Science.gov

Sample records for advancing fundamental physics

  1. Fundamental Physical Constants

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 121 CODATA Fundamental Physical Constants (Web, free access)   This site, developed in the Physics Laboratory at NIST, addresses three topics: fundamental physical constants, the International System of Units (SI), which is the modern metric system, and expressing the uncertainty of measurement results.

  2. Fundamentals of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  3. GRBs and Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Patrick; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense flashes at the cosmological distances, which are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. The high luminosities of GRBs make them detectable out to the edge of the visible universe. So, they are unique tools to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal evolution of the Universe. First, they can be used to constrain the history of cosmic acceleration and the evolution of dark energy in a redshift range hardly achievable by other cosmological probes. Second, long GRBs are believed to be formed by collapse of massive stars. So they can be used to derive the high-redshift star formation rate, which can not be probed by current observations. Moreover, the use of GRBs as cosmological tools could unveil the reionization history and metal evolution of the Universe, the intergalactic medium (IGM) properties and the nature of first stars in the early universe. But beyond that, the GRB high-energy photons can be applied to constrain Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) and to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle (EEP). In this paper, we review the progress on the GRB cosmology and fundamental physics probed by GRBs.

  4. Information physics fundamentals of nanophotonics.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Makoto; Tate, Naoya; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2013-05-01

    Nanophotonics has been extensively studied with the aim of unveiling and exploiting light-matter interactions that occur at a scale below the diffraction limit of light, and recent progress made in experimental technologies--both in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization--is driving further advancements in the field. From the viewpoint of information, on the other hand, novel architectures, design and analysis principles, and even novel computing paradigms should be considered so that we can fully benefit from the potential of nanophotonics. This paper examines the information physics aspects of nanophotonics. More specifically, we present some fundamental and emergent information properties that stem from optical excitation transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions and the hierarchical properties inherent in optical near-fields. We theoretically and experimentally investigate aspects such as unidirectional signal transfer, energy efficiency and networking effects, among others, and we present their basic theoretical formalisms and describe demonstrations of practical applications. A stochastic analysis of light-assisted material formation is also presented, where an information-based approach provides a deeper understanding of the phenomena involved, such as self-organization. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal dynamics of optical excitation transfer and its inherent stochastic attributes are utilized for solution searching, paving the way to a novel computing paradigm that exploits coherent and dissipative processes in nanophotonics.

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment.

  6. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2009-10-01

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  7. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-02-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  8. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  9. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law. PMID:24477692

  10. Astrophysical Probes of Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, C. J. A. P.

    I review the theoretical motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain a number of fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inacessible to experiment. As a case study I will focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements can be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with important advantages over the standard methods. Assuming that the current observational evidence for varying α. and μ is correct, a several-sigma detection of dynamical dark energy is feasible within a few years, using currently operational ground-based facilities. With forthcoming instruments like CODEX, a high-accuracy reconstruction of the equation of state may be possible all the way up to redshift z ˜ 4.

  11. Fundamental Physics and Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.

    2006-11-01

    "Very high precision physics has always appealed to me. The steady improvement in technologies that afford higher and higher precision has been a regular source of excitement and challenge during my career. In science, as in most things, whenever one looks at something more closely, new aspects almost always come into play …" With these word from the book "How the Laser happened", Charles H. Townes expresses a passion for precision that is now shared by many scientists. Masers and lasers have become indispensible tools for precision measurements. During the past few years, the advent of femtosecond laser frequency comb synthesizers has revolutionized the art of directly comparing optical and microwave frequencies. Inspired by the needs of precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom, such frequency combs are now enabling ultra-precise spectroscopy over wide spectral ranges. Recent laboratory experiments are already setting stringent limits for possible slow variations of fundamental constants. Laser frequency combs also provide the long missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks that may ultimately reach a precision of parts in 1018 and beyond. Such tools will open intriguing new opportunities for fundamental experiments including new tests of special and general relativity. In the future, frequency comb techniques may be extended into the extreme ultraviolet and soft xray regime, opening a vast new spectral territory to precision measurements. Frequency combs have also become a key tool for the emerging new field of attosecond science, since they can control the electric field of ultrashort laser pulses on an unprecedented time scale. The biggest surprise in these endeavours would be if we found no surprise.

  12. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  13. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  14. Fundamentals of Physics, Problem Supplement No. 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  15. Fundamentals of Physics, Student's Solutions Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-07-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  16. Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  17. High precision modeling for fundamental physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Nesemann, Leo; Costea, Adrian; Andres, Michael; Stephan, Ernst P.; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    With growing experimental accuracies and high precision requirements for fundamental physics space missions the needs for accurate numerical modeling techniques are increasing. Motivated by the challenge of length stability in cavities and optical resonators we propose the develop-ment of a high precision modeling tool for the simulation of thermomechanical effects up to a numerical precision of 10-20 . Exemplary calculations for simplified test cases demonstrate the general feasibility of high precision calculations and point out the high complexity of the task. A tool for high precision analysis of complex geometries will have to use new data types, advanced FE solver routines and implement new methods for the evaluation of numerical precision.

  18. Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-05-01

    Part I. Basic Concepts: Electrons and Phonons: 1. Concept of a solid: qualitative introduction and overview; 2. Electrons in crystals; 3. Electronic energy bands; 4. Lattice vibrations and phonons; Part II. Electron Intercations, Dynamics and Responses: 5. Electron dynamics in crystals; 6. Many-electron interactions: the interacting electron gas and beyond; 7. Density functional theory; 8. The dielectric function for solids; Part III. Optical and Transport Phenomena: 9. Electronic transitions and optical properties of solids; 10. Electron-phonon interactions; 11. Dynamics of crystal electrons in a magnetic field; 12. Fundamentals of transport phenomena in solids; Part IV. Superconductivity, Magnetism, and Lower Dimensional Systems: 13. Using many-body techniques; 14. Superconductivity; 15. Magnetism; 16. Reduced-dimensional systems and nanostructures; Index.

  19. Physical fundamentals of remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanda, E.

    The physical principles describing the propagation of EM waves in the atmosphere and their interactions with matter are discussed as they apply to remote sensing, in an introductory text intended for graduate science students, environmental-science researchers, and remote-sensing practitioners. The emphasis is on basic effects rather than an specific remote-sensing techniques or observational results. Chapters are devoted to basic relations, the spectral lines of atmospheric gases, the spectral properties of condensed matter, and radiative transfer.

  20. The Fundamental Neutron Physics Facilities at NIST.

    PubMed

    Nico, J S; Arif, M; Dewey, M S; Gentile, T R; Gilliam, D M; Huffman, P R; Jacobson, D L; Thompson, A K

    2005-01-01

    The program in fundamental neutron physics at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) began nearly two decades ago. The Neutron Interactions and Dosimetry Group currently maintains four neutron beam lines dedicated to studies of fundamental neutron interactions. The neutrons are provided by the NIST Center for Neutron Research, a national user facility for studies that include condensed matter physics, materials science, nuclear chemistry, and biological science. The beam lines for fundamental physics experiments include a high-intensity polychromatic beam, a 0.496 nm monochromatic beam, a 0.89 nm monochromatic beam, and a neutron interferometer and optics facility. This paper discusses some of the parameters of the beam lines along with brief presentations of some of the experiments performed at the facilities.

  1. Dark Energy: A Crisis for Fundamental Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Stubbs, Christopher [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    2016-07-12

    Astrophysical observations provide robust evidence that our current picture of fundamental physics is incomplete. The discovery in 1998 that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (apparently due to gravitational repulsion between regions of empty space!) presents us with a profound challenge, at the interface between gravity and quantum mechanics. This "Dark Energy" problem is arguably the most pressing open question in modern fundamental physics. The first talk will describe why the Dark Energy problem constitutes a crisis, with wide-reaching ramifications. One consequence is that we should probe our understanding of gravity at all accessible scales, and the second talk will present experiments and observations that are exploring this issue.

  2. Fundamental Physics for Probing and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Wade

    2006-12-01

    This book addresses the question 'What is physics for?' Physics has provided many answers for mankind by extending his ability to see. Modern technology has enabled the power of physics to see into objects to be used in archaeology, medicine including therapy, geophysics, forensics and other spheres important to the good of society. The book looks at the fundamental physics of the various methods and how they are used by technology. These methods are magnetic resonance, ionising radiation and sound. By taking a broad view over the whole field it encourages comparisons, but also addresses questions of risk and benefit to society from a fundamental viewpoint. This textbook has developed from a course given to third year students at Oxford and is written so that it can be used coherently as a basis for shortened courses by omitting a number of chapters.

  3. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  4. Fundamental physics at the threshold of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Natalia

    This thesis is divided into two parts: one driven by theory, the other by experiment. The first two chapters consider two model-building challenges: the little hierarchy of supersymmetry and the slowness of confinement in Randall-Sundrum models. In the third chapter, we turn to the question of determining the nature of fundamental physics at the TeV scale from LHC data. Crucial to this venture is a characterization for models of new physics. We present On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs), a characterization of hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of new particles. We argue that such a description can likely be obtained from ≲ 1 year of LHC data, and in many scenarios is an essential intermediate step in describing fundamental physics at the TeV scale.

  5. Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Junjie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-01-01

    Optical microscopy has been contributing to the development of life science for more than three centuries. However, due to strong optical scattering in tissue, its in vivo imaging ability has been restricted to studies at superficial depths. Advances in photoacoustic tomography (PAT) now allow multiscale imaging at depths from sub-millimeter to several centimeters, with spatial resolutions from sub-micrometer to sub-millimeter. Because of this high scalability and its unique optical absorption contrast, PAT is capable of performing anatomical, functional, molecular and fluid-dynamic imaging at various system levels, and is playing an increasingly important role in fundamental biological research and clinical practice. This Review discusses recent technical progress in PAT and presents corresponding applications. It ends with a discussion of several prospects and their technical challenges. PMID:22025335

  6. Baryogenesis and its implications to fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, M.

    2008-08-08

    In this talk I shall explain some basic concepts of baryogenesis and leptogenesis theory, and a new idea of experimental method of verification of fundamental ingredients of leptogenesis theory; the Majorana nature and the absolute magnitude of neutrino masses. Both of these are important to the quest of physics beyond the standard theory, and have far reaching implications irrespective of any particular medel of leptogenesis. If this new method works ideally, there is even a further possibility of detecting relic neutrinos.

  7. Fundamental constraints on two-time physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piceno, E.; Rosado, A.; Sadurní, E.

    2016-10-01

    We show that generalizations of classical and quantum dynamics with two times lead to a fundamentally constrained evolution. At the level of classical physics, Newton's second law is extended and exactly integrated in a (1 + 2) -dimensional space, leading to effective single-time evolution for any initial condition. The cases 2 + 2 and 3 + 2 are also analyzed. In the domain of quantum mechanics, we follow strictly the hypothesis of probability conservation by extending the Heisenberg picture to unitary evolution with two times. As a result, the observability of two temporal axes is constrained by a generalized uncertainty relation involving level spacings, total duration of the effect and Planck's constant.

  8. Fundamental Characterization Studies of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phivilay, Somphonh Peter

    Solar powered photocatalytic water splitting has been proposed as a method for the production of sustainable, non-carbon hydrogen fuel. Although much technological progress has been achieved in recent years in the discovery of advanced photocatalytic materials, the progress in the fundamental scientific understanding of such novel, complex mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalysts has significantly lagged. One of the major reasons for this slow scientific progress is the limited number of reported surface characterization studies of the complex bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride photocatalyst systems. Although photocatalytic splitting of water by bulk mixed oxide and oxynitride materials involves both bulk (generation of excited electrons and holes) and surface phenomena (reaction of H2O with excited electrons and holes at the surface), the photocatalysis community has almost completely ignored the surface characteristics of such complex bulk photocatalysts and correlates the photocatalytic properties with bulk properties. Some of the most promising photocatalyst systems (NaTaO3, GaN, (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) and TaON) were investigated to establish fundamental bulk/surface structure photoactivity relationships. The bulk molecular and electronic structures of the photocatalysts were determined with Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoluminescence (PL) and transient PL spectroscopy were provided insight into how recombination of photogenerated electrons is related to the photocatalysis activity. The chemical states and atomic compositions of the surface region of the photocatalysts were determined with high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (˜1-3 nm) and high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (˜0.3 nm). The new insights obtained from surface characterization clarified the role of La and Ni promoters species for the NaTaO3 photocatalyst system. The La2O3 additive was found to be a structural promoter that stabilizes small NaTaO3 nanoparticles (NPs

  9. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry, part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehney, A. F.; Inokuti, M.

    1983-12-01

    Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. These areas of study were chosen in view of our goals; that is to say, they were chosen so that the eventual outcome of the work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support the research. First, cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules were determined theoretically and experimently, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules were studied because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  10. Top Ten Problems in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.

    In 1900 the world-renowned mathematician David Hilbert presented twenty-three problems at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris. These problems have inspired mathematicians throughout the last century. As a piece of millennial madness, all participants of the Strings 2000 Conference were invited to help formulate the ten most important unsolved problems in fundamental physics. Each participant was allowed to submit one candidate problem for consideration. To qualify, the problem must not only have been important but also well-defined and stated in a clear way. The best ten problems were selected at the end of the conference by a selection panel consisting of David Gross, Edward Witten and myself.

  11. Top Ten Problems in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.

    2001-04-01

    In 1900 the world-renowned mathematician David Hilbert presented twenty-three problems at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris. These problems have inspired mathematicians throughout the last century. As a piece of millennial madness, all participants of the Strings 2000 Conference were invited to help formulate the ten most important unsolved problems in fundamental physics. Each participant was allowed to submit one candidate problem for consideration. To qualify, the problem must not only have been important but also well-defined and stated in a clear way. The best ten problems were selected at the end of the conference by a selection panel consisting of David Gross, Edward Witten and myself.

  12. Nuclear and fundamental physics instrumentation for the ANS project

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.J.; Raman, S.; Arterburn, J.; McManamy, T.; Peretz, F.J.; Faust, H.; Piotrowski, A.E.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes work carried out during the period 1991-1995 in connection with the refinement of the concepts and detailed designs for nuclear and fundamental physics research instrumentation at the proposed Advanced Neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initially, emphasis was placed on refining the existing System Design Document (SDD-43) to detail more accurately the needs and interfaces of the instruments that are identified in the document. The conceptual designs of these instruments were also refined to reflect current thinking in the field of nuclear and fundamental physics. In particular, the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facility design was reconsidered in the light of the development of interest in radioactive ion beams within the nuclear physics community. The second stage of this work was to define those instrument parameters that would interface directly with the reactor systems so that these parameters could be considered for the ISOL facility and particularly for its associated ion source. Since two of these options involved ion sources internal to the long slant beam tube, these were studied in detail. In addition, preliminary work was done to identify the needs for the target holder and changing facility to be located in the tangential through-tube. Because many of the planned nuclear and fundamental physics instruments have similar needs in terms of detection apparatus, some progress was also made in defining the parameters for these detectors. 21 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED.

  14. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  15. Fundamental Neutron Physics: Theory and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gudkov, Vladimir

    2016-10-31

    The goal of the proposal was to study the possibility of searching for manifestations of new physics beyond the Standard model in fundamental neutron physics experiments. This involves detailed theoretical analyses of parity and time reversal invariance violating processes in neutron induced reactions, properties of neutron β-decay, and the precise description of properties of neutron interactions with nuclei. To describe neutron-nuclear interactions, we use both the effective field theory approach and the theory of nuclear reaction with phenomenological nucleon potentials for the systematic description of parity and time reversal violating effects in the consistent way. A major emphasis of our research during the funding period has been the study of parity violation (PV) and time reversal invariance violation (TRIV) in few-body systems. We studied PV effects in non-elastic processes in three nucleon system using both ”DDH-like” and effective field theory (EFT) approaches. The wave functions were obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space for a number of realistic strong potentials. The observed model dependence for the DDH approach indicates intrinsic difficulty in the description of nuclear PV effects and it could be the reason for the observed discrepancies in the nuclear PV data analysis. It shows that the DDH approach could be a reasonable approach for analysis of PV effects only if exactly the same strong and weak potentials are used in calculating all PV observables in all nuclei. However, the existing calculations of nuclear PV effects were performed using different potentials; therefore, strictly speaking, one cannot compare the existing results of these calculations among themselves.

  16. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Adam B.

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects. PMID:24550877

  17. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  18. Fundamental physics of vacuum electron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shigehiko

    2006-01-01

    The history of electron emission is reviewed from a standpoint of the work function that determines the electron emission capability and of applications in the fields of scientific instruments and displays. For years, in thermionic emission, a great deal of effort has been devoted to the search for low work function materials with high melting temperature, while reduction of the local change in time of the work function rather than the work function itself has been the main issue of field emission investigations. High brightness and long life are the central targets of emission material investigations for scientific instrument applications, while high current density and low power consumption are the guiding principles for display applications. In most of the present day industries, thermionic emission materials are exclusively used in such fields requiring high current and high reliability as cathode ray tubes, transmission and receiving tubes, x-ray sources and various electron beam machines. Field electron emission sources, however, since applied to high resolution electron microscopes in the 1970s have recently become dominant in research and development in the fields of scientific instruments as well as in the fields of various electron tubes and beam machines. The main issue in this report is to analyse the work function on the atomic scale and thereby to understand the fundamental physics behind the work function, the change in time of the local work function leading to field emission current fluctuation and the relationship between microscopic (on atomic scale) and macroscopic work functions. Our attempt is presented here, where the work function on the atomic scale is measured by utilizing a scanning tunnelling microscopy technique, and it is made clear how far the local work function extends its influence over neighbouring sites. As a result, a simple relationship is established between microscopic and macroscopic work functions.

  19. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan; Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William

    2011-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice-crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 grams per cubic meter, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 millimeters in 3 minutes. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic

  20. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  1. [The Study of Advanced Fundamental Parameter Method in EDXRFA].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Qing-xian; Ge, Liang-quan; Gu, Yi; Zeng, Guo-qiang; Luo, Yao-yao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-kun

    2015-07-01

    The X-ray Fluorescence Analysis(XRFA) is an important and efficient method on the element anylsis and is used in geology, industry and environment protection. But XRFA has a backdraw that the determination limit and accuracy are effected by the matrix of the sample. Now the fundamental parameter is usually used to calculate the content of elements in XRFA, and it is an efficient method if the matrix and net area of characteristic X-ray peak are obtained. But this is invalide in in-stu XRFA. Also the method of net area and the "black material" of sample are the key point of the fundamental parameter method when the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Analysis(EDXRFA) method is used in the low content sample. In this paper a advanced fundamental parameter method is discussed. The advanced fundamental parameter method includes the spectra analysis and the fundamental parameter method, which inserts the overlapping peaks separation method into the iteration process of the fundamental parameter method. The advanced method can resolve the net area and the quantitative analysis. The advanced method is used to analyse the standard sample. Compare to the content obtained from the coefficient method, the precision of Cu, Ni and Zn is better than coeffieciency method. The result shows that the advanced method could improve the precision of the EDXRFA, so the advanced method is better than the coefficient method.

  2. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  3. Advanced Fencing; Physical Education: 5551.54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Marjorie

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 8-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Strategy, tactics, principles, and fundamentals of advanced fencing skills. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The contents are divided into seven areas, which are Course Guidelines, Course Description and Broad Goal, Course of Study Behavioral Objectives, Course Content, Learning Activities and…

  4. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E.; Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G.; Pletcher, R.H.; Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P.; Jackson, J.D.; Kunugi, T.; Satake, S.-i.

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  5. Noise in state of the art clocks and their impact for fundamental physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a review of the use of advanced atomic clocks in testing the fundamental physical laws will be presented. Noise sources of clocks will be discussed, together with an outline their characterization based on current models. The paper will conclude with a discussion of recent attempts to reduce the fundamental, as well as technical noise in atomic clocks.

  6. Fundamental Physics Program and the NASA Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The accomplishments of Physics, the increasing power of its instruments, and its expanding reach into other sciences have generated an unprecedented set of scientific opportunities. The committee has identified six such Grand Challenges listed below in no particular order: Developing quantum technologies. Creating new materials. Understanding complex systems. Unifying the forces of Nature. Exploring the universe Applying Physics to Biology.

  7. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  8. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkby, Esben; N-Nbar Collaboration; Soldner, Torsten; ANNI Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source ESS is ongoing in Lund, Sweden. This new high power spallation source with its long-pulse structure opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. This paper focusses on two proposals for fundamental physics at the ESS: The ANNI instrument and the neutron-anti-neutron oscillation experiment.

  9. Fundamentals of Physics, Instructor Lab Manual with CD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Probeware Lab Manual/Student Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  11. Improving Advanced High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spital, Robin David

    2003-04-01

    A National Research Council study committee recently commissioned a "Physics Panel" to evaluate and make recommendations for improving advanced physics education in American high schools [1]. The Physics Panel recommends the creation of a nationally standardized Newtonian Mechanics Unit that would form the foundation of all advanced physics programs. In a one-year program, the Panel recommends that advanced physics students study at most one other major area of physics, so that sufficient time is available to develop the deep conceptual understanding that is the primary goal of advanced study. The Panel emphasizes that final assessments must be improved to focus on depth of understanding, rather than technical problem-solving skill. The Physics Panel strongly endorses the inclusion of meaningful real-world experiences in advanced physics programs, but believes that traditional "cook-book" laboratory exercises are not worth the enormous amount of time and effort spent on them. The Physics Panel believes that the talent and preparation of teachers are the most important ingredients in effective physics instruction; it therefore calls for a concerted effort by all parts of the physics community to remedy the desperate shortage of highly qualified teachers. [1] Jerry P. Gollub and Robin Spital, "Advanced Physics in the High Schools", Physics Today, May 2002.

  12. The Fundamental Physical Limits of Computation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charles H.; Landauer, Rolf

    1985-01-01

    Examines what constraints govern the physical process of computation, considering such areas as whether a minimum amount of energy is required per logic step. Indicates that although there seems to be no minimum, answers to other questions are unresolved. Examples used include DNA/RNA, a Brownian clockwork turning machine, and others. (JN)

  13. Space-Based Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung

    Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of ground-based experiments. Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground- and space-based efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASA-led interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

  14. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars and Fundamental Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission from the surfaces of rapidly rotating neutron stars encodes information about their global properties as well as physical conditions locally. Detailed modelling of, for example, the energy dependent pulse profiles observed from accreting millisecond pulsars and thermonuclear burst oscillations can be used to derive constraints on the masses and radii of neutron stars. These measurements provide direct information on the properties of the dense matter equation of state of the supranuclear density matter in their interiors. Study of absorption lines created in the surface layers can also provide measurements of masses and radii, and may be able to probe aspects of relativistic gravity, such as frame dragging. I will discuss the results of recent efforts to carry out such measurements and their implications for the properties of dense matter.

  15. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  16. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  17. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  18. Advances in atomic physics

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M.

    2013-01-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University – Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s – when the author first engaged in research – an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics. PMID:26425356

  19. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended, Chapters 1 - 45 , Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  20. Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: A Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barry N.; Cohen, E. Richard

    1990-01-01

    We summarize the principal advances made in the fundamental physical constants field since the completion of the 1986 CODATA least-squares adjustment of the constants and discuss their implications for both the 1986 set of recommended values and the next least-squares adjustment. In general, the new results lead to values of the constants with uncertainties 5 to 7 times smaller than the uncertainties assigned the 1986 values. However, the changes in the values themselves are less than twice the 1986 assigned one-standard-deviation uncertainties and thus are not highly significant. Although much new data has become available since 1986, three new results dominate the analysis: a value of the Planck constant obtained from a realization of the watt; a value of the fine-structure constant obtained from the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron; and a value of the molar gas constant obtained from the speed of sound in argon. Because of their dominant role in determining the values and uncertainties of many of the constants, it is highly desirable that additional results of comparable uncertainty that corroborate these three data items be obtained before the next adjustment is carried out. Until then, the 1986 CODATA set of recommended values will remain the set of choice. PMID:28179787

  1. Fundamentals of Physics, Student Study Guide, Extended 7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-06-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  2. On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

  3. Preface: Advances in solar physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2015-12-01

    The idea for this special issue of Advances in Space Research (ASR) was formulated during the 14th European Solar Physics Meeting (ESPM-14) that took place in Dublin, Ireland in September 2014. Since ASR does not publish conference proceedings, it was decided to extend a general call to the international solar-physics community for manuscripts pertinent to the following thematic areas: New and upcoming heliospheric observational and data assimilation facilities.

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  5. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  6. Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.

  7. Recent advances in medical physics.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Willi A; Quick, Harald H

    2011-03-01

    Some of the major interests in medical physics over the last few years have concerned the technical advances in Computed Tomography and high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging. This review discusses the introduction of Dual Source CT and explains how it can not only offer faster data acquisition but also operate with lower radiation doses. This provides enormous benefits for all patients, but for cardiac and pediatric examinations in particular. The advances in MRI at 7 T esla are also impressive, with better signal to noise; cardiac and musculoskeletal applications are discussed; technical improvements are work-in-progress for other applications.

  8. NASA/JPL Plans for Fundamental Physics Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaelsson, Ulf E.; Lee, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, about 100 researchers met twice to develop plans for the future in this research area. The results of these meetings have been collected in a package titled "A Roadmap for Fundamental Physics in Space". A summary of the Roadmap will be presented along with an overview of the current program. Research is being performed in Low Temperature and Condensed Matter Physics, Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics, and Gravitational and Relativistic Physics. There are currently over 50 investigators in the program of which 8 are being evaluated as potential flight experiments. The number of investigators is expected to grow further during the next selection cycle, planned to start toward the end of this year. In the near future, our investigators will be able to take advantage of long duration experimentation in Space using a suite of different carriers under development.

  9. The determination of best values of the fundamental physical constants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Barry N

    2005-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how a self-consistent set of 'best values' of the fundamental physical constants for use worldwide by all of science and technology is obtained from all of the relevant data available at a given point in time. The basis of the discussion is the 2002 Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) least-squares adjustment of the values of the constants, the most recent such study available, which was carried out under the auspices of the CODATA Task group on fundamental constants. A detailed description of the 2002 CODATA adjustment, which took into account all relevant data available by 31 December 2002, plus selected data that became available by Fall of 2003, may be found in the January 2005 issue of the Reviews of Modern Physics. Although the latter publication includes the full set of CODATA recommended values of the fundamental constants resulting from the 2002 adjustment, the set is also available electronically at http://physics.nist.gov/constants.

  10. Recent advances of flow cytometry in fundamental and applied microbiology.

    PubMed

    Fouchet, P; Jayat, C; Héchard, Y; Ratinaud, M H; Frelat, G

    1993-01-01

    This review focuses on the recent applications of flow cytometry (FCM) in microbiological research (1987-mid 1992). It tries to give a scope of the important breakthroughs which occurred in this field during this period. The technical difficulties of microorganism analysis by flow cytometry is briefly appraised. The significance and the limits of the different microbial cell parameters attainable by flow analyses are systematically evaluated: light scatter for cell size and structure, fluorescence measurements for quantification of cellular components, microbial antigen detection and cell physiological activity estimation. Emphasis is given on the new technological advances which appeared in the last two years. The second part of the review is devoted to the analysis of the usefulness of flow cytometric approach in the different fields of microbiology: fundamental studies in microbial physiology, differentiation, microbial ecology and aquatic sciences, medical microbiology, parasitology, microbial pharmacology and biotechnology.

  11. Fundamental Physics from Observations of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, M. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Reindl, N.; Barrow, J. D.; Webb, J. K.; Hu, J.; Preval, S. P.; Holberg, J. B.; Nave, G.; Tchang-Brillet, L.; Ayres, T. R.

    2017-03-01

    Variation in fundamental constants provide an important test of theories of grand unification. Potentially, white dwarf spectra allow us to directly observe variation in fundamental constants at locations of high gravitational potential. We study hot, metal polluted white dwarf stars, combining far-UV spectroscopic observations, atomic physics, atmospheric modelling and fundamental physics, in the search for variation in the fine structure constant. This registers as small but measurable shifts in the observed wavelengths of highly ionized Fe and Ni lines when compared to laboratory wavelengths. Measurements of these shifts were performed by Berengut et al (2013) using high-resolution STIS spectra of G191-B2B, demonstrating the validity of the method. We have extended this work by; (a) using new (high precision) laboratory wavelengths, (b) refining the analysis methodology (incorporating robust techniques from previous studies towards quasars), and (c) enlarging the sample of white dwarf spectra. A successful detection would be the first direct measurement of a gravitational field effect on a bare constant of nature. We describe our approach and present preliminary results.

  12. The Planck Mission: Recent Results, Cosmological and Fundamental Physics Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    We provide a description of the latest status and performance of the Planck satellite, focusing on the final predicted sensitivity of Planck. The optimization of the observational strategy for the additional surveys following the nominal 15 months of integration (about two surveys) originally allocated and the limitation represented by astrophysical foreground emissions are presented. An outline of early and intermediate astrophysical results from the Planck Collaboration is provided. A concise view of some fundamental cosmological results that will be achieved by exploiting Planck's full set of temperature and polarization data are presented. Finally, the perspectives opened by Planck in answering some key questions in fundamental physics, with particular attention to parity symmetry analyses, are described.

  13. The Relation between Fundamental Constants and Particle Physics Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rodger

    2017-01-01

    The observed constraints on the variability of the proton to electron mass ratio $\\mu$ and the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ are used to establish constraints on the variability of the Quantum Chromodynamic Scale and a combination of the Higgs Vacuum Expectation Value and the Yukawa couplings. Further model dependent assumptions provide constraints on the Higgs VEV and the Yukawa couplings separately. A primary conclusion is that limits on the variability of dimensionless fundamental constants such as $\\mu$ and $\\alpha$ provide important constraints on the parameter space of new physics and cosmologies.

  14. The Multiverse--Emerging New View in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe has led to the dramatic new view that our universe may be one of the many universes in which low energy physical laws take different forms: the multiverse. I explain why/how this view is supported both observationally and theoretically, especially by string theory and eternal inflation. I then describe impacts this new view has on future observations and our fundamental understanding of spacetime and gravity. The topics discussed include an emerging new picture of general relativistic spacetime, especially the crucial role quantum mechanics plays at the largest distance scales, and possible signals of the multiverse in future cosmological observations.

  15. Advanced Computation in Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William

    2001-10-01

    Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. This talk will review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically-confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop MPP's to produce 3-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for tens of thousands time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to stimulate improved cross-cutting collaborations with other fields and also to help attract

  16. Advanced computations in plasma physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, W. M.

    2002-05-01

    Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. In this paper we review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from magnetic confinement research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPP's to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to

  17. BlackHoleCam: Fundamental physics of the galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddi, C.; Falcke, H.; Kramer, M.; Rezzolla, L.; Brinkerink, C.; Bronzwaer, T.; Davelaar, J. R. J.; Deane, R.; de Laurentis, M.; Desvignes, G.; Eatough, R. P.; Eisenhauer, F.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Fromm, C. M.; Gillessen, S.; Grenzebach, A.; Issaoun, S.; Janßen, M.; Konoplya, R.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Laing, R.; Liu, K.; Lu, R.-S.; Mizuno, Y.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Müller, C.; Olivares, H.; Pfuhl, O.; Porth, O.; Roelofs, F.; Ros, E.; Schuster, K.; Tilanus, R.; Torne, P.; van Bemmel, I.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Wex, N.; Younsi, Z.; Zhidenko, A.

    fundamental BH parameters (mass, spin, and quadrupole moment) with sufficiently high precision to provide fundamental tests of GR (e.g. testing the no-hair theorem) and probe the spacetime around a BH in any metric theory of gravity. Here, we review our current knowledge of the physical properties of Sgr A* as well as the current status of such experimental efforts towards imaging the event horizon, measuring stellar orbits, and timing pulsars around Sgr A*. We conclude that the Galactic center provides a unique fundamental-physics laboratory for experimental tests of BH accretion and theories of gravity in their most extreme limits.

