs. In this paper, I discuss the use of FORTRAN M as a tool for building earth system models on massively parallel computers. I hypothesize that the use of FORTRAN M has software engineering advantages and outline experiments that we are conducting to investigate this hypothesis.