  18. Probes of Fundamental Physics using X-ray Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of X-ray polarimetry as an astronomical discipline is on the near horizon. Prospects of Explorer class missions currently under study in the NASA SMEX program, the Xipe mission under ESA study in Europe, and beyond to initiatives under development in Asia, indicate that the worldwide high energy astrophysics community view this as a high priority. The focal goal of X-ray polarization measurements is often to discern the geometry of a source, for example an accreting black hole, pulsing neutron star or a relativistic jet; these are addressed in other talks in this HEAD special session. In this talk, I discuss a parallel agenda, to employ X-ray polarimetry to glean insights into fundamental physics that is presently difficult or impossible to test in laboratory settings. Much of this is centered around neutron stars, and I willaddress theoretically-expected signatures of vacuum birefringence and photon splitting, predictions of QED theory in the strong magnetic fields possessed by pulsars and magnetars. Of particular note is that time-dependent polarimetry coupled with spectroscopy can help disentangle purely geometrical effects and fundamental physics ones. A brief discussion of possible tests of Lorentz invariance violation, expected in some theories of quantum gravity, will also be presented. Instrument requirements to realize such science goals will also be briefly covered.

  19. Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steven, Eden

    Silk materials are natural protein-based materials with an exceptional toughness. In addition to their toughness, silk materials also possess complex physical properties and functions resulting from a particular set of amino-acid arrangement that produces structures with crystalline beta-sheets connected by amorphous chains. Extensive studies have been performed to study their structure-function relationship leading to recent advancements in bio-integrated devices. Applications to fields other than textiles and biomedicine, however, have been scarce. In this dissertation, an investigation of the electronic properties, functionalization, and role of silk materials (spider silk and Bombyx mori cocoon silk) in the field of organic materials research is presented. The investigation is conducted from an experimental physics point of view where correlations with charge transport mechanisms in disordered, semiconducting, and insulating materials are made when appropriate. First, I present the electronic properties of spider silk fibers under ambient, humidified, iodized, polar solvent exposure, and pyrolized conditions. The conductivity is exponentially dependent on relative humidity changes and the solvent polarity. Iodine doping increases the conductivity only slightly but has pronounced effects on the pyrolization process, increasing the yield and flexibility of the pyrolized silk fibers. The iodized samples were further studied using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing non-homogenous iodine doping and I2 induced hydrogenation that are responsible for the minimal conductivity improvement and the pyrolization effects, respectively. Next, I present the investigation of silk fiber functionalization with gold and its role in electrical measurements. The gold functionalized silk fiber (Au-SS) is metallic down to cryogenic temperatures, has a certain amount of flexibility, and possesses

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  1. ASP2012: Fundamental Physics and Accelerator Sciences in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Much remains to be done to improve education and scientific research in Africa. Supported by the international scientific community, our initiative has been to contribute to fostering science in sub-Saharan Africa by establishing a biennial school on fundamental subatomic physics and its applications. The school is based on a close interplay between theoretical, experimental, and applied physics. The lectures are addressed to students or young researchers with at least a background of 4 years of university formation. The aim of the school is to develop capacity, interpret, and capitalize on the results of current and future physics experiments with particle accelerators; thereby spreading education for innovation in related applications and technologies, such as medicine and information science. Following the worldwide success of the first school edition, which gathered 65 students for 3-week in Stellenbosch (South Africa) in August 2010, the second edition will be hosted in Ghana from July 15 to August 4, 2012. The school is a non-profit organization, which provides partial or full financial support to 50 of the selected students, with priority to Sub-Saharan African students.

  2. ESO Future Facilities to Probe Fundamental Physical Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Liske, Jochen

    Following HARPS, two ESO projects are aimed at the ambitious goal of trying to reach the highest possible precision in measuring the radial velocity of astronomical sources. ESPRESSO spectrograph, located at the incoherent combined 4VLT focus, but able to work either with one or all VLT units, and CODEX for E-ELT will mark ESO roadmap towards the cm s - 1level of precision and possibly to an unlimited temporal baseline. By providing photon noise limited measures their promise is to improve the present limits in the variability of fundamental physical constants by one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, thus allowing for instance to verify the claim discussed at this conference by John Webb of a possible spatial dipole in the variation of the fine structure constant.

  3. H line; a beam line for fundamental physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Naritoshi; Toyoda, Akihisa; Aoki, Masaharu; Shimomura, Koichiro; Mibe, Tsutomu; Nakatsugawa, Yohei; Otani, Masashi; Saito, Naohito; Miyake, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-01

    The muon facility, J-PARC (Muon Science Establishment; MUSE), has been operating since the first beam in 2008. Starting with a 200 kW proton beam, a beam intensity of 3 × 106 muons/s was reached in 2009 which was the most intense pulsed muon beam in the world. From the 2 cm thick graphite target, four secondary muon beam lines are designed to be extracted. Three beam lines currently exist, the first being operational and the other two undergoing commissioning. The fourth and the last beam line, the H line, is planned to be constructed. This new beam line is designed to have a large acceptance, provides the ability to tune the momentum, and use a kicker magnet and/or a Wien filter. The H line is designed to provide an intense beam of 108 surface muons/s for fundamental physics studies to observe new physics beyond the standard model. Such studies require high statistics and they need to occupy the experimental areas for a relatively long period.

  4. Inerton fields: very new ideas on fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnoholovets, Volodymyr

    2010-12-22

    Modern theories of everything, or theories of the grand unification of all physical interactions, try to describe the whole world starting from the first principles of quantum theory. However, the first principles operate with undetermined notions, such as the wave {psi}-function, particle, lepton and quark, de Broglie and Compton wavelengths, mass, electric charge, spin, electromagnetic field, photon, gravitation, physical vacuum, space, etc. From a logical point of view this means that such modern approach to the theory of everything is condemned to failure... Thus, what should we suggest to improve the situation? It seems quite reasonable to develop initially a theory of something, which will be able to clarify the major fundamental notions (listed above) that physics operates with every day. What would be a starting point in such approach? Of course a theory of space as such, because particles and all physical fields emerge just from space. After that, when a particle and fields (and hence the fields' carriers) are well defined and introduced in the well defined physical space, different kinds of interactions can be proposed and investigated. Moreover, we must also allow for a possible interaction of a created particle with the space that generated the appearance of the particle. The mathematical studies of Michel Bounias and the author have shown what the real physical space is, how the space is constituted, how it is arranged and what its elements are. Having constructed the real physical space we can then derive whatever we wish, in particular, such basic notions as mass, particle and charge. How are mechanics of such objects (a massive particle, a charged massive particle) organised? The appropriate theory of motion has been called a sub microscopic mechanics of particles, which is developed in the real physical space, not an abstract phase space, as conventional quantum mechanics does. A series of questions arise: can these two mechanics (submicroscopic

  5. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Zarnstorff; L.A. Berry; A. Brooks; E. Fredrickson; G.-Y. Fu; S. Hirshman; S. Hudson; L.-P. Ku; E. Lazarus; D. Mikkelsen; D. Monticello; G.H. Neilson; N. Pomphrey; A. Reiman; D. Spong; D. Strickler; A. Boozer; W.A. Cooper; R. Goldston; R. Hatcher; M. Isaev; C. Kessel; J. Lewandowski; J. Lyon; P. Merkel; H. Mynick; B.E. Nelson; C. Nuehrenberg; M. Redi; W. Reiersen; P. Rutherford; R. Sanchez; J. Schmidt; R.B. White

    2001-08-14

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties.

  6. 21 cm radiation: A new probe of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Rishi; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2010-11-01

    New low frequency radio telescopes currently being built open up the possibility of observing the 21 cm radiation from redshifts 200 > z > 30, also known as the dark ages, see Furlanetto, Oh, & Briggs(2006) for a review. At these high redshifts, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is absorbed by neutral hydrogen at its 21 cm hyperfine transition. This redshifted 21 cm signal thus carries information about the state of the early Universe and can be used to test fundamental physics. The 21 cm radiation probes a volume of the early Universe on kpc scales in contrast with CMB which probes a surface (of some finite thickness) on Mpc scales. Thus there is many orders of more information available, in principle, from the 21 cm observations of dark ages. We have studied the constraints these observations can put on the variation of fundamental constants (Khatri & Wandelt(2007)). Since the 21 cm signal depends on atomic physics it is very sensitive to the variations in the fine structure constant and can place constraints comparable to or better than the other astrophysical experiments (Δα/α= < 10-5) as shown in Figure 1. Making such observations will require radio telescopes of collecting area 10 - 106 km2 compared to ~ 1 km2 of current telescopes, for example LOFAR. We should also expect similar sensitivity to the electron to proton mass ratio. One of the challenges in observing this 21 cm cosmological signal is the presence of the synchrotron foregrounds which is many orders of magnitude larger than the cosmological signal but the two can be separated because of their different statistical nature (Zaldarriaga, Furlanetto, & Hernquist(2004)). Terrestrial EM interference from radio/TV etc. and Earth's ionosphere poses problems for telescopes on ground which may be solved by going to the Moon and there are proposals for doing so, one of which is the Dark Ages Lunar Interferometer (DALI). In conclusion 21 cm cosmology promises a large wealth of data and provides

  7. Wireless avionics for space applications of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linna; Zeng, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental physics (FP) research in space relies on a strong support of spacecraft. New types of spacecraft including reusable launch vehicles, reentry space vehicles, long-term on-orbit spacecraft or other new type of spacecraft will pave the way for FP missions. In order to test FP theories in space, flight conditions have to be controlled to a very high precision, data collection and handling abilities have to be improved, real-time and reliable communications in critical environments are needed. These challenge the existing avionics of spacecraft. Avionics consists of guidance, navigation & control, TT&C, the vehicle management, etc. Wireless avionics is one of the enabling technologies to address the challenges. Reasons are expatiated of why it is of great advantage. This paper analyses the demands for wireless avionics by reviewing the FP missions and on-board wireless systems worldwide. Main types of wireless communication are presented. Preliminary system structure of wireless avionics are given. The characteristics of wireless network protocols and wireless sensors are introduced. Key technologies and design considerations for wireless avionics in space applications are discussed.

  8. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Luca; Appleby, Stephen; Bacon, David; Baker, Tessa; Baldi, Marco; Bartolo, Nicola; Blanchard, Alain; Bonvin, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Burrage, Clare; Camera, Stefano; Carbone, Carmelita; Casarini, Luciano; Cropper, Mark; de Rham, Claudia; Di Porto, Cinzia; Ealet, Anne; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Finelli, Fabio; García-Bellido, Juan; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Guzzo, Luigi; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Hollenstein, Lukas; Holmes, Rory; Horst, Ole; Jahnke, Knud; Kitching, Thomas D.; Koivisto, Tomi; Kunz, Martin; La Vacca, Giuseppe; March, Marisa; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Markovic, Katarina; Marsh, David; Marulli, Federico; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Mota, David F.; Nunes, Nelson J.; Percival, Will; Pettorino, Valeria; Porciani, Cristiano; Quercellini, Claudia; Read, Justin; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sapone, Domenico; Scaramella, Roberto; Skordis, Constantinos; Simpson, Fergus; Taylor, Andy; Thomas, Shaun; Trotta, Roberto; Verde, Licia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Vollmer, Adrian; Wang, Yun; Weller, Jochen; Zlosnik, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid’s Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  9. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    . 10-8 Torque. 10-9 Newton's Second Law for Rotation. 10-10 Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 11.Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum. When a jet-powered car became supersonic in setting the land-speed record, what was the danger to the wheels? 11-1 What Is Physics? 11-2 Rolling as Translation and Rotation Combined. 11-3 The Kinetic Energy of Rolling. 11-4 The Forces of Rolling. 11-5 The Yo-Yo. 11-6 Torque Revisited. 11-7 Angular Momentum. 11-8 Newton's Second Law in Angular Form. 11-9 The Angular Momentum of a System of Particles. 11-10 The Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body Rotating About a Fixed Axis. 11-11 Conservation of Angular Momentum. 11-12 Precession of a Gyroscope. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI). Appendix B: Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. Appendix C: Some Astronomical Data. Appendix D: Conversion Factors. Appendix E: Mathematical Formulas. Appendix F: Properties of the Elements. Appendix G: Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  10. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (<1 uN), and commission the facility with an existing Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster. To date, the QVPT line of research has produced data suggesting very high specific impulse coupled with high specific force. If the physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  11. Development of Junior High School Students' Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity in a Naturalistic Physical Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaja, Sami Pekka; Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Liukkonen, Jarmo Olavi; Digelidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence showing that fundamental movement skills and physical activity are related with each other. The ability to perform a variety of fundamental movement skills increases the likelihood of children participating in different physical activities throughout their lives. However, no fundamental movement skill interventions…

  12. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Appendices. A The International System of Units (SI). B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C Some Astronomical Data. D Conversion Factors. E Mathematical Formulas. F Properties of the Elements. G Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  13. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 20. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Appendices. A The International System of Units (SI). B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C Some Astronomical Data. D Conversion Factors. E Mathematical Formulas. F Properties of the Elements. G Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  14. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    include: (1) Leadership of the Laboratory's Physical Data Research Program that provides fundamental physics information for the Stockpile Stewardship Program. (2) Development of the handheld Microbead Immunoassay Dipstick System that will allow relatively untrained first-responders to run sophisticated onsite diagnostics for pathogens, including those associated with biowarfare agents, by using a simple, one-step measurement. (3) Major advances in target design for inertial fusion energy research using both laser and ion-beam drivers. (4) Development of the Advanced Technology Kill Vehicle concept for use as a high-performance interceptor in a broad range of missile defense programs. Over the course of the past decade, the Laboratory has seen its major program evolve from weapons research, development, and testing, to Stockpile Stewardship. Today, the country's national security priorities are changing rapidly: nuclear security is becoming a broader set of missions, and the Laboratory is being asked to contribute to a range of new mission areas from countering bioterrorism to ensuring information security. As we embark on the twenty-first century, the new PAT Directorate is poised to help lead the Laboratory's response to the country's changing national security needs.

  15. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 3 (Chapters 22-33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-03-01

    magnetic .eld used in an MRI scan cause a patient to be burned? 30-1 What Is Physics? 30-2 Two Experiments. 30-3 Faraday's Law of Induction. 30-4 Lenz's Law. 30-5 Induction and Energy Transfers. 30-6 Induced Electric Fields. 30-7 Inductors and Inductance. 30-8 Self-Induction. 30-9 RL Circuits. 30-10 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field. 30-11 Energy Density of a Magnetic Field. 30-12 Mutual Induction. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 31. Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current. How did a solar eruption knock out the power-grid system of Quebec? 31-1 What Is Physics? 31-2 LC Oscillations, Qualitatively. 31-3 The Electrical-Mechanical Analogy. 31-4 LC Oscillations, Quantitatively. 31-5 Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit. 31-6 Alternating Current. 31-7 Forced Oscillations. 31-8 Three Simple Circuits. 31-9 The Series RLC Circuit. 31-10 Power in Alternating-Current Circuits. 31-11 Transformers. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 32. Maxwell's Equations; Magnetism of Matter. How can a mural painting record the direction of Earth's magnetic field? 32-1 What Is Physics? 32-2 Gauss' Law for Magnetic Fields. 32-3 Induced Magnetic Fields. 32-4 Displacement Current. 32-5 Maxwell's Equations. 32-6 Magnets. 32-7 Magnetism and Electrons. 32-8 Magnetic Materials. 32-9 Diamagnetism. 32-10 Paramagnetism. 32-11 Ferromagnetism. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Appendices. A. The International System of Units (SI). B. Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C. Some Astronomical Data. D. Conversion Factors. E. Mathematical Formulas. F. Properties of the Elements. G. Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  16. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  17. Recent Advances in Neutron Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Herman; Sheldon, Eric

    1977-01-01

    Discusses new studies in neutron physics within the last decade, such as ultracold neutrons, neutron bottles, resonance behavior, subthreshold fission, doubly radiative capture, and neutron stars. (MLH)

  18. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  19. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  20. Advancements in Solar Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramonti, Lino; Antonelli, Vito

    2013-03-01

    We review the results of solar neutrino physics, with particular attention to the data obtained and the analyses performed in the last decades, which were determinant to solve the solar neutrino problem (SNP), proving that neutrinos are massive and oscillating particles and contributing to refine the solar models. We also discuss the perspectives of the presently running experiments in this sector and of the ones planned for the near future and the impact they can have on elementary particle physics and astrophysics.

  1. Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz Vacuum Electronic Radiation Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    Models for Microstrip Computer-Aided Design,” in Microwave Symposium Digest , 1980 IEEE MTT-S International, 1980, p. 407. [2] B.B. Yang, S.L...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0359 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and Terahertz John Booske UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN SYSTEM...12-2014 Final Technical Performance Report October 1, 2011 - September 30, 2014 Fundamental Materials Studies for Advanced High Power Microwave and

  2. Fundamental Advances in Inverse Mechanics Towards Self-Aware and Intrinsically Adaptable Structural Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-30

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0007 FUNDAMENTAL ADVANCES IN INVERSE MECHANICS TOWARDS SELF-AWARE JOHN BRIGHAM UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Final Report 12/04/2014...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fundamental Advances in Inverse Mechanics Towards Self-Aware and Intrinsically Adaptable Structural Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...methods for solving inverse problems related to smart morphable structures that can evaluate their current environment and then adapt accordingly to

  3. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  4. Physics in advanced GNVQ Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, D.

    1995-07-01

    GNVQ Science is a vocational qualification for students in England, with a demand equivalent to traditional GCE A-levels. This article looks at the approach adopted by GNVQ to physics, and discusses the way in which appropriate teaching resources have been developed by the Nuffield Science in Practice project.

  5. Fundamental studies of structure borne noise for advanced turboprop applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, W.; Koval, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The transmission of sound generated by wing-mounted, advanced turboprop engines into the cabin interior via structural paths is considered. The structural model employed is a beam representation of the wing box carried into the fuselage via a representative frame type of carry through structure. The structure for the cabin cavity is a stiffened shell of rectangular or cylindrical geometry. The structure is modelled using a finite element formulation and the acoustic cavity is modelled using an analytical representation appropriate for the geometry. The structural and acoustic models are coupled by the use of hard wall cavity modes for the interior and vacuum structural modes for the shell. The coupling is accomplished using a combination of analytical and finite element models. The advantage is the substantial reduction in dimensionality achieved by modelling the interior analytically. The mathematical model for the interior noise problem is demonstrated with a simple plate/cavity system which has all of the features of the fuselage interior noise problem.

  6. Advanced Physics Lab at TCU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The one semester, one credit hour Modern Physics Lab is viewed as a transition between the structured Physics 1 and 2 labs and junior/senior research. The labs focus on a variety of experiments built around a multichannel analyzer, various alpha, beta and gamma ray detectors and weak radioactive sources. Experiments include radiation safety and detection with a Geiger counter and NaI detector, gamma ray spectroscopy with a germanium detector, beta spectrum, alpha energy loss, gamma ray absorption, Compton effect, nuclear and positron annihilation lifetime, speed of gamma rays. Other experiments include using the analog oscilloscope, x-ray diffraction of diamond and using an SEM/EDX. Error analysis is emphasized throughout. The semester ends with an individual project, often an extension of one of the earlier experiments, and students present their results as a paper and an APS style presentation to the department.

  7. Fundamental movement skills and motivational factors influencing engagement in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.

  8. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  9. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia de la Cruz, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  10. CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2014*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2016-07-01

    This paper gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment that takes into account all data available up to 31 December 2014. Details of the data selection and methodology of the adjustment are described. The recommended values may also be found at physics.nist.gov/constants.

  11. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2014*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment that takes into account all data available up to 31 December 2014. Details of the data selection and methodology of the adjustment are described. The recommended values may also be found at http://physics.nist.gov/constants.

  12. Redefinition of SI Units Based on Fundamental Physical Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kenichi

    The definitions of some units of the International System are likely to be revised as early as 2011 by basing them on fixed values of fundamental constants of nature, provided experimental realizations are demonstrated with sufficiently small uncertainties. As regards the kilogram, experiments aiming at linking it to the Avogadro constant and the Planck constant are under way in several laboratories. Details are given on the experimental techniques developed to achieve the target. The other units likely to be redefined are the ampere, the kelvin and the mole. Advantages and disadvantages of different alternatives for revised definitions are discussed.

  13. The physical fundamental plane of black hole activity: revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Han, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the jet power and accretion disk luminosity is investigated for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) from the literature. The power-law correlation index is steep (μ˜1.0 -1.4) for radio loud quasars and the `outliers' of BHXBs, and it is flatter (μ˜ 0.3 -0.6) for radio loud galaxies and the standard BHXBs. The steep-index groups are mostly at higher accretion rates (peaked at Eddington ratio > 0.01) and the flatter-index groups are at relatively low accretion rates (peaked at Eddington ratio < 0.01), implying that the former groups could be dominated by the inner disk accretion of black hole, while the jet in latter groups would be a hybrid production of the accretion and black hole spin. We could still have a fundamental plane of black hole activity for the BHXBs and AGNs with diverse (maybe two kinds of) correlation indices. It is noted that the fundamental plane of black hole activity should be referred to the correlation between the jet power and disk luminosity or equivalently to the correlation between jet power, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, rather than the jet power, disk luminosity and black hole mass.

  14. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  15. Fundamental Physics Changes in Response to Evolving NASA Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    Change continues in the NASA environment. The need for access to space for physicists is growing if we are to fruitfully address today s challenging questions. A new Roadmap is required to demonstrate the importance of our program to stakeholders. Our investigators must continue to advocate the benefits of our program: a) To NASA and Congress; b) To the scientific community; c) To students; d) To the general public. Our investigators must seek ways to use their advanced technology to support a human presence in space and to develop improved Earth applications.

  16. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  17. Fundamental Physics Changes in Response to Evolving NASA Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    2003-01-01

    To continue growing as a discipline, we need to establish a new vision of where we are going that is consistent with today s physics, NASA s strategic plan, and the new OBPR direction. 1998 Roadmap focused exclusively on Physics, and did not worry about boundaries between OBPR and OSS. Updated Roadmap: Must incorporate some strategic research activities to be fully responsive to the current OBPR direction. Must capture the imagination of OBPR leadership, OMB, and Congress. Must delineate OBPR from the "beyond Einstein" program in OSS. Must address relevancy to Society explicitly. Status of the Roadmap development will be discussed after lunch today. Seeking community inputs and endorsement. Draft update targeted for June, final in August.

  18. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity.

  19. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  20. Superstrings:. why Einstein would Love Spaghetti in Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James

    2001-09-01

    There are some questions in physics that until recently could not be answered due to the lack of a complete theory of gravitation. Some of these were, "How does the force of gravity work on objects a billion billions times smaller than the hydrogen atom?" or "What was the universe like, the very instant after the BIG BANG?" or "What is the complete physics of Black Holes?" In these arenas, the effects of gravity and all the other forces must be very different from those seen in everyday experience. Einstein suspected this and it led him to the belief that there must exist a "unified field theory" to describe our world at the tiniest scales. He spent the last forty years of his life unsuccessfully searching for this construction. More recently there appeared new mathematical models called "superstring theory" that have apparently succeeded in reaching his goal. This talk is an introduction to the idea of superstrings and heterotic strings as well as a progress report on the newest frontiers of this subject, "M-theory."

  1. X-ray Polarimetry. A tool for Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    X-ray Polarimetry is a window about to be disclosed in Astrophysics. From an extended literature, we expect a significant step forward in the understanding of astrophysical systems emitting X-rays. This includes the study of physics in extreme conditions and, in particular, of General Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics in extreme conditions. An even more ambitious target could be the search for effects of propagation on long distances as predicted from some theories of New Physics. An example is the rotation of the polarization angle proportional to the distance and to the square of Energy predicted by some specifications of Loop Quantum Gravity. Another example is the change of the polarization status of the flux of far-away sources by the photon-Axion Like Particle conversion in domain-like intergalactic magnetic fields. In absence of a solid picture of the status of polarization of X-ray sources in their reference frame the viability of such measurements is only matter of conjectures. But we can already select a set of presumably polarized sources (within the AGN zoo) or of totally unpolarized sources (such as clusters) and evaluate the sensitivity to such measurements with a sensitive mission of polarimetry like XIPE under study by ESA.

  2. Fundamental Physics and Promising Applications of Superionic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Ishigame, Mareo

    1993-02-01

    Recently, superionic conductors (SIC’s) have been considered to be a key material for several application fields as well as energy engineering and ceramic technology. We review the recent stage of the basic models and concepts for the physical understanding of high-speed ionic transport in solids. In the latter part of this paper, we briefly review the applications of SIC’s to solid-state fuel cells and sensors. As a new application of SIC’s, we introduce a technique developed on a complex system consisting of an oxygen ionic conductor and high-Tc oxide super-conductors. Finally, we introduce the possibility of the application of SIC’s to optical devices.

  3. Cold antihydrogen: a new frontier in fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Niels

    2010-08-13

    The year 2002 heralded a breakthrough in antimatter research when the first low energy antihydrogen atoms were produced. Antimatter has inspired both science and fiction writers for many years, but detailed studies have until now eluded science. Antimatter is notoriously difficult to study as it does not readily occur in nature, even though our current understanding of the laws of physics have us expecting that it should make up half of the universe. The pursuit of cold antihydrogen is driven by a desire to solve this profound mystery. This paper will motivate the current effort to make cold antihydrogen, explain how antihydrogen is currently made, and how and why we are attempting to trap it. It will also discuss what kind of measurements are planned to gain new insights into the unexplained asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.

  4. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  5. Teacher's Handbook for Advanced Physical Science 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Everett

    This handbook is an adjunct to the "Laboratory Manual for Advanced Physical Science 2," and is intended to assist teachers in organizing laboratory experiences. Information for each experiment includes (1) Introduction, (2) Scheduling, (3) Time required, (4) Materials needed , (5) Precautions, (6) Laboratory hints, (7) Sample data, and…

  6. Facilities for Fundamental Neutron Physics Research at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility

    PubMed Central

    Arif, M.; Dewey, M. S.; Greene, G. L.; Snow, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    The features of two fundamental neutron physics research stations at the NIST cold neutron research facility are described in some detail. A list of proposed initial experimental programs for these two stations is also given. PMID:28053463

  7. Fundamental Physical Basis for Maxwell-Heaviside Gravitomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2015-08-01

    Gravitomagnetism is universally and formally recognised in contemporary physics as being the linear first-order approximation of Einstein's field equations emerging from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). Herein, we argue that, as has been done by others in the past, gravitomagnetism can be viewed as a fully-fledged independent theory of gravitomagnetism that can be divorced from Professor Einstein's GTR. The gravitomagnetic theory whose exposition we give herein is exactly envisioned by Professor Maxwell and Dr. Heaviside. The once speculative Maxwell-Heaviside Gravitomagnetic theory now finds full justification as a fully fledged theory from Professor José Hera's Existence Theorem which states that all that is needed for there to exist the four Max-well-type field equations is that a mass-current conservation law be obeyed. Our contribution in the present work, if any, is that we demonstrate conclusively that like electromagnetism, the gravitomagnetic phenomenon leads to the prediction of gravitomagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light. Further, we argue that for the gravitational phenomenon, apart from the Newtonian gravitational potential, there are four more potentials and these operate concurrently with the Newtonian potential. At the end of it, it is seen that the present work sets the stage for a very interesting investigation of several gravitational anomalies such as the ponderous Pioneer Anomaly, the vexing Flyby Anomalies, the mysterious Anomalous Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies and as well, the possibility of the generation of stellar magnetic fields by rotating gravitational masses.

  8. Solar Sail Propulsion: An Enabling Technology for Fundamental Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    Solar sails enable a wide range of high-energy missions, many of which are difficult or even impossible to accomplish with any other type of conventional propulsion system. They are also an enabling propulsion technology for two types of deep-space missions that are very favorable for testing current gravitational theories and the large-scale gravitational field of the solar system: the first type comprises missions that go very close to the Sun (<8 solar radii) and the second one comprises missions that go fast very far away from the Sun ( 200AU). Being propelled solely by the freely available solar radiation pressure, solar sails do not consume any propellant. Therefore, their capability to gain (or reduce) orbital energy is theoretically unlimited and practically only limited by their lifetime in the space environment and their distance from the Sun (because the solar radiation pressure decreases with the square of solar distance). Nevertheless, solar sails make also missions that go far away from the Sun feasible because they can gain a large amount of orbital energy by first making one or more close solar approaches that turn the trajectory hyperbolic. For both mission types, the temperature limit of the sail film is a critical issue. In this chapter, we briefly review the physics and the current technological status of solar sails, and then present mission outlines and trade-offs for both mission types. Thereby, we will show that even near- or medium-term solar sails with a relatively moderate performance enable these kinds of missions.

  9. Fundamental Distinctions in Physics underlying Nonsteady Forcings of Wind Turbine Power vs. Drivetrain by Atmospheric Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasseur, James; Lavely, Adam; Nandi, Tarak

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the primary function of a wind turbine (WT) is the generation of electricity, wind farm profitability is decreased both by integrated losses in power and increases in premature failures of drivetrain components resulting from energetic nonsteady aerodynamic forcings of WT rotors by atmospheric and wake turbulence. Here we contrast the physics underlying dominant nonsteady atmospheric turbulence forcings of the bending moments in the WT rotor plane (torque/power) vs. the out-of-plane bending moments (OPBM) that underlie premature drivetrain component failure. Using an advanced actuator line model of the 5 MW NREL and the 1.5 MW GE wind turbine rotors embedded within a high-fidelity spectral LES of a typical daytime convective atmospheric boundary layer, we show that (1) the physics underlying large torque vs. OBPM fluctuations are associated with fundamentally different turbulence eddy characteristics and (2) nonsteady response centers on 4 characteristic time scales associated advection of eddies and load response of blades cutting through internal turbulence eddy structure. Supported by DOE. Computer resources by NSF/XSEDE.

  10. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  11. Her Physics, His Physics: Gender Issues in Israeli Advanced Placement Physics Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Sela, David

    2003-01-01

    Investigates gender issues in Israeli advanced placement physics classes. Analyzes matriculation exam scores from approximately 400 high schools over 12 years. Conducts semi-constructed interviews with 50 advanced placement physics students (25 girls and 25 boys). Discusses changes in the ratio of girls, performance, and factors that are…

  12. Fundamental neutron physics beamline at the spallation neutron source at ORNL

    DOE PAGES

    Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Allen, R. R.; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this paper, we describe the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline (FnPB) facility located at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The FnPB was designed for the conduct of experiments that investigate scientific issues in nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology using a pulsed slow neutron beam. Finally, we present a detailed description of the design philosophy, beamline components, and measured fluxes of the polychromatic and monochromatic beams.

  13. Advanced Electron Microscopy in Materials Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.; Jarausch, K.

    2009-06-01

    Aberration correction has opened a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes and extending information limits. The imaging and analytical performance of these corrector-equipped microscopes affords an unprecedented opportunity to study structure-property relationships of matter at the atomic scale. This new generation of microscopes is able to retrieve high-quality structural information comparable to neutron and synchrotron x-ray experiments, but with local atomic resolution. These advances in instrumentation are accelerating the research and development of various functional materials ranging from those for energy generation, conversion, transportation and storage to those for catalysis and nano-device applications. The dramatic improvements in electron-beam illumination and detection also present a host of new challenges for the interpretation and optimization of experiments. During 7-9 November 2007, a workshop, entitled 'Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy in Material Physics', was convened at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) to address these opportunities and challenges. The workshop was co-sponsored by Hitachi High Technologies, a leader in electron microscopy instrumentation, and BNL's Institute of Advanced Electron Microscopy, a leader in materials physics research using electron microscopy. The workshop featured presentations by internationally prominent scientists working at the frontiers of electron microscopy, both on developing instrumentation and applying it in materials physics. The meeting, structured to stimulate scientific exchanges and explore new capabilities, brought together {approx}100 people from over 10 countries. This special issue complies many of the advances in instrument performance and materials physics reported by the invited speakers and attendees at the workshop.

  14. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  15. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-06-05

    new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own

  16. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Fundamentals of Physics,7th Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl; Christman, J. Richard

    2004-06-01

    Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual that accompanies Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, provides readers with complete, worked-out solutions to 30% of the end-of-chapter problems. These problems are indicated in the text by an ssm icon. No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style this Seventh Edition offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  17. The relationship between adolescents' physical activity, fundamental movement skills and weight status.

    PubMed

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the prediction of body mass index. Chi-square tests for independence further indicated that compared with overweight or obese adolescents, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents classified as normal weight achieved mastery/near-mastery in fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth.

  18. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  19. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  20. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  1. Physical Education Teacher Training in Fundamental Movement Skills Makes a Difference to Instruction and Assessment Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Natalie Jayne; Barnett, Lisa M.; Brown, Helen; Telford, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable.…

  2. Foundations of Physical Theory, I: Force and Energy. Physical Processes in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Nolan E.

    This module is part of a series designed to be used by life science students for instruction in the application of physical theory to ecosystem operation. Most modules contain computer programs which are built around a particular application of a physical process. This module is one of two units on the foundations of physical theory and the…

  3. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  4. Subtask 2.13 - Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector-Fundamental Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller

    2007-07-01

    Under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a full-scale Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was installed at the Big Stone Plant, with start-up in October 2002. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was retrofitted into Fields 2-4 of the old Big Stone electrostatic precipitator (ESP). While many aspects of the operation were satisfactory, pressure drop was higher than expected. To achieve acceptable pressure drop and successfully demonstrate the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter technology, the first fields of the ESP were also converted into an Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter in 2005. However, since start-up in June 2005, the first fields have been inoperable for multiple reasons. The fundamental cause of the dysfunctional performance of the first fields was attributed to spacing and alignment problems, which led to excessive sparking and shutdown of the high-voltage power. In spite of attempts to correct the problems, satisfactory performance of the first fields was never achieved. Because of the uncertainties of how to achieve acceptable performance with a new technology, the Big Stone Plant made the decision to convert the entire Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter housing into a pulse-jet fabric filter.

  5. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.

    1986-01-01

    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.

  6. Crossdisciplinary fundamental research--the seed for scientific advance and technological innovation.

    PubMed

    Kroto, Harold

    2011-12-28

    As it was earlier in the 1980's, so it is now, fundamental science research is under threat as decisions are made on science funding by people who do not do fundamental research, seem congenitally incapable of understanding what it is and furthermore in the face of countless examples seem blind to how important it has been to the technologies that govern our modern life and will be to the future technologies that we desperately need to develop to survive. In this article some general observations are made on how the fascination for what happens in space and stars was the key trigger that gave birth to Science itself and a particular case is outlined which indicates that this same fascination is still the catalyst of some fundamental breakthroughs today. This article also outlines an archetypal example of the way major breakthroughs are often made by the synergy that comes from cross-disciplinary research in a way which is totally surprising. In this case it started from a curiosity about the quantum mechanical description of molecular dynamics and involved pioneering advances in synthetic organic chemistry which led to the suprising discovery that some exotic carbon molecules were abundant in space and stars. These results initiated an experiment using a new technology that represented a major breakthrough in cluster science. The upshot was totally unpredictable, the birth of a whole new field of Chemistry as well as a paradigm shift in major areas of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

  7. Climate Solutions based on advanced scientific discoveries of Allatra physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershigora, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most important international problems of the 21st century. The overall rapid increase in the dynamics of cataclysms, which have been observed in recent decades, is particularly alarming. Howdo modern scientists predict the occurrence of certain events? In meteorology, unusually powerful cumulonimbus clouds are one of the main conditions for the emergence of a tornado. The former, in their turn, are formed during the invasion of cold air on the overheated land surface. The satellite captures the cloud front, and, based on these pictures, scientists make assumptions about the possibility of occurrence of the respective natural phenomena. In fact, mankind visually observes and draws conclusions about the consequences of the physical phenomena which have already taken place in the invisible world, so the conclusions of scientists are assumptions by their nature, rather than precise knowledge of the causes of theorigin of these phenomena in the physics of microcosm. The latest research in the field of the particle physics and neutrino astrophysics, which was conducted by a working team of scientists of ALLATRA International Public Movement (hereinafter ALLATRA SCIENCE group), offers increased opportunities for advanced fundamental and applied research in climatic engineering.

  8. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  9. The Shelter Island Conferences Revisited: "Fundamental" Physics in the Decade 1975-1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this broad historical overview of "the steady evolution of theoretical ideas" from Shelter Island I in 1947 to Shelter Island II in 1983 is some of the developments in "fundamental" physics after the establishment of the standard model, in particular, the adoption of the view that all present day field theories are "effective field theories" based on the gauge concept; taking seriously big bang cosmology, grand unified field theories (GUTs), and inflation; and the emergence of a new symbiosis of physics and mathematics.

  10. Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Don (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.

  11. Experimental Investigation and Fundamental Understanding of a Slowed UH-60A Rotor at High Advance Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, Anubhav; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Norman, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the measurements from a full-scale, slowed RPM, UH-60A rotor tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80- ft wind tunnel up to an advance ratio of 1.0. A comprehensive set of measurements, that includes performance, blade loads, hub loads and pressures/airloads makes this data set unique. The measurements reveal new and rich aeromechanical phenomena that are special to this exotic regime. These include reverse chord dynamic stall, retreating side impulse in pitch-link load, large inboard-outboard elastic twist differential, supersonic flow at low subsonic advancing tip Mach numbers, diminishing rotor forces yet dramatic build up of blade loads, and dramatic blade loads yet benign levels of vibratory hub loads. The objective of this research is the fundamental understanding of these unique aeromechanical phenomena. The intent is to provide useful knowledge for the design of high speed, high efficiency, slowed RPM rotors of the future and a challenging database for advanced analyses validation.

  12. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  13. Interactive fundamental physics. [THE REAL STUFF: The New Expanded Media Physics Course for secondary school students

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-11-24

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton's first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered hypermedia'' structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have declined'' to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal.

  14. Advances in developing molecular-diagnostic tools for strongyloid nematodes of equids: fundamental and applied implications.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Robin B; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Chilton, Neil B; Beveridge, Ian

    2004-02-01

    Infections of equids with parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida (subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae) are of major veterinary importance. In last decades, the widespread use of drugs against these parasites has led to problems of resistance within the Cyathostominae, and to an increase in their prevalence and intensity of infection. Novel control strategies, based on improved knowledge of parasite biology and epidemiology, have thus become important. However, there are substantial limitations in the understanding of fundamental biological and systematic aspects of these parasites, which have been due largely to limitations in their specific identification and diagnosis using traditional, morphological approaches. Recently, there has been progress in the development of DNA-based approaches for the specific identification of strongyloids of equids for systematic studies and disease diagnosis. The present article briefly reviews information on the classification, biology, pathogenesis, epidemiology of equine strongyloids and the diagnosis of infections, highlights knowledge gaps in these areas, describes recent advances in the use of molecular techniques for the genetic characterisation, specific identification and differentiation of strongyloids of equids as a basis for fundamental investigations of the systematics, population biology and ecology.

  15. Einstein Gravity Explorer-a medium-class fundamental physics mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, S.; Tino, G. M.; Gill, P.; Salomon, C.; Sterr, U.; Peik, E.; Nevsky, A.; Görlitz, A.; Svehla, D.; Ferrari, G.; Poli, N.; Lusanna, L.; Klein, H.; Margolis, H.; Lemonde, P.; Laurent, P.; Santarelli, G.; Clairon, A.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Müller, J.; Iorio, L.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Dittus, H.; Gill, E.; Rothacher, M.; Flechner, F.; Schreiber, U.; Flambaum, V.; Ni, Wei-Tou; Liu, Liang; Chen, Xuzong; Chen, Jingbiao; Gao, Kelin; Cacciapuoti, L.; Holzwarth, R.; Heß, M. P.; Schäfer, W.

    2009-03-01

    The Einstein Gravity Explorer mission (EGE) is devoted to a precise measurement of the properties of space-time using atomic clocks. It tests one of the most fundamental predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, the gravitational redshift, and thereby searches for hints of quantum effects in gravity, exploring one of the most important and challenging frontiers in fundamental physics. The primary mission goal is the measurement of the gravitational redshift with an accuracy up to a factor 104 higher than the best current result. The mission is based on a satellite carrying cold atom-based clocks. The payload includes a cesium microwave clock (PHARAO), an optical clock, a femtosecond frequency comb, as well as precise microwave time transfer systems between space and ground. The tick rates of the clocks are continuously compared with each other, and nearly continuously with clocks on earth, during the course of the 3-year mission. The highly elliptic orbit of the satellite is optimized for the scientific goals, providing a large variation in the gravitational potential between perigee and apogee. Besides the fundamental physics results, as secondary goals EGE will establish a global reference frame for the Earth’s gravitational potential and will allow a new approach to mapping Earth’s gravity field with very high spatial resolution. The mission was proposed as a class-M mission to ESA’s Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025.

  16. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  17. TRIμP — trapped radioactive isotopes: μicrolaboratories for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, K.; Berg, G. P.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hoekstra, R.; Morgenstern, R.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Timmermans, R. G.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2003-04-01

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) a new facility (TRIμP) is under development. It aims for producing a spectrum of radioactive isotopes in direct, inverse kiematics fusion and evaporation or fragmentation reactions with heavy ion beams from the superconducting cyclotron AGOR. The products will be slowed down and trapped for accurate measurements of fundamental symmetries and interactions in physics. The scientific focus of the local KVI research groups includes precision studies of nuclear β-decays through β-neutrino (recoil nucleus) momentum correlations in weak decays and searches for permanent electric dipole moments in heavy atomic systems. This research programme offers a large potential for discovering new physics or to limit parameters in models beyond standard theory significantly. The scientific approach chosen in TRIμP can be regarded as complementary to such high energy physics. The TRIμP facility in Groningen will be open for users worldwide.

  18. Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope (ADEPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles L. Bennett

    2009-03-26

    In 2006, we proposed to NASA a detailed concept study of ADEPT (the Advanced Dark Energy Physics Telescope), a potential space mission to reliably measure the time-evolution of dark energy by conducting the largest effective volume survey of the universe ever done. A peer-review panel of scientific, management, and technical experts reported back the highest possible 'excellent' rating for ADEPT. We have since made substantial advances in the scientific and technical maturity of the mission design. With this Department of Energy (DOE) award we were granted supplemental funding to support specific extended research items that were not included in the NASA proposal, many of which were intended to broadly advance future dark energy research, as laid out by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF). The proposed work had three targets: (1) the adaptation of large-format infrared arrays to a 2 micron cut-off; (2) analytical research to improve the understanding of the dark energy figure-of- merit; and (3) extended studies of baryon acoustic oscillation systematic uncertainties. Since the actual award was only for {approx}10% of the proposed amount item (1) was dropped and item (2) work was severely restricted, consistent with the referee reviews of the proposal, although there was considerable contradictions between reviewer comments and several comments that displayed a lack of familiarity with the research. None the less, item (3) was the focus of the work. To characterize the nature of the dark energy, ADEPT is designed to observe baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in a large galaxy redshift survey and to obtain substantial numbers of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The 2003 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) made a precise determination of the BAO 'standard ruler' scale, as it was imprinted on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at z {approx} 1090. The standard ruler was also imprinted on the pattern of galaxies, and was first detected in 2005 in Sloan

  19. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004 as

  20. Lessons from the GP-B Experience for Future Fundamental Physics Missions in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    Gravity Probe B launched in April 2004 and completed its science data collection in September 2005, with the objective of sub-milliarcsec measurement of two General Relativistic effects on the spin axis orientation of orbiting gyroscopes. Much of the technology required by GP-B has potential application in future missions intended to make precision measurements. The philosophical approach and experiment design principles developed for GP-B are equally adaptable to these mission concepts. This talk will discuss GP-B's experimental approach and the technological and philosophical lessons learned that apply to future experiments in fundamental physics. Measurement of fundamental constants to high precision, probes of short-range forces, searches for equivalence principle violations, and detection of gravitational waves are examples of concepts and missions that will benefit kern GP-B's experience.

  1. Fundamental physics from the sky: Cosmic rays, gamma rays and the hunt for dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Profumo, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Can we learn about New Physics with astronomical and astro-particle data? Understanding how this is possible is key to unraveling one of the most pressing mysteries at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: the fundamental nature of dark matter. I will discuss some of the recent puzzling findings in cosmic-ray electron-positron data and in gamma-ray observations that might be related to dark matter. I will argue that recent cosmic-ray data, most notably from the Pamela and Fermi satellites, indicate that previously unaccounted-for powerful sources in the Galaxy inject high-energy electrons and positrons. Interestingly, this new source class might be related to new fundamental particle physics, and specifically to pair-annihilation or decay of galactic dark matter. This exciting scenario is directly constrained by Fermi gamma-ray observations, which also inform us on astrophysical source counterparts that could also be responsible for the high-energy electron-positron excess. Observations of gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Galaxy as well as claims on a gamma-ray line at around 130 GeV also recently triggered a wide-spread interest: I will address the question of whether we are really observing signals from dark matter annihilation, how to test this hypothesis, and which astrophysical mechanisms constitute the relevant background.

  2. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: fundamental physics of MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Pooley, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Learning the basic concepts required to understand magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a straightforward process. Although the individual concepts are simple, there are many concepts to learn and retain simultaneously; this situation may give the illusion that learning the physics of MR imaging is complicated. It is important for the radiologist who interprets MR images to understand the methods used to create the images because image contrast specifically depends on how the image data were acquired. Initial concepts include formation of magnetic fields from electric currents in loops of wire, the resonance phenomenon, the hydrogen proton and its frequency of precession, and absorption of radiofrequency energy. These concepts can then be applied to learn about T1 and T2 relaxation and contrast and how the acquisition parameters of echo time and repetition time can be used to achieve these image contrasts. Basic pulse sequences include the spin-echo, multiecho spin-echo, turbo spin-echo, inversion-recovery, and gradient-recalled-echo sequences.

  3. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  4. Your Higgs number—how fundamental physics is connected to technology and societal revolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland E.; Lidström, Suzy

    2015-02-01

    Fundamental physics, as exemplified by the recently discovered Higgs boson, often appears to be completely disconnected from practical applications and ordinary human life. But this is not really the case, because science, technology, and human affairs are profoundly integrated in ways that are not immediately obvious. We illustrate this by defining a ‘Higgs number’ through overlapping activities. Following three different paths, which end respectively in applications of the World Wide Web, digital photography, and all modern electronic devices, we find that most people have a Higgs number of no greater than 3.

  5. Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies. Possible alternatives to standard concepts and laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii) to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.

  6. Enhancing the public impact of the Higgs discovery and other fundamental physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidstrom, Suzy; Read, Alex; Parke, Stephen; Allen, Roland; Goldfarb, Steven; Mehlhase, Sascha; Ekelof, Tord; Walker, Alan

    2014-03-01

    The recent experimental discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC, together with the awarding of the 2013 Nobel Prize for its theoretical prediction, has presented an exceptional opportunity for public outreach regarding the goals and importance of fundamental research in physics. We discuss novel avenues for further extending this outreach in all areas. These range from tutorial papers addressing students and teachers to internet resources and presentations to unconventional, but captivating, educational materials such as musical videos and LEGO models. Interaction with active scientists can be particularly stimulating. We account how this was encouraged (by means such as badges inviting questions from the public) during Nobel week and afterwards. The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics explained Physica Scripta, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  7. Use of the Berkeley Physics Laboratory to Teach an Advanced Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, James David

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a course, centered around 32 experiments taught for advanced students, designed to develop a laboratory strongly suggestive of contemporary research using relatively sophisticated apparatus. Its unique advantage lies in enriching advanced physics curriculum. (DF)

  8. Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Bordé, Christian J

    2005-09-15

    Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.

  9. NEW APPROACHES: Reading in Advanced level physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Dorothy

    1997-11-01

    Teachers often report that their A-level pupils are unwilling to read physics-related material. What is it about physics texts that deters pupils from reading them? Are they just too difficult for 16 - 18 year olds, or is it that pupils lack specific reading skills? This article describes some of the results from my research into pupils' reading of physics-related texts and tries to clarify the situation.

  10. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  11. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to become a part of all future designs. The second half of the dissertation introduces inverse design as a new computational paradigm in photonics. An assortment of techniques (FDTD, FEM, etc.) have enabled quick and accurate simulation of the "forward problem" of finding fields for a given geometry. However, scientists and engineers are typically more interested in the inverse problem: for a desired functionality, what geometry is needed? Answering this question breaks from the emphasis on the forward problem and forges a new path in computational photonics. The framework of shape calculus enables one to quickly find superior, non-intuitive designs. Novel designs for optical cloaking and sub-wavelength solar cell applications are presented.

  12. Advancing Successful Physics Majors - The Physics First Year Seminar Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deibel, Jason; Petkie, Douglas

    In 2012, the Wright State University physics curriculum introduced a new year-long seminar course required for all new physics majors. The goal of this course is to improve student retention and success via building a community of physics majors and provide them with the skills, mindset, and advising necessary to successfully complete a degree and transition to the next part of their careers. This new course sequence assembles a new cohort of majors annually. To prepare each cohort, students engage in a variety of activities that span from student success skills to more specific physics content while building an entrepreneurial mindset. Students participate in activities including study skills, career night, course planning, campus services, and a department social function. More importantly, students gain exposure to programming, literature searches, data analysis, technical writing, elevator pitches, and experimental design via hands-on projects. This includes the students proposing, designing, and conducting their own experiments. Preliminary evidence indicates increased retention, student success, and an enhanced sense of community among physics undergraduate students, The overall number of majors and students eventually completing their physics degrees has nearly tripled. Associate Professor, Department of Physics.

  13. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    ScienceCinema

    Finkelstein, Noah [University of Colorado, Colorado, USA

    2016-07-12

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  14. Educating Scientifically: Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  15. Educating Scientifically - Advances in Physics Education Research

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Noah

    2007-05-16

    It is now fairly well documented that traditionally taught, large-scale introductory physics courses fail to teach our students the basics. In fact, often these same courses have been found to teach students things we do not want. Building on a tradition of research in physics, the physics education research community has been researching the effects of educational practice and reforms at the undergraduate level for many decades. From these efforts and those within the fields of education, cognitive science, and psychology we have learned a great deal about student learning and environments that support learning for an increasingly diverse population of students in the physics classroom. This talk will introduce some of the ideas from physics education research, discuss a variety of effective classroom practices/ surrounding educational structures, and begin to examine why these do (and do not) work. I will present both a survey of physics education research and some of the exciting theoretical and experimental developments emerging from the University of Colorado.

  16. Physical and Chemical Aspects of Pharmaceutical Solids: Fundamentals of Polymorphs, Hydrates and Solvates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutzel-Edens, Susan

    2007-03-01

    Crystal polymorphs are solid phases of a given compound resulting from the possibility of at least two different arrangements of the molecules of that compound in the solid state. Solvates form when the solvent is incorporated in the crystal structure of a compound; hydrates form when water is the solvent of crystallization. The potential effects of crystal polymorphism and hydration on the quality and performance of drug products is widely recognized by the pharmaceutical industry. Investigations of crystal polymorphism and hydration are usually conducted early in drug development to optimize the physical properties of a pharmaceutical solid. Although the thermodynamically most stable crystal form is generally selected for commercial development to mitigate the risk of undesired phase transformations, form selection oftentimes involves a compromise among different physical properties of various drug crystal forms. Controlling polymorph (or hydrate) appearance must be accomplished through careful evaluation of both thermodynamic (tendency toward the formation of more stable crystal forms) and kinetic parameters (which lead to the formation of metastable forms) in the crystallization process. In this presentation, fundamental aspects of polymorphs and solvates (hydrates) will be explored. Particular attention will be given to the structure and stability relationships between polymorphs and hydrates, kinetic vs. thermodynamic transitions, and the impact of polymorphism and hydration on the chemical and physical stability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  17. Relations between nonlinear Riccati equations and other equations in fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    Many phenomena in the observable macroscopic world obey nonlinear evolution equations while the microscopic world is governed by quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory that is supposedly linear. In order to combine these two worlds in a common formalism, at least one of them must sacrifice one of its dogmas. Linearizing nonlinear dynamics would destroy the fundamental property of this theory, however, it can be shown that quantum mechanics can be reformulated in terms of nonlinear Riccati equations. In a first step, it will be shown that the information about the dynamics of quantum systems with analytical solutions can not only be obtainable from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation but equally-well from a complex Riccati equation. Comparison with supersymmetric quantum mechanics shows that even additional information can be obtained from the nonlinear formulation. Furthermore, the time-independent Schrödinger equation can also be rewritten as a complex Riccati equation for any potential. Extension of the Riccati formulation to include irreversible dissipative effects is straightforward. Via (real and complex) Riccati equations, other fields of physics can also be treated within the same formalism, e.g., statistical thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamical systems like those obeying a logistic equation as well as wave equations in classical optics, Bose- Einstein condensates and cosmological models. Finally, the link to abstract "quantizations" such as the Pythagorean triples and Riccati equations connected with trigonometric and hyperbolic functions will be shown.

  18. Development of multi-representation learning tools for the course of fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, C.; Siswanto, J.; Kurniawan, A. F.; Nuroso, H.

    2016-08-01

    This research is aimed at designing a learning tool based on multi-representation that can improve problem solving skills. It used the research and development approach. It was applied for the course of Fundamental Physics at Universitas PGRI Semarang for the 2014/2015 academic year. Results show gain analysis value of 0.68, which means some medium improvements. The result of t-test is shows a calculated value of 27.35 and a table t of 2.020 for df = 25 and α = 0.05. Results of pre-tests and post-tests increase from 23.45 to 76.15. Application of multi-representation learning tools significantly improves students’ grades.

  19. Beamline Performance Simulations for the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, P. R.; Greene, G. L.; Allen, R. R.; Cianciolo, V.; Huerto, R. R.; Koehler, P.; Desai, D.; Mahurin, R.; Yue, A.; Palmquist, G. R.; Snow, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are being performed to design and characterize the neutron optics components for the two fundamental neutron physics beamlines at the Spallation Neutron Source. Optimization of the cold beamline includes characterization of the guides and benders, the neutron transmission through the 0.89 nm monochromator, and the expected performance of the four time-of-flight choppers. The locations and opening angles of the choppers have been studied using a simple spreadsheet-based analysis that was developed for other SNS chopper instruments. The spreadsheet parameters are then optimized using Monte Carlo techniques to obtain the results presented in this paper. Optimization of the 0.89 nm beamline includes characterizing the double crystal monochromator and the downstream guides. The simulations continue to be refined as components are ordered and their exact size and performance specifications are determined. PMID:27308115

  20. Beamline Performance Simulations for the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    PubMed

    Huffman, P R; Greene, G L; Allen, R R; Cianciolo, V; Huerto, R R; Koehler, P; Desai, D; Mahurin, R; Yue, A; Palmquist, G R; Snow, W M

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are being performed to design and characterize the neutron optics components for the two fundamental neutron physics beamlines at the Spallation Neutron Source. Optimization of the cold beamline includes characterization of the guides and benders, the neutron transmission through the 0.89 nm monochromator, and the expected performance of the four time-of-flight choppers. The locations and opening angles of the choppers have been studied using a simple spreadsheet-based analysis that was developed for other SNS chopper instruments. The spreadsheet parameters are then optimized using Monte Carlo techniques to obtain the results presented in this paper. Optimization of the 0.89 nm beamline includes characterizing the double crystal monochromator and the downstream guides. The simulations continue to be refined as components are ordered and their exact size and performance specifications are determined.

  1. Advances in Measurement Technology at NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmer, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

  2. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  3. The Relationship between Fundamental Movement Skills and Self-Reported Physical Activity during Finnish Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity are related. Specifically, earlier studies have demonstrated that the ability to perform a variety of FMS increases the likelihood of children participating in a range of physical activities throughout their lives. To date, however, there have not…

  4. Fundamental Physics Activities in the Hme Directorate of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Minster, Olivier

    The Human Spaceflight, Microgravity, and Exploration (HME) Directorate of the European Space Agency is strongly involved in fundamental physics research. One of the major activities in this field is represented by the ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) mission. ACES will demonstrate the high performances of a new generation of atomic clocks in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). Following ACES, a vigorous research program has been recently approved to develop a second generation of atomic quantum sensors for space applications: atomic clocks in the optical domain, aiming at fractional frequency stability and accuracy in the low 10-18 regime; inertial sensors based on matter-wave interferometry for the detection of tiny accelerations and rotations; a facility to study degenerate Bose gases in space. Tests of quantum physics on large distance scales represent another important issue addressed in the HME program. A quantum communication optical terminal has been proposed to perform a test of Bell's inequalities on pairs of entangled photons emitted by a source located on the ISS and detected by two ground stations. In this paper, present activities and future plans will be described and discussed.

  5. Project for the Institution of an Advanced Course in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    2006-06-01

    A project for an advanced course in physics at the master level, is presented in great detail. The goal of this project is to create a specific and rigorous training for those who want to carry out experimental and theoretical research on "anomalies" in physical science, especially from the point of view of atmospheric physics, plasma physics, photonic physics, biophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. A specific training in powering mental skills is planned as well. The planned teaching program is presented as a two-year course where the following subjects are intended to be taught: cognitive techniques (I and II), radiation physics (I and II), biophysics (I and II), bioastronomy (I and II), history of physics (I and II), didactics of physics, physics of atmospheric plasmas, physics of non-stationary photonic events, physics of non-linear processes, complements of quantum mechanics, quantum informatics, research methodology in physics and astronomy, computer science methods in physics and astronomy, optoelectronics, radioelectronics. Detailed teaching programs, didactics methods, and performance evaluation, are presented for each subject. The technical content of this project is preceded by an ample introduction that shows all the reasons of this kind of physics course, particularly aimed at innovation in physical science.

  6. Advanced Software Methods for Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lista, L.

    2006-01-01

    Unprecedented data analysis complexity is experienced in modern High Energy Physics experiments. The complexity arises from the growing size of recorded data samples, the large number of data analyses performed by different users in each single experiment, and the level of complexity of each single analysis. For this reason, the requirements on software for data analysis impose a very high level of reliability. We present two concrete examples: the former from BaBar experience with the migration to a new Analysis Model with the definition of a new model for the Event Data Store, the latter about a toolkit for multivariate statistical and parametric Monte Carlo analysis developed using generic programming.

  7. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    PubMed

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  8. ALPhA: The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Eric; McCann, Lowell; Reichert, Jonathan; Spalding, Gabe; Essick, John; van Baak, David; Wonnell, Steve

    2011-03-01

    The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA) is a group of people with a shared interest in teaching physics labs at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level. ALPhA works closely with the American Physical Society (APS), the Optical Society of America (OSA), and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) to develop new methods for teaching modern experimental physics. In the summer of 2010 we initiated the ALPhA Immersion Program, a three-day short course where instructors visit a lab, do one or more of the local experiments (home-built or commercial) with the local instructor, and learn the experiments well enough to incorporate them into their own programs. These immersions were very well received, with attendees filling up all available slots. In this talk I will describe ALPhA and the Immersions Program and solicit input from the broader community.

  9. Atomic physics at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne`s 7-GeV synchrotron light source (APS) is expected to commence operations for research early in FY 1996. The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Research Center (BESSRC) is likewise expected to start its research programs at that time. As members of the BESSRC CAT (Collaborative Access Team), we are preparing, together with atomic physicists from the University of Western Michigan, the University of Tennessee, and University of Notre Dame, to initiate a series of atomic physics experiments that exploit the unique capabilities of the APS, especially its high brilliance for photon energies extending from about 3 keV to more than 50 keV. Most of our early work will be conducted on an undulator beam line and we are thus concentrating on various aspects of that beam line and its associated experimental areas. Our group has undertaken responsibilities in such areas as hutch design, evaluation of undulator performance, user policy, interfacing and instrumentation, etc. Initial experiments will probably utilize existing apparatus. We are, however, planning to move rapidly to more sophisticated measurements involving, for example, ion-beam targets, simultaneous laser excitation, and the spectroscopy of emitted photons.

  10. Chapter 1: Recent Advances in Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.

    2008-10-01

    For millennia, the Sun (and the universe) has been viewed in the visual light. As the bestower of light and life, the ancients made God out of the Sun. With the Babylonians, or with the multiple origins with the Chinese, Egyptians and Indians, quoting the Rig Veda:"All that exists was born from Sūrya, the God of gods.", we have come a long way to understanding the Sun. In the early seventeenth century, however, Galileo showed that the Sun was not an immaculate object. Thus began our scientific interests in our nearest stellar neighbour, the Sun (cf., Figure 1.1.), with its sunspots and the related solar activity. The observations of the Sun and their interpretations are of universal importance for at least two reasons: First, the Sun is the source of energy for the entire planetary system and all aspects of our life have direct impact on what happens on the Sun; and second, the Sun's proximity makes it unique among the billions of stars in the sky of which we can resolve its surface features and study physical processes at work...

  11. The Implementation of a Super Mirror Polarizer at the SNS Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Balascuta, S.; Alarcon, R.; Baessler, S.; Greene, Geoffrey; Mietke, A; Crawford, C.; Milburn, R.; Penttila, Seppo; Prince, J.; Schädler, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new bender supermirror polarizer is used to polarize the cold neutron beam at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source. We present the design of a compensation magnet that was built around the polarizer to minimize the polarizer fringe fields that could compromise the magnetic field requirements of the NPDGamma experiment for the field uniformity in the spin rotator and the field direction in the liquid hydrogen target located downstream from the polarizer. The entire magnetic field environment of the experiment has been analyzed using a finite-element model. Measurements of the magnetic field gradients and field direction have been carried out and the results are less than the upper limits required in the experiment. According to the results the compensated fields meet the stringent magnetic field requirements of the experiment defined by the systematic errors that have to be well below the statistical uncertainty of 10 8 in our main observable, the gamma asymmetry in neutron capture on hydrogen. We describe the design of the magnetic field, the construction of the compensation magnet, and we compare results of the field measurements with the results from the model.

  12. Your Higgs number - how fundamental physics is connected to technology and societal revolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzy; Allen, Roland E.

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental physics, as exemplified by the recently discovered Higgs boson, often appears to be completely disconnected from practical applications and ordinary human life. But this is not really the case, because science, technology, and human affairs are profoundly integrated in ways that are not immediately obvious. We illustrate this by defining a ``Higgs number'' through overlapping activities. Following three different paths, which end respectively in applications of the World Wide Web, digital photography, and modern electronic devices, we find that most people have a Higgs number of no greater than 3. Specific examples chosen for illustration, with their assigned Higgs numbers, are: LHC experimentalists employing the Worldwide Computing Grid (0) - Timothy Berners-Lee (1) - Marissa Mayer, of Google and Yahoo, and Sheryl Sandberg, of Facebook (2) - users of all web-based enterprises (3). CMS and ATLAS experimentalists (0) - particle detector developers (1) - inventors of CCDs and active-pixel sensors (2) - users of digital cameras and camcorders (3). Philip Anderson (0) - John Bardeen (1) - Jack Kilby (2) - users of personal computers, mobile phones, and all other modern electronic devices (3).

  13. Time Domain Science and Fundamental Physics with the Next-generation Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demorest, Paul; Bower, Geoffrey C.; ngVLA Time Domain/Physics Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The Next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is a design concept for a future large-area radio telescope under development by the NRAO and interested members of the scientific community. The approximate ngVLA specifications call for a frequency range of ~1--116 GHz, ten times the effective collecting area and moderately increased field of view versus the current VLA, and an array configuration consisting of a dense (~km-scale) array core with some baselines extending out to hundreds of km. This instrument will enable new discoveries in many diverse areas of research relevant to modern astronomy; our group has explored the impact the ngVLA will have in time domain astronomy and fundamental physics.Here we present several key science topics considered as part of this work. These include: Searching for and timing radio pulsars at the galactic center -- the frequency coverage and sensitivity of the ngVLA will allow detection of highly-scattered pulsars near Sgr A*. Monitoring these sources will permit unprecedented tests of general relativity. Detecting and characterizing explosive transient sources -- electromagnetic observations of gravitational-wave sources provide complementary information to the GW signals themselves. Observations across the wide frequency range spanned by the ngVLA are critical for energy calorimetry of these events. Finally, with sufficient long-baseline coverage, novel astrometric approaches to cosmology become possible, by watching the expansion of the universe in real time through correlated proper motions of many extragalactic radio sources.

  14. Characterising molecules for fundamental physics: an accurate spectroscopic model of methyltrioxorhenium derived from new infrared and millimetre-wave measurements.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Pierre; Berger, Yann; Huet, Thérèse R; Margulès, Laurent; Motiyenko, Roman; Hendricks, Richard J; Tarbutt, Michael R; Tokunaga, Sean K; Darquié, Benoît

    2017-02-08

    Precise spectroscopic analysis of polyatomic molecules enables many striking advances in physical chemistry and fundamental physics. We use several new high-resolution spectroscopic devices to improve our understanding of the rotational and rovibrational structure of methyltrioxorhenium (MTO), the achiral parent of a family of large oxorhenium compounds that are ideal candidate species for a planned measurement of parity violation in chiral molecules. Using millimetre-wave and infrared spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic jet, a cryogenic buffer gas cell, and room temperature absorption cells, we probe the ground state and the Re[double bond, length as m-dash]O antisymmetric and symmetric stretching excited states of both CH3(187)ReO3 and CH3(185)ReO3 isotopologues in the gas phase with unprecedented precision. By extending the rotational spectra to the 150-300 GHz range, we characterize the ground state rotational and hyperfine structure up to J = 43 and K = 41, resulting in refinements to the rotational, quartic and hyperfine parameters, and the determination of sextic parameters and a centrifugal distortion correction to the quadrupolar hyperfine constant. We obtain rovibrational data for temperatures between 6 and 300 K in the 970-1015 cm(-1) range, at resolutions down to 8 MHz and accuracies of 30 MHz. We use these data to determine more precise excited-state rotational, Coriolis and quartic parameters, as well as the ground-state centrifugal distortion parameter DK of the (187)Re isotopologue. We also account for hyperfine structure in the rovibrational transitions and hence determine the upper state rhenium atom quadrupole coupling constant eQq'.

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  16. Design and fundamental understanding of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) assisted grinding using advanced nanolubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Parash

    Abrasive grinding is widely used across manufacturing industry for finishing parts and components requiring smooth superficial textures and precise dimensional tolerances and accuracy. Unlike any other machining operations, the complex thermo-mechanical processes during grinding produce excessive friction-induced energy consumption, heat, and intense contact seizures. Lubrication and cooling from grinding fluids is crucial in minimizing the deleterious effects of friction and heat to maximize the output part quality and process efficiency. The conventional flood grinding approach of an uneconomical application of large quantities of chemically active fluids has been found ineffective to provide sufficient lubrication and produces waste streams and pollutants that are hazardous to human health and environment. Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) that cuts the volumetric fluid consumption by 3-4 orders of magnitude have been extensively researched in grinding as a high-productivity and environmentally-sustainable alternative to the conventional flood method. However, the lubrication performance and productivity of MQL technique with current fluids has been critically challenged by the extreme thermo-mechanical conditions of abrasive grinding. In this research, an MQL system based on advanced nanolubricants has been proposed to address the current thermo-mechanical challenges of MQL grinding and improve its productivity. The nanolubricants were composed of inorganic Molybdenum Disulphide nanoparticles (≈ 200 nm) intercalated with organic macromolecules of EP/AW property, dispersed in straight (base) oils---mineral-based paraffin and vegetable-based soybean oil. After feasibility investigations into the grindability of cast iron using MQL with nanolubricants, this research focused on the fundamental understanding of tribological behavior and lubricating mechanisms of nanolubricants as a method to improve the productivity of MQL-assisted surface grinding

  17. Fundamental properties of fracture and seismicity in a non extensive statistical physics framework.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2010-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in many scientific disciplines concerns upscaling, that is, of determining the regularities and laws of evolution at some large scale, from those known at a lower scale. Earthquake physics is no exception, with the challenge of understanding the transition from the laboratory scale to the scale of fault networks and large earthquakes. In this context, statistical physics has a remarkably successful work record in addressing the upscaling problem in physics. It is natural then to consider that the physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake and in this sense we can consider the use of statistical physics not only appropriate but necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes [see Corral 2004, 2005a,b,c;]. A significant attempt is given in a series of works [Main 1996; Rundle et al., 1997; Main et al., 2000; Main and Al-Kindy, 2002; Rundle et al., 2003; Vallianatos and Triantis, 2008a] that uses classical statistical physics to describe seismicity. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from fracture level to seismicity scale?? The application of non extensive statistical physics offers a consistent theoretical framework, based on a generalization of entropy, to analyze the behavior of natural systems with fractal or multi-fractal distribution of their elements. Such natural systems where long - range interactions or intermittency are important, lead to power law behavior. We note that this is consistent with a classical thermodynamic approach to natural systems that rapidly attain equilibrium, leading to exponential-law behavior. In the frame of non extensive statistical physics approach, the probability function p(X) is calculated using the maximum entropy formulation of Tsallis entropy which involves the introduction of at least two constraints (Tsallis et al., 1998). The first one is the

  18. Recent Advances in Indirect Drive ICF Target Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, B; Lindl, J; Amendt, P A; Bernat, G W; Collins, G W; Glenzer, S H; Koch, S H; Haan, S; Landen, O L; Suter, L J

    2002-10-08

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  19. Recent advances in indirect drive ICF target physics at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bernat, T P; Collins, G W; Haan, S; Hammel, B A; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Sutter, L J

    1998-01-13

    In preparation for ignition on the National Ignition Facility, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, working in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Commissariat a 1'Energie Atomique (CEA), and Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester, has performed a broad range of experiments on the Nova and Omega lasers to test the fundamentals of the NIF target designs. These studies have refined our understanding of the important target physics, and have led to many of the specifications for the NIF laser and the cryogenic ignition targets. Our recent work has been focused in the areas of hohlraum energetics, symmetry, shock physics, and target design optimization & fabrication.

  20. Progress in Tests of Fundamental Physics Using a Helium-3 and Xenon-129 Zeeman Maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenday, Alexander Graham

    We report on improved operation and understanding of the 3He and 129Xe Zeeman maser and its use in testing new theories in fundamental physics. The 3He and 129Xe Zeeman maser can make differential measurements of magnetic field versus new spin dependent forces that couple to the neutron, as 3He and 129Xe have nuclear gyromagnetic ratios that differ by a factor of ˜2.75, but whose spin-1/2 nuclear moments are due almost entirely to unpaired neutrons. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of the 3He and 129Xe maser in terms of searches for Lorentz and CPT symmetry breaking background fields to the universe described by the Standard Model Extension of Kostelecky and coworkers [1] and for placing limits on anomalous spin-spin coupling between neutrons such as those due to spin dependent forces mediated by the proposed axion particle [2]. The 3He and 129Xe maser has previously been used to place a limit on the coupling of the neutron to Lorentz and CPT symmetry violating fields at the level of 10-31 GeV (50 nHz in the 3He Zeeman frequency). Improvements we have made to the maser system have increased our sensitivity by almost a factor of four and we believe reasonable future upgrades could lead to a further order of magnitude improvement. In this work we have also measured the nuclear Zeeman frequencies of a 3He and 129Xe maser while modulating the nuclear spin polarization of a nearby 3He ensemble in a separate glass cell. We place limits on the coupling strength of neutron spin-spin interactions mediated by light pseudoscalar particles like the axion ( gpgp/(4pihc)) at the 3 x 10-7 level for interaction ranges longer than about 40 cm.

  1. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  2. The Role of Fisher Information Theory in the Development of Fundamental Laws in Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The unifying principle that involves rendering the Fisher information measure an extremum is reviewed. It is shown that with this principle, in conjunction with appropriate constraints, a large number of fundamental laws can be derived from a common source in a unified manner. The resulting economy of thought pertaining to fundamental principles…

  3. 2004 Physics and Advanced Technologies In the News

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-11-01

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technology Directorate in 2004 were featured in ''Science & Technology Review'', the monthly publication of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2004.

  4. 2005 Physics and Advanced Technologies in the News

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2006-12-19

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate in 2005 were featured in ''Science and Technology Review'', the monthly publication of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2005. As part of the World Year of Physics commemorating the 100th anniversary of Einstein's ''miraculous year'', we also highlight ongoing physics research that would not be possible without Einstein's pioneering accomplishments.

  5. Earthquake precursors in the ionosphere: electrical linkage provided by the fundamental physics of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, Miles

    2013-04-01

    For more than a decade, evidence has been mounting that major earthquakes may be preceded, days to weeks later, by the appearance of local changes in electron density-gradient in the Earth's ionosphere above that area. Such linkage, albeit co-seismic, has been observed even when the earthquake was deep below electrically conducting seawater [1]. This appears to rule out many of the kinds of linkage that have been proposed. My inquiry as to the nature of the physical mechanism by which gravitational force is developed has led me to the surprising finding that the Newtonian potential is inevitably always accompanied by a corresponding positive-body-repelling radial electric field. I have called this the Gravity-Electric (G-E) field and have adduced evidence for its action at many astronomical scales [2 -4]. After outlining the reasoning that has led me to this result I will refer to observations which suggest that the G-E field is indeed the precursor link that we seek. Time permitting, I will show briefly how the likelihood of an ionospheric precursor will, in this case, depend on the plate dynamical mechanism and nature of the pre-quake deformation. Historical background. Newton's work on gravitation astride the end of the 17th century concentrated on the behaviour of the force, not upon its origin.. But he already endorsed the idea of an ubiquitously intervening aether tp convey the force and, as Huygens had already reasoned, also to transmit light waves. Then, in the 1860s, people [5, 6] started to think of fundamental particles as being aether in a vortex-like motion which would, by mutual attraction, provide their mass property and gravitation. In such a set-up, particles and the aether around them would not be dynamically independent, so the Michelson-Morley experiment, 20 years later [7], could equally have been interpreted as supporting that situation, not as disproving the existence of the aether. But, in setting up Relativity (1905-1916), Einstein took the

  6. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  7. Studying human immunodeficiencies in humans: advances in fundamental concepts and therapeutic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Su, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Immunodeficiencies reveal the crucial role of the immune system in defending the body against microbial pathogens. Given advances in genomics and other technologies, this is currently best studied in humans who have inherited monogenic diseases. Such investigations have provided insights into how gene products normally function in the natural environment and have opened the door to new, exciting treatments for these diseases.

  8. Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-05-01

    This corrigendum intends to clarify some important points that were not clearly or properly addressed in the original paper, and for which the authors apologize. The original description of the first Acuros algorithm is from the developers, published in Physics in Medicine and Biology by Vassiliev et al (2010) in the paper entitled 'Validation of a new grid-based Boltzmann equation solver for dose calculation in radiotherapy with photon beams'. The main equations describing the algorithm reported in our paper, implemented as the 'Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation Algorithm' in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, were originally described (for the original Acuros algorithm) in the above mentioned paper by Vassiliev et al. The intention of our description in our paper was to give readers an overview of the algorithm, not pretending to have authorship of the algorithm itself (used as implemented in the planning system). Unfortunately our paper was not clear, particularly in not allocating full credit to the work published by Vassiliev et al on the original Acuros algorithm. Moreover, it is important to clarify that we have not adapted any existing algorithm, but have used the Acuros XB implementation in the Eclipse planning system from Varian. In particular, the original text of our paper should have been as follows: On page 1880 the sentence 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008, 2010). Acuros XB builds upon many of the methods in Attila, but represents a ground-up rewrite of the solver where the methods were adapted especially for external photon beam dose calculations' should be corrected to 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008). A new algorithm called Acuros, developed by the Transpire Inc. group, was

  9. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  10. System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated.

  11. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2016-01-01

    This presentation accompanies the paper titled Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory. NASA is evaluating whether PSL, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This presentation (and accompanying paper) presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  12. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  13. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Taheri, Mitra; Motta, Arthur; Marquis, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  14. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10

  15. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Peiris, Hiranya V. E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0

  16. Advanced Swimming, Phase II--Advanced Swimmer; Physical Education: 5551.48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutting, Dick

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Advanced swimming. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The first two sections of the guides are devoted to course guidelines, description, and broad goal statement. The next two sections list behavioral and skill objectives and course content. The fifth section presents learning activities and…

  17. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species.

    PubMed

    Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is of major canine health and socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into toxocarosis, to date, there has been limited exploration of the molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology and ecology of Toxocara species as well as parasite-host interactions using '-omic' technologies. The present article gives a background on Toxocara species and toxocarosis, describes molecular tools for specific identification and genetic analysis, and provides a prospective view of the benefits that advanced molecular technologies will have towards better understanding the parasites and disease. Tackling key biological questions employing a 'systems biology' approach should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocarosis.

  18. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  19. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children’s fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Methods Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children’s fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. Results After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P = 0.002, r = 0.15) and after-school (P = 0.014, r = 0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (P < 0.001, r = 0.20), lunchtime (P = 0.03, r = 0.10), recess (P = 0.006, r = 0.11) and after-school (P = 0.022, r = 0.13) MVPA. Conclusions Object-control skill competency appears to be a better predictor of children’s MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children’s MVPA throughout the day. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN

  20. Revisiting the fundamental physical chemistry in heterogeneous photocatalysis: its thermodynamics and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Bunsho

    2014-02-07

    Although the history of photocatalysis research is not so long, many researchers have studied photocatalysis and a large number of papers on photocatalysis have been published. The objectives of this review paper are to revisit the fundamentals of photocatalysis, especially its thermodynamics and kinetics, which have not been reexamined in recent studies, to clarify the problems, if any, that prevent developments in the field of photocatalysis, and to present insights for future progress.

  1. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, Mitio; Dehmer, P. M.; Pratt, S. T.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Dehmer, J. L.; Stockbauer, Roger; Dill, Dan; Parr, A. C.; Jackson, K. H.; Zare, R. N.; Person, J. C.; Nicole, P. P.; Fowler, D. E.; Codling, K.; West, J. B.; Ederer, D. L.; Cole, B. E.; Loomba, D.; Wallace, Scott; Swanson, J. R.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Spence, David; Chupka, W. A.; Stevens, C. M.; Shyn, W. T.; Sharp, W. E.; Kim, Y. K.; Eggarter, E.; Baer, T.; Hanson, J. D.; Shimamura, Isao; Dillon, Michael A.

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  2. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia.

  3. Emotions beyond the laboratory: theoretical fundaments, study design, and analytic strategies for advanced ambulatory assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Questionnaire and interview assessment can provide reliable data on attitudes and self-perceptions on emotion, and experimental laboratory assessment can examine functional relations between stimuli and reactions under controlled conditions. On the other hand, ambulatory assessment is less constrained and provides naturalistic data on emotion in daily life, with the potential to (1) assure external validity of laboratory findings, (2) provide normative data on prevalence, quality and intensity of real-life emotion and associated processes, (3) characterize previously unidentified emotional phenomena, and (4) model real-life stimuli for representative laboratory research design. Technological innovations now allow for detailed ambulatory study of emotion across domains of subjective experience, overt behavior and physiology. However, methodological challenges abound that may compromise attempts to characterize biobehavioral aspects of emotion in the real world. For example, emotional effects can be masked by social engagement, mental and physical workloads, as well as by food intake and circadian and quasi-random variation in metabolic activity. The complexity of data streams and multitude of factors that influence them require a high degree of context specification for meaningful data interpretation. We consider possible solutions to typical and often overlooked issues related to ambulatory emotion research, including aspects of study design decisions, recording devices and channels, electronic diary implementation, and data analysis.

  4. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  5. The CODEX-ESPRESSO experiment: Cosmic dynamics, fundamental physics, planets and much more...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, S.; Avila, G.; Bonifacio, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carswell, B.; D'Odorico, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Delabre, B.; Dekker, H.; Dessauges, M.; Dimarcantonio, P.; Garcia-Lopez, R.; Grazian, A.; Haehnelt, M.; Herreros, J. M.; Israelian, G.; Levshakov, S.; Liske, J.; Lovis, C.; Manescau, A.; Martin, E.; Mayor, M.; Megevand, D.; Molaro, P.; Murphy, M.; Pasquini, L.; Pepe, F.; Perez, J.; Queloz, D.; Rebolo, R.; Santin, P.; Shaver, P.; Spanò, P.; Udry, S.; Vanzella, E.; Viel, M.; Zapatero, M. R.; Zerbi, F.; Zucker, S.

    2007-09-01

    CODEX, a high resolution, super-stable spectrograph to be fed by the E-ELT, the most powerful telescope ever conceived, will for the first time provide the possibility of directly measuring the change of the expansion rate of the Universe with time and much more, from the variability of fundamental constants to the search for other earths. A study for the implementation at the VLT of a precursor of CODEX, dubbed ESPRESSO, is presently carried out by a collaboration including ESO, IAC, INAF, IoA Cambridge and Observatoire de Geneve. The present talk is focused on the cosmological aspects of the experiment.

  6. Introduction: the fundamental constants of physics, precision measurements and the base units of the SI.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Terry; Burnett, Keith

    2005-09-15

    This is a short introductory note to the texts of lectures presented at a Royal Society Discussion meeting held on 14-15 February 2005 and now published in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A. It contains a brief resumé of the papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. This issue contains the texts of all of the presentations except those of Christophe Salomon, on cold atom clocks and tests of fundamental theory, and Francis Everitt, on Gravity Probe B, which were, unfortunately, not available.

  7. Fundamental neutron physics at a 1 MW long pulse spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Modern neutron sources and modern neutron science share a common origin in mid twentieth century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for the study of condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and primarily justified) as tools for condensed matter research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities carried out at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for the continuation of this program of research.

  8. Identifying and addressing specific student difficulties in advanced thermal physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the

  9. Astrophysical tests for radiative decay of neutrinos and fundamental physics implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos was calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results were then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data were used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. Thus an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model may have been found.

  10. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  11. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  12. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (3/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  13. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  14. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (1/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-08

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  15. Black Holes in the Cosmos, the Lab, and in Fundamental Physics (2/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-07

    Black holes present the extreme limits of physics. They are ubiquitous in the cosmos, and in some extra-dimensional scenarios they could be produced at colliders. They have also yielded a puzzle that challenges the foundations of physics. These talks will begin with an overview of the basics of black hole physics, and then briefly summarize some of the exciting developments with cosmic black holes. They will then turn to properties of quantum black holes, and the question of black hole production in high energy collisions, perhaps beginning with the LHC. I will then overview the apparent paradox emerging from Hawking's discovery of black hole evaporation, and what it could be teaching us about the foundations of quantum mechanics and gravity.

  16. Improving fundamental abilities of atomic force microscopy for investigating quantitative nanoscale physical properties of complex biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.

    Measurements of local material properties of complex biological systems (e.g. live cells and viruses) in their respective physiological conditions are extremely important in the fields of biophysics, nanotechnology, material science, and nanomedicine. Yet, little is known about the structure-function-property relationship of live cells and viruses. In the case of live cells, the measurements of progressive variations in viscoelastic properties in vitro can provide insight to the mechanistic processes underpinning morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, motility, metastasis, and many more fundamental cellular processes. In the case of living viruses, the relationship between capsid structural framework and the role of the DNA molecule interaction within viruses influencing their stiffness, damping and electrostatic properties can shed light in virological processes like protein subunits assembly/dissassembly, maturation, and infection. The study of mechanics of live cells and viruses has been limited in part due to the lack of technology capable of acquiring high-resolution (nanoscale, subcellular) images of its heterogeneous material properties which vary widely depending on origin and physical interaction. The capabilities of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for measuring forces and topography with sub-nm precision have greatly contributed to research related to biophysics and biomechanics during the past two decades. AFM based biomechanical studies have the unique advantage of resolving/mapping spatially the local material properties over living cells and viruses. However, conventional AFM techniques such as force-volume and quasi-static force-distance curves are too low resolution and low speed to resolve interesting biophysical processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics for cells or assembly/dissasembly of viruses. To overcome this bottleneck, a novel atomic force microscopy mode is developed, that leads to sub-10-nm resolution and sub-15-minutes mapping of local

  17. INVESTIGATION OF FUNDAMENTAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC PHENOMENA IN ADVANCED GAS-COOLED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    INVESTIGATION OF FUNDAMENTAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC PHE

    2006-09-01

    INL LDRD funded research was conducted at MIT to experimentally characterize mixed convection heat transfer in gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) core channels in collaboration with INL personnel. The GFR for Generation IV has generated considerable interest and is under development in the U.S., France, and Japan. One of the key candidates is a block-core configuration first proposed by MIT, has the potential to operate in Deteriorated Turbulent Heat Transfer (DTHT) regime or in the transition between the DTHT and normal forced or laminar convection regime during post-loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. This is contrary to most industrial applications where operation is in a well-defined and well-known turbulent forced convection regime. As a result, important new need emerged to develop heat transfer correlations that make possible rigorous and accurate predictions of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) during post LOCA in these regimes. Extensive literature review on these regimes was performed and a number of the available correlations was collected in: (1) forced laminar, (2) forced turbulent, (3) mixed convection laminar, (4) buoyancy driven DTHT and (5) acceleration driven DTHT regimes. Preliminary analysis on the GFR DHR system was performed and using the literature review results and GFR conditions. It confirmed that the GFR block type core has a potential to operate in the DTHT regime. Further, a newly proposed approach proved that gas, liquid and super critical fluids all behave differently in single channel under DTHT regime conditions, thus making it questionable to extrapolate liquid or supercritical fluid data to gas flow heat transfer. Experimental data were collected with three different gases (nitrogen, helium and carbon dioxide) in various heat transfer regimes. Each gas unveiled different physical phenomena. All data basically covered the forced turbulent heat transfer regime, nitrogen data covered the acceleration driven DTHT and buoyancy driven DTHT

  18. Standard-Model Tests with Superallowed {beta} Decay: Nuclear Data Applied to Fundamental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.C.

    2005-05-24

    The study of superallowed nuclear {beta} decay currently provides the most precise and convincing confirmation of the conservation of the vector current (CVC) and is a key component of the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, a basic pillar of the Electroweak Standard Model. Experimentally, the Q-value, half-life, and branching ratio for superallowed transitions must be determined with a precision better than 0.1%. This demands metrological techniques be applied to short-lived ({approx}1 s) activities and that strict standards be employed in surveying the body of world data. The status of these fundamental studies is summarized and recent work described.

  19. Advanced physical assessment skills: implementation of a module.

    PubMed

    Aldridge-Bent, Sharon

    2011-02-01

    This article aims to explore and examine advanced physical assessment skills and the role of the district nurse. It will particularly highlight district nurses' perceptions of how they may implement skills learnt on a new module introduced into the Community Health Care Nursing degree at a university in London. Physical assessment skills have traditionally been viewed as part of a doctor's role; however, with the advancement of nursing roles, it is argued that it has become a key nursing skill. As Government policy continues to expect health professionals to keep patients in the community who have complex health and social care needs, the role of the district nurse presents as 'best placed' to take on this challenge (Department of Health (DH), 2005a; 2005b). Evaluation of the district nurses' perceptions of their practice is shared here, highlighting some of the challenges that they face. The article will address the complexity of developing a curriculum in response to the DH initiatives and the importance of listening to students on courses.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  1. Quantum corrections in modern gauge theories of fundamental interactions and the search for new physics

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchini, R.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the analysis of the quantum effects in gauge theories yields several constraints which may be used to test their internal consistency and physical viability. We have studied, in particular, the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model and tested the universality of the weak interactions and the conserved-vector-current hypothesis. Finally, we have analyzed modular invariance in the closed bosonic string.

  2. Fundamental Physics and Model Assumptions in Turbulent Combustion Models for Aerospace Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Mach number form of the thermal energy equation in order to capture the sub-grid heat release and the composition field. (Note that LEM uses the full...pressure- dilatation correlation in compressible flows, Phys. Fluids 4, 2674 1992. 42O. Zeman, Dilatation dissipation: The concept and application in...speeds – High pressures – Compressible physics - shocks, dilatation , baroclinic – Acoustics-combustion-turbulence interactions • Validation criteria

  3. Interactive fundamental physics. [Final report], April 15, 1992--November 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-11-24

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton`s first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered ``hypermedia`` structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have ``declined`` to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal.

  4. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  5. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  6. Revealing Fundamental Physical Properties of AGN with NuSTAR, XMM and Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Laura; Fuerst, F.; Walton, D.; Madejski, G. M.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Harrison, F.; Stern, D.; the NuSTAR Team

    2014-01-01

    In its first year of operation, the NuSTAR X-ray telescope has opened a new window onto the high-energy universe by providing the first focused images and high signal-to-noise (S/N) data in the 3-80 keV band. The broad energy range of NuSTAR has revolutionized our ability to probe the physics at work in the cores of active galactic nuclei (AGN) around supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Obtaining simultaneous observations with NuSTAR and lower-energy X-ray telescopes such as XMM-Newton or Suzaku provides the best S/N across the broadband X-ray spectrum ever achieved, enabling the continuum, absorption and reflection components of these AGN to be definitively deconvolved for the first time. Isolating these components allows their physical processes to be studied with greater precision and accuracy than has hitherto been possible. We present results from three simultaneous campaigns carried out by NuSTAR in conjunction with XMM or Suzaku: IC 4329A, MCG--6-30-15 and NGC 1365. In each case, NuSTAR's unique strengths have led to unprecedented insights into coronal properties, absorbing structures and/or black hole spin.

  7. Fundamental and functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures with examples in physics, cell biology, and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Ziya

    2011-08-01

    How small can a macroscopic object be made without losing its intended function? Obviously, the smallest possible size is determined by the size of an atom, but it is not so obvious how many atoms are required to assemble an object so small, and yet that performs the same function as its macroscopic counterpart. In this review, we are concerned with objects of intermediate nature, lying between the microscopic and the macroscopic world. In physics and chemistry literature, this regime in-between is often called mesoscopic, and is known to bear interesting and counterintuitive features. After a brief introduction to the concept of mesoscopic systems from the perspective of physics, we discuss the functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures in cell biology, and supramolecular chemistry through many examples from the literature. We argue that the biochemistry of the cell is largely regulated by mesoscopic functional architectures; however, the significance of mesoscopic phenomena seems to be quite underappreciated in biological sciences. With this motivation, one of our main purposes here is to emphasize the critical role that mesoscopic structures play in cell biology and biochemistry.

  8. Recent results and perspectives on cosmology and fundamental physics from microwave surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burigana, Carlo; Battistelli, Elia Stefano; Benetti, Micol; Cabass, Giovanni; de Bernardis, Paolo; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; di Valentino, Eleonora; Gerbino, Martina; Giusarma, Elena; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Liguori, Michele; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Rosati, Piero; Salvati, Laura; Trombetti, Tiziana; Vielva, Patricio

    2016-04-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in temperature and polarization have reached high precision in estimating all the parameters that describe the current so-called standard cosmological model. Recent results about the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from CMB anisotropies, galaxy surveys, and their cross-correlations are presented. Looking at fine signatures in the CMB, such as the lack of power at low multipoles, the primordial power spectrum (PPS) and the bounds on non-Gaussianities, complemented by galaxy surveys, we discuss inflationary physics and the generation of primordial perturbations in the early universe. Three important topics in particle physics, the bounds on neutrinos masses and parameters, on thermal axion mass and on the neutron lifetime derived from cosmological data are reviewed, with attention to the comparison with laboratory experiment results. Recent results from cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) analyses aimed at testing the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) are presented. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of next radio facilities for the improvement of the analysis of future CMB spectral distortion experiments.

  9. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  10. TRIμP-Trapped Radioactive Atoms-μicrolaboratories for Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, K.; Berg, G. P.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hoekstra, R.; Morgenstern, R.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Sanchez-Vega, M.; Timmermans, R.; Traykov, E.; Willmann, L.; Wilscut, H. W.

    At the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) in Groningen, NL, a new facility (TRIμP) is under development. Radioactive nuclei will be produced using heavy ion beams from the superconducting AGOR cyclotron. They are then slowed down and finally trapped in ion or atomic traps in order to perform precision experiments with them. The facility will be open for use by the worldwide community. The present local research programme includes precision studies of nuclear β-decays through β-neutrino (recoil nucleus) momentum correlations in weak decays as well as searches for permanent electric dipole moments in heavy atomic systems. Such experiments offer a large potential for discovering new physics or to put sensitive limits on parameters in models beyond standard theory.

  11. Fundamental Magnetofluid Physics Studies on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment: Reconnection and Sustainment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.

    2001-07-31

    The general goal of the Magnetofluids Laboratory at Swarthmore College is to understand how magnetofluid kinetic energy can be converted to magnetic energy as it is in the core of the earth and sun (the dynamo problem) and to understand how magnetic energy can be rapidly converted back to kinetic energy and heat as it is in solar flares (the magnetic reconnection problem). Magnetic reconnection has been studied using the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) which was designed and built under this Junior Faculty Grant. In SSX we generate and merge two rings of magnetized plasma called spheromaks and study their interaction. The spheromaks have many properties similar to solar flares so this work is directly relevant to basic solar physics. In addition, since the spheromak is a magnetic confinement fusion configuration, issues of formation and stability have direct impact on the fusion program.

  12. Probing the Fundamental Physics of the Solar Corona with Lunar Solar Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Druckmüller, M.; Ding, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Daw, A.; Sittler, E. C.

    2013-07-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy of the solar corona, coupled with polarimetry, are the only tools available at present to capture signatures of physical processes responsible for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration within the first few solar radii above the solar limb. With the recent advent of improved detector technology and image processing techniques, broad-band white light and narrow-band multi-wavelength observations of coronal forbidden lines, made during total solar eclipses, have started to yield new views about the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of coronal structures. This paper outlines these unique capabilities, which until present, have been feasible primarily with observations during natural total solar eclipses. This work also draws attention to the exciting possibility of greatly increasing the frequency and duration of solar eclipse observations with Moon orbiting observatories utilizing lunar limb occultation of the solar disk for coronal measurements.

  13. Comparison of fundamental physical properties of the model cells (protocells) and the living cells reveals the need in protophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed about potassium ponds being the cradles of life enriches the gamut of ideas about the possible conditions of pre-biological evolution on the primeval Earth, but does not bring us closer to solving the real problem of the origin of life. The gist of the matter lies in the mechanism of making a delimitation between two environments - the intracellular environment and the habitat of protocells. Since the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) was discovered, no molecular model has been proposed for a predecessor of the modern sodium pump. This has brought into life the idea of the potassium pond, wherein protocells would not need a sodium pump. However, current notions of the operation of living cells come into conflict with even physical laws when trying to use them to explain the origin and functioning of protocells. Thus, habitual explanations of the physical properties of living cells have become inapplicable to explain the corresponding properties of Sidney Fox's microspheres. Likewise, existing approaches to solving the problem of the origin of life do not see the need for the comparative study of living cells and cell models, assemblies of biological and artificial small molecules and macromolecules under physical conditions conducive to the origin of life. The time has come to conduct comprehensive research into the fundamental physical properties of protocells and create a new discipline - protocell physiology or protophysiology - which should bring us much closer to solving the problem of the origin of life.

  14. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was

  15. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  16. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  17. Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

    2007-11-01

    A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ηi, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

  18. XII Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, Thomas; Carminati, Federico; Werlen, Monique

    November 2008 will be a few months after the official start of LHC when the highest quantum energy ever produced by mankind will be observed by the most complex piece of scientific equipment ever built. LHC will open a new era in physics research and push further the frontier of Knowledge This achievement has been made possible by new technological developments in many fields, but computing is certainly the technology that has made possible this whole enterprise. Accelerator and detector design, construction management, data acquisition, detectors monitoring, data analysis, event simulation and theoretical interpretation are all computing based HEP activities but also occurring many other research fields. Computing is everywhere and forms the common link between all involved scientists and engineers. The ACAT workshop series, created back in 1990 as AIHENP (Artificial Intelligence in High Energy and Nuclear Research) has been covering the tremendous evolution of computing in its most advanced topics, trying to setup bridges between computer science, experimental and theoretical physics. Conference web-site: http://acat2008.cern.ch/ Programme and presentations: http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=34666

  19. Science with the ASTRI mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: blazars and fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Di Pierro, Federico; Stamerra, Antonio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    ASTRI (“Astronomia a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana”) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), devoted to the realization, operation and scientific validation of an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype is characterized by a dual mirror, Schwarzschild-Couder optical design and a compact camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. It will be sensitive to multi-TeV very high energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV, with a PSF ~ 6’ and a wide (9.6°) unaberrated optical field of view. Right after validation of the design in single-dish observations at the Serra La Nave site (Sicily, Italy) during 2015, the ASTRI collaboration will be able to start deployment, at the final CTA southern site, of the ASTRI mini-array, proposed to constitute the very first CTA precursor. Counting 9 ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will overtake current IACT systems in differential sensitivity above 5 TeV, thus allowing unprecedented observations of known and predicted bright TeV emitters in this band, including some extragalactic sources such as extreme high-peaked BL Lacs with hard spectra. We exploited the ASTRI scientific simulator ASTRIsim in order to understand the feasibility of observations tackling blazar and cosmic ray physics, including discrimination of hadronic and leptonic scenarios for the VHE emission from BL Lac relativistic jets and indirect measurements of the intergalactic magnetic field and of the extragalactic background light. We selected favorable targets, outlining observation modes, exposure times, multi-wavelength coverage needed and the results expected. Moreover, the perspectives for observation of effects due to the existence of axion-like particles or to Lorentz invariance violations have been investigated.

  20. Possible determination of the physical parameters of the first living cells based on the fundamental physical constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2016-12-01

    Here is developed the hypothesis that the cell parameters of unicellular organisms (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) are determined by the gravitational constant (G, N.m2 /kg2), Planck constant (h, J.s) and growth rate of cells. By scaling analyses it was shown that the growth rate vgr(m/s) of unicellular bacteria and protozoa is relatively constant parameter, ranging in a narrow window of 10-12 - 10-10 m/s, in comparison to the diapason of cell mass, ranging 10 orders of magnitudes from 10-17 kg in bacteria to 10-7 kg in amoebas. By dimensional analyses it was shown that the combination between the growth rate of cells, gravitational constant and Planck constant gives equations with dimension of mass M(vgr)=(h.vgr/G)½ in kg, length L(v gr)=(hṡG/vgr3)1/2 in meter, time T(vgr)=(hṡG/vgr5)1/2 in seconds, and density ρ ((vgr)=vgr.3.5/hG2 in kg/m3 . For growth rate vgr in diapason of 1×10-11 m/s - 1×10-9.5 m/s the calculated numerical values for mass (3×10-18 -1×10-16 kg), length (5×10-8 -1×10-5 m), time (1×102 -1×106 s) and density (1×10-1 - 1×104 kg/m3) overlaps with diapason of experimentally measured values for cell mass (3×10-18 -1×10-15 kg), volume to surface ratio (1×10-7 -1×10-4 m), doubling time (1×103 -1×107 s), and density (1050 - 1300 kg/m3) in bacteria and protozoa. These equations show that appearance of the first living cells could be mutually connected to the physical constants.

  1. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  2. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.

  3. From CODEX to ESPRESSO to HIRES@E-ELT: a view on cosmology and fundamental physics from the IGM perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; D'Odorico, V.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Haehnelt, M.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Martins, C.; Mégevand, D.; Molaro, P.; Murphy, M. T.; Origlia, L.; Pepe, F.

    The Italian community, thanks to the strong technological and scientific tradition in the field of high-resolution spectroscopy and the study of the Intergalactic Medium, has played a key role in the conception of a high-resolution spectrograph for the new generation of giant telescopes (initially focused on the COsmic Dynamics EXperiment at OWL). This expertise is being exploited in the construction of a precursor: the ESPRESSO instrument that will start operations at the ESO VLT in 2017 and will pave the way to the HIRES instrument at the E-ELT. Here we discuss the role that the (evolving) scientific themes of cosmology and fundamental physics - from the Intergalactic Medium perspective - have played and are playing to shape the E-ELT high resolution instrument.

  4. An interdisciplinary approach to certain fundamental issues in the fields of physics and biology: towards a unified theory.

    PubMed

    Thaheld, Fred H

    2005-04-01

    Recent experiments appear to have revealed the possibility of the existence of quantum entanglement between spatially separated human subjects. In addition, a similar condition might exist between basins containing human neurons adhering to printed circuit boards. In both instances, preliminary data indicates what appear to be non-local correlations between brain electrical activities in the case of the human subjects and also non-local correlations between neuronal basin electrical activities, implying entanglement at the macroscopic level. If the ongoing expanded research and the analysis of same continues to support this hypothesis, it may then make it possible to simultaneously address some of the fundamental problems facing us in both physics and biology through the adoption of an interdisciplinary empirical approach based on Bell's experimental philosophy, with the goal of unifying these two fields.

  5. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  6. PET/CT: underlying physics, instrumentation, and advances.

    PubMed

    Torres Espallardo, I

    2017-01-12

    Since it was first introduced, the main goal of PET/CT has been to provide both PET and CT images with high clinical quality and to present them to radiologists and specialists in nuclear medicine as a fused, perfectly aligned image. The use of fused PET and CT images quickly became routine in clinical practice, showing the great potential of these hybrid scanners. Thanks to this success, manufacturers have gone beyond considering CT as a mere attenuation corrector for PET, concentrating instead on design high performance PET and CT scanners with more interesting features. Since the first commercial PET/CT scanner became available in 2001, both the PET component and the CT component have improved immensely. In the case of PET, faster scintillation crystals with high stopping power such as LYSO crystals have enabled more sensitive devices to be built, making it possible to reduce the number of undesired coincidence events and to use time of flight (TOF) techniques. All these advances have improved lesion detection, especially in situations with very noisy backgrounds. Iterative reconstruction methods, together with the corrections carried out during the reconstruction and the use of the point-spread function, have improved image quality. In parallel, CT instrumentation has also improved significantly, and 64- and 128-row detectors have been incorporated into the most modern PET/CT scanners. This makes it possible to obtain high quality diagnostic anatomic images in a few seconds that both enable the correction of PET attenuation and provide information for diagnosis. Furthermore, nowadays nearly all PET/CT scanners have a system that modulates the dose of radiation that the patient is exposed to in the CT study in function of the region scanned. This article reviews the underlying physics of PET and CT imaging separately, describes the changes in the instrumentation and standard protocols in a combined PET/CT system, and finally points out the most important

  7. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  8. Recent advances in Rydberg physics using alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-06-01

    In this brief review, the opportunities that the alkaline-earth elements offer for studying new aspects of Rydberg physics are discussed. For example, the bosonic alkaline-earth isotopes have zero nuclear spin which eliminates many of the complexities present in alkali Rydberg atoms, permitting simpler and more direct comparison between theory and experiment. The presence of two valence electrons allows the production of singlet and triplet Rydberg states that can exhibit a variety of attractive or repulsive interactions. The availability of weak intercombination lines is advantageous for laser cooling and for applications such as Rydberg dressing. Excitation of one electron to a Rydberg state leaves behind an optically active core ion allowing, for high-L states, the optical imaging of Rydberg atoms and their (spatial) manipulation using light scattering. The second valence electron offers the possibility of engineering long-lived doubly excited states such as planetary atoms. Recent advances in both theory and experiment are highlighted together with a number of possible directions for the future.

  9. Testing the Standard Model and Fundamental Symmetries in Nuclear Physics with Lattice QCD and Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2016-10-14

    The research supported by this grant is aimed at probing the limits of the Standard Model through precision low-energy nuclear physics. The work of the PI (AWL) and additional personnel is to provide theory input needed for a number of potentially high-impact experiments, notably, hadronic parity violation, Dark Matter direct detection and searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in nucleons and nuclei. In all these examples, a quantitative understanding of low-energy nuclear physics from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), is necessary to interpret the experimental results. The main theoretical tools used and developed in this work are the numerical solution to QCD known as lattice QCD (LQCD) and Effective Field Theory (EFT). This grant is supporting a new research program for the PI, and as such, needed to be developed from the ground up. Therefore, the first fiscal year of this grant, 08/01/2014-07/31/2015, has been spent predominantly establishing this new research effort. Very good progress has been made, although, at this time, there are not many publications to show for the effort. After one year, the PI accepted a job at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, so this final report covers just a single year of five years of the grant.

  10. Fundamentals of Radiation Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    decay • p+→ n + e+ + neutrino + KE followed by e+/e- annihilation β+, γ decay • p+→ n + e+ + neutrino + KE followed by γ release and e+/e...annihilation 7 More Nuclear Processes Electron capture • p+ + e-→ n + neutrino + KE then characteristic x-rays or Auger electrons Electron capture, γ • p+ + e...n + neutrino + KE followed by γ release then characteristic x-rays or Auger electrons α decay α decay, γ followed by γ release 8 Basic Mathematical

  11. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that themore » alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.« less

  12. The Physics Basis For An Advanced Physics And Advanced Technology Tokamak Power Plant Configuration, ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Kessel, et al

    2014-03-05

    The advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n=3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, and requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reached βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle MHD stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling show that about 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while over 95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring about ~ 1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ICRF/FW and 40 MW of LHCD. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ~ 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~ 0.9x1020 /m3 and the temperature is ~ 4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the net power to LH threshold power is 2.8- 3.0 in the flattop.

  13. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.

  14. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  15. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Craig; McGrady, Sean; Severa, Godwin; Eliseo, Jennifer; Chong, Marina

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  16. Majo-ra-na: An Ultra-Low Background Enriched-Germanium Detector Array for Fundamental Physics Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, Victor

    2010-02-01

    The Majo-ra-na collaboration will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ) by fielding an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in ultra-clean electroformed-copper cryostats deep underground. Recent advances in HPGe detector technology, in particular P-type Point-Contact (PPC) detectors, present exciting new techniques for identifying and reducing backgrounds to the 0νββ signal. This should result in greatly improved sensitivity over previous generation experiments. The very low energy threshold attainable with PPC detectors also provides for a broader physics program including searches for dark matter and axions. The Majo-ra-na De-mon-strat-or is an R&D program that will field three ˜20 kg modules of PPC detectors at Sanford Underground Laboratory. Half of the detectors will be enriched to 86% in ^76Ge. Here, we will cover the motivation, design, recent progress and current status of this effort, with special attention to its physics reach. )

  17. Time of flight of ultra-relativistic particles in a realistic Universe: A viable tool for fundamental physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanizza, G.; Gasperini, M.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.

    2016-06-01

    Including the metric fluctuations of a realistic cosmological geometry we reconsider an earlier suggestion that measuring the relative time-of-flight of ultra-relativistic particles can provide interesting constraints on fundamental cosmological and/or particle parameters. Using convenient properties of the geodetic light-cone coordinates we first compute, to leading order in the Lorentz factor and for a generic (inhomogeneous, anisotropic) space-time, the relative arrival times of two ultra-relativistic particles as a function of their masses and energies as well as of the details of the large-scale geometry. Remarkably, the result can be written as an integral over the unperturbed line-of-sight of a simple function of the local, inhomogeneous redshift. We then evaluate the irreducible scatter of the expected data-points due to first-order metric perturbations, and discuss, for an ideal source of ultra-relativistic particles, the resulting attainable precision on the determination of different physical parameters.

  18. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  19. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  20. NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor for 3-D viscous code assessment and fundamental flow physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Wood, J. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A low speed centrifugal compressor facility recently built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this facility is to obtain detailed flow field measurements for computational fluid dynamic code assessment and flow physics modeling in support of Army and NASA efforts to advance small gas turbine engine technology. The facility is heavily instrumented with pressure and temperature probes, both in the stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The facility will accommodate rotational speeds to 2400 rpm and is rated at pressures to 1.25 atm. The initial compressor stage being tested is geometrically and dynamically representative of modern high-performance centrifugal compressor stages with the exception of Mach number levels. Preliminary experimental investigations of inlet and exit flow uniformly and measurement repeatability are presented. These results demonstrate the high quality of the data which may be expected from this facility. The significance of synergism between computational fluid dynamic analysis and experimentation throughout the development of the low speed centrifugal compressor facility is demonstrated.

  1. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  2. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  3. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN PHYSICS--GENERAL ADVANCED PLACEMENT, COLLEGE LEVEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.

    THE GENERAL PHYSICS CURRICULUM IS PLANNED FOR THOSE WHOSE GENERAL ABILITY IS BETTER THAN AVERAGE AND IS OFFERED IN GRADES 11 OR 12. GENERAL OBJECTIVES ARE, TO DEVELOP CRITICAL THINKING THROUGH THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD, TO UNDERSTAND BASIC PHYSICAL LAWS AND MAN'S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND TO DEVELOP A SCIENTIFIC ABILITY AND INTEREST. ELEVEN UNITS OF…

  4. Teachers' Views about the Nuffield Advanced Physics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes results of a survey on teachers' views of the Nuffield A-level physics course (NAP) including, among others, course content, philosophy, examinations, organization, and individual units. Suggests that most teachers surveyed were satisfied with their NAP course. (SK)

  5. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  6. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  7. Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    nonequilibrium. For example, the plasma transport may transition between rarefied and continuum flow , requiring appropriate models for each case through...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2011-0023 Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physical Models and Numerical Methods for High Enthalpy and Plasma Flows Applied to Hypersonics 5a

  8. The Efficacy of Advance Organizers and Behavioral Objectives for Improving Achievement in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershman, Kenneth Eugene

    This research investigates the utility of advance organizers and behavioral objectives in a traditional introductory physics class at the college level. The advance organizer was designed to compare and contrast content to be learned with content previously studied or with assumed common knowledge. Behavioral objectives listed the expected…

  9. Advanced Research Workshop on Fundamentals of Electronic Nanosystems Held in St. Petersburg, Russia on 25 June-1 July 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Heinrich Jaeger, University of Chicago, USA Vladimir Kravtsov, The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy, and Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics...The Abdus Salam Center for Theoretical Physics Chicago Materials Research Center Ioffe PhysicoTechnical Institute European Office of Aerospace Research...Institute, SaintPetersburg, Russia, ven.kozub@pop.ioffe.rssi.ru Vladimir Kravtsov, The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy, and Landau Institute for

  10. Working with Advanced Primary School Students in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Ljiljana; Cucic, Dragoljub

    2010-01-01

    Working with students who have special needs is the type of work that requires special engagement and skills of those who perform it. Working with gifted children requires outstanding knowledge of a teacher and above all the teachers should be very well informed on the subject they teach, Physics in our case. This work also requires great pedagogical and psychological skills so that these talented students would be approached in a suitable way. In this paper we will present to you our methods of teaching Physics to these talented children (13 years old), in the Regional Center for Talents "Mihajlo Pupin" in Pancevo.

  11. Nuclei and Fundamental Symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, Wick

    2016-09-01

    Nuclei provide marvelous laboratories for testing fundamental interactions, often enhancing weak processes through accidental degeneracies among states, and providing selection rules that can be exploited to isolate selected interactions. I will give an overview of current work, including the use of parity violation to probe unknown aspects of the hadronic weak interaction; nuclear electric dipole moment searches that may shed light on new sources of CP violation; and tests of lepton number violation made possible by the fact that many nuclei can only decay by rare second-order weak interactions. I will point to opportunities in both theory and experiment to advance the field. Based upon work supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics and SciDAC under Awards DE-SC00046548 (Berkeley), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and KB0301052 (LBNL).

  12. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models for Diagnostics Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations.

  13. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  14. Recent advances in understanding physical properties of metallurgical slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dong Joon; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2017-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the structure and physical properties of metallurgical slags is summarized to address structure-property and inter-property relationships. Physical properties of slags including viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension is reviewed focusing on the effect of slag structure, which is comprehensively evaluated using FT-IT, Raman, and MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The effect of the slag composition on slag structure and property is reviewed in detail: Compositional effect encompasses traditional concepts of basicity, network-forming behaviors of anions, and secondary impact of network-modifying cations. Secondary objective of this review is elucidating the mutual relationship between physical properties of slags. For instance, the relationship between slag viscosity and electrical conductivity is suggested by Walden's rule and discussed based on the experimental results. Slag foaming index is also introduced as a comprehensive understanding method of physical properties of slags. The dimensional analysis was made to address the effect of viscosity, density, and surface tension on the foaming index of slags.

  15. Project T.E.A.M. (Technical Education Advancement Modules). Introduction to Industrial Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenhunt, James E.

    This instructional guide, one of a series developed by the Technical Education Advancement Modules (TEAM) project, is a 20-hour introduction to industrial physics that explains and demonstrates to industrial maintenance mechanics the direct relationship of physics to machinery. Project TEAM is intended to upgrade basic technical competencies of…

  16. Integrating Advanced Physical Training Programs into the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    the CrossFit program and consequently a fee is required to participate in the CrossFit 3 P90X , Extreme Body Workout, (unknown... P90X , Extreme Body Workout n.d.) , P90X is a home based DVD workout program designed to achieve results in 90 days at a cost of $119.85. 4...PFT and is characterized by anaerobic (short burst) energy demands”.13 By coincidence, many of the advanced training programs, such as P90X , CrossFit

  17. Advances on modelling of ITER scenarios: physics and computational challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Garcia, J.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Decker, J.; Imbeaux, F.; Peysson, Y.; Schneider, M.

    2011-12-01

    Methods and tools for design and modelling of tokamak operation scenarios are discussed with particular application to ITER advanced scenarios. Simulations of hybrid and steady-state scenarios performed with the integrated tokamak modelling suite of codes CRONOS are presented. The advantages of a possible steady-state scenario based on cyclic operations, alternating phases of positive and negative loop voltage, with no magnetic flux consumption on average, are discussed. For regimes in which current alignment is an issue, a general method for scenario design is presented, based on the characteristics of the poloidal current density profile.

  18. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  19. Physical Chemistry Research Toward Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Advancement.

    PubMed

    Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Campbell, Stephen A

    2013-02-07

    Hydrogen fuel cells, the most common type of which are proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), are on a rapid path to commercialization. We credit physical chemistry research in oxygen reduction electrocatalysis and theory with significant breakthroughs, enabling more cost-effective fuel cells. However, most of the physical chemistry has been restricted to studies of platinum and related alloys. More work is needed to better understand electrocatalysts generally in terms of properties and characterization. While the advent of such highly active catalysts will enable smaller, less expensive, and more powerful stacks, they will require better understanding and a complete restructuring of the diffusion media in PEMFCs to facilitate faster transport of the reactants (O2) and products (H2O). Even Ohmic losses between materials become more important at high power. Such lessons from PEMFC research are relevant to other electrochemical conversion systems, including Li-air batteries and flow batteries.

  20. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  1. Advances in atomic physics: Four decades of contribution of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Tharwat M

    2015-09-01

    In this review article, important developments in the field of atomic physics are highlighted and linked to research works the author was involved in himself as a leader of the Cairo University - Atomic Physics Group. Starting from the late 1960s - when the author first engaged in research - an overview is provided of the milestones in the fascinating landscape of atomic physics.

  2. Advanced physical models and monitoring methods for in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, K.; Chalmer, P.

    1996-05-30

    Numerous reports have indicated that contamination at DOE facilities is widespread and pervasive. Existing technology is often too costly or ineffective in remediating these contamination problems. An effective method to address one class of contamination, petroleum hydrocarbons, is in situ bioremediation. This project was designed to provide tools and approaches for increasing the reliability of in situ bioremediation. An example of the recognition within DOE for developing these tools is in the FY-1995 Technology Development Needs Summary of the Office of Technology Development of the US DOE. This document identifies specific needs addressed by this research. For example, Section 3.3 Need Statement IS-3 identifies the need for a {open_quotes}Rapid method to detect in situ biodegradation products.{close_quotes} Also, BW-I identifies the need to recognize boundaries between clean and contaminated materials and soils. Metabolic activity could identify these boundaries. Measuring rates of in situ microbial activity is critical to the fundamental understanding of subsurface microbiology and in selecting natural attenuation as a remediation option. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of subsurface environments, a significant cost incurred during bioremediation is the characterization of microbial activity, in part because so many intermediate end points (biomass, gene frequency, laboratory measurements of activity, etc.) must be used to infer in situ activity. A fast, accurate, real-time, and cost-effective method is needed to determine success of bioremediation at DOE sites.

  3. Advances in reactor physics education: Visualization of reactor parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Kromar, M.; Zerovnik, G.

    2012-07-01

    Modern computer codes allow detailed neutron transport calculations. In combination with advanced 3D visualization software capable of treating large amounts of data in real time they form a powerful tool that can be used as a convenient modern educational tool for reactor operators, nuclear engineers, students and specialists involved in reactor operation and design. Visualization is applicable not only in education and training, but also as a tool for fuel management, core analysis and irradiation planning. The paper treats the visualization of neutron transport in different moderators, neutron flux and power distributions in two nuclear reactors (TRIGA type research reactor and a typical PWR). The distributions are calculated with MCNP and CORD-2 computer codes and presented using Amira software. (authors)

  4. SOFTWARE REVIEW: The Advanced Physics Virtual Laboratory Series: CD-ROM Thermodynamics and Molecular Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-09-01

    -study'. Equations are presented without too much explanation, and definitions of key symbols are occasionally lacking - or have appeared in a different simulation and are not repeated. Where proofs or developments of formulae are presented steps are often left out. This means that students will get quite frustrated unless they have had some prior instruction or have read a fuller treatment in a textbook. The spoken commentary is slightly different from the text and leaves out the equations (sensibly enough!). Poor proof reading has allowed `typos' to stay in some places (notably the question in the Gas Diffusion simulation). Indeed the questions are particularly poor. On the whole they require the students to make some kind of calculation - and getting the right answer to these may not demonstrate understanding of the basic physics. Students will even so be quite frustrated by questions that are not based on the formulae in the text, or data from the simulation, and sometimes require concepts (e.g. molar mass) not mentioned anywhere. In one case a simulation headed isovolumic has a question in which the rather terrifying term isochoric is used instead. The answers to questions are given, but are rather misleadingly called solutions - all we get is the numerical answer, with no kind of help in finding out what went wrong. Students may also be frustrated by not knowing - or even being able to guess - how to input an answer in the same format as in the solution. Equally annoying is that when you pull down the question the graphical attachments to the main picture remain on top in the window, and have to dragged out of the way if you want to read it. I think that the authors need to do some more work in tidying up these aspects of the product. However, I have a more fundamental objection to the text in the thermodynamic simulations. I think that the difficult aspects of thermodynamics definitions and nomenclature have been skated over a little too glibly, and in addition it all reads

  5. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  6. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  8. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  9. Advanced Experiments in Nuclear Science, Volume I: Advanced Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Jerome L.; And Others

    The experiments in this manual represent state-of-the-art techniques which should be within the budgetary constraints of a college physics or chemistry department. There are fourteen experiments divided into five modules. The modules are on X-ray fluorescence, charged particle detection, neutron activation analysis, X-ray attenuation, and…

  10. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  11. Probing the scale of new physics by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mazumdar, A.

    2016-05-01

    We show that if the new physics beyond the standard model is associated with a first-order phase transition around 107- 108 GeV , the energy density stored in the resulting stochastic gravitational waves and the corresponding peak frequency are within the projected final sensitivity of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO detectors. We discuss some possible new physics scenarios that could arise at such energies, and in particular, the consequences for Peccei-Quinn and supersymmetry breaking scales.

  12. Recent advances in the link between physical activity, sedentary behavior, physical fitness, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Lim, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have characterized physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness as distinct, interrelated constructs that influence the risk of CRC and related outcomes. PA levels required to confer protection against CRC may be higher than previously thought. Sedentary behavior, defined as time spent sitting, increases CRC risk independent of PA and may require novel interventions distinct from those targeting PA. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality and may provide a potential tool for risk stratification and intervention. PMID:28344777

  13. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  14. Advanced Swimming, Phase One--Swimmer; Physical Education: 5551.48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutting, Dick

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 7-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Advanced swimming. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The first five sections of the guide list course guidelines, course description, broad goal statement, behavioral objectives, course content, learning activities, and teaching procedures. The guide also contains evaluation forms and a five-item…

  15. Physical Features of Soil: Advanced Crop and Soil Science. A Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    The course of study represents the second of six modules in advanced crop and soil science and introduces the agriculture student to the subject of physical features of the soil. Upon completing the two day lesson, the student will be able to determine the texture and structural types of soil, list the structural classes of the soil and where they…

  16. Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.

  17. How gender and reformed introductory physics impacts student success in advanced physics courses and continuation in the physics major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013)]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI) and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.

  18. Tether fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of tethers are presented and briefly discussed. The effects of gravity gradients, dumbbell libration in circular orbits, tether control strategies and impact hazards for tethers are among those fundamentals. Also considered are aerodynamic drag, constraints in momentum transfer applications and constraints with permanently deployed tethers. The theoretical feasibility of these concepts are reviewed.

  19. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives.

  20. Fundamental advancements of the future.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    General aviation encompasses all aviation except air carrier and military. This includes a broad spectrum of aircraft types ranging from amateur-built aircraft to jet transports, and includes missions such as transportation of people and freight, firefighting, power line patrol, agricultural, racing, and police patrol. The time span from discovery to broad utilization is such that for the next decade the majority of the innovations that will show up in the general aviation fleet will be derived from today's research efforts. A second area that has high potential is the modification of technology developments for military and transport aircraft to the needs of general aviation requirements of cost, complexity, and reliability.

  1. Strategies for Advancing Women in Physics and other Sciences in an Undergraduate Hispanic Institution (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia

    2009-04-01

    For the past 15 years, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) has implemented various efforts to increase participation and promote advancement of women in physics and other sciences. The strategies used include mentoring, collaborating, forming women's organizations, and offering training workshops. The physics program at UPRH is the largest in Puerto Rico with approximately 95 undergraduates. Since 1995, female students in the program have increased from 17% to 32%. Efforts to integrate women in undergraduate research as early as possible in their studies show promising results, with the percentage of women in research increasing from 13% to 60% in the last 13 years. The Faculty in Training (FIT) program, begun in 2003, has supported talented women students interested in academic careers. The first FIT physics student will obtain her PhD in 2009. At the faculty level, UPRH received a first-round US National Science Foundation ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Award in 2001. The ADVANCE legacy at UPRH is evident at levels ranging from changes in individual behaviors to the adoption of institutional policies. A strong network of women in science and their supporters continues to advance this legacy.

  2. Views of a devil`s advocate -- Fundamental challenges to effective field theory treatments of nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.

    1998-04-01

    The physics goals of the effective field theory program for nuclear phenomena are outlined. It is pointed out that there are multiple schemes for implementing EFT and it is presently not clear if any of these schemes is viable. Most of the applications of effective field theory ideas have been on nucleon-nucleon scattering. It is argued that this is little more than curve fitting and that other quantities need to be calculated to test the ideas. It is shown that EFT methods work well for certain bound state properties of the deuteron electric form factor. However, it is also shown that this success depends sensitively on the fact that the majority of the probability of the deuteron`s wave function is beyond the range of the potential. This circumstance is special to the deuteron suggesting that it will be very difficult to achieve the same kinds of success for tightly bound nuclei.

  3. How Gender and Reformed Introductory Physics Impacts Student Success in Advanced Physics Courses and Continuation in the Physics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-01-01

    Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., "Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111," 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of…

  4. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  5. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  6. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Harry W.K.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    This mini-course gives an introduction to the techniques used in experimental particle physics with an emphasis on the impact of technological advances. The basic detector types and particle accelerator facilities will be briefly covered with examples of their use and with comparisons. The mini-course ends with what can be expected in the near future from current technology advances. The mini-course is intended for graduate students and post-docs and as an introduction to experimental techniques for theorists.

  7. Physical constraints, fundamental limits, and optimal locus of operating points for an inverted pendulum based actuated dynamic walker.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lalit; Umanand, Loganathan

    2015-10-26

    The inverted pendulum is a popular model for describing bipedal dynamic walking. The operating point of the walker can be specified by the combination of initial mid-stance velocity (v0) and step angle (φm) chosen for a given walk. In this paper, using basic mechanics, a framework of physical constraints that limit the choice of operating points is proposed. The constraint lines thus obtained delimit the allowable region of operation of the walker in the v0-φm plane. A given average forward velocity vx,avg can be achieved by several combinations of v0 and φm. Only one of these combinations results in the minimum mechanical power consumption and can be considered the optimum operating point for the given vx,avg. This paper proposes a method for obtaining this optimal operating point based on tangency of the power and velocity contours. Putting together all such operating points for various vx,avg, a family of optimum operating points, called the optimal locus, is obtained. For the energy loss and internal energy models chosen, the optimal locus obtained has a largely constant step angle with increasing speed but tapers off at non-dimensional speeds close to unity.

  8. Who cares about physics today? A marketing strategy for the survival of fundamental science and the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    It is often said that the major stumbling block for doing scientific outreach is money because of funding issues. Ignoring that the true issue is the lack of time and/or inclination on the part of practicing scientists, this statement is too generic to be quantitative or even complete: in fact, as for every project or investment, the discussion should be based on context and impact. Initiatives are at hand to do outreach that cost nothing more than the budget already in place for a University, its Departments and its scientific research groups: it is more a matter of capitalizing existing assets at a University in a concerted way and taking full advantage of these assets by means of synergetic collaborations. I will describe one such collaboration among the School of Dance and the Astronomy and Physics Departments at the University of Maryland: the dance performance ``Gravity,'' inspired by gravitational-wave astronomy. Similar types of partnerships represent new promising ways of doing science communications according to what can be rightly called a marketing strategy (http://arxiv.org.abs/1210.0082).

  9. Fundamental Physics with the Hubble Frontier Fields: Constraining Dark Matter Models with the Abundance of Extremely Faint and Distant Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menci, N.; Merle, A.; Totzauer, M.; Schneider, A.; Grazian, A.; Castellano, M.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the measured abundance of ultra-faint lensed galaxies at z≈ 6 in the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) provides stringent constraints on the parameter space of (i) dark matter models based on keV sterile neutrinos; (ii) “fuzzy” wavelike dark matter models, based on Bose–Einstein condensates of ultra-light particles. For the case of sterile neutrinos, we consider two production mechanisms: resonant production through mixing with active neutrinos and the decay of scalar particles. For the former model, we derive constraints for the combination of sterile neutrino mass {m}ν and mixing parameter {\\sin }2(2θ ) which provide the tightest lower bounds on the mixing angle (and hence on the lepton asymmetry) derived so far by methods independent of baryonic physics. For the latter we compute the allowed combinations of the scalar mass, its coupling to the Higgs field, and the Yukawa coupling of scalar to sterile neutrinos. We compare our results to independent existing astrophysical bounds on sterile neutrinos in the same mass range. For the case of “fuzzy” dark matter, we show that the observed number density ≈ 1/{{Mpc}}3 of high-redshift galaxies in the HFF sets a lower limit {m}\\psi ≥slant 8\\cdot {10}-22 eV (at the 3-σ confidence level) on the particle mass, a result that strongly disfavors wavelike bosonic dark matter as a viable model for structure formation. We discuss the impact on our results of uncertainties due to systematics in the selection of highly magnified, faint galaxies at high redshift.

  10. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable of handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.

  11. High Performance Computing Modeling Advances Accelerator Science for High-Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Amundson, James; Macridin, Alexandru; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2014-07-28

    The development and optimization of particle accelerators are essential for advancing our understanding of the properties of matter, energy, space, and time. Particle accelerators are complex devices whose behavior involves many physical effects on multiple scales. Therefore, advanced computational tools utilizing high-performance computing are essential for accurately modeling them. In the past decade, the US Department of Energy's SciDAC program has produced accelerator-modeling tools that have been employed to tackle some of the most difficult accelerator science problems. The authors discuss the Synergia framework and its applications to high-intensity particle accelerator physics. Synergia is an accelerator simulation package capable ofmore » handling the entire spectrum of beam dynamics simulations. Our authors present Synergia's design principles and its performance on HPC platforms.« less

  12. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  13. A novel approach for determination of fundamental physical transport processes in natural channel design restoration sites with river steering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Endreny, T. A.; Becker, J. F.; Kroll, C.

    2012-12-01

    River restoration projects in the United States are frequently proposed and constructed with the intention of improving water quality, yet relatively little evidence exists regarding the success of these efforts. Many projects use an approach known as natural channel design (NCD), and include river steering structures. Prior assessment of water quality improvements within NCD sites has involved hydrologic retention modeling using a non-reactive tracer, with the goal of separately identifying hyporheic and surface transient storage (STS). A comparative approach involving NCD and non-NCD sites used by the authors yielded mixed results: although physically-based assessments of STS profiles in many NCD sites support larger STS zones than non-NCD sites, these differences are not apparent when examining common transient storage metrics. Inverse modeling within nine NCD sites reveals additional obstacles, including generation of spurious lateral inflow/outflow values, limited detection of hyporheic processes due to strong surface transient storage, shear and Taylor dispersion, and divergent temporal patterns of solute flux over channel cross sections bounding structures. To overcome the obstacles encountered with 1D inverse modeling, data is presented from a new approach used in NCD reaches. This approach involves deriving a mass flux signature via pairing velocity and channel geometry with multiple electrical conductivity (EC) loggers deployed laterally at control cross sections (CCS). These CCS bound sub-reach segments (15 total across four NCD reaches) that include river steering structures and intermediate geomorphic features. Velocity and geometry measurements yield discharge values surrounding each EC logger which are used to weight a composite mass flux breakthrough curve above, within, and below each segment. Composite mass flux signatures reflect exchange processes that are not fully integrated laterally immediately below structures, and can be analyzed via

  14. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  15. Fundamental Physics with Cold Positronium

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, D. B.; Tom, H. W. K.; Mills, A. P. Jr.

    2008-08-08

    The use of positron plasmas to produce intense positron pulses has made it possible to create relatively large instantaneous positronium densities. This in turn provides an opportunity to perform improved precision spectroscopy measurements on positronium that will be limited by systematic rather than statistical effects which will improve present QED positronium tests by orders of magnitude. Further increases in the positronium density will lead to the production of a positronium Bose-Einstein condensate, further increasing the accuracy of such measurements and making it possible to study the phase diagram of a matter-antimatter condensate for the first time.

  16. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  17. Reducing anxiety and enhancing physical performance by using an advanced version of EMDR: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background The main aim of this pilot study was to investigate an advanced version of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for reducing anxiety. Methods Fifty participants were asked at two times of measurement (T1 and T2 with a rest of 4 weeks) to generate anxiety via the recall of autobiographical memories according to their anxiety. Furthermore, the participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group, and the experimental group received an intervention of 1–2 h with the advanced version of EMDR in order to their anxiety 2 weeks after T1. At T1 as well as T2, we measured the intensity of participants' anxiety with a Likert scale (LS) and collected participants' state (temporary) and trait (chronic) anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, we measured participants' physical performance in a test for the finger musculature under the induction of their anxiety. Results The results showed that participant's ratings of their perceived intensity of anxiety (measured by a 9-point LS) and the state and trait anxiety decreased significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group from T1 to T2. Moreover, the physical performance under the induction of participants' anxiety increased significantly in the experimental group from T1 to T2 and there were no significant changes in the control group. Conclusions The study could show that the advanced version of EMDR is an appropriate method to reduce anxiety. PMID:24944864

  18. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  19. Recent Advances in Free-Living Physical Activity Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Andre, David; Wolf, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    It has become clear recently that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreased levels of physical activity and an increase in obesity. Incorporating appropriate and sufficient physical activity into one's life is an essential component of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and overall health, especially for those with type II diabetes mellitus. Regular physical activity can have a positive impact by lowering blood glucose, helping the body to be more efficient at using insulin. There are other substantial benefits for patients with diabetes, including prevention of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several complications of utilizing a self-care treatment methodology involving exercise include (1) patients may not know how much activity that they engage in and (2) health-care providers do not have objective measurements of how much activity their patients perform. However, several technological advances have brought a variety of activity monitoring devices to the market that can address these concerns. Ranging from simple pedometers to multisensor devices, the different technologies offer varying levels of accuracy, comfort, and reliability. The key notion is that by providing feedback to the patient, motivation can be increased and targets can be set and aimed toward. Although these devices are not specific to the treatment of diabetes, the importance of physical activity in treating the disease makes an understanding of these devices important. This article reviews these physical activity monitors and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:19885145

  20. Advances of Yemeni women in physics: Climbing toward a better status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraddin, S.; Alsowidi, N. A.

    2013-03-01

    In the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2008, the overall status of women in physics in Yemen has improved. The enrollment of women in the Department of Physics at Sana'a University has increased at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. At the graduate level, female enrollment has been equal to (50%) or greater than (57%) male enrollment in recent years. In addition, four of the leading state universities already have female faculty members with a PhD in physics who hold the title of assistant professor or better. These women in academia have made remarkable progress by publishing their work in distinctive journals as well as by winning national and regional scientific awards. We can be rather satisfied with the overall advances of Yemeni women in physics, as well, at every step up the academic ladder, but we simultaneously acknowledge their significant underrepresentation in the highest scientific positions as well as in decision-making positions at the faculty or administrative level of universities.

  1. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  2. Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorrain, Paul; Corson, Dale R.; Lorrain, Francois

    Based on the classic Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by the same authors, Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Phenomena capitalizes on the older text's traditional strengths--solid physics, inventive problems, and an experimental approach--while offering a briefer, more accessible introduction to the basic principles of electromagnetism.

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  4. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  5. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols. PMID:24399155

  6. The Advanced Light Source: A new tool for research in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the world's brightest synchrotron radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum when it begins operation in 1993. It will be available as a national user facility to researchers in a broad range of disciplines, including materials science, atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, biology, imaging, and technology. The high brightness of the ALS will be particularly well suited to high-resolution studies of tenuous targets, such as excited atoms, ions, and clusters.

  7. The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2014-10-01

    Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  8. Advanced Physics-Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse Reverberation in the Littoral Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    2 9 0 V I L L A G E P A R K D R V I E • L E B A N O N , O H • 4 5 0 3 6 - 7 8 8 5 P H O N E : ( 5 1 3 ) 2 2 8 - 0 0 7 3 December 8...DEC 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Advanced Physics- Based Modeling of Discrete Clutter and Diffuse...2400 and 3600 Hz using path a (see Figure 3) shown by the solid blue line, using path e shown by the solid red line and path d shown by the dashed

  9. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  10. PREFACE: 16th International workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in physics research (ACAT2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiala, L.; Lokajicek, M.; Tumova, N.

    2015-05-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 16th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2014), this year the motto was ''bridging disciplines''. The conference took place on September 1-5, 2014, at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. The 16th edition of ACAT explored the boundaries of computing system architectures, data analysis algorithmics, automatic calculations, and theoretical calculation technologies. It provided a forum for confronting and exchanging ideas among these fields, where new approaches in computing technologies for scientific research were explored and promoted. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 140 participants from all over the world. The workshop's 16 invited speakers presented key topics on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics. During the workshop, 60 talks and 40 posters were presented in three tracks: Computing Technology for Physics Research, Data Analysis - Algorithms and Tools, and Computations in Theoretical Physics: Techniques and Methods. The round table enabled discussions on expanding software, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the respective areas. ACAT 2014 was generously sponsored by Western Digital, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hewlett Packard, DataDirect Networks, M Computers, Bright Computing, Huawei and PDV-Systemhaus. Special appreciations go to the track liaisons Lorenzo Moneta, Axel Naumann and Grigory Rubtsov for their work on the scientific program and the publication preparation. ACAT's IACC would also like to express its gratitude to all referees for their work on making sure the contributions are published in the proceedings. Our thanks extend to the conference liaisons Andrei Kataev and Jerome Lauret who worked with the local contacts and made this conference possible as well as to the program

  11. Opportunities for Regenerative Rehabilitation and Advanced Technologies in Physical Therapy: Perspective From Academia.

    PubMed

    Norland, Ryan; Muchnick, Matthew; Harmon, Zachary; Chin, Tiffany; Kakar, Rumit Singh

    2016-04-01

    As rehabilitation specialists, physical therapists must continue to stay current with advances in technologies to provide appropriate rehabilitation protocols, improve patient outcomes, and be the preferred clinician of choice. To accomplish this vision, the physical therapy profession must begin to develop a culture of lifelong learning at the early stages of education and clinical training in order to embrace cutting-edge advancements such as stem cell therapies, tissue engineering, and robotics, to name a few. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a current perspective on faculty and graduate student awareness of regenerative rehabilitation concepts and (2) to advocate for increased integration of these emerging technologies within the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) curriculum. An online survey was designed to gauge awareness of principles in regenerative rehabilitation and to determine whether the topic was included and assessed in doctoral curricula. The survey yielded 1,006 responses from 82 DPT programs nationwide and indicated a disconnect in familiarity with the term "regenerative rehabilitation" and awareness of the inclusion of this material in the curriculum. To resolve this disconnect, the framework of the curriculum can be used to integrate new material via guest lecturers, interdisciplinary partnerships, and research opportunities. Successfully mentoring a generation of clinicians and rehabilitation scientists who incorporate new medical knowledge and technology into their own clinical and research practice depends greatly on sharing the responsibility among graduate students, professors, the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), and DPT programs. Creating an interdisciplinary culture and integrating regenerative medicine and rehabilitation concepts into the curriculum will cultivate individuals who will be advocates for interprofessional behaviors and will ensure that the profession meets the goals stated in APTA Vision 2020.

  12. Neutrons and Fundamental Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Plaster, Bradley

    2016-01-11

    The research supported by this project addressed fundamental open physics questions via experiments with subatomic particles. In particular, neutrons constitute an especially ideal “laboratory” for fundamental physics tests, as their sensitivities to the four known forces of nature permit a broad range of tests of the so-called “Standard Model”, our current best physics model for the interactions of subatomic particles. Although the Standard Model has been a triumphant success for physics, it does not provide satisfactory answers to some of the most fundamental open questions in physics, such as: are there additional forces of nature beyond the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces?, or why does our universe consist of more matter than anti-matter? This project also contributed significantly to the training of the next generation of scientists, of considerable value to the public. Young scientists, ranging from undergraduate students to graduate students to post-doctoral researchers, made significant contributions to the work carried out under this project.

  13. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults.

  14. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  15. X-ray comb generation from nuclear-resonance-stabilized x-ray free-electron laser oscillator for fundamental physics and precision metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K.-J.

    2015-03-01

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as 57Fe as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as 181Ta or 45Sc.

  16. X-Ray Comb Generation from Nuclear-Resonance-Stabilized X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Fundamental Physics and Precision Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K. -J.

    2015-03-31

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as Fe-57 as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as Ta-181 or Sc-45.

  17. A driver linac for the Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory : physics design and beam dynamics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.; Physics

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) being developed at ANL consists of an 833 MV heavy-ion driver linac capable of producing uranium ions up to 200 MeV/u and protons to 580 MeV with 400 kW beam power. We have designed all accelerator components including a two charge state LEBT, an RFQ, a MEBT, a superconducting linac, a stripper station and chicane. We present the results of an optimized linac design and end-to-end simulations including machine errors and detailed beam loss analysis. The Advanced Exotic Beam Laboratory (AEBL) has been proposed at ANL as a reduced scale of the original Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) project with about half the cost but the same beam power. AEBL will address 90% or more of RIA physics but with reduced multi-users capabilities. The focus of this paper is the physics design and beam dynamics simulations of the AEBL driver linac. The reported results are for a multiple charge state U{sup 238} beam.

  18. Recent Advances and Cross-Century Outlooks in Physics, Interplay between Theory and Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Interdisciplinary Topics * SUPERSYMMETRY * Supersymmetry, Noncommutative Geometry and Ultimate Unification * Supersymmetry and Beam Dynamics * Brane World * Dynamical Symmetries in High-Temperature Superconductivity * BEAM, PLASMA, GRAVITATION, AND ASTRONOMY * Toroidal Akfvén Eigenmode Experiments in TFTR * Empirical Tests of the Relativistic Gravity: The Past, the Present and the Future * Radio Astronomy in Taiwan: (Personal) Highlights * PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS * Is There only Top Quark? Review of Top Results * Some Topics on Double Heavy Mesons: Heavy Quarkonia and Bc Meson * Softly Broken CP Symmetry * A Pilot Experiment with Reactor Neutrinos in Taiwan * The Composition of the Proton Spin * Recent Results from Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility * SYNCHROTRON RADIATION AND ATOMIC PHYSICS * Synchrotron Radiation/Laser and Doubly-Excited Atoms * Multiply Excited States for Lithium * FRACTIONAL QUANTUM HALL EFFECT * An Introduction to Topological Orders and Edge Excitations in Quantum Hall States * Phases and Phase Transitions in the Quantum Hall Effect * Chiral Luttinger Liquids at the Fractional Quantum Hall Edge * HIGH-Tc SUPERCONDUCTOR PHYSICS * Two Energy Gaps in Cuprate Superconductors: Clues to the High-Tc Mechanism * Applications of High Temperature Superconductors * Magnetism and Superconductivity in Ru-Based Perovskites * Correlation between Crystal Symmetry, Weak Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in Distorted T'-phase Cuprates * CHAOS * An Overview of Chaos * Chaotic Dynamics: Introduction and Recent Developments * Chaos in Accelerators * HIGHLIGHTS OF PHYSICS ADVANCES IN TAIWAN * Solving the X-Ray Phase Problem for omolecular Crystals by Multi-Wave X-Ray Interference * BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATION * Bogoliubov Dispersion Relation and the Possibility of Superfluidity for Weakly-interacting Photons * Bose-Einstein Effects in High-Energy Physics * Physics without Borders

  19. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    DOE PAGES

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; ...

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging formore » probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.« less

  20. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  1. Insights into the physical chemistry of materials from advances in HAADF-STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sohlberg, Karl; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2014-11-13

    The observation that, ‘‘New tools lead to new science’’[P. S. Weiss, ACS Nano., 2012, 6(3), 1877–1879], is perhaps nowhere more evident than in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Advances in STEM have endowed this technique with several powerful and complimentary capabilities. For example, the application of high-angle annular dark-field imaging has made possible real-space imaging at subangstrom resolution with Z-contrast (Z = atomic number). Further advances have wrought: simultaneous real-space imaging and elemental identification by using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); 3-dimensional (3D) mapping by depth sectioning; monitoring of surface diffusion by time-sequencing of images; reduced electron energy imaging for probing graphenes; etc. In this paper we review how these advances, often coupled with first-principles theory, have led to interesting and important new insights into the physical chemistry of materials. We then review in detail a few specific applications that highlight some of these STEM capabilities.

  2. Advanced Mesh-Enabled Monte carlo capability for Multi-Physics Reactor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Paul; Evans, Thomas; Tautges, Tim

    2012-12-24

    This project will accumulate high-precision fluxes throughout reactor geometry on a non- orthogonal grid of cells to support multi-physics coupling, in order to more accurately calculate parameters such as reactivity coefficients and to generate multi-group cross sections. This work will be based upon recent developments to incorporate advanced geometry and mesh capability in a modular Monte Carlo toolkit with computational science technology that is in use in related reactor simulation software development. Coupling this capability with production-scale Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can provide advanced and extensible test-beds for these developments. Continuous energy Monte Carlo methods are generally considered to be the most accurate computational tool for simulating radiation transport in complex geometries, particularly neutron transport in reactors. Nevertheless, there are several limitations for their use in reactor analysis. Most significantly, there is a trade-off between the fidelity of results in phase space, statistical accuracy, and the amount of computer time required for simulation. Consequently, to achieve an acceptable level of statistical convergence in high-fidelity results required for modern coupled multi-physics analysis, the required computer time makes Monte Carlo methods prohibitive for design iterations and detailed whole-core analysis. More subtly, the statistical uncertainty is typically not uniform throughout the domain, and the simulation quality is limited by the regions with the largest statistical uncertainty. In addition, the formulation of neutron scattering laws in continuous energy Monte Carlo methods makes it difficult to calculate adjoint neutron fluxes required to properly determine important reactivity parameters. Finally, most Monte Carlo codes available for reactor analysis have relied on orthogonal hexahedral grids for tallies that do not conform to the geometric boundaries and are thus generally not well

  3. The design, development, and assessment of advanced modeling based projects in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsdell, Michael W.

    The results of Physics Education Research (PER) have provided much insight into developing more effective learning environments in introductory physics courses. In this dissertation we discuss the design, development, and implementation of two advanced Modeling Based Projects (MBP) that have evolved through research-based criteria. The projects serve as an alternative to the traditional laboratory portion of the introductory calculus-based courses taught at Clarkson University for undergraduate science and engineering majors. Each project has gone through several research-redevelopment cycles, through which the experimental apparatuses and pedagogical approaches have been improved. Details of each projects' pedagogical structure and implementation are presented and discussed within the context of recommendations established through PER. We present a detailed assessment of their effectiveness in terms of students' conceptual learning via the Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) and the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), course performance via exam scores, and attitudes via the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX). The results show that students who participate in MBP at Clarkson University achieve significant gains over students taught elsewhere with a traditional approach and similar gains to those achieved by others using well tested, research motivated curricula reforms. An internal evaluation was performed to compare students participating in MBP with a control group of statistically comparable students who attended traditional laboratories. The results reveal that students who participated in MBP obtain statistically significant gains over similar students taught with the traditional approach for both courses within the introductory sequence.

  4. Arguing against fundamentality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  5. Monte Carlo fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

  6. 13th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speer, T.; Boudjema, F.; Lauret, J.; Naumann, A.; Teodorescu, L.; Uwer, P.

    "Beyond the Cutting edge in Computing" Fundamental research is dealing, by definition, with the two extremes: the extremely small and the extremely large. The LHC and Astroparticle physics experiments will soon offer new glimpses beyond the current frontiers. And the computing infrastructure to support such physics research needs to look beyond the cutting edge. Once more it seems that we are on the edge of a computing revolution. But perhaps what we are seeing now is a even more epochal change where not only the pace of the revolution is changing, but also its very nature. Change is not any more an "event" meant to open new possibilities that have to be understood first and exploited then to prepare the ground for a new leap. Change is becoming the very essence of the computing reality, sustained by a continuous flow of technical and paradigmatic innovation. The hardware is definitely moving toward more massive parallelism, in a breathtaking synthesis of all the past techniques of concurrent computation. New many-core machines offer opportunities for all sorts of Single/Multiple Instructions, Single/Multiple Data and Vector computations that in the past required specialised hardware. At the same time, all levels of virtualisation imagined till now seem to be possible via Clouds, and possibly many more. Information Technology has been the working backbone of the Global Village, and now, in more than one sense, it is becoming itself the Global Village. Between these two, the gap between the need for adapting applications to exploit the new hardware possibilities and the push toward virtualisation of resources is widening, creating more challenges as technical and intellectual progress continues. ACAT 2010 proposes to explore and confront the different boundaries of the evolution of computing, and its possible consequences on our scientific activity. What do these new technologies entail for physics research? How will physics research benefit from this revolution in

  7. COMPRES Mineral Physics Educational Modules for Advanced Undergraduates and Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnley, P. C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) is a community-based consortium whose goal is to advance and facilitate experimental high pressure research in the Earth Sciences. An important aspect of this goal is sharing our knowledge with the next generation of researchers. To facilitate this, we have created a group of web-based educational modules on mineral physics topics. The modules reside in the On Cutting Edge, Teaching Mineralogy collection on the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) website. Although the modules are designed to function as part of a full semester course, each module can also stand alone. Potential users of the modules include mineral physics faculty teaching "bricks and mortar" classes at their own institutions, or in distance education setting, mineralogy teachers interested in including supplementary material in their mineralogy class, undergraduates doing independent study projects and graduate students and colleagues in other sub-disciplines who wish to brush up on a mineral physics topic. We used the modules to teach an on-line course entitled "Introduction to Mineral Physics" during the spring 2012 semester. More than 20 students and postdocs as well as 15 faculty and senior scientists participated in the course which met twice weekly as a webinar. Recordings of faculty lectures and student-led discussions of journal articles are now available upon request and edited versions of the lectures will be incorporated into the educational modules. Our experience in creating the modules and the course indicates that the use of 1) community-generated internet-based resources and 2) webinars to enable shared teaching between faculty at different universities, has the potential to both enrich graduate education and create efficiencies for university faculty.;

  8. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Function in Adults of Advanced Age: The CHS All Stars

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Tooze, Janet A.; Davis, Cralen C.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.; Hirsch, Calvin H.; Robbins, John A.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and physical function in adults of advanced age. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of physical function over 3 years of follow-up in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. Setting Forsyth County, NC; Sacramento County, CA; Washington County, MD; and Allegheny County, PA. Participants Community-dwelling adults aged 77–100 years (n=988). Measurements Serum 25(OH)D, short physical performance battery (SPPB) and grip and knee extensor strength assessed at baseline. Mobility disability (difficulty walking half a mile or up 10 steps) and activities of daily living (ADL) disability were assessed at baseline and every 6 months over 3 years of follow-up. Results 30.8% of participants had deficient 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL). SPPB scores were lower among those with deficient 25(OH)D compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D (≥30 ng/mL) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, season, health behaviors and chronic conditions (mean±SE: 6.53±0.24 vs. 7.15±0.25, p <0.01). Grip strength adjusted for body size was also lower among those with deficient versus sufficient 25(OH)D (mean±SE: 24.7±0.6 vs. 26.0±0.6 kg, p <0.05). Participants with deficient 25(OH)D were more likely to have prevalent mobility and ADL disability at baseline (OR (95% CI): 1.44 (0.96–2.14) and 1.51 (1.01–2.25), respectively) compared to those with sufficient 25(OH)D. Furthermore, participants with deficient 25(OH)D were at increased risk of incident mobility disability over 3 years of follow-up (HR (95% CI): 1.56 (1.06–2.30)). Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was common and was associated with poorer physical performance, lower muscle strength, and prevalent mobility and ADL disability among community-dwelling adults of advanced age. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency predicted incident mobility disability. PMID:22091492

  10. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a contract entitled Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technology - Froth Flotation'', to ICF Kaiser Engineers with the following team members, Ohio Coal Development Office, Babcock and Wilcox, Consolidation Coal Company, Eimco Process Equipment Company, Illinois State Geological Survey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Process Technology, Inc. This document a quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1, 1992 to September 30, 1992. This report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.

  11. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics -- From Basic Principles to Advanced Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, Wolfhard

    2013-08-01

    This chapter starts with an overview of Monte Carlo computer simulation methodologies which are illustrated for the simple case of the Ising model. After reviewing importance sampling schemes based on Markov chains and standard local update rules (Metropolis, Glauber, heat-bath), nonlocal cluster-update algorithms are explained which drastically reduce the problem of critical slowing down at second-order phase transitions and thus improve the performance of simulations. How this can be quantified is explained in the section on statistical error analyses of simulation data including the effect of temporal correlations and autocorrelation times. Histogram reweighting methods are explained in the next section. Eventually, more advanced generalized ensemble methods (simulated and parallel tempering, multicanonical ensemble, Wang-Landau method) are discussed which are particularly important for simulations of first-order phase transitions and, in general, of systems with rare-event states. The setup of scaling and finite-size scaling analyses is the content of the following section. The chapter concludes with two advanced applications to complex physical systems. The first example deals with a quenched, diluted ferromagnet, and in the second application we consider the adsorption properties of macromolecules such as polymers and proteins to solid substrates. Such systems often require especially tailored algorithms for their efficient and successful simulation.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  16. IBPRO - A Novel Short-Duration Teaching Course in Advanced Physics and Biology Underlying Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Michael C; Tracey, Monica W; Kacin, Sara E; Burmeister, Jay W

    2017-03-22

    This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists. These attendees receive keynote lectures and activities based on active learning strategies, merging together the clinical, biological and physics underpinnings of radiation oncology, at the forefront of the field. This experience is aimed at increasing collaborations, raising the level and amount of basic and applied research undertaken in radiation oncology, and enabling attendees to confidently become involved in the future teaching and training of researchers and radiation oncologists.

  17. MO-FG-BRC-00: Joint AAPM-ESTRO Symposium: Advances in Experimental Medical Physics.

    PubMed

    Berbeco, Ross; Ionascu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Experimental research in medical physics has expanded the limits of our knowledge and provided novel imaging and therapy technologies for patients around the world. However, experimental efforts are challenging due to constraints in funding, space, time and other forms of institutional support. In this joint ESTRO-AAPM symposium, four exciting experimental projects from four different countries are highlighted. Each project is focused on a different aspect of radiation therapy. From the USA, we will hear about a new linear accelerator concept for more compact and efficient therapy devices. From Canada, we will learn about novel linear accelerator target design and the implications for imaging and therapy. From France, we will discover a mature translational effort to incorporate theranostic nanoparticles in MR-guided radiation therapy. From Germany, we will find out about a novel in-treatment imaging modality for particle therapy. These examples of high impact, experimental medical physics research are representative of the diversity of such efforts that are on-going around the globe. J. Robar, Research is supported through collaboration with Varian Medical Systems and Brainlab AGD. Westerly, This work is supported by the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. COI: NONEK. Parodi, Part of the presented work is supported by the DFG (German Research Foundation) Cluster of Excellence MAP (Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics) and has been carried out in collaboration with IBA.

  18. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    2004-10-21

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx}150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  19. Advances in Galactic Dynamics: Classical Physics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John

    2007-04-01

    During the past 2 decades, there have been tremendous advances in computational power and algorithmic efficiency in the numerical N-body problem. Despite the vast scale of the universe, the original Newtonian equations of motion along with the inverse-square law of gravity still provide an adequate physical framework for studying many of the complexities of the dynamic universe. The relativistic limit in the macroscopic universe is only reached on the extreme scales of the entire observable universe and the event horizons of black holes. Here I will review some of the recent advances in parallel computational algorithms for application to the collisionless N-body problem with the main applications to the problem of the dynamics of galaxies and cosmological structure formation. The cosmological paradigm of cold dark matter with a cosmological constant is now so well-constrained that in principle detailed predictions of the dynamical behavior of galaxies can be tested against observation. I will describe two recent studies that use realistic, self-consistent N-body models of disk galaxies to study the effects of two cosmological predictions: dark matter halo triaxiality and substructure. The reaction of a stellar disk to these dark matter characteristics leads to triggering of the bar instability at random times in a given galaxy's life history and so can help explain the observed fraction and incidence of bars in the spiral galaxy population. I will also present some recent work on high-resolution computer animation of galactic dynamics that originated as a way to illustrate and develop intuition about dynamical processes but has since developed into a means of artistic expression through the beauty of complex gravitating systems.

  20. Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2003-01-01

    Flutter-free operation of advanced transonic fan designs continues to be a challenging task for the designers of aircraft engines. In order to meet the demands of increased performance and lighter weight, these modern fan designs usually feature low-aspect ratio shroudless rotor blade designs that make the task of achieving adequate flutter margin even more challenging for the aeroelastician. This is especially true for advanced forward swept designs that encompass an entirely new design space compared to previous experience. Fortunately, advances in unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques over the past decade now provide an analysis capability that can be used to quantitatively assess the aeroelastic characteristics of these next generation fans during the design cycle. For aeroelastic applications, Mississippi State University and NASA Glenn Research Center have developed the CFD code TURBO-AE. This code is a time-accurate three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes unsteady flow solver developed for axial-flow turbomachinery that can model multiple blade rows undergoing harmonic oscillations with arbitrary interblade phase angles, i.e., nodal diameter patterns. Details of the code can be found in Chen et al. (1993, 1994), Bakhle et al. (1997, 1998), and Srivastava et al. (1999). To assess aeroelastic stability, the work-per-cycle from TURBO-AE is converted to the critical damping ratio since this value is more physically meaningful, with both the unsteady normal pressure and viscous shear forces included in the work-per-cycle calculation. If the total damping (aerodynamic plus mechanical) is negative, then the blade is unstable since it extracts energy from the flow field over the vibration cycle. TURBO-AE is an integral part of an aeroelastic design system being developed at Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services for flutter and forced response predictions, with test cases from development rig and engine tests being used to validate its predictive

  1. Fundamental properties of resonances.

    PubMed

    Ceci, S; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Percan, A; Zauner, B

    2017-03-27

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own.

  2. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  3. A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

    2007-10-18

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

  4. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  5. Fundamentals and recent advances in X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) applied on thermal-fluid dynamics and multiphase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well-known technique nowadays, since its first practical application by Sir. G. Hounsfield (Nobel price for medicine 1979) has continually benefited from optimising improvements, especially in medical applications. Indeed, also application of CT in various engineering research fields provides fundamental informations on a wide range of applications, considering that the technique is not destructive, allowing 3D visualization without perturbation of the analysed material. Nowadays, it is technologically possible to design and realize an equipment that achieve a micrometric resolution and even improve the sensibility in revealing differences in materials having very radiotransparency, allowing i.e. to distinguish between different fluids (with different density) or states of matter (like with two-phase flows). At the University of Bergamo, a prototype of an X-ray microCT system was developed since 2008, so being fully operative from 2012, with specific customizations for investigations in thermal-fluid dynamics and multiphase flow researches. A technical session held at the UIT International Conference in L'Aquila (Italy), at which this paper is referring, has presented some microCT fundamentals, to allow the audience to gain basics to follow the “fil-rouge” that links all the instrumentation developments, till the recent applications. Hereinafter are reported some applications currently developed at Bergamo University at the X-ray computed micro-tomography laboratory.

  6. The advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley laboratory: a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, Alfred S.; Robinson, Arthur L.

    1991-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 10 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers) and 24 high-quality bend-magnet ports. The short pulse width (30-50 ps) will be ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will generate high-brightness partially coherent soft X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; this radiation is plane polarized. Wigglers and bend magnets will extend the spectrum by generating high fluxes of X-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy), and in biology, such as X-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity; the high flux will allow measurements in atomic physics and chemistry to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Technological applications could include lithography and nano-fabrication.

  7. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Spatial phase fluctuations of the fundamental laser mode caused by spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinskiĭ, A. V.; Chirkin, Anatolii S.

    1989-02-01

    A calculation is reported of the degree of spatial coherence of the fundamental radiation mode subject to phase fluctuations in space. It is shown that the degree of spatial coherence (within the beam width) is perturbed only slightly by these fluctuations, compared with subthreshold excitation of higher transverse modes.

  8. On the physical interconnection of Seismic Electric Signals with seismicity: Recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarlis, Nicholas; Skordas, Efthimios; Lazaridou, Mary; Varotsos, Panayiotis

    2013-04-01

    We review the recent advances on Seismic Electric Signals (SES) which are low frequency (˜ 1Hz) signals that precede earthquakes [1-3]. Since the 1980's Varotsos and Alexopoulos proposed [4] that SES are generated in the future focal area when the stress reaches a critical value, thus causing a cooperative orientation of the electric dipoles that anyhow exist in the focal area due to lattice imperfections in the ionic constituents of the rocks. A series of such signals within a short time are termed SES activity [5] and usually appear before major earthquakes. The combination of their physical properties enable the determination of the epicentral region and the magnitude well in advance. Natural time analysis introduced a decade ago [6, 7] may uncover novel dynamic features hidden behind time series in complex systems [8]. By employing this analysis, several advances have been made towards a better understanding of the SES properties. For example, it has been found [6, 8] that the natural time analysis of the seismicity subsequent to the initiation of a SES activity enables the determination of the occurrence time of an impending major mainshock within a time window of around one week. On this basis, predictions -including the magnitude, epicenter and time window of the expected event- have been documented well in advance for all five mainshocks with M_w×6.4 in Greece since 2001 [8, 9]. In addition, by applying natural time analysis to the time series of earthquakes, we recently found [10] that the order parameter of seismicity exhibits a unique change approximately at the date at which SES activities have been reported to initiate. This is the first time that before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two different geophysical observables. 1. P. Varotsos and K. Alexopoulos, Tectonophysics 110, 73-98, 1984a. 2. P. Varotsos and K. Alexopoulos, Tectonophysics 110, 99-125, 1984b. 3. P.A. Varotsos, N

  9. The consequences of using advanced physical assessment skills in medical and surgical nursing: A hermeneutic pragmatic study

    PubMed Central

    Zambas, Shelaine I.; Smythe, Elizabeth A.; Koziol-Mclain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to explore the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills on medical and surgical wards. Background Appropriate, accurate, and timely assessment by nurses is the cornerstone of maintaining patient safety in hospitals. The inclusion of “advanced” physical assessment skills such as auscultation, palpation, and percussion is thought to better prepare nurses for complex patient presentations within a wide range of clinical situations. Design This qualitative study used a hermeneutic pragmatic approach. Method Unstructured interviews were conducted with five experienced medical and surgical nurses to obtain 13 detailed narratives of assessment practice. Narratives were analyzed using Van Manen's six-step approach to identify the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills. Results The consequences of using advanced assessment skills include looking for more, challenging interpretations, and perseverance. The use of advanced assessment skills directs what the nurse looks for, what she sees, interpretation of the findings, and her response. It is the interpretation of what is seen, heard, or felt within the full context of the patient situation, which is the advanced skill. Conclusion Advanced assessment skill is the means to an accurate interpretation of the clinical situation and contributes to appropriate diagnosis and medical management in complex patient situations. Relevance to clinical practice The nurse's use of advanced assessment skills enables her to contribute to diagnostic reasoning within the acute medical and surgical setting. PMID:27607193

  10. Fundamentals of zoological scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Herbert

    1982-01-01

    Most introductory physics courses emphasize highly idealized problems with unique well-defined answers. Though many textbooks complement these problems with estimation problems, few books present anything more than an elementary discussion of scaling. This paper presents some fundamentals of scaling in the zoological domain—a domain complex by any standard, but one also well suited to illustrate the power of very simple physical ideas. We consider the following animal characteristics: skeletal weight, speed of running, height and range of jumping, food consumption, heart rate, lifetime, locomotive efficiency, frequency of wing flapping, and maximum sizes of animals that fly and hover. These relationships are compared to zoological data and everyday experience, and match reasonably well.

  11. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  13. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  14. PREFACE: X Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saita, Fernando Adolfo; Giavedoni, María Delia

    2009-07-01

    The X Meeting on Recent Advances in Physics of Fluids and Related Applications (Fluids 2008) was held in Santa Fe, Argentina, on 19-21 November 2008. It belongs to a series of meetings that started in 1989 and has continued - except for just one occasion - every other year. Thus, the first meeting took place in the city of Tandil in 1989 followed by three events in the city of La Plata (1991-93-95), Tunuyán (Mendoza) in 1997, Paraná (Entre Rios) in 1999, Buenos Aires in 2001, Tandil in 2003 and Mendoza in 2006. These meetings gather together most of the people working in Fluid Mechanics and related problems in Argentina. The objective of the meetings is to provide a forum to facilitate the interactions between participants in a friendly academic atmosphere. This goal is achieved by means of lectures and technical presentations on different subjects and from different points of view, the only constraint being the current academic/technical interest. Applications usually deal with problems of local interest. In the present meeting a variety of lecture topics were presented, among them we might mention Capillary Hydrodynamics, Wetting, Density Currents, Instabilities, Elastic-Dynamics, Flows in Porous Media, Sediment Transport, Plasma Dynamics, etc. In particular, we would like to highlight the specially invited lectures given by Dr Ramon Cerro (Chemical and Material Engineering Department University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA), Dr David Quéré (Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes ESPCI, FRANCE), Dr Marcelo García (College of Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) and Dr Víctor Calo (Earth and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin). In addition, we had 18 invited talks and more than fifty contributions that were presented in poster sessions. On behalf of both the Honorary

  15. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  16. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  17. Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates.

    PubMed

    Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Wu, David T

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of gas hydrate formation and decomposition processes is critical in many energy and environmental areas and has special importance in flow assurance for the oil and gas industry. These areas represent the core of gas hydrate applications, which, albeit widely studied, are still developing as growing fields of research. Discovering the molecular pathways and chemical and physical concepts underlying gas hydrate formation potentially can lead us beyond flowline blockage prevention strategies toward advancing new technological solutions for fuel storage and transportation, safely producing a new energy resource from natural deposits of gas hydrates in oceanic and arctic sediments, and potentially facilitating effective desalination of seawater. The state of the art in gas hydrate research is leading us to new understanding of formation and dissociation phenomena that focuses on measurement and modeling of time-dependent properties of gas hydrates on the basis of their well-established thermodynamic properties.

  18. Light as a Fundamental Particle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    Presents two arguments concerning the role of the photon. One states that the photon is just another particle distinguished by a particular value of charge, spin, mass, lifetime, and interaction properties. The second states that the photon plays a fundamental role with a deep relation to ultimate formulas of physics. (GS)

  19. Fundamentals of gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, K. B.; Nasr, A. T.

    2013-06-01

    Fundamental chemical and physical phenomena that occur in Fricke gel dosimeters, polymer gel dosimeters, micelle gel dosimeters and genipin gel dosimeters are discussed. Fricke gel dosimeters are effective even though their radiation sensitivity depends on oxygen concentration. Oxygen contamination can cause severe problems in polymer gel dosimeters, even when THPC is used. Oxygen leakage must be prevented between manufacturing and irradiation of polymer gels, and internal calibration methods should be used so that contamination problems can be detected. Micelle gel dosimeters are promising due to their favourable diffusion properties. The introduction of micelles to gel dosimetry may open up new areas of dosimetry research wherein a range of water-insoluble radiochromic materials can be explored as reporter molecules.

  20. Preface to Special Topic: Advances in Radio Frequency Physics in Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tuccillo, Angelo A.; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Phillips, Cynthia K.

    2014-06-15

    It has long been recognized that auxiliary plasma heating will be required to achieve the high temperature, high density conditions within a magnetically confined plasma in which a fusion “burn” may be sustained by copious fusion reactions. Consequently, the application of radio and microwave frequency electromagnetic waves to magnetically confined plasma, commonly referred to as RF, has been a major part of the program almost since its inception in the 1950s. These RF waves provide heating, current drive, plasma profile control, and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) stabilization. Fusion experiments employ electromagnetic radiation in a wide range of frequencies, from tens of MHz to hundreds of GHz. The fusion devices containing the plasma are typically tori, axisymmetric or non, in which the equilibrium magnetic fields are composed of a strong toroidal magnetic field generated by external coils, and a poloidal field created, at least in the symmetric configurations, by currents flowing in the plasma. The waves are excited in the peripheral regions of the plasma, by specially designed launching structures, and subsequently propagate into the core regions, where resonant wave-plasma interactions produce localized heating or other modification of the local equilibrium profiles. Experimental studies coupled with the development of theoretical models and advanced simulation codes over the past 40+ years have led to an unprecedented understanding of the physics of RF heating and current drive in the core of magnetic fusion devices. Nevertheless, there are serious gaps in our knowledge base that continue to have a negative impact on the success of ongoing experiments and that must be resolved as the program progresses to the next generation devices and ultimately to “demo” and “fusion power plant.” A serious gap, at least in the ion cyclotron (IC) range of frequencies and partially in the lower hybrid frequency ranges, is the difficulty in coupling large amount of

  1. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1992-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- advanced cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology Inc. (AspenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., for the period of July through September 1992. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models. CQ Inc. is a subcontractor to ICF KE on Tasks I - 5 and is a contractor to AspenTech on Task 6.

  2. An Advanced Objective Structured Clinical Examination Using Patient Simulators to Evaluate Pharmacy Students’ Skills in Physical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Setoguchi, Nao; Utsumi, Miho; Kourogi, Yasuyuki; Osaki, Takashi; Ozaki, Mineo; Sato, Keizo; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To implement an advanced objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the curriculum and to evaluate Japanese pharmacy students’ skills in physical assessment such as measuring pulse and blood pressure, and assessing heart, lung, and intestinal sounds. Design. An advanced OSCE was implemented in a hospital pharmacy seminar as a compulsory subject. We programmed patient simulators with 21 different patient cases in which normal and abnormal physiological conditions were produced. The virtual patients were then used to evaluate the physical assessment skills of fifth-year pharmacy students. Assessment. Significant differences were observed between the average of all the detailed evaluations and the mean results for the following skills: pulse measurement, blood pressure measurement, deflating the cuff at a rate of 2-3 mmHg/sec, listening to heart sounds, and listening to lung sounds. Conclusion. Administering an advanced OSCE using virtual patients was an effective way of assessing pharmacy students’ skills in a realistic setting. Several areas in which pharmacy students require further training were identified. PMID:25657371

  3. A comparative analysis of teacher-authored websites in high school honors and Advanced Placement physics for Web-design and NSES content and process standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persin, Ronald C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statistically significant differences existed between high school Honors Physics websites and those of Advanced Placement (AP) Physics in terms of Web-design, National Science Education Standards (NSES) Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. The procedure began with the selection of 152 sites comprising two groups with equal sample sizes of 76 for Honors Physics and for Advanced Placement Physics. The websites used in the study were accumulated using the Google(TM) search engine. To find Honors Physics websites, the search words "honors physics high school" were entered as the query into the search engine. To find sites for Advanced Placement Physics, the query, "advanced placement physics high school," was entered into the search engine. The evaluation of each website was performed using an instrument developed by the researcher based on three attributes: Web-design, NSES Physics content, and NSES Science Process standards. A "1" was scored if the website was found to have each attribute, otherwise a "0" was given. This process continued until all 76 websites were evaluated for each of the two types of physics websites, Honors and Advanced Placement. Subsequently the data were processed using Excel functions and the SPSS statistical software program. The mean and standard deviation were computed individually for the three attributes under consideration. Three, 2-tailed, independent samples t tests were performed to compare the two groups of physics websites separately on the basis of Web Design, Physics Content, and Science Process. The results of the study indicated that there was only one statistically significant difference between high school Honors Physics websites and those of AP Physics. The only difference detected was in terms of National Science Education Standards Physics content. It was found that Advanced Placement Physics websites contained more NSES physics content than Honors

  4. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    SciTech Connect

    O'Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some other system parameter permits the construction of whole

  5. AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

  6. Using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to develop effective argumentation skills in high school advanced placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heglund, Brian

    Educators recognize the importance of reasoning ability for development of critical thinking skills, conceptual change, metacognition, and participation in 21st century society. There is a recognized need for students to improve their skills of argumentation, however, argumentation is not explicitly taught outside logic and philosophy---subjects that are not part of the K-12 curriculum. One potential way of supporting the development of argumentation skills in the K-12 context is through incorporating Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to evaluate arguments. This quasi-experimental study tested the effects of such argument mapping software and was informed by the following two research questions: 1. To what extent does the collaborative use of Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate competing theories influence the critical thinking skill of argument evaluation, metacognitive awareness, and conceptual knowledge acquisition in high school Advanced Placement physics, compared to the more traditional method of text tables that does not employ Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping? 2. What are the student perceptions of the pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment? This study examined changes in critical thinking skills, including argumentation evaluation skills, as well as metacognitive awareness and conceptual knowledge, in two groups: a treatment group using Computer-Assisted Argumentation Mapping to evaluate physics arguments, and a comparison group using text tables to evaluate physics arguments. Quantitative and qualitative methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to answer the research questions. Quantitative data indicated no significant difference between the experimental groups, and qualitative data suggested students perceived pros and cons of argument evaluation in the high school Advanced Placement physics environment, such as self-reported sense of improvement in argument

  7. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    This project is sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the ``Engineering Design and Analysis of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies. The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level.

  8. Advanced computations of multi-physics, multi-scale effects in beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, J.F.; Macridin, A.; Spentzouris, P.; Stern, E.G.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art beam dynamics simulations include multiple physical effects and multiple physical length and/or time scales. We present recent developments in Synergia2, an accelerator modeling framework designed for multi-physics, multi-scale simulations. We summarize recent several recent results in multi-physics beam dynamics, including simulations of three Fermilab accelerators: the Tevatron, the Main Injector and the Debuncher. Early accelerator simulations focused on single-particle dynamics. To a first approximation, the forces on the particles in an accelerator beam are dominated by the external fields due to magnets, RF cavities, etc., so the single-particle dynamics are the leading physical effects. Detailed simulations of accelerators must include collective effects such as the space-charge repulsion of the beam particles, the effects of wake fields in the beam pipe walls and beam-beam interactions in colliders. These simulations require the sort of massively parallel computers that have only become available in recent times. We give an overview of the accelerator framework Synergia2, which was designed to take advantage of the capabilities of modern computational resources and enable simulations of multiple physical effects. We also summarize some recent results utilizing Synergia2 and BeamBeam3d, a tool specialized for beam-beam simulations.

  9. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  10. U.S. Poised to Sit Out TIMSS Test: Physics, Advanced Math Gauged in Global Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on reactions to the U.S. Department of Education's first time decision to sit out an international study designed to show how advanced high school students around the world measure up in math and science. Mark S. Schneider, the commissioner of the department's National Center for Education Statistics, which normally takes the…

  11. Performance in Physical Science Education by Dint of Advance Organiser Model of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bency, P. B. Beulahbel; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2010-01-01

    Education should be made painless and the teaching must be made effective. Teaching is an activity, which is designed and performed for multiple objectives, in terms of changes in student behaviours. Models of teaching are just a blue print designed in advance for providing necessary structure and direction to the teacher for realizing the…

  12. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-01-18

    This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean fuel can be produced from selected coals and that the fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling boilers in this country. The replacement of premium fossil fuels with coal can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the ultra-clean coal. The primary objective is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to coal-water slurry fuel. The fine coal cleaning technologies are advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration. A secondary objective is to develop the design base for near-term commercial integration of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies in new or existing coal preparation plants for economically and efficiently processing minus 28-mesh coal fines. A third objective is to determine the distribution of toxic trace elements between clean coal and refuse when applying the advance column flotation and selective agglomeration technologies. The project team consists of Amax Research Development Center (Amax R D), Amax Coal industries, Bechtel Corporation, Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) at the University of Kentucky, and Arcanum Corporation.

  13. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1991-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This DOE project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies- heavy-liquid cylconing, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of- concept (POC) level. The commercially available ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. This report is submitted to document the progress of Aspen Technology, Inc. (ApsenTech), its contractor, ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., (ICF KE) and CQ Inc., a subcontractor to ICF KE, for the seventh quarterly reporting period, April through June 1991. ICF KE is providing coal preparation consulting and processing engineering services in this work and they are responsible for recommending the design of models to represent conventional coal cleaning equipment and costing of these models.

  14. Engineering design and analysis of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallier, P.W.

    1990-10-20

    The major goal is to provide the simulation tools for modeling both conventional and advanced coal cleaning technologies. This project is part of a major research initiative by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) aimed at advancing three advanced coal cleaning technologies-heavy-liquid cycloning, selective agglomeration, and advanced froth flotation through the proof-of-concept (POC) level. The ASPEN PLUS process simulation package will be extended to handle coal cleaning applications. Algorithms for predicting the process performance, equipment size, and flowsheet economics of commercial coal cleaning devices and related ancillary equipment will be incorporated into the coal cleaning simulator. The work plan for the froth quarter called for completion of the washability interpolation routine, gravity separation models, and dewatering models. As these items were completed, work in the areas of size reduction, classification and froth flotation were scheduled to begin. As each model was completed, testing and validation procedures were scheduled to begin. Costing models were also planned to be implemented and tested as each of the gravity separation models were completed. 1 tab.

  15. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

    2005-10-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

  16. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  17. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop additional confidence in the conceptual design of the advanced froth flotation circuit, a 2-3 TPH Proof-of-Concept (POC) facility was necessary. During operation of this facility, the ICF KE team will demonstrate the ability of the conceptual flowsheets to meet the program goals of maximum pyritic sulfur reduction coupled with maximum energy recovery on three DOE specified coals. The POC circuit was designed to be integrated into the Ohio Coal Development's facility near Beverly, Ohio. OCDO's facility will provide the precleaning unit operations and ICF KE will add the advanced froth flotation circuitry. The work in this task will include the POC conceptual design, flowsheet development, equipment list, fabrication and construction drawings, procurement specifications and bid packages and a facilities.

  18. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  19. Specification of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor Multi-Physics Coupling Demonstration Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shemon, E. R.; Grudzinski, J. J.; Lee, C. H.; Thomas, J. W.; Yu, Y. Q.

    2015-12-21

    This document specifies the multi-physics nuclear reactor demonstration problem using the SHARP software package developed by NEAMS. The SHARP toolset simulates the key coupled physics phenomena inside a nuclear reactor. The PROTEUS neutronics code models the neutron transport within the system, the Nek5000 computational fluid dynamics code models the fluid flow and heat transfer, and the DIABLO structural mechanics code models structural and mechanical deformation. The three codes are coupled to the MOAB mesh framework which allows feedback from neutronics, fluid mechanics, and mechanical deformation in a compatible format.

  20. Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Physical Processes in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Emblem, Kyrre E.; Andronesi, Ovidiu; Rosen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignant primary brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM) is a devastating disease with a grim prognosis. Patient survival is typically less than 2 years and fewer than 10% of patients survive more than 5 years. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can have great utility in the diagnosis, grading and management of patients with GBM as many of the physical manifestations of the pathological processes in GBM can be visualized and quantified using MRI. Newer MRI techniques such as dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI provide functional information regarding the tumor hemodynamic status. Diffusion MRI can shed light on tumor cellularity and the disruption of white matter tracts in the proximity of tumors. MR spectroscopy can be used to study new tumor tissue markers such as IDH mutations. MRI is helping to noninvasively explore the link between the molecular basis of gliomas and the imaging characteristics of their physical processes. We will review several approaches to MR-based imaging and discuss the potential for these techniques to quantify the physical processes in glioblastoma including tumor cellularity and vascularity, metabolite expression, and patterns of tumor growth and recurrence. We will conclude with challenges and opportunities for further research in applying physical principles to better understand the biological process in this deadly disease. PMID:25183787

  1. Physical and Chemical Properties of the Copper-Alanine System: An Advanced Laboratory Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, John J.

    1977-01-01

    An integrated physical-analytical-inorganic chemistry laboratory procedure for use with undergraduate biology majors is described. The procedure requires five to six laboratory periods and includes acid-base standardizations, potentiometric determinations, computer usage, spectrophotometric determinations of crystal-field splitting…

  2. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  3. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  4. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  5. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur, Călin A.; Filipescu, Dan; Gheorghe, Ioana; Iancu, Violeta; Suliman, Gabriel; Teşileanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce intense, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI-NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  6. Advancing Minorities and Women to the PhD in Physics and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan

    2017-01-01

    We briefly review the current status of underrepresented minorities in physics and astronomy: The underrepresentation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans is an order of magnitude problem. We then describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for addressing this problem. Since 2004 the program has admitted 110 students, 90% of them underrepresented minorities (50% female), with a retention rate of 90%. The program has become the top producer of African American master's degrees in physics, and is now one of the top producers of minority PhDs in astronomy, materials science, and physics. We summarize the main features of the program including its core strategies: (1) replacing the GRE in admissions with indicators that are better predictive of long-term success, (2) partnering with a minority-serving institution for student training through collaborative research, and (3) using the master's degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We show how misuse of the GRE in graduate admissions may by itself in large part explain the ongoing underrepresentation of minorities in PhD programs, and we describe our alternate methods to identify talented individuals most likely to succeed. We describe our mentoring model and toolkit which may be utilized to enhance the success of all PhD students.

  7. Power and promise of narrative for advancing physical therapist education and practice.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M; Delany, Clare M; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Knab, Mary; Jampel, Ann

    2015-06-01

    This perspective article provides a justification for and an overview of the use of narrative as a pedagogical tool for educators to help physical therapist students, residents, and clinicians develop skills of reflection and reflexivity in clinical practice. The use of narratives is a pedagogical approach that provides a reflective and interpretive framework for analyzing and making sense of texts, stories, and other experiences within learning environments. This article describes reflection as a well-established method to support critical analysis of clinical experiences; to assist in uncovering different perspectives of patients, families, and health care professionals involved in patient care; and to broaden the epistemological basis (ie, sources of knowledge) for clinical practice. The article begins by examining how phronetic (ie, practical and contextual) knowledge and ethical knowledge are used in physical therapy to contribute to evidence-based practice. Narrative is explored as a source of phronetic and ethical knowledge that is complementary but irreducible to traditional objective and empirical knowledge-the type of clinical knowledge that forms the basis of scientific training. The central premise is that writing narratives is a cognitive skill that should be learned and practiced to develop critical reflection for expert practice. The article weaves theory with practical application and strategies to foster narrative in education and practice. The final section of the article describes the authors' experiences with examples of integrating the tools of narrative into an educational program, into physical therapist residency programs, and into a clinical practice.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This is being accomplished by utilization the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. The conceptual flowsheet must be examined to identify critical areas that need additional design data. This data will then be developed using batch and semi-continuous bench scale testing. In addition to actual bench scale testing other unit operations from other industries processing fine material will be reviewed for potential application and incorporated into the design if appropriate. 31 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

    2013-04-01

    The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

  10. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  11. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katheryn M; Schlamadinger, Diana E; Gable, Jonathan E; Kim, Judy E

    2008-09-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model protein; comparison of conformational stabilities ( ΔGH2O∘) measured via two chemical denaturants, urea and guanidinium hydrochloride, illustrate important concepts in protein folding and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the determination of intraprotein distances based upon the FRET pair Trp-59 and the heme group for unfolded states of cytochrome c highlights the evolution of the protein structure under unfolding conditions. Analysis and discussion of these results provide opportunities to gain in-depth understanding of models for protein folding while enhancing students' skills with optical techniques. Collectively, the combination of optical spectroscopy, rigorous quantitative analysis, and a focus on biophysics illustrates the significance of fundamental research at the growing intersection of chemistry, biology, and physics.

  12. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer and Conformational Stability of Proteins: An Advanced Biophysical Module for Physical Chemistry Students

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Schlamadinger, Diana E.; Gable, Jonathan E.; Kim, Judy E.

    2009-01-01

    Protein folding is an exploding area of research in biophysics and physical chemistry. Here, we describe the integration of several techniques, including absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements, to probe important topics in protein folding. Cytochrome c is used as a model protein; comparison of conformational stabilities ( ΔGH2O∘) measured via two chemical denaturants, urea and guanidinium hydrochloride, illustrate important concepts in protein folding and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the determination of intraprotein distances based upon the FRET pair Trp-59 and the heme group for unfolded states of cytochrome c highlights the evolution of the protein structure under unfolding conditions. Analysis and discussion of these results provide opportunities to gain in-depth understanding of models for protein folding while enhancing students’ skills with optical techniques. Collectively, the combination of optical spectroscopy, rigorous quantitative analysis, and a focus on biophysics illustrates the significance of fundamental research at the growing intersection of chemistry, biology, and physics. PMID:19756254

  13. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  15. The advanced light source — a new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  16. The advanced light source: A new tool for research in atomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, California, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in the spring of 1993. Undulators will generate high-brightness, partially coherent, plane polarized, soft-x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from below 10 eV to above 2 keV. Wigglers and bend magnets will generate high fluxes of x-rays to photon energies above 10 keV. The ALS will have an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms.

  17. Human-centered design of a cyber-physical system for advanced response to Ebola (CARE).

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Velin; Jagtap, Vinayak; Skorinko, Jeanine; Chernova, Sonia; Gennert, Michael; Padir, Taşkin

    2015-01-01

    We describe the process towards the design of a safe, reliable, and intuitive emergency treatment unit to facilitate a higher degree of safety and situational awareness for medical staff, leading to an increased level of patient care during an epidemic outbreak in an unprepared, underdeveloped, or disaster stricken area. We start with a human-centered design process to understand the design challenge of working with Ebola treatment units in Western Africa in the latest Ebola outbreak, and show preliminary work towards cyber-physical technologies applicable to potentially helping during the next outbreak.

  18. Integrated Physics Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, Donald B; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Bateman, Glenn; Bernholdt, David E; Berry, Lee A; Bonoli, P.; Bramley, R; Breslau, J.; Chance, M.; Chen, J.; Choi, M.; Elwasif, Wael R; Fu, GuoYong; Harvey, R. W.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Jardin, S. C.; Keyes, David E; Klasky, Scott A; Kruger, Scott; Ku, Long-Poe; McCune, Douglas; Schissel, D.; Schnack, D.; Wright, J. C.

    2007-06-01

    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).

  19. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Paul W.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-06-01

    We use the theory of communities of practice and the concept of accountable disciplinary knowledge to describe how a learning community develops in the context of an upper-division physics laboratory course. The change in accountable disciplinary knowledge motivates students' enculturation into a community of practice. The enculturation process is facilitated by four specific structural features of the course and supported by a primary instructional choice. The four structural features are "paucity of instructor time," "all in a room together," "long and difficult experiments," and "same experiments at different times." The instructional choice is the encouragement of the sharing and development of knowledge and understanding by the instructor. The combination of the instructional choice and structural features promotes the development of the learning community in which students engage in authentic practices of a physicist. This results in a classroom community that can provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of a practice of physicists. We support our claims with video-based observations of laboratory classroom interactions and individual, semistructured interviews with students about their laboratory experiences and physics identity.

  20. Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, D. Allan

    1980-01-01

    The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

  1. An analysis of predictors of enrollment and successful achievement for girls in high school Advanced Placement physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depalma, Darlene M.

    A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that

  2. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - integrated multi-scale multi-physics hierarchical modeling and simulation framework Part III: cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Tome, Carlos N; Caro, J A; Lebensohn, R A; Unal, Cetin; Arsenlis, A; Marian, J; Pasamehmetoglu, K

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Reactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems to develop predictive tools is critical. Not only are fabrication and performance models needed to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. In this paper we review the current status of the advanced modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor cladding, with emphasis on what is available and what is to be developed in each scale of the project, how we propose to pass information from one scale to the next, and what experimental information is required for benchmarking and advancing the modeling at each scale level.

  3. Miscibility studies of Polyethylene Glycol with Polystyrene in Toluene by Various Physical and Advanced Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, R.; Venkatramanan, K.

    2016-10-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a chemical that has an extensive variety of applications in the world of medicine. It is used as a base to manufacture certain medicines, assist in drug delivery, and is also used as an agent in some medical procedures. It is an osmotic laxative. Polyethylene glycol works by retaining water in the stool, resulting in softer stools and more frequent bowel movements. Polyethylene glycol does not affect glucose and electrolytes in the body. PEG refers to a hydrocarbon molecule that can have a variable size, and different sizes can have different physical properties, giving this compound a great deal of flexibility in its application. In the present study, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) (Molar mass: 1500) is blended with Polystyrene (PS) (Molar mass: 35000) in Toluene. The miscibility nature of the poly blend is analyzed by Ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and refractive index techniques at 303K. The compatibility nature of the blend is confirmed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies.

  4. The Frontier of Modern Calorimetry: Hardware Advances and Application in Particle Physics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Tatiana

    While the last missing components of the SM puzzle seem to be successfully found, particle physicists remain hungry for what might be there, beyond the cosy boundaries of the well studies elementary particle world. However, the sophisticated technique of data analysis and acute Monte Carlo simulations remain fruitless. It appears that the successful intrusion into the realm, in which we were not welcome so far, may require a very different implication of effort. All those results might suggest, though banal, that we need an improvement on the hardware side. Indeed, the hadronic calorimeter of CMS is no competitor to its other state-of-art components. This obstacle in many cases significantly complicates the flow of the physics analysis. Besides, the era of high luminosity LHC operation in the offing is calling for the same. After exploration of the analysis debri with 8TeV collision data, we investigate various approaches for better calorimetry for the CMS detector.

  5. As-Run Physics Analysis for the UCSB-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Joseph Wayne

    2015-09-01

    The University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) -1 experiment was irradiated in the A-10 position of the ATR. The experiment was irradiated during cycles 145A, 145B, 146A, and 146B. Capsule 6A was removed from the test train following Cycle 145A and replaced with Capsule 6B. This report documents the as-run physics analysis in support of Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the test. This report documents the as-run fluence and displacements per atom (DPA) for each capsule of the experiment based on as-run operating history of the ATR. Average as-run heating rates for each capsule are also presented in this report to support the thermal analysis.

  6. Advances in wearable technology and applications in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2005-02-25

    The development of miniature sensors that can be unobtrusively attached to the body or can be part of clothing items, such as sensing elements embedded in the fabric of garments, have opened countless possibilities of monitoring patients in the field over extended periods of time. This is of particular relevance to the practice of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Wearable technology addresses a major question in the management of patients undergoing rehabilitation, i.e. have clinical interventions a significant impact on the real life of patients? Wearable technology allows clinicians to gather data where it matters the most to answer this question, i.e. the home and community settings. Direct observations concerning the impact of clinical interventions on mobility, level of independence, and quality of life can be performed by means of wearable systems. Researchers have focused on three main areas of work to develop tools of clinical interest: 1)the design and implementation of sensors that are minimally obtrusive and reliably record movement or physiological signals, 2)the development of systems that unobtrusively gather data from multiple wearable sensors and deliver this information to clinicians in the way that is most appropriate for each application, and 3)the design and implementation of algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from data recorded using wearable technology. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation has devoted a series of articles to this topic with the objective of offering a description of the state of the art in this research field and pointing to emerging applications that are relevant to the clinical practice in physical medicine and rehabilitation.

  7. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  8. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The design criteria for each unit operation have been developed based upon a number of variables. These variables, at this time, are based upon the best engineering design information available to industry. A number of assumptions utilized in the design criteria are uncertain. The uncertainties of inert atmospheres for grinding and flotation as well as pyrite depressants were answered by the Surface Control Project. It was determined that inerting was not required and no new'' reagents were presented that improved the flotation results. In addition, Tasks 5 and 6 results indicated the required reagent dosage for conventional flotation and advanced flotation. Task 5 results also indicated the need for a clean coal,thickener, the flocculent dosages for both the clean coal and refuse thickeners, and final dewatering requirements. The results from Tasks 5 and 6 and summarized in Task 7 indicate several uncertainties that require continuous long duration testing. The first is the possibility of producing a grab product for both the Pittsburgh and Illinois No. 6 coals in conventional flotation. Second what does long-term recirculation of clarified water do to the product quality The verification process and real data obtained from Tasks 5 and 6 greatly reduced the capital and operating costs for the process. This was anticipated and the test work indeed provided confirming data.

  9. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  10. Reactor Physics Scoping and Characterization Study on Implementation of TRIGA Fuel in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Lyons; Wade R. Marcum; Mark D. DeHart; Sean R. Morrell

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), under the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), is conducting feasibility studies for the conversion of its fuel from a highly enriched uranium (HEU) composition to a low enriched uranium (LEU) composition. These studies have considered a wide variety of LEU plate-type fuels to replace the current HEU fuel. Continuing to investigate potential alternatives to the present HEU fuel form, this study presents a preliminary analysis of TRIGA® fuel within the current ATR fuel envelopes and compares it to the functional requirements delineated by the Naval Reactors Program, which includes: greater than 4.8E+14 fissions/s/g of 235U, a fast to thermal neutron flux ratio that is less than 5% deviation of its current value, a constant cycle power within the corner lobes, and an operational cycle length of 56 days at 120 MW. Other parameters outside those put forth by the Naval Reactors Program which are investigated herein include axial and radial power profiles, effective delayed neutron fraction, and mean neutron generation time.

  11. A ring lasers array for fundamental physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Virgilio, Angela; Allegrini, Maria; Beghi, Alessandro; Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Bouhadef, Bachir; Calamai, Massimo; Carelli, Giorgio; Cuccato, Davide; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Passeggio, Giuseppe; Porzio, Alberto; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca; Santagata, Rosa; Tartaglia, Angelo

    2014-12-01

    After reviewing the importance of light as a probe for testing the structure of space-time, we describe the GINGER project. GINGER will be a three-dimensional array of large-size ring-lasers able to measure the de Sitter and Lense-Thirring effects. The instrument will be located at the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, in Italy. We describe the preliminary actions and measurements already under way and present the full road map to GINGER. The intermediate apparatuses GP2 and GINGERino are described. GINGER is expected to be fully operating in few years. xml:lang="fr"

  12. Starless Cores as Fundamental Physics Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignano, Arturo; Molaro, Paolo; Levshakov, Sergei; Centurión, Miriam; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Lapinov, Alexander

    We present high resolution observations in the starless dense molecular core L1512 performed with the Medicina 32m radio telescope. The resolved hfs components of HC3N and NH3 show no kinematic sub-structure and consist of an apparently symmetric peak profile without broadened line wings or self-absorption features suggesting that they sample the same material. The velocity dispersion is 101( ± 1) m s - 1for NH3 and 85( ± 2) m s - 1 for HC3N. The kinetic temperature of the cloud is estimated at 9.2 ( ± 1.2) K and the turbulence is of 76 m s - 1in a subsonic regime. This places L1512 among the most quiescent dark cores and makes it an ideal laboratory to study variations of the electron-to-proton mass ratio, μ = {m}e/{m}p by means of observations of inversion lines of NH3 combined with rotational lines of other molecular species.

  13. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Bonnay, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  14. Physical control oriented model of large scale refrigerators to synthesize advanced control schemes. Design, validation, and first control results

    SciTech Connect

    Bonne, François; Bonnay, Patrick

    2014-01-29

    In this paper, a physical method to obtain control-oriented dynamical models of large scale cryogenic refrigerators is proposed, in order to synthesize model-based advanced control schemes. These schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in the cryogenic cooling systems of future fusion reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT-60SA). Advanced control schemes lead to a better perturbation immunity and rejection, to offer a safer utilization of cryoplants. The paper gives details on how basic components used in the field of large scale helium refrigeration (especially those present on the 400W @1.8K helium test facility at CEA-Grenoble) are modeled and assembled to obtain the complete dynamic description of controllable subsystems of the refrigerator (controllable subsystems are namely the Joule-Thompson Cycle, the Brayton Cycle, the Liquid Nitrogen Precooling Unit and the Warm Compression Station). The complete 400W @1.8K (in the 400W @4.4K configuration) helium test facility model is then validated against experimental data and the optimal control of both the Joule-Thompson valve and the turbine valve is proposed, to stabilize the plant under highly variable thermals loads. This work is partially supported through the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) Goal Oriented Training Program, task agreement WP10-GOT-GIRO.

  15. Pedagogical Content of National Physical Behavior of Kazakh People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesbekova, Ryskul; Nassiyev, Yermek; ?itpanbet, Amanshol; Nassiyev, Yeldar

    2016-01-01

    Physical education significantly contributes to students' well-being; therefore, it is an instructional priority for California schools and an integral part of our students' educational experience. High-quality physical education instruction contributes to good health, develops fundamental and advanced motor skills, improves students'…

  16. Physics Basis for the Advanced Tokamak Fusion Power Plant ARIES-AT

    SciTech Connect

    S.C. Jardin; C.E. Kessel; T.K. Mau; R.L. Miller; F. Najmabadi; V.S. Chan; M.S. Chu; R. LaHaye; L.L. Lao; T.W. Petrie; P. Politzer; H.E. St. John; P. Snyder; G.M. Staebler; A.D. Turnbull; W.P. West

    2003-10-07

    The advanced tokamak is considered as the basis for a fusion power plant. The ARIES-AT design has an aspect ratio of A always equal to R/a = 4.0, an elongation and triangularity of kappa = 2.20, delta = 0.90 (evaluated at the separatrix surface), a toroidal beta of beta = 9.1% (normalized to the vacuum toroidal field at the plasma center), which corresponds to a normalized beta of bN * 100 x b/(I(sub)P(MA)/a(m)B(T)) = 5.4. These beta values are chosen to be 10% below the ideal-MHD stability limit. The bootstrap-current fraction is fBS * I(sub)BS/I(sub)P = 0.91. This leads to a design with total plasma current I(sub)P = 12.8 MA, and toroidal field of 11.1 T (at the coil edge) and 5.8 T (at the plasma center). The major and minor radii are 5.2 and 1.3 m, respectively. The effects of H-mode edge gradients and the stability of this configuration to non-ideal modes is analyzed. The current-drive system consists of ICRF/FW for on-axis current drive and a lower-hybrid system for off-axis. Tran sport projections are presented using the drift-wave based GLF23 model. The approach to power and particle exhaust using both plasma core and scrape-off-layer radiation is presented.

  17. Physical and chemical effects of direct aqueous advanced oxidation processing on green sand foundry mold materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clobes, Jason Kenneth

    Iron foundries using the common green sand molding process have increasingly been incorporating aqueous advanced oxidation (AO) systems to reduce the consumption of sand system bentonite clay and coal raw materials by and to decrease their volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. These AO systems typically use a combination of sonication, ozone aeration, and hydrogen peroxide to treat and recycle slurries of sand system baghouse dust, which is rich in clay and coal. While the overall effects of AO on raw material consumption and organic emissions are known, the mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. This research examined the effects of bench-scale direct aqueous AO processing on green sand mold materials at the micro level. Bench-scale AO processing, including acoustic sonication, ozone/oxygen aeration, and hydrogen peroxide dramatically decreased the particle sizes of both western bentonite and foundry sand system baghouse dust. Bench-scale AO processing was shown to effectively separate the clay material from the larger silica and coal particles and to extensively break up the larger clay agglomerates. The acoustic sonication component of AO processing was the key contributor to enhanced clay recovery. Acoustic sonication alone was slightly more effective than combined component AO in reducing the particle sizes of the baghouse dust and in the recovery of clay yields in the supernatant during sedimentation experiments. Sedimentation separation results correlated well with the increase in small particle concentrations due to AO processing. Clay suspension viscosity decreased with AO processing due to enhanced dispersion of the particles. X-ray diffraction of freeze-dried baghouse dust indicated that AO processing does not rehydrate calcined montmorillonite and does not increase the level of interlayer water hydration in the dry clays. Zeta potential measurements indicated that AO processing also does not produce any large changes in the

  18. Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology: Cosmic Laboratories for New Physics (Summary of the Snowmass 2001 P4 Working Group)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kaminokowski, Marc; Ritz, Steven; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen dramatic breakthroughs and spectacular and puzzling discoveries in astrophysics and cosmology. In many cases, the new observations can only be explained with the introduction of new fundamental physics. Here we summarize some of these recent advances. We then describe several problems in astrophysics and cosmology, ripe for major advances, the resolution of which will likely require new physics.

  19. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications. PMID:28117421

  20. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Physical Properties of Advanced GaAs/AlGaAs Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkara, Hicham M.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive studies have been performed on MQW junctions and structures because of their potential applications as avalanche photodetectors in optical communications and imaging systems. The role of the avalanche photodiode is to provide for the conversion of an optical signal into charge. Knowledge of junction physics, and the various carrier generation/recombination mechanisms, is crucial for effectively optimizing the conversion process and increasing the structure's quantum efficiency. In addition, the recent interest in the use of APDs in imaging systems has necessitated the development of semiconductor junctions with low dark currents and high gains for low light applications. Because of the high frame rate and high pixel density requirements in new imaging applications, it is necessary to provide some front-end gain in the imager to allow operation under reasonable light conditions. Understanding the electron/hole impact ionization process, as well as diffusion and surface leakage effects, is needed to help maintain low dark currents and high gains for such applications. In addition, the APD must be capable of operating with low power, and low noise. Knowledge of the effects of various doping configurations and electric field profiles, as well as the excess noise resulting from the avalanche process, are needed to help maintain low operating bias and minimize the noise output.

  2. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S; Heredia-Guerrero, Jose A; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-24

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young's modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials' properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  3. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The

  4. Advances in the physics understanding of ELM suppression using resonant magnetic perturbations in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M. R.; Nazikian, R.; deGrassie, John S.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M.; Buttery, R. J.; Fenstermacher, Max E.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Lanctot, M. A.; McKee, George R.; Osborne, T. H.; Shafer, M. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Snyder, P. B.; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Wingen, Andreas; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-14

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have increased confidence in the ability to suppress edge-localized modes (ELMs) using edge-resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ITER, including an improved physics basis for the edge response to RMPs as well as expansion of RMP ELM suppression to more ITER-like conditions. In this study, complete ELM suppression has been achieved utilizing n = 3 RMPs in the ITER baseline scenario. In addition, RMP ELM suppression has been expanded to include plasmas with helium concentrations near 25% and the use of n = 2 RMPs. Analysis of the kinetic profile response suggests that ELM suppression is correlated with the co-alignment of the ω⊥e = 0 location, an n = 3 rational surface, and the top of the pedestal. Modelling predicts that such a co-alignment could potentially lead to island (or island chain) formation just inside the top of the pedestal, inhibiting the growth of the pedestal and thereby maintaining the ELM-free state. Detailed analysis of data obtained during toroidal phase variations of the applied n = 3 RMPs have provided further evidence of an island-like structure at the top of the pedestal. In addition, nearly matched discharges with co-neutral-beam-injection (co-NBI) and counter-NBI have demonstrated the importance of the presence of the ω⊥e = 0 location for ELM suppression. Finally, in the counter-NBI cases, the toroidal rotation profile is such that there is no ω⊥e = 0 location and ELMs are not suppressed in conditions in which ELM suppression is generally observed with co-NBI.

  5. Advances in the physics understanding of ELM suppression using resonant magnetic perturbations in DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Wade, M. R.; Nazikian, R.; deGrassie, John S.; ...

    2015-01-14

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have increased confidence in the ability to suppress edge-localized modes (ELMs) using edge-resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in ITER, including an improved physics basis for the edge response to RMPs as well as expansion of RMP ELM suppression to more ITER-like conditions. In this study, complete ELM suppression has been achieved utilizing n = 3 RMPs in the ITER baseline scenario. In addition, RMP ELM suppression has been expanded to include plasmas with helium concentrations near 25% and the use of n = 2 RMPs. Analysis of the kinetic profile response suggests that ELM suppression is correlatedmore » with the co-alignment of the ω⊥e = 0 location, an n = 3 rational surface, and the top of the pedestal. Modelling predicts that such a co-alignment could potentially lead to island (or island chain) formation just inside the top of the pedestal, inhibiting the growth of the pedestal and thereby maintaining the ELM-free state. Detailed analysis of data obtained during toroidal phase variations of the applied n = 3 RMPs have provided further evidence of an island-like structure at the top of the pedestal. In addition, nearly matched discharges with co-neutral-beam-injection (co-NBI) and counter-NBI have demonstrated the importance of the presence of the ω⊥e = 0 location for ELM suppression. Finally, in the counter-NBI cases, the toroidal rotation profile is such that there is no ω⊥e = 0 location and ELMs are not suppressed in conditions in which ELM suppression is generally observed with co-NBI.« less

  6. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Hussain; Huang, Hua Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-01

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  7. Studies of the physical aspects of intumescence using advance diagnostics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Hussain Huang, Hua Wei Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    The use of intumescent paints as an active fire protection method has gained immense interest in recent years. A significant aspect of research has focused on studying the chemical aspects of the system to improve performance. The dynamics and physical aspects of intumescence in real time fire conditions are still unclear. The present research uses an experimental approach where diagnostics techniques such as thermal imaging camera was used to study intumescent characteristics that have been not been reported in great detail. T-panels are a substitute to the most commonly used part in construction, the I-beam. Studies were conducted using a cone calorimeter that provided a uniform heat flux through radiation on steel T-panel samples. The complex nature of char movement was recorded and a novel algorithm was used to track the growing char laye07r. The samples are designed to cater to different fire conditions. Therefore, the degree of intumescence was observed to be very different in the samples. The samples designed for low temperature cellulosic fires focus on high degree of intumesce. Whereas, mechanical strength is the focus for samples used in high temperature turbulent hydrocarbon fire conditions. The variation in the internal structure of the sample is presented. Furthermore, the phenomenon is phase shift is discussed. The phase shift is an essential part of the process of intumescence when the majority of intumescence occurs. It was observed to be different in all the samples. The movement of the samples is a property of great interest. This is because if any part of the substrate is exposed then the formulation does not meet strict commercialisation criterion. The movement was diagonal in nature as compared to flat panels where it is perpendicular. This is due tot the heating pattern of the plate that results in the web part of the panel to influence the growth of char on the flange part of the panel. A special case of char cracking is also highlighted and

  8. Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency amongst Adolescent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Literature suggests that physical education programmes ought to provide intense instruction towards basic movement skills needed to enjoy a variety of physical activities. Fundamental movement skills (FMS) are basic observable patterns of behaviour present from childhood to adulthood (e.g. run, skip and kick). Recent evidence indicates…

  9. The Fundamental Manifold of Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2006-02-01

    We present a unifying empirical description of the structural and kinematic properties of all spheroids embedded in dark matter halos. We find that the intracluster stellar spheroidal components of galaxy clusters, which we call cluster spheroids (CSphs) and which are typically 100 times the size of normal elliptical galaxies, lie on a ``fundamental plane'' as tight as that defined by elliptical galaxies (rms in effective radius of ~0.07) but having a different slope. The slope, as measured by the coefficient of the logσ term, declines significantly and systematically between the fundamental planes of ellipticals, brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), and CSphs. We attribute this decline primarily to a continuous change in Me/Le, the mass-to-light ratio within the effective radius re, with spheroid scale. The magnitude of the slope change requires that it arise principally from differences in the relative distributions of luminous and dark matter, rather than from stellar population differences such as in age and metallicity. By expressing the Me/Le term as a function of σ in the simple derivation of the fundamental plane and requiring the behavior of that term to mimic the observed nonlinear relationship between logMe/Le and logσ, we simultaneously fit a two-dimensional manifold to the measured properties of dwarf elliptical and elliptical galaxies, BCGs, and CSphs. The combined data have an rms scatter in logre of 0.114 (0.099 for the combination of ellipticals, BCGs, and CSphs), which is modestly larger than each fundamental plane has alone, but which includes the scatter introduced by merging different studies done in different filters by different investigators. This ``fundamental manifold'' fits the structural and kinematic properties of spheroids that span a factor of 100 in σ and 1000 in re. While our mathematical form is neither unique nor derived from physical principles, the tightness of the fit leaves little room for improvement by other unification

  10. The gifts of physics to modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sisir K

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of medical science was, and is, and will always be dependent on the progress of fundamental sciences like mathematics, physics and chemistry. It is true that pure science is not rapidly converted to applied science. That has always to depend on further technological advancement and on craftsmen's innovation. The role of physics in the evolution of some modern medical equipment - both diagnostic and therapeutic, is simply unique. A chemical pathology laboratory comprises, overall physics (i.e. laboratory machinery, pressures, radioactivity, voltage,

  11. Financial Distress and Its Associations With Physical and Emotional Symptoms and Quality of Life Among Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Jeanette; Rieber, Alyssa G.; Rhondali, Wadih; Tayjasanant, Supakarn; Ochoa, Jewel; Cantu, Hilda; Chisholm, Gary; Williams, Janet; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There are limited data on the effects of financial distress (FD) on overall suffering and quality of life (QOL) of patients with advanced cancer (AdCa). In this cross-sectional study, we examined the frequency of FD and its correlates in AdCa. Patients and Methods. We interviewed 149 patients, 77 at a comprehensive cancer center (CCC) and 72 at a general public hospital (GPH). AdCa completed a self-rated FD (subjective experience of distress attributed to financial problems) numeric rating scale (0 = best, 10 = worst) and validated questionnaires assessing symptoms (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]), psychosocial distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General [FACT-G]). Results. The patients’ median age was 60 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.6–61.5 years); 74 (50%) were female; 48 of 77 at CCC (62%) versus 13 of 72 at GPH (18%) were white; 21 of 77 (27%) versus 32 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were black; and 7 of 77 (9%) versus 27 of 72 (38%) at CCC and GPH, respectively, were Hispanic (p < .0001). FD was present in 65 of 75 at CCC (86%; 95% CI: 76%–93%) versus 65 of 72 at GPH (90%; 95% CI: 81%–96%; p = .45). The median intensity of FD at CCC and GPH was 4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 1–7) versus 8 (IQR: 3–10), respectively (p = .0003). FD was reported as more severe than physical distress, distress about physical functioning, social/family distress, and emotional distress by 45 (30%), 46 (31%), 64 (43%), and 55 (37%) AdCa, respectively (all significantly worse for patients at GPH) (p < .05). AdCa reported that FD was affecting their general well-being (0 = not at all, 10 = very much) with a median score of 5 (IQR: 1–8). FD correlated (Spearman correlation) with FACT-G (r = −0.23, p = .0057); HADS-anxiety (r = .27, p = .0014), ESAS-anxiety (r = .2, p = .0151), and ESAS-depression (r = .18, p = .0336). Conclusion. FD was very frequent in both

  12. Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments†

    PubMed Central

    Young, Edmond W. K.; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach cell biology research. The dimensions of microfluidic channels are well suited to the physical scale of biological cells, and the many advantages of microfluidics make it an attractive platform for new techniques in biology. One of the key benefits of microfluidics for basic biology is the ability to control parameters of the cell microenvironment at relevant length and time scales. Considerable progress has been made in the design and use of novel microfluidic devices for culturing cells and for subsequent treatment and analysis. With the recent pace of scientific discovery, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate existing tools and techniques, and to synthesize fundamental concepts that would further improve the efficiency of biological research at the microscale. This tutorial review integrates fundamental principles from cell biology and local microenvironments with cell culture techniques and concepts in microfluidics. Culturing cells in microscale environments requires knowledge of multiple disciplines including physics, biochemistry, and engineering. We discuss basic concepts related to the physical and biochemical microenvironments of the cell, physicochemical properties of that microenvironment, cell culture techniques, and practical knowledge of microfluidic device design and operation. We also discuss the most recent advances in microfluidic cell culture and their implications on the future of the field. The goal is to guide new and interested researchers to the important areas and challenges facing the scientific community as we strive toward full integration of microfluidics with biology. PMID:20179823

  13. Exploring the relationship between the engineering and physical sciences and the health and life sciences by advanced bibliometric methods.

    PubMed

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F J; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the 'EPS-HLS interface' is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade.

  14. Exploring the Relationship between the Engineering and Physical Sciences and the Health and Life Sciences by Advanced Bibliometric Methods

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo; van Raan, Anthony F. J.; Smart, Sue

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which advances in the health and life sciences (HLS) are dependent on research in the engineering and physical sciences (EPS), particularly physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering. The analysis combines two different bibliometric approaches. The first approach to analyze the ‘EPS-HLS interface’ is based on term map visualizations of HLS research fields. We consider 16 clinical fields and five life science fields. On the basis of expert judgment, EPS research in these fields is studied by identifying EPS-related terms in the term maps. In the second approach, a large-scale citation-based network analysis is applied to publications from all fields of science. We work with about 22,000 clusters of publications, each representing a topic in the scientific literature. Citation relations are used to identify topics at the EPS-HLS interface. The two approaches complement each other. The advantages of working with textual data compensate for the limitations of working with citation relations and the other way around. An important advantage of working with textual data is in the in-depth qualitative insights it provides. Working with citation relations, on the other hand, yields many relevant quantitative statistics. We find that EPS research contributes to HLS developments mainly in the following five ways: new materials and their properties; chemical methods for analysis and molecular synthesis; imaging of parts of the body as well as of biomaterial surfaces; medical engineering mainly related to imaging, radiation therapy, signal processing technology, and other medical instrumentation; mathematical and statistical methods for data analysis. In our analysis, about 10% of all EPS and HLS publications are classified as being at the EPS-HLS interface. This percentage has remained more or less constant during the past decade. PMID:25360616

  15. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  16. Effect of physical property of supporting media and variable hydraulic loading on hydraulic characteristics of advanced onsite wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was carried out to investigate the effects of physical properties of the supporting media and variable hydraulic shock loads on the hydraulic characteristics of an advanced onsite wastewater treatment system. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic reactors (a septic tank and an anaerobic filter) accommodated within a single unit. The study was divided into three phases on the basis of three different supporting media (Aqwise carriers, corrugated ring and baked clay) used in the anaerobic filter. Hydraulic loadings were based on peak flow factor (PFF), varying from one to six, to simulate the actual conditions during onsite wastewater treatment. Hydraulic characteristics of the system were identified on the basis of residence time distribution analyses. The system showed a very good hydraulic efficiency, between 0.86 and 0.93, with the media of highest porosity at the hydraulic loading of PFF≤4. At the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6 also, an appreciable hydraulic efficiency of 0.74 was observed. The system also showed good chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids removal efficiency of 80.5% and 82.3%, respectively at the higher hydraulic loading of PFF 6. Plug-flow dispersion model was found to be the most appropriate one to describe the mixing pattern of the system, with different supporting media at variable loading, during the tracer study.

  17. 50 years of physical growth and impressive technological advances unmatched by health human resources reform and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Scott, Graham W S

    2012-01-01

    The year 1962 was pre-medicare. The public was concerned about access and individual affordability of care. Funding involved public or private responsibility and the role of government. Physicians, the most influential providers, were concerned that government funding would result in the loss of their independence and their becoming state employees. The retrospective analysis "Looking Back 50 Years in Hospital Administration" by Graham and Sibbald is arresting as it underlines just how much progress we have made in what could be termed "hardware" in support of healthcare policy and hospital administration. From this perspective, the progress has been eye opening, given the advent of universal healthcare, the advancement in our physical facilities, the development of high-quality diagnostic equipment, the explosion of new research centres and new and complex clinical procedures. The development of this hardware has given our providers better weapons and contributed to a remarkable improvement in life expectancy. But progress in health administration and policy management involves more than hardware. If the hardware constitutes the tools, then the "software" of the healthcare system involves the human resources and the culture change that must be positioned to make maximum use of the hardware. In 2062, looking back at the 2012 experience, the legacy test may be whether we dealt with health human resources and culture change at a rate that matched our progress in hardware.

  18. Linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based protection for coastal communities.

    PubMed

    Arkema, Katie K; Griffin, Robert; Maldonado, Sergio; Silver, Jessica; Suckale, Jenny; Guerry, Anne D

    2017-03-30

    Interest in the role that ecosystems play in reducing the impacts of coastal hazards has grown dramatically. Yet the magnitude and nature of their effects are highly context dependent, making it difficult to know under what conditions coastal habitats, such as saltmarshes, reefs, and forests, are likely to be effective for saving lives and protecting property. We operationalize the concept of natural and nature-based solutions for coastal protection by adopting an ecosystem services framework that propagates the outcome of a management action through ecosystems to societal benefits. We review the literature on the basis of the steps in this framework, considering not only the supply of coastal protection provided by ecosystems but also the demand for protective services from beneficiaries. We recommend further attention to (1) biophysical processes beyond wave attenuation, (2) the combined effects of multiple habitat types (e.g., reefs, vegetation), (3) marginal values and expected damage functions, and, in particular, (4) community dependence on ecosystems for coastal protection and co-benefits. We apply our approach to two case studies to illustrate how estimates of multiple benefits and losses can inform restoration and development decisions. Finally, we discuss frontiers for linking social, ecological, and physical science to advance natural and nature-based solutions to coastal protection.

  19. Physical chemistry of the lipids of human atherosclerotic lesions. Demonstration of a lesion intermediate between fatty streaks and advanced plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S S; Shipley, G G; Small, D M

    1976-01-01

    within the two-phase zone, defined as "ordinary," had more cholesterol ester, less free cholesterol, a higher cholesteryl oleate/cholesteryl linoleate ratio, a lower sphingomyelin/lecithin ratio, more anisotropic lipid droplets, and rare or no cholesterol crystals. Those lesions within the three-phase zone had many chemical and physical features intermediate between ordinary fatty streaks and gruel plaques. Moreover, 68% of these "intermediate" lesions had no cholesterol crystals by polarizing microscopy in spite of their compositions being within the three-phase zone, indicating the cholesterol ester oily phase or the phospholipid phase or both were supersaturated with cholesterol. Identification of this group of intermediate lesions provides evidence that some fatty streaks may be precursors of advanced plaques. Images PMID:932206

  20. A Course in Modern Mathematical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekeres, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Presenting an introduction to the mathematics of modern physics for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this textbook introduces the reader to modern mathematical thinking within a physics context. Topics covered include tensor algebra, differential geometry, topology, Lie groups and Lie algebras, distribution theory, fundamental analysis and Hilbert spaces. The book also includes exercises and proofed examples to test the students' understanding of the various concepts, as well as to extend the text's themes.

  1. Computational physics and applied mathematics capability review June 8-10, 2010 (Advance materials to committee members)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory will review its Computational Physics and Applied Mathematics (CPAM) capabilities in 2010. The goals of capability reviews are to assess the quality of science, technology, and engineering (STE) performed by the capability, evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory and within the scientific community, examine the relevance of this capability to the Laboratory's programs, and provide advice on the current and future directions of this capability. This is the first such review for CPAM, which has a long and unique history at the laboratory, starting from the inception of the Laboratory in 1943. The CPAM capability covers an extremely broad technical area at Los Alamos, encompassing a wide array of disciplines, research topics, and organizations. A vast array of technical disciplines and activities are included in this capability, from general numerical modeling, to coupled mUlti-physics simulations, to detailed domain science activities in mathematics, methods, and algorithms. The CPAM capability involves over 12 different technical divisions and a majority of our programmatic and scientific activities. To make this large scope tractable, the CPAM capability is broken into the following six technical 'themes.' These themes represent technical slices through the CP AM capability and collect critical core competencies of the Laboratory, each of which contributes to the capability (and each of which is divided into multiple additional elements in the detailed descriptions of the themes in subsequent sections): (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics - This theme speaks to the vast array of scientific capabilities for the simulation of fluids under shocks, low-speed flow, and turbulent conditions - which are key, historical, and fundamental strengths of the laboratory; (2) Partial Differential Equations - The technical scope of this theme is the applied mathematics and numerical solution of partial differential equations

  2. Fundamentals of fluid sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of fluid sealing, including seal operating regimes, are discussed and the general fluid-flow equations for fluid sealing are developed. Seal performance parameters such as leakage and power loss are presented. Included in the discussion are the effects of geometry, surface deformations, rotation, and both laminar and turbulent flows. The concept of pressure balancing is presented, as are differences between liquid and gas sealing. Mechanisms of seal surface separation, fundamental friction and wear concepts applicable to seals, seal materials, and pressure-velocity (PV) criteria are discussed.

  3. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  4. Information Physics: The New Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2011-03-01

    At this point in time, two major areas of physics, statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, rest on the foundations of probability and entropy. The last century saw several significant fundamental advances in our understanding of the process of inference, which make it clear that these are inferential theories. That is, rather than being a description of the behavior of the universe, these theories describe how observers can make optimal predictions about the universe. In such a picture, information plays a critical role. What is more is that little clues, such as the fact that black holes have entropy, continue to suggest that information is fundamental to physics in general. In the last decade, our fundamental understanding of probability theory has led to a Bayesian revolution. In addition, we have come to recognize that the foundations go far deeper and that Cox's approach of generalizing a Boolean algebra to a probability calculus is the first specific example of the more fundamental idea of assigning valuations to partially-ordered sets. By considering this as a natural way to introduce quantification to the more fundamental notion of ordering, one obtains an entirely new way of deriving physical laws. I will introduce this new way of thinking by demonstrating how one can quantify partially-ordered sets and, in the process, derive physical laws. The implication is that physical law does not reflect the order in the universe, instead it is derived from the order imposed by our description of the universe. Information physics, which is based on understanding the ways in which we both quantify and process information about the world around us, is a fundamentally new approach to science.

  5. Topics of LIGO physics: Quantum noise in advanced interferometers and template banks for compact-binary inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbei

    2003-12-01

    This thesis deals with the planning for advanced interferometeric gravitational-wave detectors, as well as the detection of inspiral waves using first-generation interferometers. In Chapters 2 4 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno), the signal recycling interferometer proposed for LIGO-II is studied in the two-photon formalism. This study reveals the optical spring effect, which allows the interferometer to beat the standard quantum limit, while in the same time introduces a dynamical instability. A classical control system is designed to suppress this instability. In Chapter 5 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Nergis Mavalvala), the quantum noise in heterodyne readout schemes for advanced interferometers is studied. In Chapter 6 (in collaboration with Patricia Purdue), a QND Speed-Meter interferometer with Michelson topology is proposed, analyzed and shown to be a promising candidate for third-generation interferometers (LIGO-III or EURO). This design requires adding a kilometer-scale cavity into the interferometer. In Chapter 7, Sagnac interferometers are analyzed and shown to exhibit a similar broadband QND performance without the need of additional cavity—as expected since these interferometers are sensitive only to time-dependent mirror displacement, and are automatic speed meters. In Chapter 8 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), the Post-Newtonian (PN) breakdown at late-stage inspirals of non-spinning binary black holes (with 5 M⊙ < m1, m2 < 20 M⊙ ) is studied. We propose the use of Detection Template Families (DTFs)—extensions of ordinary PN templates that can mimic all different PN waveforms and hence are plausible to catch the real waveform, yet do not provide straightforward parameter estimation. In Chapter 9 (in collaboration with Alessandra Buonanno and Michele Vallisneri), binaries carrying spins are studied using an adiabatic PN model. Based on features of the precession dynamics, we

  6. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  7. Basic Publication Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savedge, Charles E., Ed.

    Designed for students who produce newspapers and newsmagazines in junior high, middle, and elementary schools, this booklet is both a scorebook and a fundamentals text. The scorebook provides realistic criteria for judging publication excellence at these educational levels. All the basics for good publications are included in the text of the…

  8. Reading Is Fundamental, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Reading is Fun-damental Program.

    Reading Is Fundamental (RIF) is a national, nonprofit organization designed to motivate children to read by making a wide variety of inexpensive books available to them and allowing the children to choose and keep books that interest them. This annual report for 1977 contains the following information on the RIF project: an account of the…

  9. Laser Fundamentals and Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Pelt, W. F.; And Others

    As a result of work performed at the Southwestern Radiological Health Laboratory with respect to lasers, this manual was prepared in response to the increasing use of lasers in high schools and colleges. It is directed primarily toward the high school instructor who may use the text for a short course in laser fundamentals. The definition of the…

  10. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  11. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  12. Fundamentals of Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Monty L.

    2012-01-01

    Being a great teacher is part and parcel of being a great librarian. In this book, veteran instruction services librarian McAdoo lays out the fundamentals of the discipline in easily accessible language. Succinctly covering the topic from top to bottom, he: (1) Offers an overview of the historical context of library instruction, drawing on recent…

  13. Fundamentals of soil science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  14. Fundamentals of Solid Lubrication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During this program, we have worked to develop a fundamental understanding of the chemical and tribological issues related to...approach, tribological measurements performed over a range of length scales, and the correlation of the two classes of information. Research activities...correlated measurements of surface composition and environmentally specific tribological performance of thin film solid lubricants. • Correlate shear

  15. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  16. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  17. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  18. Application Evaluation of Air-Sparging and Aerobic Bioremediation in PAM(Physical Aquifer Model) with Advanced and Integrated Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, U.; Ko, J.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Kwon, S.; Ha, J.; Lim, J.; Han, K.

    2010-12-01

    It is generally difficult for a single process to remediate contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated with various organic compounds such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) because those contaminants show different chemical properties in two phases (e.g. soil and groundwater). Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-situ remediation system which can remove various contaminants simultaneously. For the purpose, we constructed integrated well module which can apply several remediation process such as air sparging, soil vapor extraction, and bioventing. The advanced integrated module consisted of three main parts such as head, body, and end cap. First of all, head part has three 3.6-cm-diameter stainless lines and can simultaneously inject air or extract NAPL, respectively. Secondly, body part has two 10-cm-height screen intervals with 100-mesh stainless inserts for unsaturated and smear zone. Lastly, we constructed three different sizes of end caps for injection and extraction from a saturated zone. We assumed that the integrated module can play bioremediation, air sparging, cometabolic sparging, chemical oxidation. In this study, we examined application of air sparing and aerobic bioremediation of toluene in Physical Aquifer Model (PAM) with an integrated well module. During air sparging experiments, toluene concentration decreased by injection of air. In addition, we accomplished bioremediation experiment to evaluate removal of toluene by indigenous microbes in PAM with continuous air injection. From the two experiments result, we confirmed that air sparging and aerobic bioremediation processes can be simultaneously carried out by an intergrated well module.

  19. Fundamentals of Polarized Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The analytical and numerical basis for describing scattering properties of media composed of small discrete particles is formed by the classical electromagnetic theory. Although there are several excellent textbooks outlining the fundamentals of this theory, it is convenient for our purposes to begin with a summary of those concepts and equations that are central to the subject of this book and will be used extensively in the following chapters. We start by formulating Maxwell's equations and constitutive relations for time- harmonic macroscopic electromagnetic fields and derive the simplest plane-wave solution that underlies the basic optical idea of a monochromatic parallel beam of light. This solution naturally leads to the introduction of such fundamental quantities as the refractive index and the Stokes parameters. Finally, we define the concept of a quasi-monochromatic beam of light and discuss its implications.

  20. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.